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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226495/forgetting-to-remember-prospective-memory-within-the-context-of-pain
#1
R Gatzounis, M G S Schrooten, G Crombez, J W S Vlaeyen
BACKGROUND: Pain interferes with cognitive functioning in several ways. Among other symptoms, pain patients often report difficulties with remembering future intentions. It remains unclear, however, whether it is the pain per se that impairs prospective remembering or other factors that often characterize people with pain (e.g. poor sleep quality). In this experiment, we investigated whether prospective memory is impaired within the context of pain, and whether this impairment is enhanced when the threat value of pain is increased...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217224/the-neural-correlates-of-self-referential-memory-encoding-and-retrieval-in-schizophrenia
#2
Amy M Jimenez, Junghee Lee, Jonathan K Wynn, Michael F Green
BACKGROUND: Enhanced memory for self-oriented information is known as the self-referential memory (SRM) effect. fMRI studies of the SRM effect have focused almost exclusively on encoding, revealing selective engagement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during "self" relative to other processing conditions. Other critical areas for self-processing include ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and posterior cingulate/precuneus (PCC/PC). Previous behavioral studies show that individuals with schizophrenia fail to benefit from this memory boost...
December 4, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213510/actively-station-effects-on-global-cognition-of-mature-adults-and-healthy-elderly-program-using-eletronic-games
#3
Tiago Nascimento Ordonez, Felipe Borges, Camila Sato Kanashiro, Carolina Carneiro das Neves Santos, Samara Santos Hora, Thais Bento Lima-Silva
Studies show that aging is accompanied by decline in cognitive functions but also indicate that interventions, such as training on electronic games, can enhance performance and promote maintenance of cognitive abilities in healthy older adults. Objective: To investigate the effects of an electronic game program, called Actively Station, on the performance of global cognition of adults aged over 50 years. Methods: 124 mature and elderly adults enrolled in the "Actively Station" cognitive stimulation program of São Caetano do Sul City, in the State of São Paulo, participated in training for learning of electronic games...
April 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213496/effects-of-a-cognitive-training-program-and-sleep-hygiene-for-executive-functions-and-sleep-quality-in-healthy-elderly
#4
Katie Moraes de Almondes, Maria Emanuela Matos Leonardo, Ana Maria Souza Moreira
Introduction: The aging process causes changes in the sleep-wake cycle and cognition, especially executive functions. Interventions are required to minimize the impact of the losses caused by the aging process. Objective: To evaluate the effects of a cognitive training program and psychoeducation on sleep hygiene techniques for executive functions and sleep quality in healthy elderly. Methods: The participants were 41 healthy elderly randomized into four groups ([CG] control group, cognitive training group [CTG], sleep hygiene group [SHG] and cognitive training and hygiene group [THG])...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209802/-doping-for-the-brain
#5
REVIEW
Bernhard Iglseder
The enhancement of physical and cognitive abilities (i. e. concentration, vigilance, memory) has always been desirable for humans. The term pharmacological neuroenhancement refers to the use of legal or nonprescription psychoactive substances by healthy subjects with the intention of cognitive enhancement. To give the most prominent example, caffeine serves worldwide as a natural stimulant. Brain doping, however, specifies the use of illegal substances or prescription drugs beyond approval with the purpose of cognitive enhancement...
December 5, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208744/severity-of-acute-infectious-mononucleosis-correlates-with-cross-reactive-influenza-cd8-t-cell-receptor-repertoires
#6
Nuray Aslan, Levi B Watkin, Anna Gil, Rabinarayan Mishra, Fransenio G Clark, Raymond M Welsh, Dario Ghersi, Katherine Luzuriaga, Liisa K Selin
Fifty years after the discovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), it remains unclear how primary infection with this virus leads to massive CD8 T-cell expansion and acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) in young adults. AIM can vary greatly in severity, from a mild transient influenza-like illness to a prolonged severe syndrome. We questioned whether expansion of a unique HLA-A2.01-restricted, cross-reactive CD8 T-cell response between influenza virus A-M158 (IAV-M1) and EBV BMLF1280 (EBV-BM) could modulate the immune response to EBV and play a role in determining the severity of AIM in 32 college students...
December 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199566/clinical-effects-of-a-commercial-supplement-of-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-and-ganoderma-lucidum-on-cognitive-function-of-healthy-young-volunteers
#7
Sharon Tsuk, Yarden Har Lev, Arie Rotstein, Rafi Carasso, Aviva Zeev, Yael Netz, Tzvi Dwolatski, Gilit Steiner
Ophiocordyceps sinensis (= Cordyceps sinensis) and Ganoderma lucidum are medicinal mushrooms used in traditional Chinese medicine. The effects of O. sinensis and G. lucidum on cognitive function have been evaluated through the use of animal models and in vitro studies, which indicated beneficial effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with a commercially available supplement of O. sinensis and G. lucidum on cognitive function in young, healthy human participants. Physical education students (n = 96 [53 men, 43 women]; mean ± standard deviation age, 26...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197269/anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-antibodies-and-b-cell-homeostasis-in-human-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#8
Caterina Defendenti, Fabiola Atzeni, Sergio Malandrin, Sandro Ardizzone, Piero Luigi Almasio, Simone Saibeni, Cristina Bezzio, Simona Bollani, Raffaele Salerno, Paolo Declich, Zoe Sarno, Savino Bruno, Rossella Talotta, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini
BACKGROUND: The expression of CD70 on T cells is greatly enhanced by antigen-presenting cell (APC)-associated signals, such as tumour necrosis factor(TNF)-α, which is constitutionally high in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Experimentally, the chronic activation of CD27 as a result of the constitutive expression of CD70 leads to the demise of B cells in bone marrow (BM) and the secondary lymphoid organs. The aim of this study was to assess the number and phenotype of circulating B cell in untreated IBD patients and their counterparts treated with biological anti-TNF drugs...
November 29, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181883/real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-of-the-mediodorsal-and-anterior-thalamus-enhances-correlation-between-thalamic-bold-activity-and-alpha-eeg-rhythm
#9
Vadim Zotev, Masaya Misaki, Raquel Phillips, Chung Ki Wong, Jerzy Bodurka
Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) with simultaneous EEG allows volitional modulation of BOLD activity of target brain regions and investigation of related electrophysiological activity. We applied this approach to study correlations between thalamic BOLD activity and alpha EEG rhythm. Healthy volunteers in the experimental group (EG, n = 15) learned to upregulate BOLD activity of the target region consisting of the mediodorsal (MD) and anterior (AN) thalamic nuclei using rtfMRI-nf during retrieval of happy autobiographical memories...
November 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175594/reduced-pten-involved-in-primary-immune-thrombocytopenia-via-contributing-to-b-cell-hyper-responsiveness
#10
Shixuan Wang, Yue Guan, Yunlong Wang, Huiyuan Li, Donglei Zhang, Mankai Ju, Yating Hao, Xuewen Song, Boyang Sun, Xueqing Dou, Renchi Yang
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is thought to mediate B cell activation by negatively regulating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. This pathway is important for activation, growth, and proliferation. Although enhanced B cell receptor (BCR) signaling contributes to increased B cell activity in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), the role of PTEN is unclear. In this study, we analyzed B cells of ITP patients using flow cytometry and found that all B cell subsets, excluding memory B cells, showed lower PTEN expression than cells from healthy controls (HCs)...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172053/associations-of-neurofunctional-morphometric-and-metabolic-abnormalities-with-clinical-symptom-severity-and-recognition-deficit-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
Chung-Man Moon, Gwang-Woo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) causes neural dysfunction associated with cognitive deficit and emotional dysregulation. This study assessed the associations of the neurofunctional changes, gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations in conjunction with in vivo metabolic changes on the working memory tasks in patients with OCD. METHODS: Eighteen patients with OCD and 18 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and educational levels underwent high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), event-related functional MRI (fMRI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 3T...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171169/no-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-on-short-term-memory
#12
Jing Wang, Jianbing Wen, Xiaoli Li
INTRODUCTION: Short-term memory refers to the capacity for holding information in mind for a short period of time with conscious memorization. It is an important ability for daily life and is impaired in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was reported to enhance the capability of short-term memory in healthy subjects. However, results were not consistent and what is the possible impact factor is not known...
November 23, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170634/lost-in-time-and-space-states-of-high-arousal-disrupt-implicit-acquisition-of-spatial-and-sequential-context-information
#13
Thomas Maran, Pierre Sachse, Markus Martini, Barbara Weber, Jakob Pinggera, Stefan Zuggal, Marco Furtner
Biased cognition during high arousal states is a relevant phenomenon in a variety of topics: from the development of post-traumatic stress disorders or stress-triggered addictive behaviors to forensic considerations regarding crimes of passion. Recent evidence indicates that arousal modulates the engagement of a hippocampus-based "cognitive" system in favor of a striatum-based "habit" system in learning and memory, promoting a switch from flexible, contextualized to more rigid, reflexive responses. Existing findings appear inconsistent, therefore it is unclear whether and which type of context processing is disrupted by enhanced arousal...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163483/cd4-t-cell-dysregulation-in-psoriatic-arthritis-reveals-a-regulatory-role-for-il-22
#14
Amara Ezeonyeji, Helen Baldwin, Milica Vukmanovic-Stejic, Michael R Ehrenstein
Dysregulation of interleukin-22 (IL-22) has been associated with autoimmune diseases but divergent effects upon inflammation have hampered efforts to define its contribution to pathogenesis. Here, we examined the role of IL-22 in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). In the peripheral blood of PsA patients, there was a decrease in IL-22(+)CD4(+) T cells compared with healthy controls resulting in a heightened CD4(+) IFNγ(+)/IL-22(+) ratio accompanied by diminished CCR6 expression. IL-22 expressing cells were depleted primarily from the central memory CD4 T-cell subset in PsA patients...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163115/anodal-tdcs-enhances-verbal-episodic-memory-in-initially-low-performers
#15
Annegret Habich, Stefan Klöppel, Ahmed Abdulkadir, Elisa Scheller, Christoph Nissen, Jessica Peter
The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in encoding and retrieval of episodic memories, and thus, is frequently targeted in non-invasive brain stimulation paradigms, aiming for its functional modulation. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), that boosts neuronal excitability in stimulated cortical areas, has been found to increase cognitive skills differentially, depending on the initial performance. We hypothesize that the benefit of tDCS on verbal episodic memory can be extrapolated from the participants' baseline performance...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159056/no-association-of-cortical-amyloid-load-and-eeg-connectivity-in-older-people-with-subjective-memory-complaints
#16
Stefan Teipel, Hovagim Bakardjian, Gabriel Gonzalez-Escamilla, Enrica Cavedo, Sarah Weschke, Martin Dyrba, Michel J Grothe, Marie-Claude Potier, Marie-Odile Habert, Bruno Dubois, Harald Hampel
Changes in functional connectivity of cortical networks have been observed in resting-state EEG studies in healthy aging as well as preclinical and clinical stages of AD. Little information, however, exists on associations between EEG connectivity and cortical amyloid load in people with subjective memory complaints. Here, we determined the association of global cortical amyloid load, as measured by florbetapir-PET, with functional connectivity based on the phase-lag index of resting state EEG data for alpha and beta frequency bands in 318 cognitively normal individuals aged 70-85 years with subjective memory complaints from the INSIGHT-preAD cohort...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147678/a-haplotype-associated-with-enhanced-mineralocorticoid-receptor-expression-facilitates-the-stress-induced-shift-from-cognitive-to-habit-learning
#17
Lisa Wirz, Martin Reuter, Jan Wacker, Andrea Felten, Lars Schwabe
Stress induces a shift from hippocampus-dependent "cognitive" toward dorsal striatum-dependent "habit" memory. However, not all individuals are susceptible to this shift under stress. Based on pharmacological studies indicating a critical role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced bias toward dorsal striatal learning, we hypothesized that MR gene variants contribute to these individual differences. In two experiments, healthy participants were genotyped, exposed to a stressor or control manipulation and performed a learning task that can be solved using hippocampal or dorsal striatal systems, while electroencephalography (EEG; Experiment I) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Experiment II) measurements were taken...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137227/re-balance-of-memory-t-cell-subsets-in-peripheral-blood-from-patients-with-cml-after-tki-treatment
#18
Danlin Yao, Ling Xu, Jiaxiong Tan, Yikai Zhang, Shuai Lu, Mingde Li, Sichun Lu, Lijian Yang, Shaohua Chen, Jie Chen, Jing Lai, Yuhong Lu, Xiuli Wu, Xianfeng Zha, Yangqiu Li
T cell immune surveillance is considered an important host protection process for inhibiting carcinogenesis. The full capacity of T cell immune surveillance is dependent on T cell homeostasis, particularly for central memory T (TCM) cells and stem cell memory T (TSCM) cells. In this study, distribution of T cell subsets in peripheral blood from 12 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and 12 cases with CML in complete remission (CR) was analyzed using a multicolor flow cytometer, and 16 samples from healthy individuals (HIs) served as control...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129594/are-resting-state-spectral-power-measures-related-to-executive-functions-in-healthy-young-adults
#19
Shirley Gordon, Doron Todder, Inbal Deutsch, Dror Garbi, Nir Getter, Nachshon Meiran
Resting-state electroencephalogram (rsEEG) has been found to be associated with psychopathology, intelligence, problem solving, academic performance and is sometimes used as a supportive physiological indicator of enhancement in cognitive training interventions (e.g. neurofeedback, working memory training). In the current study, we measured rsEEG spectral power measures (relative power, between-band ratios and asymmetry) in one hundred sixty five young adults who were also tested on a battery of executive function (EF)...
November 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128142/longitudinal-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-depression-on-the-neural-correlates-of-emotion-regulation
#20
Harry Rubin-Falcone, Jochen Weber, Ronit Kishon, Kevin Ochsner, Lauren Delaparte, Bruce Doré, Francesca Zanderigo, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann, Jeffrey M Miller
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective for a substantial minority of patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), but its mechanism of action at the neural level is not known. As core techniques of CBT seek to enhance emotion regulation, we scanned 31 MDD participants prior to 14 sessions of CBT using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a task in which participants engaged in a voluntary emotion regulation strategy while recalling negative autobiographical memories. Eighteen healthy controls were also scanned...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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