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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650274/intranasal-administration-of-whole-inactivated-influenza-virus-vaccine-as-a-promising-influenza-vaccine-candidate
#1
Akira Ainai, Tadaki Suzuki, Shin-Ichi Tamura, Hideki Hasegawa
The effect of the current influenza vaccine, an inactivated virus vaccine administered by subcutaneous/intramuscular injection, is limited to reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with seasonal influenza outbreaks. Intranasal vaccination, by contrast, mimics natural infection and induces not only systemic IgG antibodies but also local secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibodies found on the surface of the mucosal epithelium in the upper respiratory tract. S-IgA antibodies are highly effective at preventing virus infection...
June 26, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644541/assessment-of-executive-functioning-in-binge-eating-disorder-independent-of-weight-status
#2
Kalina T Eneva, Jean M Arlt, Angelina Yiu, Susan M Murray, Eunice Y Chen
OBJECTIVE: Executive functioning (EF) problems may serve as vulnerability or maintenance factors for Binge-Eating Disorder (BED). However, it is unclear if EF problems observed in BED are related to overweight status or BED status. The current study extends this literature by examining EF in overweight and normal-weight BED compared to weight-matched controls. METHOD: Participants were normal-weight women with BED (n = 23), overweight BED (n = 32), overweight healthy controls (n = 48), and normal-weight healthy controls (n = 29)...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642696/how-accumulated-real-life-stress-experience-and-cognitive-speed-interact-on-decision-making-processes
#3
Eva Friedel, Miriam Sebold, Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Stephan Nebe, Ilya M Veer, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Florian Schlagenhauf, Michael N Smolka, Michael Rapp, Henrik Walter, Andreas Heinz
Rationale: Advances in neurocomputational modeling suggest that valuation systems for goal-directed (deliberative) on one side, and habitual (automatic) decision-making on the other side may rely on distinct computational strategies for reinforcement learning, namely model-free vs. model-based learning. As a key theoretical difference, the model-based system strongly demands cognitive functions to plan actions prospectively based on an internal cognitive model of the environment, whereas valuation in the model-free system relies on rather simple learning rules from operant conditioning to retrospectively associate actions with their outcomes and is thus cognitively less demanding...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642069/chronic-choline-supplementation-improves-cognitive-and-motor-performance-via-modulating-oxidative-and-neurochemical-status-in-rats
#4
Saiqa Tabassum, Saida Haider, Saara Ahmad, Syeda Madiha, Tahira Parveen
Choline, an essential nutrient, accounts for multiple functions in the body and brain. While its beneficial effects on healthy adults are not clear, choline supplementation is important during pregnancy for brain development, in elderly patients for support of cognitive performance and in patients with neurological disorders to reduce memory deficits. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether choline administration in healthy adult rats beneficially impacts cognitive and locomotor performance, and associated oxidative and neurochemical outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639564/effect-of-an-ecological-executive-skill-training-program-for-school-aged-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#5
Ying Qian, Min Chen, Lan Shuai, Qing-Jiu Cao, Li Yang, Yu-Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: As medication does not normalize outcomes of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), especially in real-life functioning, nonpharmacological methods are important to target this field. This randomized controlled clinical trial was designed to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive executive skill training program for school-aged children with ADHD in a relatively large sample. METHODS: The children (aged 6-12 years) with ADHD were randomized to the intervention or waitlist groups...
July 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626017/amyloid-beta-peptide-is-needed-for-cgmp-induced-long-term-potentiation-and-memory
#6
Agostino Palmeri, Roberta Ricciarelli, Walter Gulisano, Daniela Rivera, Claudia Rebosio, Elisa Calcagno, Maria Rosaria Tropea, Silvia Conti, Utpal Das, Subhojit Roy, Maria A Pronzato, Ottavio Arancio, Ernesto Fedele, Daniela Puzzo
High levels of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) have been related to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. However, in the healthy brain, low physiologically relevant concentrations of Aβ are necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. Because cGMP plays a key role in these processes, here we investigated whether the cyclic nucleotide cGMP influences Aβ levels and function during LTP and memory. We demonstrate that the increase of cGMP levels by the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) sildenafil and vardenafil induces a parallel release of Aβ due to a change in the approximation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625942/cognitive-stimulation-in-healthy-older-adults-a-cognitive-stimulation-program-using-leisure-activities-compared-to-a-conventional-cognitive-stimulation-program
#7
Élisabeth Grimaud, Laurence Taconnat, David Clarys
The aim of this study was to compare two methods of cognitive stimulation for the cognitive functions. The first method used an usual approach, the second used leisure activities in order to assess their benefits on cognitive functions (speed of processing; working memory capacity and executive functions) and psychoaffective measures (memory span and self esteem). 67 participants over 60 years old took part in the experiment. They were divided into three groups: 1 group followed a program of conventional cognitive stimulation, 1 group a program of cognitive stimulation using leisure activities and 1 control group...
June 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624645/cingulo-opercular-activity-affects-incidental-memory-encoding-for-speech-in-noise
#8
Kenneth I Vaden, Susan Teubner-Rhodes, Jayne B Ahlstrom, Judy R Dubno, Mark A Eckert
Correctly understood speech in difficult listening conditions is often difficult to remember. A long-standing hypothesis for this observation is that the engagement of cognitive resources to aid speech understanding can limit resources available for memory encoding. This hypothesis is consistent with evidence that speech presented in difficult conditions typically elicits greater activity throughout cingulo-opercular regions of frontal cortex that are proposed to optimize task performance through adaptive control of behavior and tonic attention...
June 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620314/orexin-system-the-key-for-a-healthy-life
#9
REVIEW
Sergio Chieffi, Marco Carotenuto, Vincenzo Monda, Anna Valenzano, Ines Villano, Francesco Precenzano, Domenico Tafuri, Monica Salerno, Nicola Filippi, Francesco Nuccio, Maria Ruberto, Vincenzo De Luca, Luigi Cipolloni, Giuseppe Cibelli, Maria P Mollica, Diego Iacono, Ersilia Nigro, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina, Antonietta Messina
The orexin-A/hypocretin-1 and orexin-B/hypocretin-2 are neuropeptides synthesized by a cluster of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and perifornical area. Orexin neurons receive a variety of signals related to environmental, physiological and emotional stimuli, and project broadly to the entire CNS. Orexin neurons are "multi-tasking" neurons regulating a set of vital body functions, including sleep/wake states, feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, reward systems, cognition and mood. Furthermore, a dysfunction of orexinergic system may underlie different pathological conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614695/sex-differences-in-aerobic-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-studies-in-older-rodents
#10
REVIEW
Cindy K Barha, Ryan S Falck, Jennifer C Davis, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Research in humans indicates that women may show greater cognitive benefits from aerobic training (AT) than men. To determine whether this sex difference extends to rodents, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in healthy, older rodents. Results indicate that compared to controls, AT improved hippocampus-dependent and -independent learning and memory. A sex difference was found with males showing larger benefits from AT on conditioned-avoidance and non-spatial memory tasks. AT also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor compared to controls, with larger effects in females...
July 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602027/assistive-technology-for-memory-support-in-dementia
#11
REVIEW
Henriëtte G Van der Roest, Jennifer Wenborn, Channah Pastink, Rose-Marie Dröes, Martin Orrell
BACKGROUND: The sustained interest in electronic assistive technology in dementia care has been fuelled by the urgent need to develop useful approaches to help support people with dementia at home. Also the low costs and wide availability of electronic devices make it more feasible to use electronic devices for the benefit of disabled persons. Information Communication Technology (ICT) devices designed to support people with dementia are usually referred to as Assistive Technology (AT) or Electronic Assistive Technology (EAT)...
June 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594352/automatic-artifact-removal-in-eeg-of-normal-and-demented-individuals-using-ica-wt-during-working-memory-tasks
#12
Noor Kamal Al-Qazzaz, Sawal Hamid Bin Mohd Ali, Siti Anom Ahmad, Mohd Shabiul Islam, Javier Escudero
Characterizing dementia is a global challenge in supporting personalized health care. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a promising tool to support the diagnosis and evaluation of abnormalities in the human brain. The EEG sensors record the brain activity directly with excellent time resolution. In this study, EEG sensor with 19 electrodes were used to test the background activities of the brains of five vascular dementia (VaD), 15 stroke-related patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 15 healthy subjects during a working memory (WM) task...
June 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586095/cmv-drives-the-expansion-of-highly-functional-memory-t-cells-expressing-nk-cell-receptors-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#13
Nandina Makwana, Bree Foley, Sonia Fernandez, Silvia Lee, Ashley Irish, Hanspeter Pircher, Patricia Price
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common opportunistic infection encountered in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and may be reactivated without symptoms at any time post-transplant. We describe how active and latent CMV affect T-cell subsets in RTRs who are stable on maintenance therapy. T-cell responses to CMV were assessed in RTRs (n = 54) >2 years post-transplant, and healthy controls (n = 38). Seven RTRs had CMV DNA detectable in plasma. CMV antibody and DNA aligned with increased proportions of CD8+ T cells and reduced CD4/CD8 ratios...
June 6, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580093/photobiomodulation-and-the-brain-a-new-paradigm
#14
Madison Hennessy, Michael R Hamblin
Transcranial photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low level laser therapy (tLLLT) relies on the use of red/NIR light to stimulate, preserve and regenerate cells and tissues. The mechanism of action involves photon absorption in the mitochondria (cytochrome c oxidase), and ion channels in cells leading to activation of signaling pathways, up-regulation of transcription factors, and increased expression of protective genes. We have studied PBM for treating traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice using a NIR laser spot delivered to the head...
January 2017: Journal of Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577963/physiological-and-pathological-processes-of-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory-in-drug-discovery-do-not-forget-the-dose-response-curve
#15
Jos Prickaerts, Nick P Van Goethem, Walter Gulisano, Elentina K Argyrousi, Agostino Palmeri, Daniela Puzzo
The response of a biological system to an endogenous or exogenous molecule depends upon the dose. For this reason, performing dose-response curves is crucial to understand physiological and pathophysiological phenomena, and to predict the effect of a drug. Most of the studies in pharmacological research have been performed according to the classical threshold model, focusing on higher doses able to ensure a biological effect. However, recent evidences pointed out the need to investigate the effect of low doses...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575764/gaze-matters-the-effect-of-gaze-direction-on-emotional-enhancement-of-memory-for-faces-in-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
Łukasz Okruszek, Aleksandra Bala, Marcela Dziekan, Marta Szantroch, Andrzej Rysz, Andrzej Marchel, Sylwia Hyniewska
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to examine if gaze and emotional expression, both highly self-relevant social signals, affect the recollection accuracy of perceived faces in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). METHODS: Forty patients with MTLE (twenty-one without surgery and nineteen after anterior temporal lobectomy) as well as twenty healthy controls (HC) took part in the study. We used a set of 64 facial stimuli: 32 neutral and 32 emotional displays (16 fearful; 16 angry) from well-established affective stimuli databases...
May 30, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567013/the-effect-of-apolipoprotein-e-%C3%AE%C2%B54-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-on-visuospatial-working-memory-in-healthy-elderly-and-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients-an-event-related-potentials-study
#17
Li-Hua Gu, Jiu Chen, Li-Juan Gao, Hao Shu, Zan Wang, Duan Liu, Yan-Na Yan, Shi-Jiang Li, Zhi-Jun Zhang
Background: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 is the only established risk gene for late-onset, sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have provided inconsistent evidence for the effect of APOE ε4 status on the visuospatial working memory (VSWM). Objective: The aim was to investigate the effect of APOE ε4 on VSWM with an event-related potential (ERP) study in healthy controls (HC) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients. Methods: The study recorded 39 aMCI patients (27 APOE ε4 non-carriers and 12 APOE ε4 carriers) and their 43 matched controls (25 APOE ε4 non-carriers and 18 APOE ε4 carriers) with an 64-channel electroencephalogram...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560212/enhancing-human-cognition-with-cocoa-flavonoids
#18
REVIEW
Valentina Socci, Daniela Tempesta, Giovambattista Desideri, Luigi De Gennaro, Michele Ferrara
Enhancing cognitive abilities has become a fascinating scientific challenge, recently driven by the interest in preventing age-related cognitive decline and sustaining normal cognitive performance in response to cognitively demanding environments. In recent years, cocoa and cocoa-derived products, as a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanols sub-class, have been clearly shown to exert cardiovascular benefits. More recently, neuromodulation and neuroprotective actions have been also suggested. Here, we discuss human studies specifically aimed at investigating the effects of acute and chronic administration of cocoa flavanols on different cognitive domains, such as executive functions, attention and memory...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559180/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-by-short-term-aerobic-exercise-in-adult-mice
#19
G D'Arcangelo, T Triossi, A Buglione, G Melchiorri, V Tancredi
Physiological effects of different types, of continuous and interval aerobic training, have been largely described and studied in the adult man. It was previously indicated that interval training plays an important role in maximizing both peripheral muscle and central cardiorespiratory adaptations, permitting significant functional improvement even in healthy sedentary subjects. Since the outcome of different aerobic training trials on cognitive processes had never been evaluated, we compared, on an experimental mouse model, the effects of four training exercise protocols, named respectively C100, I100, C50 and I50 depending on the volume and on the type of training proposed, continuous or interval method...
May 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558817/effects-of-exercise-on-brain-activity-during-walking-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Hiroyuki Shimada, Kenji Ishii, Hyuma Makizako, Kiichi Ishiwata, Keiichi Oda, Megumi Suzukawa
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may preserve neuronal plasticity, increase synapse formation, and cause the release of hormonal factors that promote neurogenesis and neuronal function. Previous studies have reported enhanced neurocognitive function following exercise training. However, the specific cortical regions activated during exercise training remain largely undefined. In this study, we quantitatively and objectively evaluated the effects of exercise on brain activity during walking in healthy older adults...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
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