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Healthy memory enhances

Avtar K Handa, Tahira Fatima, Autar K Mattoo
Biogenic amines-polyamines (PAs), particularly putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous in all living cells. Their indispensable roles in many biochemical and physiological processes are becoming commonly known, including promoters of plant life and differential roles in human health and disease. PAs positively impact cellular functions in plants-exemplified by increasing longevity, reviving physiological memory, enhancing carbon and nitrogen resource allocation/signaling, as well as in plant development and responses to extreme environments...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Zoha Deldar, Nabi Rustamov, Suzie Bois, Isabelle Blanchette, Mathieu Piché
The aim of this study was to examine whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) enhances pain inhibition by improving working memory (WM). Forty healthy volunteers participated in two tDCS sessions. Pain was evoked by electrical stimulation at the ankle. Participants performed an n-back task (0-back and 2-back). The experimental protocol comprised five counterbalanced conditions (0-back, 2-back, pain, 0-back with pain and 2-back with pain) that were performed twice (pre-tDCS baseline and during tDCS)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Giulia Bechi Gabrielli, Pietro Spataro, Lina Pezzuti, Clelia Rossi-Arnaud
In the Attentional Boost Effect (ABE), images or words presented with to-be-responded target squares are later recognized more accurately than images or words presented with to-be-ignored distractor squares. Surprisingly, previous studies investigating the ABE have always examined young participants: thus, the question of whether this memory facilitation can be also observed in older adults has never been tested. The present study sought to fill this gap by examining whether healthy aging modulated the size of the ABE in 4 experiments in which the nature of the background stimuli (images vs...
February 15, 2018: Psychology and Aging
Alexander Brunnauer, Felix M Segmiller, Sabine Löschner, Valérie Grun, Frank Padberg, Ulrich Palm
Objective: It could be demonstrated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) enhances accuracy in working memory tasks and reaction time in healthy adults and thus may also have an influence on complex everyday tasks like driving a car. However, no studies have applied tDCS to psychomotor skills related to a standard driving test so far. Methods: 10 female and 5 male healthy adults without any medication and history of psychiatric or neurological illness were randomly assigned to two groups receiving active and sham stimulation in a double blind, cross-over study design...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Sara P H van den Berg, Albert Wong, Marion Hendriks, Ronald H J Jacobi, Debbie van Baarle, Josine van Beek
Older adults are more vulnerable to influenza virus infection and at higher risk for severe complications and influenza-related death compared to younger adults. Unfortunately, influenza vaccine responses tend to be impaired in older adults due to aging of the immune system (immunosenescence). Latent infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is assumed to enhance age-associated deleterious changes of the immune system. Although lower responses to influenza vaccination were reported in CMV-seropositive compared to CMV-seronegative adults and elderly, beneficial effects of CMV infection were observed as well...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
N S L Perry, R Menzies, F Hodgson, P Wedgewood, M-J R Howes, H J Brooker, K A Wesnes, E K Perry
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate for the first time the effects of a combination of sage, rosemary and melissa (Salvia officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.; SRM), traditional European medicines, on verbal recall in normal healthy subjects. To devise a suitable study design for assessing the clinical efficacy of traditional herbal medicines for memory and brain function. METHODS: Forty-four normal healthy subjects (mean age 61 ± 9.26y SD; m/f 6/38) participated in this study...
January 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Stephanie Wong, Muireann Irish, Greg Savage, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Michael Hornberger
In healthy adults, the ability to prioritize learning of highly valued information is supported by executive functions and enhances subsequent memory retrieval for this information. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), marked deficits are evident in learning and memory, presenting in the context of executive dysfunction. It is unclear whether these patients show a typical memory bias for higher valued stimuli. We administered a value-directed word-list learning task to AD (n = 10) and bvFTD (n = 21) patients and age-matched healthy controls (n = 22)...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Roanne Hurley, Liana Machado
INTRODUCTION: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive electrical brain stimulation technique that has been used extensively over prefrontal cortex in an effort to enhance verbal working memory (WM). However, inconsistent and contradictory outcomes from similar stimulation protocols have created a strong need to examine methodologies in greater detail. This review undertook an in-depth look at both positive and negative prefrontal tDCS-WM findings in adult populations to shed light on methodological parameters that may be driving the inconsistent outcomes in the literature...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Guohua Zhao, Feiyan Chen, Qiong Zhang, Mowei Shen, Zaifeng Gao
Increasing attention has been given to working memory (WM) impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Previous studies revealed that the space-orientated feature-based filtering (target and distractors in distinct locations) was impaired in PD patients. However, the object-orientated feature-based filtering (target and distractor information pertaining to one object) ability in PD patients remains unclear. In this study, we examined the object-orientated feature-based filtering ability of 14 PD patients and 14 healthy controls in a change detection task under EEG monitoring...
February 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Ju Lynn Ong, Amiya Patanaik, Nicholas I Y N Chee, Xuan Kai Lee, Jia-Hou Poh, Michael W L Chee
Study Objectives: Slow oscillations (SO) during sleep contribute to the consolidation of learned material. How the encoding of declarative memories during subsequent wakefulness might benefit from their enhancement during sleep is less clear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of acoustically enhanced SO during a nap on subsequent encoding of declarative material. Methods: Thirty-seven healthy young adults were studied under two conditions: stimulation (STIM) and no stimulation (SHAM), in counter-balanced order following a night of sleep restriction (4h time-in-bed; TIB)...
February 7, 2018: Sleep
Mohsen Alavash, Sung-Joo Lim, Christiane Thiel, Bernhard Sehm, Lorenz Deserno, Jonas Obleser
Dopamine underlies important aspects of cognition, and has been suggested to boost cognitive performance. However, how dopamine modulates the large-scale cortical dynamics during cognitive performance has remained elusive. Using functional MRI during a working memory task in healthy young human listeners, we investigated the effect of levodopa (l-dopa) on two aspects of cortical dynamics, blood oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal variability and the functional connectome of large-scale cortical networks. We here show that enhanced dopaminergic signaling modulates the two potentially interrelated aspects of large-scale cortical dynamics during cognitive performance, and the degree of these modulations is able to explain inter-individual differences in l-dopa-induced behavioral benefits...
February 2, 2018: NeuroImage
Roya Jalali, Alimul Chowdhury, Martin Wilson, R Chris Miall, Joseph M Galea
Anodal cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is known to enhance motor learning, and therefore, has been suggested to hold promise as a therapeutic intervention. However, the neural mechanisms underpinning the effects of cerebellar tDCS are currently unknown. We investigated the neural changes associated with cerebellar tDCS using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). 34 healthy participants were divided into two groups which received either concurrent anodal or sham cerebellar tDCS during a visuomotor adaptation task...
February 5, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Berit Marie Dykesteen Vik, Geir Olve Skeie, Eirik Vikane, Karsten Specht
OBJECTIVE: We explored the effects of playing the piano on patients with cognitive impairment after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and, addressed the question if this approach would stimulate neural networks in re-routing neural connections and link up cortical circuits that had been functional inhibited due to disruption of brain tissue. Functional neuroimaging scans (fMRI) and neuropsychological tests were performed pre-post intervention. METHOD: Three groups participated, one mTBI group (n = 7), two groups of healthy participants, one with music training (n = 11), one baseline group without music (n = 12)...
February 1, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Belinda J Kaskow, Thomas S Buttrick, Hans-Ulrich Klein, Charles White, Justin R Bourgeois, Russell J Ferland, Nikolaos Patsopoulos, Elizabeth M Bradshaw, Philip L De Jager, Wassim Elyaman
Objective: To study the influence of the Abelson helper integration site 1 (AHI1) locus associated with MS susceptibility on CD4+ T cell function. Methods: We characterized the chromatin state of T cells in the MS-associated AHI1 linkage disequilibrium (LD) block. The expression and the role of the AHI1 variant were examined in T cells from genotyped healthy subjects who were recruited from the PhenoGenetic Project, and the function of AHI1 was explored using T cells from Ahi1 knockout mice...
January 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Chommanad Lerdkrai, Nithi Asavapanumas, Bianca Brawek, Yury Kovalchuk, Nima Mojtahedi, Maria Olmedillas Del Moral, Olga Garaschuk
Neuronal hyperactivity is the emerging functional hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in both humans and different mouse models, mediating an impairment of memory and cognition. The mechanisms underlying neuronal hyperactivity remain, however, elusive. In vivo Ca2+ imaging of somatic, dendritic, and axonal activity patterns of cortical neurons revealed that both healthy aging and AD-related mutations augment neuronal hyperactivity. The AD-related enhancement occurred even without amyloid deposition and neuroinflammation, mainly due to presenilin-mediated dysfunction of intracellular Ca2+ stores in presynaptic boutons, likely causing more frequent activation of synaptic NMDA receptors...
January 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sarah Cooley, Peter Parham, Jeffrey S Miller
Natural Killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of innate immunity that respond to virus infected and tumor cells. After allogeneic transplantation, NK cells are the first reconstituting lymphocytes, but are dysfunctional. Manipulating this first wave of lymphocytes could be instrumental in reducing the 40% relapse rate following transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning. NK cells express numerous activating and inhibitory receptors. Some recognize classical or non-classical HLA class I ligands, others recognize class I-like ligands or unrelated ligands...
January 22, 2018: Blood
Vladimir Vladimirovich Malashchenko, Maxsim Evgenievich Meniailo, Viacheslav Anatolievich Shmarov, Natalia Dinislamovna Gazatova, Olga Borisovna Melashchenko, Andrei Gennadievich Goncharov, Galina Victorovna Seledtsova, Victor Ivanovich Seledtsov
We investigated the direct effects of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on functionality of human T-cell subsets. CD3+ T-lymphocytes were isolated from blood of healthy donors by positive magnetic separation. T cell activation with particles conjugated with antibodies (Abs) to human CD3, CD28 and CD2 molecules increased the proportion of cells expressing G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR, CD114) in all T cell subpopulations studied (CD45RA+/CD197+ naive T cells, CD45RA-/CD197+ central memory T cells, CD45RA-/CD197- effector memory T cells and CD45RA+/CD197- terminally differentiated effector T cells)...
January 19, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Sung Wook Chung, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Paul B Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: With an increasing interest in the use of theta burst stimulation (TBS) as a cognitive enhancer and a potential therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders, there is a need to identify optimal parameters of TBS in the prefrontal cortex. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: This study examined the effect of two blocks of prefrontal intermittent TBS (iTBS) on cortical reactivity and working memory performance, compared to one block of iTBS and sham stimulation. We hypothesized that greater cortical effects would be obtained with two blocks of iTBS...
January 8, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Thomas J Covey, Janet L Shucard, Ralph Hb Benedict, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, David W Shucard
Background: Few studies of cognitive rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis (MS) have targeted working memory specifically. Objective: We examined the effects of n-back working memory training on cognitive performance and brain function in patients with MS. Methods: Patients with MS (n = 12) and healthy controls (HC; n = 12) underwent 20 sessions of n-back working memory training. Before and after training (pre- and posttest) cognitive event-related potential (ERP) measures were obtained during a 3-back task...
January 2018: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
Chelsea M Stillman, Fatma Uyar, Haiqing Huang, George A Grove, Jennifer C Watt, Mariegold E Wollam, Kirk I Erickson
Consistent associations have been found between higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and indices of enhanced brain health and function, including behavioral measures of cognition as well as neuroimaging indicators such as regional brain volume. Several studies have reported that higher CRF levels are associated with a larger hippocampus, yet associations between volume and memory or functional connectivity metrics with the hippocampus remain poorly understood. Using a multi-modal framework, we hierarchically examine the association between CRF and hippocampal volume and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) in younger adults (ages 22-38), as well as the relationship between these imaging markers and memory function...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
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