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Central nervous system infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351513/neuroimmune-interactions-from-the-brain-to-the-immune-system-and-vice-versa
#1
Robert Dantzer
Because of the compartmentalization of disciplines that shaped the academic landscape of biology and biomedical sciences in the past, physiological systems have long been studied in isolation from each other. This has particularly been the case for the immune system. As a consequence of its ties with pathology and microbiology, immunology as a discipline has largely grown independently of physiology. Accordingly, it has taken a long time for immunologists to accept the concept that the immune system is not self-regulated but functions in close association with the nervous system...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349040/an-unusual-case-of-primary-melioidotic-prostatic-abscess-complicated-by-perianal-abscess
#2
Y C Chee, Y N Chee
Burkholderia pseudomallei is recognized to cause severe and fatal infections. Most of the infections caused by this facultative intracellular gram-negative bacterium are pneumonia, soft tissue, genito-urinary and central nervous system infection. We report an unusual case of primary prostatic abscess complicated by perianal abscess caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis related anorectal infections have not been previously reported in the literature.
2018: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348988/anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-a-patient-with-myasthenia-gravis-is-immunosuppression-the-main-underlying-etiology
#3
Muhammad Masab, Muhammad W Saif
Patients who are immunocompromised by diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are more prone to develop some malignancies such as Kaposi's sarcoma and central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas. Historically, anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was also included on the list as an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDs)-defining cancer.  Similarly, compromised immune disorders including severe immunosuppression, haematologic malignancies, and solid organ transplantation have been identified as important risk factors for the development of anal SCC...
November 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347976/intracisternal-tuberculoma-a-refractory-type-of-tuberculoma-indicating-surgical-intervention
#4
Fanfan Chen, Lei Chen, Yongfu Cao, Yongjun Yi, Jingwen Zhuang, Wuhua Le, Wei Xie, Lanbo Tu, Peng Li, Yimin Fang, Ling Li, Yuqing Kou, Kaikai Fu, Hua He, Hongbin Ju
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculoma is a rare disease with severe neurological deficits. This retrospective research is to review the data of patients diagnosed as CNS tuberculoma. Surgeries were performed in all patients. The clinical features especially the neurological image and the anatomical characters of the tuberculomas were concerned. METHODS: Totally 11 patients diagnosed as CNS tuberculoma were admitted in Guangzhou First People's Hospital (7cases) and Changzheng Hospital (4 cases) during 2006-2015...
January 18, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344259/lesions-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-leukemia-pathological-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-at-presentation-in-14-patients
#5
Jing Liu, Yaming Wang, Xuefei Sun, Shuo Liu, Zhenkun Yu, Nan Ji, Shengjun Sun, Yuanbo Liu
The present study aimed to characterize the specific pathology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings observed in patients with leukemia with central nervous system (CNS) lesions, and to determine their value in the management of such patients. Lesions of the CNS were observed during and following treatment of leukemia. The data from stereotactic biopsy-proven pathology (12 patients) and MRI examinations (14 patients) were retrospectively evaluated. Proton-magnetic resonance-spectroscopy was performed in three patients...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343712/zika-virus-infection-in-pregnant-rhesus-macaques-causes-placental-dysfunction-and-immunopathology
#6
Alec J Hirsch, Victoria H J Roberts, Peta L Grigsby, Nicole Haese, Matthias C Schabel, Xiaojie Wang, Jamie O Lo, Zheng Liu, Christopher D Kroenke, Jessica L Smith, Meredith Kelleher, Rebecca Broeckel, Craig N Kreklywich, Christopher J Parkins, Michael Denton, Patricia Smith, Victor DeFilippis, William Messer, Jay A Nelson, Jon D Hennebold, Marjorie Grafe, Lois Colgin, Anne Lewis, Rebecca Ducore, Tonya Swanson, Alfred W Legasse, Michael K Axthelm, Rhonda MacAllister, Ashlee V Moses, Terry K Morgan, Antonio E Frias, Daniel N Streblow
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy leads to an increased risk of fetal growth restriction and fetal central nervous system malformations, which are outcomes broadly referred to as the Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). Here we infect pregnant rhesus macaques and investigate the impact of persistent ZIKV infection on uteroplacental pathology, blood flow, and fetal growth and development. Despite seemingly normal fetal growth and persistent fetal-placenta-maternal infection, advanced non-invasive in vivo imaging studies reveal dramatic effects on placental oxygen reserve accompanied by significantly decreased oxygen permeability of the placental villi...
January 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339415/genome-wide-identification-by-transposon-insertion-sequencing-of-escherichia-coli-k1-genes-essential-for-in-vitro-growth-gastrointestinal-colonizing-capacity-and-survival-in-serum
#7
Alex J McCarthy, Richard A Stabler, Peter W Taylor
Escherichia coli K1 strains are major causative agents of invasive disease of the new born. The age dependency of infection can be reproduced in the neonatal rat. Colonization of the small intestine following oral administration of K1 bacteria leads rapidly to invasion of the blood circulation; bacteria that avoid capture by the mesenteric lymphatic system and evade antibacterial mechanisms in the blood may disseminate to cause organ-specific infections such as meningitis. Some E. coli K1 surface constituents, in particular the polysialic acid capsule, are known to contribute to invasive potential but a comprehensive picture of the factors that determine the fully virulent phenotype has not so far emerged...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338732/transcriptional-profile-and-epstein-barr-virus-infection-status-of-laser-cut-immune-infiltrates-from-the-brain-of-patients-with-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Caterina Veroni, Barbara Serafini, Barbara Rosicarelli, Corrado Fagnani, Francesca Aloisi
BACKGROUND: It is debated whether multiple sclerosis (MS) might result from an immunopathological response toward an active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection brought into the central nervous system (CNS) by immigrating B cells. Based on this model, a relationship should exist between the local immune milieu and EBV infection status in the MS brain. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed expression of viral and cellular genes in brain-infiltrating immune cells. METHODS: Twenty-three postmortem snap-frozen brain tissue blocks from 11 patients with progressive MS were selected based on good RNA quality and prominent immune cell infiltration...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333935/association-between-human-papilloma-virus-hpv-vaccination-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#9
Angela Meggiolaro, Giuseppe Migliara, Giuseppe La Torre
INTRODUCTION: The vaccination against Humanpapilloma Virus (HPV) is an effective strategy to prevent high-risk HPV infection and subsequent cervical carcinogenesis. Although the safety profile has been ascertained, the relation with the development of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disorders (AD) appears still controversial. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of chronic neurological impairment in young people, typically striking females. The main purpose of this review was to assess the association between HPV vaccination and MS...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333566/principles-of-management-of-central-nervous-system-infections
#10
REVIEW
Sunit Singhi, Suresh Kumar Angurana
CNS infections in children are medical emergency and are associated with high mortality and morbidity. For diagnosis, a high index of suspicion is required. Clinical assessment should be supplemented by laboratory investigations including CSF Gram stain and cultures, blood culture, PCR on CSF, serological tests, and imaging. Commonly associated life threatening complications include coma, seizure, raised intracranial pressure (ICP), focal deficits, shock, respiratory failure, and fluid and electrolyte abnormalities...
January 15, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330881/cocaine-and-hiv-1-tat-disrupt-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-astrocytes-implications-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-cocaine-user-patients
#11
Bianca Cotto, Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan, Kimberly Ferrero, Leroy Wesley, Matthew Sayre, Dianne Langford
Cholesterol synthesis and clearance by astrocytes are tightly regulated to maintain constant levels within the brain. In this context, liver X receptors (LXRs) are the master regulators of cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing levels of cholesterol in astrocytes trigger LXR activation leading to the transcription of target genes involved in cholesterol trafficking and efflux, including apolipoprotein E, cytochrome P450 enzymes, sterol regulatory binding protein, and several ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins...
January 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329700/-a-listeria-breast-abscess-in-a-man
#12
E Marsaudon, J Berthy, S Mamoune, A Deniel, S Ksiyer, D Tiuca
INTRODUCTION: Listeriosis is a food-borne illness leading to bacteriemia or central nervous system infection especially in pregnant women or high-risk patients. It is rarely a localized infection. Breast contamination has rarely been reported in lactating women. We report a breast abscess in man. CASE REPORT: A 80 year old man, hypertensive and arrhythmic, was explored for weakness and dehydration. Type 2 diabetes and chronic lymphocytic leukemia were diagnosed...
January 9, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329410/1918-h1n1-influenza-virus-replicates-and-induces-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-responses-in-extra-respiratory-tissues-of-ferrets
#13
Emmie de Wit, Jurre Siegers, Jacqueline M Cronin, Sarah Weatherman, Judith van den Brand, Lonneke M Leijten, Peter van Run, Lineke Begeman, Henk-Jan van den Ham, Arno C Andeweg, Trenton Bushmaker, Dana P Scott, Greg Saturday, Vincent J Munster, Heinz Feldmann, Debby van Riel
Background: The 1918 Spanish H1N1 influenza pandemic was the most severe recorded influenza pandemic with an estimated 20-50 million deaths worldwide. Even though it is known that influenza viruses can cause extra-respiratory tract complications-which are often severe or even fatal- the potential contribution of extra-respiratory tissues to the pathogenesis of 1918 H1N1 virus infection has not been studied comprehensively. Methods: Here, we performed a time course study in ferrets inoculated intranasally with 1918 H1N1 virus, with special emphasis on the involvement of extra-respiratory tissues...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328393/paediatric-virology-and-its-interaction-between-basic-science-and-clinical-practice-review
#14
Ioannis N Mammas, Anne Greenough, Maria Theodoridou, Anna Kramvis, Maria Rusan, Angeliki Melidou, Paraskevi Korovessi, Georgia Papaioannou, Alexia Papatheodoropoulou, Chryssie Koutsaftiki, Maria Liston, George Sourvinos, Demetrios A Spandidos
The 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on October 7th, 2017 in Athens, Greece, highlighted the role of breast feeding in the prevention of viral infections during the first years of life. Moreover, it focused on the long-term outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus infections in prematurely born infants and emphasised the necessity for the development of relevant preventative strategies. Other topics that were covered included the vaccination policy in relation to the migration crisis, mother‑to‑child transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses, vaccination against human papilloma viruses in boys and advances on intranasal live‑attenuated vaccination against influenza...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325155/sleep-findings-in-brazilian-children-with-congenital-zika-syndrome
#15
Luciana Pinato, Erlane M Ribeiro, Rebeka F P Leite, Thayse F Lopes, André L S Pessoa, Leila M Guissoni Campos, Giovanna E Piffer, Ana L D M Souza, Célia M Giacheti
Study Objectives: Zika virus infection during pregnancy may result in congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), whose characteristics are being described. Methods: The present study aimed to investigate the sleep characteristics of 136 infants/toddlers (88 with CZS and 48 with typical development (TD), age and gender matched, 60% girls and 40% boys in both groups) using the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. The ages of children in both groups ranged from 5 to 24 months (CZS 15...
January 6, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324904/prohibitin-plays-a-critical-role-in-enterovirus-71-neuropathogenesis
#16
Issac Horng Khit Too, Isabelle Bonne, Eng Lee Tan, Justin Jang Hann Chu, Sylvie Alonso
A close relative of poliovirus, enterovirus 71 (EV71) is regarded as an important neurotropic virus of serious public health concern. EV71 causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and has been associated with neurological complications in young children. Our limited understanding of the mechanisms involved in its neuropathogenesis has hampered the development of effective therapeutic options. Here, using a two-dimensional proteomics approach combined with mass spectrometry, we have identified a unique panel of host proteins that were differentially and dynamically modulated during EV71 infection of motor-neuron NSC-34 cells, which are found at the neuromuscular junctions where EV71 is believed to enter the central nervous system...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322653/viruses-associated-with-congenital-tremor-and-high-lethality-in-piglets
#17
F Possatti, S A Headley, R A Leme, A M Dall Agnol, E Zotti, T E S de Oliveira, A F Alfieri, A A Alfieri
The recently described atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has been associated with congenital tremor (CT) type A-II in piglets in different countries. Another important neurological pathogen of pigs is porcine teschovirus (PTV), which has been associated with non-suppurative encephalomyelitis in pigs with severe or mild neurological disorders. There have been no reports of APPV and/or PTV coinfection associated with CT or encephalomyelitis in Brazilian pig herds. The aim of this study was to describe the pathological and molecular findings associated with simultaneous infection of APPV and PTV in piglets with clinical manifestations of CT that were derived from a herd with high rates of CT-associated lethality...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322494/common-primary-and-secondary-causes-of-headache-in-the-elderly
#18
Tara L Sharma
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Headache in the elderly, defined as individuals aged 65 and older, although less prevalent than younger individuals, can present as a diagnostic challenge, given the increase in potentially fatal diseases within this population. METHODS: These individuals require a complete history, neurological examination, and assessment of potential secondary causes of headaches. RESULTS: Secondary causes include temporal or giant cell arteritis, subdural hematomas, central nervous system (CNS) tumors, strokes, and CNS infections...
January 11, 2018: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321714/cavum-vergae-liability-and-steroid-treatment-manic-episode-brain-imaging-findings-and-clinical-follow-up-of-a-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-case
#19
Emre Misir, İbrahim Tolga Binbay, Bilge Targitay, Hidayet Ece Arat, Gerçek Can, Köksal Alptekin
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or Lupus is a chronic and idiopathic autoimmune connective tissue disease that involves several organs and organ systems. SLE may lead to a group of psychiatric manifestations, including delirium, anxiety disorders, cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders, and psychosis, which are caused by organic or non-organic factors. In addition, it is thought that the most common cause of neuropsychiatric lupus is corticosteroid use; central nervous system involvement and inflammatory processes also have an important role in the development of psychiatric manifestations...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321332/erk-is-a-critical-regulator-of-jc-polyomavirus-infection
#20
Jeanne K DuShane, Michael P Wilczek, Colleen L Mayberry, Melissa S Maginnis
The human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infects the majority of the population worldwide and presents as an asymptomatic, persistent infection in the kidney. In individuals who are immunocompromised, JCPyV can become reactivated and cause a lytic infection in the central nervous system resulting in the fatal, demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Infection is initiated by interactions between the capsid protein viral protein 1 (VP1) and the α2,6-linked sialic acid on LSTc, while JCPyV internalization is facilitated by 5-hydroxytryptamine 2 receptors (5-HT2Rs)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
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