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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#1
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903706/phase-amplitude-coupling-and-long-range-phase-synchronization-reveal-frontotemporal-interactions-during-visual-working-memory
#2
Jonathan Daume, Thomas Gruber, Andreas K Engel, Uwe Friese
: It has been suggested that cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) particularly in temporal brain structures serves as a neural mechanism for coordinated working memory storage. In this magnetoencephalography study, we show that during visual working memory maintenance, temporal cortex regions, which exhibit enhanced PAC, interact with prefrontal cortex via enhanced low-frequency phase synchronization. Healthy human participants were engaged in a visual delayed-matching-to-sample task with pictures of natural objects...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897670/boosting-cognition-effects-of-multiple-session-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-working-memory
#3
Lotte J Talsma, Henryk A Kroese, Heleen A Slagter
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising tool for neurocognitive enhancement. Several studies have shown that just a single session of tDCS over the left dorsolateral pFC (lDLPFC) can improve the core cognitive function of working memory (WM) in healthy adults. Yet, recent studies combining multiple sessions of anodal tDCS over lDLPFC with verbal WM training did not observe additional benefits of tDCS in subsequent stimulation sessions nor transfer of benefits to novel WM tasks posttraining...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883233/intranasal-insulin-boosts-gustatory-sensitivity
#4
Rea Rodriguez-Raecke, Huan Yang, Yvonne F Brünner, Jessica Freiherr
Intranasal insulin had been in the spotlight not only for enhancing memory processes but also for its anorexic effects, as well as its effects on olfactory sensitivity. Here, the influence of intranasal insulin on gustatory sensitivity was investigated using intranasal applications of insulin or placebo in a double-blind manner alongside a control condition without any application. We hypothesized that intranasal insulin, as it mediates satiety, alters gustatory sensitivity whereas placebo application and control should not alter gustatory sensitivity...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880059/repetition-lag-memory-training-is-feasible-in-patients-with-chronic-stroke-including-those-with-memory-problems
#5
Vessela Stamenova, Janine M Jennings, Shaun P Cook, Fuqiang Gao, Lisa A S Walker, Andra M Smith, Patrick S R Davidson
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Repetition-lag memory training was developed to increase individuals' use of recollection as opposed to familiarity in recognition memory. The goals of this study were to examine the feasibility of repetition-lag training in patients with chronic stroke and to explore whether the training might show suggestions of transfer to non-trained tasks. RESEARCH DESIGN: Quasi-experimental. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Patients (n = 17) took part in six repetition-lag training sessions and their gains on the training and non-trained tasks were compared to those of age-matched healthy controls (n = 30)...
November 23, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876790/stress-induces-a-shift-towards-striatum-dependent-stimulus-response-learning-via-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor
#6
Susanne Vogel, Floris Klumpers, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Krista T Oplaat, Harm J Krugers, Melly S Oitzl, Marian Joëls, Christian F Doeller, Guillén Fernández
Stress is assumed to cause a shift from flexible 'cognitive' memory to more rigid 'habit' memory. In the spatial memory domain, stress impairs place learning depending on the hippocampus whereas stimulus-response learning based on the striatum appears to be improved. While the neural basis of this shift is still unclear, previous evidence in rodents points towards cortisol interacting with the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to affect amygdala functioning. The amygdala is in turn assumed to orchestrate the stress-induced shift in memory processing...
November 23, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866493/dietary-dha-and-health-cognitive-function-ageing
#7
Carlos Cardoso, Cláudia Afonso, Narcisa M Bandarra
DHA is a key nutritional n-3 PUFA and needs to be supplied by the human diet. DHA is found in significant amounts in the retinal and neuronal cell membranes due to its high fluidity. Indeed, DHA is selectively concentrated in the synaptic and retinal membranes. DHA is deemed to display anti-inflammatory properties and to reduce the risk of CVD. Consumption of larger amounts of DHA appears to reduce the risk of depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and mood disorders. Conversely, it has been shown that loss of DHA from the nerve cell membrane leads to dysfunction of the central nervous system in the form of anxiety, irritability, susceptibility to stress, dyslexia, impaired memory and cognitive functions, and extended reaction times...
November 21, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857199/neural-correlates-underlying-impaired-memory-facilitation-and-suppression-of-negative-material-in-depression
#8
Dandan Zhang, Hui Xie, Yunzhe Liu, Yuejia Luo
Previous behavioral studies demonstrated that depressed individuals have difficulties in forgetting unwanted, especially negative, event. However, inconsistent results still exit and the neural mechanism of this phenomenon has not been investigated. This study examined the intentional memory facilitation/suppression of negative and neutral materials in depression using Think/No-Think paradigm. We found that compared with nondepressed group, depressed group recalled more negative items, irrespective of either "Think" or "No-Think" instructions...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857173/endotoxemia-contributes-to-cd27-memory-b-cell-apoptosis-via-enhanced-sensitivity-to-fas-ligation-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#9
Li-Yuan Chang, Yonghai Li, David E Kaplan
Peripheral CD27(+) memory B-cells become quantitatively reduced and dysfunctional in patients with cirrhosis through poorly characterized mechanisms. We hypothesized that the disappearance of CD27(+) memory B-cells results from enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis caused by exposure to gut microbial translocation products. Using isolated naïve and memory B-cells from patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls, ex vivo and activation-induced sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis was assessed under relevant experimental conditions...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852785/dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-gaba-concentration-in-humans-predicts-working-memory-load-processing-capacity
#10
Jong H Yoon, Anthony Grandelis, Richard J Maddock
: The discovery of neural mechanisms of working memory (WM) would significantly enhance our understanding of complex human behaviors and guide treatment development for WM-related impairments found in neuropsychiatric conditions and aging. Although the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has long been considered critical for WM, we still know little about the neural elements and pathways within the DLPFC that support WM in humans. In this study, we tested whether an individual's DLPFC gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) content predicts individual differences in WM task performance using a novel behavioral approach...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851877/understanding-the-continuum-of-radionecrosis-and-vascular-disorders-in-the-brain-following-gamma-knife-irradiation-an-mri-study
#11
Julie Constanzo, Laurence Masson-Côté, Luc Tremblay, Jérémie P Fouquet, Philippe Sarret, Sameh Geha, Kevin Whittingstall, Benoit Paquette, Martin Lepage
PURPOSE: The radiation dose delivered to brain tumors is limited by the possibility to induce vascular damage and necrosis in surrounding healthy tissue. In the present study, we assessed the ability of MRI to monitor the cascade of events occurring in the healthy rat brain after stereotactic radiosurgery, which could be used to optimize the radiation treatment planning. METHODS: The primary somatosensory forelimb area (S1FL) and the primary motor cortex in the right hemisphere of Fischer rats (n = 6) were irradiated with a single dose of Gamma Knife radiation (Leksell Perfexion, Elekta AG, Stockholm, Sweden)...
November 10, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843890/predictors-of-memory-deficits-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-congenital-heart-disease-compared-to-healthy-controls
#12
Nancy A Pike, Mary A Woo, Marie K Poulsen, Wendy Evangelista, Dylan Faire, Nancy J Halnon, Alan B Lewis, Rajesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) show a range of memory deficits, which can dramatically impact their clinical outcomes and quality of life. However, few studies have identified predictors of these memory changes. The purpose of this investigation was to identify predictors of memory deficits in adolescents and young adults with CHD after surgical palliation compared to healthy controls. METHOD: One hundred fifty-six adolescents and young adults (80 CHD and 76 controls; age 14-21 years) were recruited and administered an instrument to assess memory [Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning Second Edition - general memory index (GMI) score] and completed questionnaires that measure anxiety, depression, sleepiness, health status, and self-efficacy...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831716/transfer-after-process-based-object-location-memory-training-in-healthy-older-adults
#13
Kathrin Zimmermann, Claudia C von Bastian, Christina Röcke, Mike Martin, Anne Eschen
A substantial part of age-related episodic memory decline has been attributed to the decreasing ability of older adults to encode and retrieve associations among simultaneously processed information units from long-term memory. In addition, this ability seems to share unique variance with reasoning. In this study, we therefore examined whether process-based training of the ability to learn and remember associations has the potential to induce transfer effects to untrained episodic memory and reasoning tasks in healthy older adults (60-75 years)...
November 2016: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827903/no-effect-of-cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-fear-memory-in-healthy-human-subjects
#14
Aditya Mungee, Max Burger, Malek Bajbouj
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that fear memories can be modified using non-invasive methods. Recently, we demonstrated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is capable of enhancing fear memories. Here, we examined the effects of cathodal tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during fear reconsolidation in humans. METHODS: Seventeen young, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, which underwent fear conditioning with mild electric stimuli paired with a visual stimulus...
November 4, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816669/the-bank1-sle-risk-variants-are-associated-with-alterations-in-peripheral-b-cell-signaling-and-development-in-humans
#15
Elizabeth M Dam, Tania Habib, Janice Chen, Andrew Funk, Veronika Glukhova, Mel Davis-Pickett, Shan Wei, Richard James, Jane H Buckner, Karen Cerosaletti
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the development of autoantibodies that drive disease pathogenesis. Genetic studies have associated nonsynonymous variants in the BANK1 B cell scaffolding gene with susceptibility to SLE and autoantibodies in lupus. To determine how the BANK1 SLE-risk variants contribute to the dysregulated B cell program in lupus, we performed genotype/phenotype studies in human B cells. Targeted phospho-proteomics were used to evaluate BCR/CD40 signaling in human B cell lines engineered to express the BANK1 risk or non-risk variant proteins...
November 2, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815214/noradrenergic-mechanisms-of-arousal-s-bidirectional-effects-on-episodic-memory
#16
David Clewett, Michiko Sakaki, Shawn Nielsen, Giselle Petzinger, Mara Mather
Arousal's selective effects on cognition go beyond the simple enhancement of emotional stimuli, sometimes enhancing and other times impairing processing of proximal neutral information. Past work shows that arousal impairs encoding of subsequent neutral stimuli regardless of their top-down priority via the engagement of β-adrenoreceptors. In contrast, retrograde amnesia induced by emotional arousal can flip to enhancement when preceding neutral items are prioritized in top-down attention. Whether β-adrenoreceptors also contribute to this retrograde memory enhancement of goal-relevant neutral stimuli is unclear...
November 2, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806157/association-of-neurocognition-with-transition-to-psychosis-baseline-functioning-in-the-second-phase-of-the-north-american-prodrome-longitudinal-study
#17
Larry J Seidman, Daniel I Shapiro, William S Stone, Kristen A Woodberry, Ashley Ronzio, Barbara A Cornblatt, Jean Addington, Carrie E Bearden, Kristin S Cadenhead, Tyrone D Cannon, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Ming T Tsuang, Elaine F Walker, Scott W Woods
Importance: Neurocognition is a central characteristic of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Identifying the pattern and severity of neurocognitive functioning during the "near-psychotic," clinical high-risk (CHR) state of psychosis is necessary to develop accurate risk factors for psychosis and more effective and potentially preventive treatments. Objectives: To identify core neurocognitive dysfunctions associated with the CHR phase, measure the ability of neurocognitive tests to predict transition to psychosis, and determine if neurocognitive deficits are robust or explained by potential confounders...
November 2, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801892/bifidobacterium-longum-1714-as-a-translational-psychobiotic-modulation-of-stress-electrophysiology-and-neurocognition-in-healthy-volunteers
#18
A P Allen, W Hutch, Y E Borre, P J Kennedy, A Temko, G Boylan, E Murphy, J F Cryan, T G Dinan, G Clarke
The emerging concept of psychobiotics-live microorganisms with a potential mental health benefit-represents a novel approach for the management of stress-related conditions. The majority of studies have focused on animal models. Recent preclinical studies have identified the B. longum 1714 strain as a putative psychobiotic with an impact on stress-related behaviors, physiology and cognitive performance. Whether such preclinical effects could be translated to healthy human volunteers remains unknown. We tested whether psychobiotic consumption could affect the stress response, cognition and brain activity patterns...
November 1, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798157/cd40-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-b-cells-is-increased-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-modulated-by-therapeutics
#19
Ding Chen, Sara J Ireland, Gina Remington, Enrique Alvarez, Michael K Racke, Benjamin Greenberg, Elliot M Frohman, Nancy L Monson
CD40 interacts with CD40L and plays an essential role in immune regulation and homeostasis. Recent research findings, however, support a pathogenic role of CD40 in a number of autoimmune diseases. We previously showed that memory B cells from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients exhibited enhanced proliferation with CD40 stimulation compared with healthy donors. In this study, we used a multiparameter phosflow approach to analyze the phosphorylation status of NF-κB and three major MAPKs (P38, ERK, and JNK), the essential components of signaling pathways downstream of CD40 engagement in B cells from MS patients...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773803/the-genus-boschniakia-in-china-an-ethnopharmacological-and-phytochemical-review
#20
Le Zhang, Yunshan Zhao, Zhipeng A Wang, Kunhua Wei, Bin Qiu, Chunhong Zhang, QiYan Wang-Müller, Minhui Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: As a group of important medicine plants, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. et Schltdl) Fedtsch. and B. himalaica Hook.f.et Thoms, which are the only two species in the genus Boschniakia (Orobanchaceae), have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for their multiple therapeutic uses related to enhanced renal function, erectile dysfunction, defaecate and hepatoprotective. Additionally, the two species are also used as dietary supplements in wine, cosmetics, and other healthy food...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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