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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690546/a-rationale-for-music-training-to-enhance-executive-functions-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-overview-of-the-problem
#1
Teresa Lesiuk, Jennifer A Bugos, Brea Murakami
Music listening interventions such as Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation can improve mobility, balance, and gait in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Yet, the impact of music training on executive functions is not yet known. Deficits in executive functions (e.g., attention, processing speed) in patients with PD result in gait interference, deficits in emotional processing, loss of functional capacity (e.g., intellectual activity, social participation), and reduced quality of life. The model of temporal prediction and timing suggests two networks collectively contribute to movement generation and execution: the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network (BGTC) and the cerebellar-thalamocortical network (CTC)...
April 22, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674605/brain-training-games-enhance-cognitive-function-in-healthy-subjects
#2
Abdulrahman Al-Thaqib, Fahad Al-Sultan, Abdullah Al-Zahrani, Fahad Al-Kahtani, Khalid Al-Regaiey, Muhammad Iqbal, Shahid Bashir
BACKGROUND Brain training games (BTG) are believed to play a major role in improving cognitive functions. The current study evaluated if BTG showed positive impact on attention and memory functions compared with baseline visit in healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was carried out from October 2015 until April 2016 in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University and in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We enrolled 51 normal healthy subjects to use a computerized cognitive training game (Lumosity) for exercises that target a range of cognitive functions, including attention, processing speed, visual memory, and executive functions for about 15 min per day, at least 7 days per week, for 3 weeks...
April 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672089/working-memory-capacity-in-social-anxiety-disorder-revisiting-prior-conclusions
#3
Stephanie Waechter, David A Moscovitch, Vanja Vidovic, Tatiana Bielak, Karen Rowa, Randi E McCabe
In one of the few studies examining working memory processes in social anxiety disorder (SAD), Amir and Bomyea (2011) recruited participants with and without SAD to complete a working memory span task with neutral and social threat words. Those with SAD showed better working memory performance for social threat words compared to neutral words, suggesting an enhancement in processing efficiency for socially threatening information in SAD. The current study sought to replicate and extend these findings. In this study, 25 participants with a principal diagnosis of SAD, 24 anxious control (AC) participants with anxiety disorders other than SAD, and 27 healthy control (HC) participants with no anxiety disorder completed a working memory task with social threat, general threat, and neutral stimuli...
April 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668819/translation-and-cross-cultural-adaptation-of-the-brazilian-portuguese-version-of-the-emotional-memory-scale
#4
Adam Fijtman, Letícia Sanguinetti Czepielewski, Ana Cláudia Mércio Loredo Souza, Paul Felder, Marcia Kauer-Sant'Anna, Joana Bücker
Background Emotional memory is an important type of memory that is triggered by positive and negative emotions. It is characterized by an enhanced memory for emotional stimuli which is usually coupled with a decrease in memory of neutral preceding events. Emotional memory is strongly associated with amygdala function and therefore could be disrupted in neuropsychiatric disorders. To our knowledge, there is no translated and culturally adapted instrument for the Brazilian Portuguese speaking population to assess emotional memory...
March 2018: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663129/effects-of-cogmed-working-memory-training-on-cognitive-performance
#5
Joseph L Etherton, Crystal D Oberle, Jayson Rhoton, Ashley Ney
Research on the cognitive benefits of working memory training programs has produced inconsistent results. Such research has frequently used laboratory-specific training tasks, or dual-task n-back training. The current study used the commercial Cogmed Working Memory (WM) Training program, involving several different training tasks involving visual and auditory input. Healthy college undergraduates were assigned to either the full Cogmed training program of 25, 40-min training sessions; an abbreviated Cogmed program of 25, 20-min training sessions; or a no-contact control group...
April 16, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658724/sustaining-prospective-memory-functioning-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-lifespan-approach-to-the-critical-role-of-encoding
#6
Antonina Pereira, Mareike Altgassen, Lesley Atchison, Alexandre de Mendonça, Judi Ellis
OBJECTIVE: Prospective memory (PM), the ability to remember to perform future activities, is a fundamental requirement for independent living. PM tasks pervade our daily lives, and PM failures represent one of the most prominent memory concerns across the entire life span. This study aimed to address this issue by exploring the potential benefits of specific encoding strategies on memory for intentions across healthy adulthood and in the early stages of cognitive impairment. METHOD: PM performance was explored through an experimental paradigm in 96 participants: 32 amnestic mild cognitively impaired patients aged 64-87 years (M = 6...
April 16, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629540/role-of-language-related-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-benign-childhood-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes
#7
Hyeon Jin Kim, Jung Hwa Lee, Chang Hyun Park, Hye Sun Hong, Yun Seo Choi, Jeong Hyun Yoo, Hyang Woon Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) does not always have a benign cognitive outcome. We investigated the relationship between cognitive performance and altered functional connectivity (FC) in the resting-state brain networks of BECTS patients. METHODS: We studied 42 subjects, comprising 19 BECTS patients and 23 healthy controls. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, in addition to verbal and visuospatial memory tests and executive function tests...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615855/null-effects-on-working-memory-and-verbal-fluency-tasks-when-applying-anodal-tdcs-to-the-inferior-frontal-gyrus-of-healthy-participants
#8
Samuel J Westwood, Cristina Romani
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique used to modify cognition by modulating underlying cortical excitability via weak electric current applied through the scalp. Although many studies have reported positive effects with tDCS, a number of recent studies highlight that tDCS effects can be small and difficult to reproduce. This is especially the case when attempting to modulate performance using single applications of tDCS in healthy participants. Possible reasons may be that optimal stimulation parameters have yet to be identified, and that individual variation in cortical activity and/or level of ability confound outcomes...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614376/tell-me-what-to-do-stress-facilitates-stimulus-response-learning-by-instruction
#9
Susanne Vogel, Lars Schwabe
Learning by explicit instruction is a highly efficient way to instantaneously learn new behaviors and to overcome potentially harmful learning by trial-and-error. Despite the importance of instructed learning for education, influences on the efficacy of an instruction are currently unknown. Decades of research, however, showed that stress is a powerful modulator of learning and memory, including the acquisition of stimulus-response (S-R) associations. Moreover, brain areas critical for instructed learning are a major target of hormones and neurotransmitters released during stress...
March 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576474/the-tyrosine-phosphatase-step-is-involved-in-age-related-memory-decline
#10
David Castonguay, Julien Dufort-Gervais, Caroline Ménard, Manavi Chatterjee, Rémi Quirion, Bruno Bontempi, Jay S Schneider, Amy F T Arnsten, Angus C Nairn, Christopher M Norris, Guylaine Ferland, Erwan Bézard, Pierrette Gaudreau, Paul J Lombroso, Jonathan Brouillette
Cognitive disabilities that occur with age represent a growing and expensive health problem. Age-associated memory deficits are observed across many species, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be fully identified. Here, we report elevations in the levels and activity of the striatal-enriched phosphatase (STEP) in the hippocampus of aged memory-impaired mice and rats, in aged rhesus monkeys, and in people diagnosed with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The accumulation of STEP with aging is related to dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system that normally leads to the degradation of STEP...
March 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557548/-the-effects-of-moderate-physical-exercise-on-cognition-in-adults-over-60-years-of-age
#11
J L Sanchez-Gonzalez, J I Calvo-Arenillas, J L Sanchez-Rodriguez
INTRODUCTION: Clinical evidence gathered in recent years indicates that elderly individuals more frequently display cognitive changes. These age-related changes refer, above all, to memory functions and to the speed of thinking and reasoning. A number of studies have shown that physical activity can be used as an important mechanism for protecting the cognitive functions. AIM: To test the hypothesis that physical exercise is able to bring about changes in the cognitive functions of healthy elderly adults without cognitive impairment, thereby improving their quality of life...
April 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548848/effects-of-resveratrol-on-memory-performance-hippocampus-connectivity-and-microstructure-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Sebastian Huhn, Frauke Beyer, Rui Zhang, Leonie Lampe, Jana Grothe, Jürgen Kratzsch, Anja Willenberg, Jana Breitfeld, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Robert Trampel, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Arno Villringer, A Veronica Witte
INTRODUCTION: The polyphenol resveratrol has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on memory and the aging hippocampus due to calorie-restriction mimicking effects. However, the evidence based on human interventional studies is scarce. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of resveratrol on memory performance, and to identify potential underlying mechanisms using a broad array of blood-based biomarkers as well as hippocampus connectivity and microstructure assessed with ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI)...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545330/potent-immune-modulation-by-medi6383-an-engineered-human-ox40-ligand-igg4p-fc-fusion-protein
#13
Michael D Oberst, Catherine Auge, Chad Morris, Stacy Kentner, Kathy Mulgrew, Kelly McGlinchey, James Hair, Shino Hanabuchi, Qun Du, Melissa Damschroder, Hui Feng, Steven Eck, Nicholas Buss, Lolke de Haan, Andrew J Pierce, Haesun Park, Andrew Sylwester, Michael K Axthelm, Louis Picker, Nicholas P Morris, Andrew Weinberg, Scott A Hammond
Ligation of OX40 (CD134, TNFRSF4) on activated T cells by its natural ligand (OX40L, CD252, TNFSF4) enhances cellular survival, proliferation, and effector functions such as cytokine release and cellular cytotoxicity. We engineered a recombinant human OX40L IgG4P Fc fusion protein termed MEDI6383 that assembles into a hexameric structure and exerts potent agonist activity following engagement of OX40. MEDI6383 displayed solution phase agonist activity that was enhanced when the fusion protein was clustered by Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) on the surface of adjacent cells...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542823/sung-melody-enhances-verbal-learning-and-recall-after-stroke
#14
Vera Leo, Aleksi J Sihvonen, Tanja Linnavalli, Mari Tervaniemi, Matti Laine, Seppo Soinila, Teppo Särkämö
Coupling novel verbal material with a musical melody can potentially aid in its learning and recall in healthy subjects, but this has never been systematically studied in stroke patients with cognitive deficits. In a counterbalanced design, we presented novel verbal material (short narrative stories) in both spoken and sung formats to stroke patients at the acute poststroke stage and 6 months poststroke. The task comprised three learning trials and a delayed recall trial. Memory performance on the spoken and sung tasks did not differ at the acute stage, whereas sung stories were learned and recalled significantly better compared with spoken stories at the 6 months poststroke stage...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535872/an-event-related-potentials-study-of-semantic-coherence-effect-during-episodic-encoding-in-schizophrenia-patients
#15
Lâle Battal Merlet, Alain Blanchet, Hazlin Lockman, Milena Kostova
The objective of this electrophysiological study was to investigate the processing of semantic coherence during encoding in relation to episodic memory processes promoted at test, in schizophrenia patients, by using the N400 paradigm. Eighteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy participants undertook a recognition memory task. The stimuli consisted of pairs of words either semantically related or unrelated to a given category name (context). During encoding, both groups exhibited an N400 external semantic coherence effect...
2018: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535584/effects-of-a-single-session-cognitive-enhancement-fitness-program-on-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-and-cognitive-function-in-middle-aged-women
#16
Hyun Jun Kim, Sang Yeoup Lee, Hwa Gyeong Lee, Yang Hee Cho, Eun Mi Ko
Few studies have been undertaken to develop cognitive functional improvement-focused exercise programs and determine their effect. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of a cognitive enhancement fitness program (CEFP) on short-term memory and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels according to the cognitive state in middle-aged women. A total of 30 healthy volunteers aged 40-59 years were divided into two groups, that is, a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group and a non-MCI group based on results from the Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535264/tslp-signaling-in-cd4-t-cells-programs-a-pathogenic-t-helper-2-cell-state
#17
Yrina Rochman, Krista Dienger-Stambaugh, Phoebe K Richgels, Ian P Lewkowich, Andrey V Kartashov, Artem Barski, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Warren J Leonard, Harinder Singh
Pathogenic T helper 2 (TH 2) cells, which produce increased amounts of the cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13, promote allergic disorders, including asthma. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), a cytokine secreted by epithelial and innate immune cells, stimulates such pathogenic TH 2 cell responses. We found that TSLP signaling in mouse CD4+ T cells initiated transcriptional changes associated with TH 2 cell programming. IL-4 signaling amplified and stabilized the genomic response of T cells to TSLP, which increased the frequency of T cells producing IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13...
March 13, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532980/the-effect-of-splenectomy-on-the-levels-of-pcv-13-induced-memory-b-and-t-cells
#18
Umut Gazi, Djursun Karasartova, Ibrahim Tayfun Sahiner, Ayse Semra Gureser, Ozgur Tosun, Mehmet Kursat Derici, Mete Dolapci, Aysegul Taylan Ozkan
AIM: Splenectomised patients are associated with lifelong risk of fatal overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI), which is mostly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Today OPSI cases can still be reported even in patients with appropriate vaccination. In our study, the levels of vaccine-specific memory B- and T cells were compared between control and splenectomised patients to enlighten the underlying reason. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five healthy and 14 post-traumatic splenectomised individuals were vaccinated with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524515/mdma-assisted-psychotherapy-for-ptsd-are-memory-reconsolidation-and-fear-extinction-underlying-mechanisms
#19
REVIEW
Allison A Feduccia, Michael C Mithoefer
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD has recently progressed to Phase 3 clinical trials and received Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA. MDMA used as an adjunct during psychotherapy sessions has demonstrated effectiveness and acceptable safety in reducing PTSD symptoms in Phase 2 trials, with durable remission of PTSD diagnosis in 68% of participants. The underlying psychological and neurological mechanisms for the robust effects in mitigating PTSD are being investigated in animal models and in studies of healthy volunteers...
March 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522122/development-and-psychometric-validation-of-a-question-naire-assessing-the-impact-of-memory-changes-in-older-adults
#20
Komal T Shaikh, Erica L Tatham, Preeyam K Parikh, Graham A McCreath, Jill B Rich, Angela K Troyer
Background and Objectives: Many healthy older adults experience age-related memory changes that can impact their day-to-day functioning. Qualitative interviews have been useful in gaining insight into the experience of older adults who are facing memory difficulties. To enhance this insight, there is a need for a reliable and valid measure that quantifies the impact of normal memory changes on daily living. The primary objective of this study was to develop and validate a new instrument, the Memory Impact Questionnaire (MIQ)...
March 7, 2018: Gerontologist
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