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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446441/long-term-persistence-of-cell-mediated-and-humoral-responses-to-a-h1n1-pdm09-influenza-virus-vaccines-and-the-role-of-the-as03-adjuvant-system-in-adults-during-two-randomized-controlled-trials
#1
Robbert G van der Most, Frédéric Clément, Julie Willekens, Walthère Dewé, Karl Walravens, David W Vaughn, Geert Leroux-Roels
We investigated the role of AS03, an α-tocopherol oil-in-water-emulsion-based Adjuvant System, on the long-term persistence of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccines. In two studies (NCT00968539/NCT00989287), a total of 261 healthy adults (age ≤60 years) were randomized to receive two doses of AS03-adjuvanted vaccine containing 3.75 μg hemagglutinin, or non-adjuvanted vaccine containing 15 μg hemagglutinin (in Study A) or 3.75 μg hemagglutinin (in Study B), 21 days apart...
April 26, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442274/sex-differences-in-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-in-older-humans
#2
REVIEW
Cindy K Barha, Jennifer C Davis, Ryan S Falck, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Exercise is a non-pharmacological strategy to mitigate the deleterious effects of aging on brain health. However, a large amount of variation exists in its efficacy. Sex of participants and exercise type are two possible factors contributing to this variation. To better understand this, we conducted a concurrent systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitively healthy older adults. Executive functions, episodic memory, visuospatial function, word fluency, processing speed and global cognitive function were examined for exercise- and sex-dependent effects...
April 22, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434719/pituitary-volume-reduction-in-schizophrenia-following-cognitive-behavioural-therapy
#3
Preethi Premkumar, Danielle Bream, Adegboyega Sapara, Dominic Fannon, Anantha P Anilkumar, Elizabeth Kuipers, Veena Kumari
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for psychosis (CBTp) aims to lower the stress of psychotic symptoms. Given that the pituitary is involved in stress regulation, CBT-led stress reduction may be accompanied by a change in pituitary volume. This study aimed to determine whether CBTp reduces pituitary volume in schizophrenia. The relation between pre-therapy memory and CBTp-led pituitary volume change was also examined given that poor memory relates to a blunted cortisol awakening response, denoting impaired stress response, in schizophrenia...
April 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432349/augmentation-of-working-memory-training-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#4
Steffen Philipp Ruf, Andreas J Fallgatter, Christian Plewnia
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) can modulate working memory (WM) performance. However, evidence regarding the enhancement of WM training, its sustainability and transferability is ambiguous. Since WM functioning appears to be lateralized in respect to stimulus characteristics, this study examined the difference between task-congruent (spatial-right, verbal-left), task-incongruent (spatial-left, verbal-right) and sham tDCS in regards to the efficacy of WM training...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429081/cognitive-and-mood-improvements-following-acute-supplementation-with-purple-grape-juice-in-healthy-young-adults
#5
C F Haskell-Ramsay, R C Stuart, E J Okello, A W Watson
PURPOSE: Berry-derived phenolic compounds found in grapes have been associated with a number of health benefits, including the augmentation of human brain function and cognition. Previous intervention studies of Concord grape juice have demonstrated improvement to memory and driving ability following 3- to 4-month supplementation in middle-aged and older adults. However, no studies to date have demonstrated acute cognitive benefits of grape juice, and investigation of these effects in young adults is lacking...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424025/selective-reminding-of-prospective-memory-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Joshua D McKeever, Maria T Schultheis, Tiffanie Sim, Jessica Goykhman, Kristina Patrick, Dawn M Ehde, Steven Paul Woods
OBJECTIVE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with prospective memory (PM) deficits, which may increase the risk of poor functional/health outcomes such as medication non-adherence. This study examined the potential benefits of selective reminding to enhance PM functioning in persons with MS. METHOD: Twenty-one participants with MS and 22 healthy adults (HA) underwent a neuropsychological battery including a Selective Reminding PM (SRPM) experimental procedure...
April 19, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412245/cxcr5-cd8-t-cells-infiltrate-the-colorectal-tumors-and-nearby-lymph-nodes-and-are-associated-with-enhanced-igg-response-in-b-cells
#7
Junjie Xing, Chenxin Zhang, Xiaohong Yang, Shaoxuan Wang, Zhongchuan Wang, Xu Li, Enda Yu
Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer type worldwide and contributes to a significant percentage of cancer-related mortality. Recent studies have shown that the CXCR5(+)CD8(+) T cells present more potent proinflammatory function than CXCR5(-)CD8(+) T cells in chronic virus infections and in follicular lymphoma, but the role of CXCR5(+)CD8(+) T cells in colorectal cancer is yet unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that CXCR5(+)CD8(+) T cells were very rare in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy and colorectal cancer individuals, but were significantly enriched in resected tumors and tumor-associated lymph nodes...
April 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412088/tobacco-smoking-and-its-association-with-cognition-in-first-episode-psychosis-patients
#8
Lauren M Hickling, Rocio Perez-Iglesias, Victor Ortiz-García de la Foz, Vincent Balanzá-Martínez, Philip McGuire, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola
Available evidence suggests that nicotine may enhance cognitive functioning. Moreover, it has been suggested that the high prevalence of smoking in people with schizophrenia is in part due to self-medication behaviour to alleviate cognitive deficits. We assessed the association between tobacco smoking and cognitive functioning in a large population of first episode psychosis (FEP) patients (n=304) and healthy controls (n=156). Smokers were not tobacco deprived, or were minimally deprived (≤2h). Verbal memory, visual memory, working memory, processing speed, executive function, motor dexterity and attention were assessed...
April 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409319/the-effect-of-gamma-enhancing-binaural-beats-on-the-control-of-feature-bindings
#9
Lorenza S Colzato, Laura Steenbergen, Roberta Sellaro
Binaural beats represent the auditory experience of an oscillating sound that occurs when two sounds with neighboring frequencies are presented to one's left and right ear separately. Binaural beats have been shown to impact information processing via their putative role in increasing neural synchronization. Recent studies of feature-repetition effects demonstrated interactions between perceptual features and action-related features: repeating only some, but not all features of a perception-action episode hinders performance...
April 13, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396296/direct-effects-of-interleukin-7-on-the-function-of-human-t-cells-in-vitro
#10
Vyacheslav A Shmarov, Vladimir V Malashchenko, Maksim E Meniailo, Natalia D Gazatova, Natalia M Todosenko, Olga B Melashchenko, Andrei G Goncharov, Victor I Seledtsov
СD3+ T lymphocytes were isolated by positive magnetic separation from the peripheral blood of healthy donors. In the absence of any additional activating stimuli, interleukin-7 (IL-7) was shown to augment the levels of T cells expressing CD25 activation marker both in СD4-positive and in CD4-negative effector memory (CD45RA(-)CD197(-)) T cell subsets, as well as in terminally differentiated (CD45RA(+)CD197(-)) Т cells, without significantly affecting the activation status of naive (CD45RA(+)CD197(+)) and central memory (CD45RA(-)CD197(+)) T cells...
November 1, 2016: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389383/flexible-rapid-and-automatic-neocortical-word-form-acquisition-mechanism-in-children-as-revealed-by-neuromagnetic-brain-response-dynamics
#11
Eino Partanen, Alina Leminen, Stine de Paoli, Anette Bundgaard, Osman Skjold Kingo, Peter Krøjgaard, Yury Shtyrov
Children learn new words and word forms with ease, often acquiring a new word after very few repetitions. Recent neurophysiological research on word form acquisition in adults indicates that novel words can be acquired within minutes of repetitive exposure to them, regardless of the individual's focused attention on the speech input. Although it is well-known that children surpass adults in language acquisition, the developmental aspects of such rapid and automatic neural acquisition mechanisms remain unexplored...
April 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387582/long-term-test-retest-reliability-of-the-california-verbal-learning-test-second-edition
#12
Andrea G Alioto, Joel H Kramer, Sarah Borish, John Neuhaus, Rowan Saloner, Matthew Wynn, Jessica M Foley
OBJECTIVE: Aging is often associated with declines in episodic memory. Reliable tracking of memory requires assessment instruments that are stable over time to better understand changes potentially attributable to neurodegenerative disease. While prior studies support the test-retest reliability of memory instruments over brief intervals, follow-up testing in clinical settings typically occurs at least one-year later. The present study evaluated the long-term test-retest reliability of the California Verbal Learning Test - second edition (CVLT-2), a widely used measure of episodic learning and memory...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386225/attentional-filter-training-but-not-memory-training-improves-decision-making
#13
Marlen Schmicker, Patrick Müller, Melanie Schwefel, Notger G Müller
Decision-making has a high practical relevance for daily performance. Its relation to other cognitive abilities such as executive control and memory is not fully understood. Here we asked whether training of either attentional filtering or memory storage would influence decision-making as indexed by repetitive assessments of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT was developed to assess and simulate real-life decision-making (Bechara et al., 2005). In this task, participants gain or lose money by developing advantageous or disadvantageous decision strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385625/alpha-oscillations-underlie-working-memory-abnormalities-in-the-psychosis-high-risk-state
#14
Avinash Ramyead, Michael Kometer, Erich Studerus, Denise Baumeler, Robin von Rotz, Anita Riecher-Rössler
Working memory (WM) functioning, known to be modulated by neural oscillations, is impaired in schizophrenic psychoses. It remains unclear whether in the psychosis high-risk state, WM encoding is altered or whether patients are impaired at shielding their WM against distractors. We employed single-trial analyses of neurophysiological and behavioral data recorded during a WM paradigm, designed to include predictable distractors, on 18 patients with an at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS, 26.1±5.45 years) and 21 healthy controls (HCs, 25...
April 3, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384480/l-tyrosine-administration-modulates-the-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-working-memory-in-healthy-humans
#15
Bryant J Jongkees, Roberta Sellaro, Christian Beste, Michael A Nitsche, Simone Kühn, Lorenza S Colzato
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an increasingly popular method of modulating cognitive functions in humans. However, some doubt its efficacy as findings are inconsistent or remain unreplicated. It is speculated dopamine (DA) might play an important role in this inconsistency, by determining the direction and strength of the cognitive-behavioral effects of tDCS. However, so far evidence for this hypothesis has been correlational in nature, precluding definitive conclusions...
March 10, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382978/long-term-treatment-with-intranasal-insulin-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-tau-hyperphosphorylation-and-microglial-activation-in-a-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-rat-model
#16
Zhangyu Guo, Yanxing Chen, Yan-Fang Mao, Tingting Zheng, Yasi Jiang, Yaping Yan, Xinzhen Yin, Baorong Zhang
Recent evidence reveals that aberrant brain insulin signaling plays an important role in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intranasal insulin administration has been reported to improve memory and attention in healthy participants and in AD patients. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we treated intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-injected (ICV-STZ) rats, a commonly used animal model of sporadic AD, with daily intranasal delivery of insulin (2 U/day) for 6 consecutive weeks and then studied their cognitive function with the Morris water maze test and biochemical changes via Western blotting...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377425/high-density-lipoproteins-selectively-promote-the-survival-of-human-regulatory-t-cells
#17
Cesar M Rueda, Ana Lucia Rodriguez-Perea, Maria Moreno-Fernandez, Courtney M Jackson, John T Melchior, W Sean Davidson, Claire A Chougnet
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) appear to affect regulatory T cell (Treg) homeostasis, as suggested by the increased Treg counts in HDL-treated mice and by the positive correlation between Treg frequency and HDL-C levels in statin-treated healthy adults. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Herein, we show that HDL, not LDL, significantly decreased the apoptosis of human Treg in vitro, whereas they did not alter naive or memory CD4+ T-cell survival. Similarly, oleic acid bound to serum albumin increased Treg survival...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370881/applications-for-self-administered-mobile-cognitive-assessments-in-clinical-research-a-systematic-review
#18
Raeanne C Moore, Joel Swendsen, Colin A Depp
Frequent, brief and repeated self-administered mobile assessments of cognitive function, conducted in everyday life settings, are a promising complementary tool to traditional assessment approaches. Mobile cognitive assessments promote patient-centered care and might enhance capacity to inform individual-level outcomes over time (i.e. detecting subtle declines in cognitive function), as well as in assessing cognition and its correlates in the naturalistic environment. The goal of this systematic review was to assess the feasibility and psychometric properties of mobile cognitive assessments...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364465/coordination-of-slow-waves-with-sleep-spindles-predicts-sleep-dependent-memory-consolidation-in-schizophrenia
#19
Charmaine Demanuele, Ullrich Bartsch, Bengi Baran, Sheraz Khan, Mark G Vangel, Roy Cox, Matti Hämäläinen, Matthew W Jones, Robert Stickgold, Dara S Manoach
Study Objectives: Schizophrenia patients have correlated deficits in sleep spindle density and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In addition to spindle density, memory consolidation is thought to rely on the precise temporal coordination of spindles with slow waves (SWs). We investigated whether this coordination is intact in schizophrenia and its relation to motor procedural memory consolidation. Methods: Twenty-one chronic medicated schizophrenia patients and 17 demographically matched healthy controls underwent two nights of polysomnography, with training on the finger tapping motor sequence task (MST) on the second night and testing the following morning...
January 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364428/enhanced-memory-consolidation-via-automatic-sound-stimulation-during-non-rem-sleep
#20
Miika M Leminen, Jussi Virkkala, Emma Saure, Teemu Paajanen, Phyllis C Zee, Giovanni Santostasi, Christer Hublin, Kiti Müller, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Minna Huotilainen, Tiina Paunio
Introduction: Slow-wave sleep (SWS) slow waves and sleep spindle activity have been shown to be crucial for memory consolidation. Recently, memory consolidation has been causally facilitated in human participants via auditory stimuli phase-locked to SWS slow waves. Aims: Here, we aimed to develop a new acoustic stimulus protocol to facilitate learning and to validate it using different memory tasks. Most importantly, the stimulation setup was automated to be applicable for ambulatory home use...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
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