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Central nervous system infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209987/targeting-phospholipase-d-in-cancer-infection-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#1
REVIEW
H Alex Brown, Paul G Thomas, Craig W Lindsley
Lipid second messengers have essential roles in cellular function and contribute to the molecular mechanisms that underlie inflammation, malignant transformation, invasiveness, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious and other pathophysiological processes. The phospholipase D (PLD) isoenzymes PLD1 and PLD2 are one of the major sources of signal-activated phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) generation downstream of a variety of cell-surface receptors, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and integrins...
February 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209182/mesenchymal-stem-cells-alleviate-japanese-encephalitis-virus-induced-neuroinflammation-and-mortality
#2
Peiyu Bian, Chuantao Ye, Xuyang Zheng, Jing Yang, Wei Ye, Yuan Wang, Yun Zhou, Hongwei Ma, Peijun Han, Hai Zhang, Ying Zhang, Fanglin Zhang, Yingfeng Lei, Zhansheng Jia
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Japanese encephalitis (JE) caused by JEV is characterized by extensive inflammatory cytokine secretion, microglia activation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, and neuronal death, all of which contribute to the vicious cycle of inflammatory damage. There are currently no effective treatments for JE. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to have a therapeutic effect on many central nervous system (CNS) diseases by regulating inflammation and other mechanisms...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208901/a-comparative-study-of-neurological-complications-in-chronic-kidney-disease-with-special-reference-to-its-stages-and-haemodialysis-status
#3
S G Shyam Lakshman, P Ravikumar, Giridhari Kar, Dwijen Das, Kallol Bhattacharjee, Prithwiraj Bhattacharjee
INTRODUCTION: Globally, Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a critical and rapidly growing health problem and also a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Neurological complications occur in all levels of the nervous system. Central nervous system complications include cerebrovascular accidents, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, osmotic demyelization syndrome, cerebral infection and sinus vein thrombosis. Peripheral nervous system complications include polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy and carpal tunnel syndrome...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207861/in-vitro-anti-herpes-simplex-virus-2-activity-of-salvia-desoleana-atzei-v-picci-essential-oil
#4
Valeria Cagno, Barbara Sgorbini, Cinzia Sanna, Cecilia Cagliero, Mauro Ballero, Andrea Civra, Manuela Donalisio, Carlo Bicchi, David Lembo, Patrizia Rubiolo
Salvia desoleana Atzei & V. Picci is an indigenous species in Sardinia island used in folk medicine to treat menstrual, digestive and central nervous system diseases. Nowadays, it is widely cultivated for the pleasant smell of its essential oil (EO), whose antimicrobial and antifungal activities have already been screened. This study evaluated the in vitro anti-Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) activity of S. desoleana EO, fractions and main components: linalyl acetate, alpha terpinyl acetate, and germacrene D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202084/aprepitant-limits-in-vivo-neuroinflammatory-responses-in-a-rhesus-model-of-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#5
Alejandra N Martinez, Amanda R Burmeister, Geeta Ramesh, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Ian Marriott, Mario T Philipp
BACKGROUND: Substance P (SP) is produced at high levels in the central nervous system (CNS), and its target receptor, neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R), is expressed by glia and leukocytes. This tachykinin functions to exacerbate inflammatory responses at peripheral sites. Moreover, SP/NK-1R interactions have recently been associated with severe neuroinflammation and neuronal damage. We have previously demonstrated that NK-1R antagonists can limit neuroinflammatory damage in a mouse model of bacterial meningitis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201953/acute-hiv-1-infection-presenting-with-fulminant-encephalopathy
#6
Eun J Lee, Young H Kim, Jeong Y Lee, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Se Y Park, Tae H Kim
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 directly affects the nervous system, causes distinct neurological symptoms, and indirectly results in opportunistic infections, which include herpes virus simplex (HSV)-1, HSV-2, varicella zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus encephalitis caused by immunodeficiency. Early HIV-1 invasion of the central nervous system is also possible, and acute encephalopathy is a potentially lethal complication. We encountered a case of fulminant encephalopathy as a primary presentation of acute HIV-1 infection, in which highly active antiretroviral treatment resulted in a full clinical recovery...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197527/laryngeal-cryptococcus-a-rare-cause-of-hoarseness-in-renal-allograft-recipient
#7
Jashan Sandhu, Jasvinder Singh Sandhu, Harpreet Kaur Puri, Manish Munjal
Cryptococcosis commonly involves central nervous system and lungs in organ transplant recipients. Isolated laryngeal infection is extremely rare. We report a rare case of cryptococcus in a renal allograft recipient that clinically presented with hoarseness of voice and mimicked laryngeal carcinoma on examination.
2017: J Nephropharmacol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194643/ultra-efficient-amplification-of-abnormal-prion-protein-by-modified-protein-misfolding-cyclic-amplification-with-electric-current
#8
Jeong-Ho Park, Yeong-Gon Choi, Seok-Joo Park, Hong-Seok Choi, Eun-Kyoung Choi, Yong-Sun Kim
Prion diseases are clinically diagnosed and confirmed upon post-mortem histopathological examination of brain tissue. The only reliable molecular marker for prion diseases is abnormal prion protein (PrPSc), a pathologically conformed prion protein that primarily accumulates in the central nervous system and to a lesser extent in lymphoreticular tissues. However, the use of PrPSc as a marker for preclinical diagnoses is limited because the concentration of PrPSc in easily accessible body fluids is extremely low...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188763/hiv-antiretroviral-drug-efavirenz-induces-anxiety-like-and-depression-like-behavior-in-rats-evaluation-of-neurotransmitter-alterations-in-the-striatum
#9
Giuliana Ignácio Teixeira Cavalcante, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Maria Isabel Linhares, Camila Nayane de Carvalho Lima, Edith Teles Venâncio, Emiliano Ricardo Vasconcelos Rios, Francisca Cléa Florenço de Souza, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, Danielle Macêdo, Marta Maria de França Fonteles
Efavirenz (EFV) is an effective antiretroviral drug with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and widely used in combination regimens to treat HIV infection. However, there are major concerns about the safety of this drug. Patients treated with EFV often experience neuropsychiatric adverse effects, which frequently lead to switching to alternative EFV-free regimens. The mechanisms involved in the central action of EFV are intrinsically unclear. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of acute and subchronic (2 weeks) EFV administration in a series of behavioral tests for anxiety-like and depression-like behavior in healthy rats...
February 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187911/what-kaplan-meier-survival-curves-don-t-tell-us-about-cns-disease
#10
Katelyn D Miller, Glenn F Rall
Central nervous system consequences of viral infections are rare, but when they do occur, they are often serious and clinically challenging to manage. Our awareness of the perils of neuroinvasion by viruses is growing: the recently appreciated impact of Ebola and Zika virus infections on CNS integrity, decreases in vaccination coverage for potentially neurotropic viruses such as measles, and increased neurovirulence of some influenza strains collectively highlight the need for a better understanding of the viral-neural interaction...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187816/multimodal-neurologic-monitoring
#11
G Korbakis, P M Vespa
Neurocritical care has two main objectives. Initially, the emphasis is on treatment of patients with acute damage to the central nervous system whether through infection, trauma, or hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. Thereafter, attention shifts to the identification of secondary processes that may lead to further brain injury, including fever, seizures, and ischemia, among others. Multimodal monitoring is the concept of using various tools and data integration to understand brain physiology and guide therapeutic interventions to prevent secondary brain injury...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187809/management-of-bacterial-central-nervous-system-infections
#12
M C Brouwer, D van de Beek
Bacterial infections of the central nervous system present as a medical emergency, thus requiring rapid diagnosis and immediate treatment. The most prevalent bacterial infections seen in the intensive care unit can be summarized as acute bacterial meningitis, subdural empyema, intracerebral abscess, and ventriculitis, which all commonly involve the brain parenchyma. The infections can either be community-acquired or hospital-acquired, e.g., after neurosurgical intervention, as a complication of severe neurotrauma or related to indwelling cerebrospinal fluid drains...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187807/neuropulmonology
#13
A Balofsky, J George, P Papadakos
Neuropulmonology refers to the complex interconnection between the central nervous system and the respiratory system. Neurologic injury includes traumatic brain injury, hemorrhage, stroke, and seizures, and in each there are far-reaching effects that can result in pulmonary dysfunction. Systemic changes can induce impairment of pulmonary function due to changes in the core structure and function of the lung. The conditions and disorders that often occur in these patients include aspiration pneumonia, neurogenic pulmonary edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, but also several abnormal respiratory patterns and sleep-disordered breathing...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183731/c-septicum-complicating-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-survival-without-surgical-intervention
#14
Rachel M Engen, Elizabeth Y Killien, Jessica L Davis, Jordan M Symons, Silvia M Hartmann
Clostridium septicum is an anaerobic bacterium that causes rapidly progressive myonecrosis, bacteremia, and central nervous system infection. It has been reported as a complication of Escherichia coli hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in 8 children worldwide; 5 children died, and the 3 reported survivors had surgically treated disease. We present 3 cases of C septicum complicating HUS in children, including the first 2 reported cases of survival without surgical intervention. All patients presented with classic cases of HUS with initial clinical improvement followed by deterioration...
February 9, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182900/microglial-barriers-to-viral-gene-delivery
#15
John V Pluvinage, Tony Wyss-Coray
In this issue of Neuron, Tufail et al. present an underlying mechanism for microglia-mediated elimination of virally transduced cells in the central nervous system. These findings could contribute to the development of improved gene therapies for various neurological disorders by exploring why microglia destroy viable cells following viral infection.
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177966/high-number-of-activated-cd8-t-cells-targeting-hiv-antigens-are-present-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-acute-hiv-infection
#16
Cari F Kessing, Serena Spudich, Victor Valcour, Pearline Cartwright, Thep Chalermchai, James L K Fletcher, Carmen Nichols, Benjamin J Josey, Bonnie Slike, Shelly J Krebs, Napapon Sailsuta, Sukalaya Lerdlum, Linda Jagodzinski, Somporn Tipsuk, Duanghathai Suttichom, Somprartthana Rattanamanee, Henrik Zetterberg, Joanna Hellmuth, Nittaya Phanuphak, Merlin L Robb, Nelson L Michael, Jintanat Ananworanich, Lydie Trautmann
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infiltration by CD8+ T cells is associated with neuroinflammation in many neurodegenerative diseases, including HIV-associated dementia. However, the role of CD8+ T cells in the CNS during acute HIV infection is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed the phenotype, gene expression, TCR repertoire and HIV-specificity of CD8+ T cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a unique cohort captured during the earliest stages of acute HIV infection (AHI) (n=26), chronic (n=23), and uninfected (n=8)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174598/review-on-the-role-of-the-human-polyomavirus-jc-in-the-development-of-tumors
#17
REVIEW
Serena Delbue, Manola Comar, Pasquale Ferrante
Almost one fifth of human cancers worldwide are associated with infectious agents, either bacteria or viruses, and this makes the possible association between infections and tumors a relevant research issue. We focused our attention on the human Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV), that is a small, naked DNA virus, belonging to the Polyomaviridae family. It is the recognized etiological agent of the Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease, occurring in immunosuppressed individuals...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174186/avoiding-misdiagnosis-cystic-calcified-brain-metastases-of-uterine-cervical-cancer-mimicking-neurocysticercosis
#18
Jacopo Fantini, Arianna Sartori, Paolo Manganotti
The radiological finding of multiple calcified brain lesions is atypical for brain metastases and in absence of a clear evidence of disseminated neoplastic disease the differential diagnosis may be difficult. Calcified brain metastases (CBM) are rarely encountered in clinical practice and they mostly arise from lung, breast and gastrointestinal primitive tumours. Only one case of uterine cervical carcinoma (UCC) with CBM has been reported so far. We describe the case of a 41-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for UCC 3 years prior to observation and no evidence of neoplastic recurrence that developed cystic CBM...
February 7, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169858/central-nervous-system-infections-in-immunocompromised-patients
#19
Romain Sonneville, Eric Magalhaes, Geert Meyfroidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although rare, central nervous system (CNS) infections are increasingly being recognized in immunocompromised patients. The goal of the present review is to provide a practical diagnostic approach for the intensivist, and to briefly discuss some of the most prevalent conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Immunocompromised patients presenting with new neurological symptoms should always be suspected of a CNS infection. These infections carry a poor prognosis, especially if intracranial hypertension, severely altered mental status or seizures are present...
February 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169232/membrane-bound-versus-soluble-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-related-chain-a-and-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-related-chain-b-differential-expression-mechanisms-of-tumor-eradication-versus-evasion-and-current-drug-development-strategies
#20
REVIEW
P K Suresh
Major histocompatibility complex Class I-related chain A/chain B (MICA/MICB) is stress-inducible, highly polymorphic ligands whose expression at the transcript level has been detected in all tissues except the central nervous system. However, their restricted protein expression is due to their regulation at the posttranslational level. Its levels are elevated in virally infected and neoplastically transformed cells. Membrane expression of this NKG2DL marks the aberrant cells for elimination by those immune effector cells that express the cognate NKG2D receptor...
October 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
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