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Healthy memory enhances

Le Zhang, Yunshan Zhao, Zhipeng A Wang, Kunhua Wei, Bin Qiu, Chunhong Zhang, QiYan Wang-Müller, Minhui Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: As a group of important medicine plants, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. et Schltdl) Fedtsch. and B. himalaica Thoms, which are the only two species in the genus Boschniakia (Orobanchaceae), have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for their multiple therapeutic uses related to enhanced renal function, erectile dysfunction, defaecate and hepatoprotective. Additionally, the two species are also used as dietary supplements in wine, cosmetics, and other healthy food...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Stephanie Wong, Muireann Irish, Eric D Leshikar, Audrey Duarte, Maxime Bertoux, Greg Savage, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Michael Hornberger
Encoding information in reference to the self enhances subsequent memory for the source of this information. In healthy adults, self-referential processing has been proposed to be mediated by the cortical midline structures (CMS), with functional differentiation between anterior-ventral, anterior-dorsal and posterior regions. While both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) patients show source memory impairment, it remains unclear whether they show a typical memory advantage for self-referenced materials...
October 3, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Daniel Ben-Eliezer, Eldad Yechiam
Considered an antidepressant and anti-anxiety agent, Hypericum perforatum affects multiple neurotransmitters in a non-competitive synergistic manner, and may have nootropic potential. We quantitatively reviewed the pre-clinical literature to examine if there is a cognitive-enhancing effect of H. perforatum in healthy rodents. Additionally, within these studies, we compared the effects observed in intact rodents versus those whose performance has been impaired, mostly through stress manipulations. The meta-analysis incorporated studies that examined the effect of H...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tamaki Amano, Motomi Toichi
Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) is a standard method for treating post-traumatic stress disorder. EMDR treatment consists of desensitisation and resource development and installation (RDI) stages. Both protocols provide a positive alternating bilateral stimulation (BLS). The effect of desensitisation with BLS has been elucidated. However, a role for BLS in RDI remains unknown. Therefore, it is important to measure feelings as subjective data and physiological indicators as objective data to clarify the role of BLS in RDI...
2016: PloS One
R Abend, I Jalon, G Gurevitch, R Sar-El, T Shechner, D S Pine, T Hendler, Y Bar-Haim
Research associates processes of fear conditioning and extinction with treatment of anxiety and stress-related disorders. Manipulation of these processes may therefore be beneficial for such treatment. The current study examines the effects of electrical brain stimulation on fear extinction processes in healthy humans in order to assess its potential relevance for treatment enhancement. Forty-five participants underwent a 3-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. Electrical stimulation targeting the medial prefrontal cortex was applied during the extinction-learning phase (Day 2)...
October 11, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Waverly Harrell, Ling Zou, Zoe Englander, Stephen R Hooper, Matcheri S Keshavan, Allen Song, Vandana Shashi
Impairments in executive function, such as working memory, are almost universal in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Delineating the neural underpinnings of these functions would enhance understanding of these impairments. In this study, children and adolescents with 22q11 deletion syndrome were compared with healthy control participants in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of working memory. When the 2-back condition was contrasted with the 1-back and 0-back conditions, the participants with 22q11 deletion syndrome showed lower activation in several brain areas involved in working memory-notably dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and precuneus...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Tineke Cantaert, Jean-Nicolas Schickel, Jason M Bannock, Yen-Shing Ng, Christopher Massad, Fabien R Delmotte, Natsuko Yamakawa, Salome Glauzy, Nicolas Chamberlain, Tuure Kinnunen, Laurence Menard, Aubert Lavoie, Jolan E Walter, Luigi D Notarangelo, Julie Bruneau, Waleed Al-Herz, Sara Sebnem Kilic, Hans D Ochs, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles, Mirjam van der Burg, Taco W Kuijpers, Sven Kracker, Hideo Kaneko, Yujin Sekinaka, Shigeaki Nonoyama, Anne Durandy, Eric Meffre
Patients with mutations in AICDA, which encodes activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), display an impaired peripheral B cell tolerance. AID mediates class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in B cells, but the mechanism by which AID prevents the accumulation of autoreactive B cells in blood is unclear. Here, we analyzed B cell tolerance in AID-deficient patients, patients with autosomal dominant AID mutations (AD-AID), asymptomatic AICDA heterozygotes (AID+/-), and patients with uracil N-glycosylase (UNG) deficiency, which impairs CSR but not SHM...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Takumi Kaneda, Yayoi Shigemune, Takashi Tsukiura
Memories for emotion-laden stimuli are remembered more accurately than those for neutral stimuli. Although this enhancement reflects stimulus-driven modulation of memory by emotions, functional neuroimaging evidence of the interacting mechanisms between emotions generated by intentional processes, such as semantic elaboration, and memory is scarce. The present fMRI study investigated how encoding-related activation is modulated by emotions generated during the process of semantic elaboration. During encoding with fMRI, healthy young adults viewed neutral (target) pictures either passively or with semantic elaboration...
October 3, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Farrukh Jamal, Quazi S Haque, Sangram Singh
BACKGROUND: Diverse group of agro-chemicals are indiscriminately sprayed by the farmers for pest control to enhance crop yield. About 25 million agricultural workers in the developing world suffer from at least one episode of poisoning each year, mainly by anticholinesterase- like organophosphates (OPs). OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to establish the OP toxicity in 187 occupationally exposed pesticide sprayers of mango plantation in rural Malihabad, Lucknow, in terms of neuro-cognitive impairment, mental health status, clinical symptoms, diabetes, and hematological factors...
2016: Open Biochemistry Journal
Claire Dossier, Agnès Jamin, Georges Deschênes
Steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome is marked by a massive proteinuria and loss of podocytes foot processes. The mechanism of the disease remains debated but recent publications suggest a primary role of EBV. EBV replication in the peripheral blood is found in 50% of patients during the first flare of the disease. The genetic locus of steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome was also identified as influencing antibodies directed against EBNA1. EBV is able to establish, latent benign infection in memory B cells that display phenotypes similar to antigen-selected memory B cells...
September 28, 2016: Pediatric Research
Marie B Yuille, Cory K Olmstead, Ashleigh K Wells, Britta Hahn
RATIONALE: The beneficial effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists on cognitive performance have been widely shown. Paradoxically, recent preclinical studies employing extremely low doses of nAChR antagonists have also found cognitive enhancement, perhaps pointing to a novel treatment mechanism for cognitive deficits. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test whether low doses of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine would benefit performance in human volunteers...
September 27, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Victor Manuel Vergara, Andrew Mayer, Eswar Damaraju, Kent Kiehl, Vince D Calhoun
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may adversely affect a person's thinking, memory, personality, and behavior. While mild TBI (mTBI) diagnosis is challenging, there is a risk for long-term psychiatric, neurologic, and psychosocial problems in some patients that motivates the search for new and better biomarkers. Recently, diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has shown promise in detecting mTBI, but its validity is still being investigated. Resting state functional network connectivity (rsFNC) is another approach that is emerging as a promising option for the diagnosis of mTBI...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
J V Bukanova, I N Sharonova, V G Skrebitsky
Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is considered a key protein in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease because of its neurotoxicity, resulting in impaired synaptic function and memory. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that low (picomolar) concentrations of Aβ enhance synaptic plasticity and memory, suggesting that in the healthy brain, physiological Aβ concentrations are necessary for normal cognitive functions. In the present study, we found that Aβ (1-42) in concentrations of 10 pМ - 100 nМ enhanced desensitization of the glycine-activated current in isolated CA3 pyramidal neurons and also reversibly suppressed its peak amplitude during short (600 ms) co-application with agonist...
September 20, 2016: Brain Research
Marijn Lijffijt, Scott D Lane, Sanjay J Mathew, Matthew S Stanford, Alan C Swann
We tested whether enhanced stimulus orienting operationalized as N1 and P2 auditory evoked potentials to increasing loudness (50-90 dB clicks) could be associated with trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS-11), impulsive action (commission error on the Immediate Memory Task), or impulsive choice (immediate responses on temporal discounting tasks). We measured N1 and P2 loudness sensitivity in a passive listening task as linear intensity-sensitivity slopes in 36 men with antisocial personality disorder with a history of conviction for criminal conduct and 16 healthy control men...
September 23, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Janneke Caw Peijnenborgh, Petra Pm Hurks, Albert P Aldenkamp, Erik D van der Spek, Gwm Rauterberg, Johan Sh Vles, Jos Gm Hendriksen
BACKGROUND: A computer-based game, named Timo's Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes fantasy elements to enhance motivation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Timo's Adventure in normally developing children and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2016: JMIR Serious Games
Rubén Corpas, Susana Revilla, Suzanna Ursulet, Marco Castro-Freire, Perla Kaliman, Valérie Petegnief, Lydia Giménez-Llort, Chamsy Sarkis, Mercè Pallàs, Coral Sanfeliu
SIRT1 induces cell survival and has shown neuroprotection against amyloid and tau pathologies in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, protective effects against memory loss or the enhancement of cognitive functions have not yet been proven. We aimed to investigate the benefits induced by SIRT1 overexpression in the hippocampus of the AD mouse model 3xTg-AD and in control non-transgenic mice. A lentiviral vector encoding mouse SIRT1 or GFP, selectively transducing neurons, was injected into the dorsal CA1 hippocampal area of 4-month-old mice...
September 10, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Yaojing Chen, Zhen Liu, Ailin Wang, Junying Zhang, Sisi Zhang, Di Qi, Kewei Chen, Zhanjun Zhang
AIMS: Episodic memory depends on the maintenance of an intact default mode network (DMN), and is one of the earliest cognitive domains to become impaired in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, exploring the alterations in task-related DMN deactivation and functional connectivity that affect episodic memory in T2DM will help to enhance our understanding of the allocation patterns underlying memory function in T2DM. METHODS: The current study assessed changes in DMN activation and architecture during the encoding of a functional magnetic resonance imaging task in 39 patients with T2DM and 41 healthy controls which were recruited from local communities in Beijing, China...
August 17, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Olga A Wudarczyk, Nils Kohn, Rene Bergs, Katharina S Goerlich, Raquel E Gur, Bruce Turetsky, Frank Schneider, Ute Habel
Recent evidence suggests that humans can communicate emotion via chemosensory signals. Olfactory cues signaling anxiety can bias the perception of ambiguous stimuli, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of this effect are currently unknown. Here, we investigated the brain responses to subtle changes in facial expressions in response to anxiety chemosensory cues. Ten healthy individuals donated their sweat in two situations: while anticipating an important oral examination (anxiety condition) and during physical exercise (control condition)...
September 2, 2016: NeuroImage
Baoyu Yuan, Jiu Chen, Liang Gong, Hao Shu, Wenxiang Liao, Zan Wang, Duan Liu, Chunming Xie, Zhijun Zhang
Deficits in episodic memory (EM) are a hallmark clinical symptom of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Impairments in executive function (EF) are widely considered to exacerbate memory deficits and to increase the risk of conversion from aMCI to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the specific mechanisms underlying the interaction between executive dysfunction and memory deficits in aMCI patients remain unclear. Thus, the present study utilized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of the EF network and the EM network to investigate this relationship in 79 aMCI patients and 119 healthy controls (HC)...
August 31, 2016: Oncotarget
Chelsea M Stillman, Jennifer C Watt, George A Grove, Mariegold E Wollam, Fatma Uyar, Maria Mataro, Neal J Cohen, Darlene V Howard, James H Howard, Kirk I Erickson
Accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity improves explicit memory and executive cognitive functioning at the extreme ends of the lifespan (i.e., in older adults and children). However, it is unknown whether these associations hold for younger adults who are considered to be in their cognitive prime, or for implicit cognitive functions that do not depend on motor sequencing. Here we report the results of a study in which we examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and (1) explicit relational memory, (2) executive control, and (3) implicit probabilistic sequence learning in a sample of healthy, college-aged adults...
2016: PloS One
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