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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811259/should-i-trust-you-learning-and-memory-of-social-interactions-in-dementia
#1
Stephanie Wong, Muireann Irish, Claire O'Callaghan, Fiona Kumfor, Greg Savage, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Michael Hornberger
Social relevance has an enhancing effect on learning and subsequent memory retrieval. The ability to learn from and remember social interactions may impact on susceptibility to financial exploitation, which is elevated in individuals with dementia. The current study aimed to investigate learning and memory of social interactions, the relationship between performance and financial vulnerability and the neural substrates underpinning performance in 14 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls...
August 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798682/a-novel-virtual-reality-based-training-protocol-for-the-enhancement-of-the-mental-frame-syncing-in-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-development-of-concept-trial
#2
Silvia Serino, Elisa Pedroli, Cosimo Tuena, Gianluca De Leo, Marco Stramba-Badiale, Karine Goulene, Noemi G Mariotti, Giuseppe Riva
A growing body of evidence suggests that people with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) show compromised spatial abilities. In addition, there exists from the earliest stages of AD a specific impairment in "mental frame syncing," which is the ability to synchronize an allocentric viewpoint-independent representation (including object-to-object information) with an egocentric one by computing the bearing of each relevant "object" in the environment in relation to the stored heading in space (i.e., information about our viewpoint contained in the allocentric viewpoint-dependent representation)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790908/multi-kernel-learning-with-dartel-improves-combined-mri-pet-classification-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-aibl-data-group-and-individual-analyses
#3
Vahab Youssofzadeh, Bernadette McGuinness, Liam P Maguire, KongFatt Wong-Lin
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are neuroimaging modalities typically used for evaluating brain changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Due to their complementary nature, their combination can provide more accurate AD diagnosis or prognosis. In this work, we apply a multi-modal imaging machine-learning framework to enhance AD classification and prediction of diagnosis of subject-matched gray matter MRI and Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET data related to 58 AD, 108 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 120 healthy elderly (HE) subjects from the Australian imaging, biomarkers and lifestyle (AIBL) dataset...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771634/regional-gray-matter-correlates-of-memory-for-emotion-laden-words-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#4
Carina Saarela, Juho Joutsa, Matti Laine, Riitta Parkkola, Juha O Rinne, Mira Karrasch
Emotional content is known to enhance memory in a content-dependent manner in healthy populations. In middle-aged and older adults, a reduced preference for negative material, or even an enhanced preference for positive material has been observed. This preference seems to be modulated by the emotional arousal that the material evokes. The neuroanatomical basis for emotional memory processes is, however, not well understood in middle-aged and older healthy people. Previous research on local gray matter correlates of emotional memory in older populations has mainly been conducted with patients suffering from various neurodegenerative diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769858/dedifferentiation-does-not-account-for-hyperconnectivity-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Rachel Anne Bernier, Arnab Roy, Umesh Meyyappan Venkatesan, Emily C Grossner, Einat K Brenner, Frank Gerard Hillary
OBJECTIVE: Changes in functional network connectivity following traumatic brain injury (TBI) have received increasing attention in recent neuroimaging literature. This study sought to understand how disrupted systems adapt to injury during resting and goal-directed brain states. Hyperconnectivity has been a common finding, and dedifferentiation (or loss of segregation of networks) is one possible explanation for this finding. We hypothesized that individuals with TBI would show dedifferentiation of networks (as noted in other clinical populations) and these effects would be associated with cognitive dysfunction...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760730/designing-serious-computer-games-for-people-with-moderate-and-advanced-dementia-interdisciplinary-theory-driven-pilot-study
#6
Chariklia Tziraki, Rakel Berenbaum, Daniel Gross, Judith Abikhzer, Boaz M Ben-David
BACKGROUND: The field of serious games for people with dementia (PwD) is mostly driven by game-design principals typically applied to games created by and for younger individuals. Little has been done developing serious games to help PwD maintain cognition and to support functionality. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to create a theory-based serious game for PwD, with input from a multi-disciplinary team familiar with aging, dementia, and gaming theory, as well as direct input from end users (the iterative process)...
July 31, 2017: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747878/transcranial-electric-stimulation-can-impair-gains-during-working-memory-training-and-affects-the-resting-state-connectivity
#7
Annie Möller, Federico Nemmi, Kim Karlsson, Torkel Klingberg
Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) is a promising technique that has been shown to improve working memory (WM) performance and enhance the effect of cognitive training. However, experimental set up and electrode placement are not always determined based on neurofunctional knowledge about WM, leading to inconsistent results. Additional research on the effects of tES grounded on neurofunctional evidence is therefore necessary. Sixty young, healthy, volunteers, assigned to six different groups, participated in 5 days of stimulation or sham treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746902/remembering-verbally-presented-items-as-pictures-brain-activity-underlying-visual-mental-images-in-schizophrenia-patients-with-visual-hallucinations
#8
Christian Stephan-Otto, Sara Siddi, Carl Senior, Jorge Cuevas-Esteban, Maria Rosa Cambra-Martí, Susana Ochoa, Gildas Brébion
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that visual hallucinations in schizophrenia consist of mental images mistaken for percepts due to failure of the reality-monitoring processes. However, the neural substrates that underpin such dysfunction are currently unknown. We conducted a brain imaging study to investigate the role of visual mental imagery in visual hallucinations. METHOD: Twenty-three patients with schizophrenia and 26 healthy participants were administered a reality-monitoring task whilst undergoing an fMRI protocol...
June 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736135/theta-neurofeedback-effects-on-motor-memory-consolidation-and-performance-accuracy-an-apparent-paradox
#9
Miriam Reiner, Dror D Lev, Amit Rosen
Previous studies have shown that theta neurofeedback enhances motor memory consolidation on an easy-to-learn finger-tapping task. However, the simplicity of the finger-tapping task precludes evaluating the putative effects of elevated theta on performance accuracy. Mastering a motor sequence is classically assumed to entail faster performance with fewer errors. The speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) principle states that as action speed increases, motor performance accuracy decreases. The current study investigated whether theta neurofeedback could improve both performance speed and performance accuracy, or would only enhance performance speed at the cost of reduced accuracy...
July 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729943/relationship-between-cerebellar-structure-and-emotional-memory-in-depression
#10
Li-Yan Xu, Fang-Cheng Xu, Can Liu, Yi-Fu Ji, Jin-Min Wu, Ying Wang, Hai-Bao Wang, Yong-Qiang Yu
BACKGROUND: A few studies have been conducted on the relationship between cerebellar volume and emotional memory or clinical severity in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, we aimed to compare the volume and density of the cerebellar gray matter (GM) in patients with MDD and in healthy controls (HCs) and explore the association between these cerebellar parameters and measurements of emotional memory and clinical severity. METHOD: Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and Individual Brain Atlases using Statistical Parametric Mapping (IBASPM) were used to assess GM density and volume in the cerebellum, respectively, in patients with MDD and the HCs...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724914/enhanced-learning-through-multimodal-training-evidence-from-a-comprehensive-cognitive-physical-fitness-and-neuroscience-intervention
#11
N Ward, E Paul, P Watson, G E Cooke, C H Hillman, N J Cohen, A F Kramer, A K Barbey
The potential impact of brain training methods for enhancing human cognition in healthy and clinical populations has motivated increasing public interest and scientific scrutiny. At issue is the merits of intervention modalities, such as computer-based cognitive training, physical exercise training, and non-invasive brain stimulation, and whether such interventions synergistically enhance cognition. To investigate this issue, we conducted a comprehensive 4-month randomized controlled trial in which 318 healthy, young adults were enrolled in one of five interventions: (1) Computer-based cognitive training on six adaptive tests of executive function; (2) Cognitive and physical exercise training; (3) Cognitive training combined with non-invasive brain stimulation and physical exercise training; (4) Active control training in adaptive visual search and change detection tasks; and (5) Passive control...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720860/altered-hippocampal-volume-and-functional-connectivity-in-males-with-internet-gaming-disorder-comparing-to-those-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#12
Eun Jin Yoon, Jung-Seok Choi, Heejung Kim, Bo Kyung Sohn, Hee Yeon Jung, Jun-Young Lee, Dai-Jin Kim, Sun-Won Park, Yu Kyeong Kim
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and shares clinical, neuropsychological, and personality characteristics with alcohol use disorder (AUD), but IGD dose not entail brain exposure to toxic agents, which renders it different from AUD. To achieve a clear understanding of the neurobiological features of IGD, we aimed to identify morphological and functional changes in IGD and compare them with those in AUD. Individuals with IGD showed larger volume in the hippocampus/amygdala and precuneus than healthy controls (HCs)...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719652/long-term-follow-up-of-human-t-cell-responses-to-conserved-hiv-1-regions-elicited-by-dna-simian-adenovirus-mva-vaccine-regimens
#13
Nathifa Moyo, Nicola J Borthwick, Edmund G Wee, Silvia Capucci, Alison Crook, Lucy Dorrell, Tomáš Hanke
BACKGROUND: Durability of vaccine-elicited immune responses is one of the key determinants for vaccine success. Our aim is to develop a vaccination strategy against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which induces protective and durable CD8+ T-cell responses. The central theorem of our approach is to focus T cells on highly conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome and this is achieved through the use of the first-generation conserved vaccine immunogen HIVconsv. This immunogen vectored by plasmid DNA, simian adenovirus and poxvirus MVA was tested in healthy, HIV-1-negative adults in UK and induced high magnitudes of HIVconsv-specific plurifunctional CD8+ T cells capable of in vitro HIV-1 inhibition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715880/effects-of-acute-high-intensity-resistance-exercise-on-cognitive-function-and-oxygenation-in-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Hyukki Chang, Kyungae Kim, Yu-Jin Jung, Morimasa Kato
PURPOSE: Moderate-intensity exercise is known to be the best effective intensity to enhance cognitive function, including memory and learning. However, the effects of high-intensity exercise in comparison with moderate- intensity exercise on cognitive function remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity resistance exercise on cognitive function. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy female college students volunteered to participate in this study...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713194/drought-priming-improves-subsequent-more-severe-drought-in-a-drought-sensitive-cultivar-of-olive-cv-ch%C3%A3-toui
#15
Mariem Ben Abdallah, Kawther Methenni, Issam Nouairi, Mokhtar Zarrouk, Nabil Ben Youssef
Drought is a major factor limiting crop production worldwide. The objective of this study was to test whether pre-exposure to drought can enhance the subsequent drought response of a drought-sensitive variety of olive cv. Chétoui. Seven-months old olive plants were grown in a controlled conditions and divided into control plants (irrigated daily), primed plants (PP, primed by exposure to drought for 21 days, re-watered for 60 days and then exposed to water depletion for 30 days) and non-primed plants (NPP, well watered for 81 days and immediately followed by intermediate drought as PP)...
July 14, 2017: Scientia Horticulturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698596/aerobic-fitness-associates-with-mnemonic-discrimination-as-a-mediator-of-physical-activity-effects-evidence-for-memory-flexibility-in-young-adults
#16
Kazuya Suwabe, Kazuki Hyodo, Kyeongho Byun, Genta Ochi, Takemune Fukuie, Takeshi Shimizu, Morimasa Kato, Michael A Yassa, Hideaki Soya
A physically active lifestyle has beneficial effects on hippocampal memory function. A potential mechanism for this effect is exercise-enhanced hippocampal plasticity, particularly in the dentate gyrus (DG). Within hippocampal memory formation, the DG plays a crucial role in pattern separation, which is the ability to discriminate among similar experiences. Computational models propose a theoretical hypothesis that enhanced DG-mediated pattern separation leads to "memory flexibility"-a selective improvement in the ability to overcome moderate levels of mnemonic interference...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697904/the-adra2b-gene-in-the-production-of-false-memories-for-affective-information-in-healthy-female-volunteers
#17
Beth Fairfield, Nicola Mammarella, Alberto Di Domenico, Marco D'Aurora, Liborio Stuppia, Valentina Gatta
False memories are common memory distortions in everyday life and seem to increase with affectively connoted complex information. In line with recent studies showing a significant interaction between the noradrenergic system and emotional memory, we investigated whether healthy volunteer carriers of the deletion variant of the ADRA2B gene that codes for the α2b-adrenergic receptor are more prone to false memories than non-carriers. In this study, we collected genotype data from 212 healthy female volunteers; 91 ADRA2B carriers and 121 non-carriers...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696772/enhanced-detection-of-feigned-cognitive-impairment-using-per-item-response-time-measurements-in-the-word-memory-test
#18
T Lupu, T Elbaum, M Wagner, Y Braw
Response time (RT) is a less obvious outcome measure than conventional accuracy measures used in performance validity tests (PVTs). It is also under less conscious control and is affected by cognitive processes associated with deception. Studies that assessed the utility of RT for the detection of feigned cognitive impairment are however numbered. Moreover, RT variability was not assessed in a clinically used PVT. In the current study, we assessed the utility of RT measures for the detection of feigned cognitive impairment in the Word Memory Test (WMT)...
July 11, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693704/the-role-of-self-referencing-in-true-and-false-recognition-in-young-people-and-healthy-older-people
#19
Alfonso Pitarque, Alicia Sales, Encar Satorres, Rita Redondo, Juan C Meléndez
BACKGROUND: Given the uneven results about the role self-referencing plays in false recognition, we planned an experiment that would allow us to analyze whether self-referencing affects false recognition, and its relationship with healthy aging. METHOD: A sample of healthy older people (n = 30) and another sample of young people (n = 38) rated whether 40 personality-trait adjectives (20 with a positive valence and 20 with a negative valence) described them or not (self-referencing condition)...
August 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686349/the-role-of-vitamin-d-on-circulating-memory-t-cells-in-children-the-generation-r-study
#20
Kirsten I M Looman, Michelle A E Jansen, Trudy Voortman, Diana van den Heuvel, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Oscar H Franco, Menno C van Zelm, Henriëtte A Moll
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that vitamin D affects T-cell function and maturation via the vitamin D receptor. However, no studies in children have been performed on this topic. Because most of the T-cell memory is formed in the first 5 years of life, we aimed to determine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and numbers of circulatory naive, central memory (Tcm), and effector memory (Tem) T lymphocytes in a large population of healthy children...
July 7, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
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