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Kenji Amemiya, Yosuke Hirotsu, Taichiro Goto, Hiroshi Nakagomi, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Toshio Oyama, Masao Omata
Identifying genetic alterations in tumors is critical for molecular targeting of therapy. In the clinical setting, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is usually employed for genetic analysis. However, DNA extracted from FFPE tissue is often not suitable for analysis because of its low levels and poor quality. Additionally, FFPE sample preparation is time-consuming. To provide early treatment for cancer patients, a more rapid and robust method is required for precision medicine. We present a simple method for genetic analysis, called touch imprint cytology combined with massively paralleled sequencing (touch imprint cytology [TIC]-seq), to detect somatic mutations in tumors...
October 24, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Maximiliano Rapanelli
Histaminergic dysfunction has been recently linked to tic disorders and to aberrant striatal function. There is a particular interest in the histamine 3 receptor (H3R) due to its clinical implications for treating multiple disorders and its high expression in the brain. Striatal histamine (HA) modulates through the H3R in complex ways the release of striatal neurotransmitters into this brain region. The H3R has been classically described to be coupled to Gi, although there is evidence that revealed that striatal H3R forms heteromers with the dopamine receptors 1 and 2 in the medium spiny neurons (MSNs) than changes this signaling...
October 20, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, Mina Rydell, Bo Runeson, Gustaf Brander, Christian Rück, Brian M D'Onofrio, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein, David Mataix-Cols
BACKGROUND: Persons with neuropsychiatric disorders are at increased risk of suicide, but there is little data concerning Tourette's and chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD). We aimed to quantify the risk of suicidal behavior in a large nationwide cohort of patients with TD/CTD, establish the contribution of psychiatric comorbidity to this risk, and identify predictors of suicide. METHODS: Using a validated algorithm, we identified 7736 TD/CTD cases in the Swedish National Patient Register during a 44-year period (1969-2013)...
August 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Francesca Veronesi, Gianluca Giavaresi, Milena Fini, Giovanni Longo, Caterina Alexandra Ioannidu, Anna Scotto d'Abusco, Fabiana Superti, Gianluca Panzini, Carlo Misiano, Alberto Palattella, Paolo Selleri, Nicola Di Girolamo, Viola Garbarino, Laura Politi, Roberto Scandurra
Titanium implants coated with a 500nm nanostructured layer, deposited by the Ion Plating Plasma Assisted (IPPA) technology, composed of 60% graphitic carbon, 25% titanium oxides and 15% titanium carbide were implanted into rabbit femurs whilst into the controlateral femurs uncoated titanium implants were inserted as control. At four time points the animals were injected with calcein green, xylenol orange, oxytetracycline and alizarin. After 2, 4 and 8weeks femurs were removed and processed for histology and static and dynamic histomorphometry for undecalcified bone processing into methylmethacrylate, sectioned, thinned, polished and stained with Toluidine blue and Fast green...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
N Platz Batista da Silva, M Schauer, M Hornung, S Lang, L P Beyer, I Wiesinger, C Stroszczynski, E M Jung
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of strain elastography (SE) using semi-quantitative measurement methods compared to constrast enhanced ultrasound during liver tumor surgery (Io-CEUS) for dignity assessment of focal liver lesions(FLL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective data acquisition and retrospective analysis of US data of 100 patients (116 lesions) who underwent liver tumor surgery between 10/2010 and 03/2016. Retrospective reading of SE color patterns was performed establishing groups depending on dominant color (>50% blue = stiff, inhomogenous, >50% yellow/red/green = soft tissue)...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Cortney L Lawrence, Albert S Baldwin
Enhancer of zeste homology 2 (EZH2) is the methyltransferase component of the polycomb repressive complex (PRC2) which represses gene transcription via histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 23 (H3K27me3). EZH2 activity has been linked with oncogenesis where it is thought to block expression of certain tumor suppressors. Relative to a role in cancer, EZH2 functions to promote self-renewal and has been shown to be important for the tumor-initiating cell (TIC) phenotype in breast cancer. Recently a non-canonical role for EZH2 has been identified where it promotes transcriptional activation of certain genes...
2016: PloS One
Yanhui Zhang, Baocun Sun, Xiulan Zhao, Huizhi Sun, Wei Cui, Zhiyong Liu, Xin Yao, Xueyi Dong
BACKGROUND: Recently, tumor initiating cells (TICs), which possess self-renewal and other stem cell properties, are regarded as the cause of tumor initiation, recurrence and metastasis. The isolation and identification of TICs could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. METHODS: In this study, we isolated spheroid cells from human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line SN12C in stem cell-conditioned medium. The stemness characteristics of spheroid cells, including tumorigenicity, self-renewal, proliferation and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity were evaluated; the expression levels of stemness genes and related proteins were assessed...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Henna Wong, Nicola Curry, Simon J Stanworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Death from uncontrolled haemorrhage is one of the leading causes of trauma-related mortality and is potentially preventable. Advances in understanding the mechanisms of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) have focused attention on the role of blood products and procoagulants in mitigating the sequelae of TIC and how these therapies can be improved. RECENT FINDINGS: A host of preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated blood product availability and efficacy in trauma...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Sanjay Prakash, Chaturbhuj Rathore
BACKGROUND: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) has been described in association with various primary headache disorders. So far, no case of TN has been reported in association with hemicrania continua (HC). CASE REPORT: Here, we report two patients of hemicrania continua associated with TN (HC-tic syndrome). These patients had both headaches concurrently. Both patients responded to a combination of carbamazepine and indomethacin. The skipping or tapering of carbamazepine led to the recurrence of the neuralgic pain of TN...
October 18, 2016: Headache
Andreas Hartmann
In patients with severe, treatment-refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), deep brain stimulation (DBS) of various targets has been increasingly explored over the past 15 years. The multiplicity of surgical targets is intriguing and may be partly due to the complexity of GTS, specifically the various and frequent associated psychiatric comorbidities in this disorder. Thus, the target choice may not only be aimed at reducing tics but also comorbidities. While this approach is laudable, it also carries the risk to increase confounding factors in DBS trials and patient evaluation...
2016: F1000Research
Rachel D Freed, Barbara J Coffey, Xiangling Mao, Nora Weiduschat, Guoxin Kang, Dikoma C Shungu, Vilma Gabbay
BACKGROUND: γ-Aminobutyric acid has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Tourette's disorder. The present study primarily sought to examine in vivo γ-aminobutyric acid levels in the anterior cingulate cortex in psychotropic medication-free adolescents and young adults. Secondarily, we sought to determine associations between γ-aminobutyric acid in the anterior cingulate cortex and measures of tic severity, tic-related impairment, and anxiety and depression symptoms. METHODS: γ-Aminobutyric acid levels were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
September 12, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Dejing Ma, Feng Lu, Xuexue Zou, Hu Zhang, Yangyang Li, Lin Zhang, Liang Chen, Dongjing Qin, Bin Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate the value of use of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) as an adjunct to dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to distinguish benign from malignant breast lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data pertaining to 117 patients with breast lesions who underwent DCE-MRI and IVIM-DWI examination with 3.0T MRI was conducted. A total of 128 lesions were pathologically confirmed (47 benign and 81 malignant)...
October 11, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Xiang Yuan, Jinyu Kong, Zhikun Ma, Na Li, Ruinuo Jia, Yiwen Liu, Fuyou Zhou, Qimin Zhan, Gang Liu, Shegan Gao
Our studies investigating the existence of tumor-initiating cell (TIC) populations in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) had identified a subpopulation of cells isolated from ESCC patient-derived tumor specimens marked by an ALDH(bri+) phenotype bear stem cell-like features. Importantly, KDM4C, a histone demethylase was enhanced in ALDH(bri+) subpopulation, suggesting that strategies interfering with KDM4C may be able to target these putative TICs. In the present study, by genetic and chemical means, we demonstrated that, KDM4C blockade selectively decreased the ESCC ALDH(bri+) TICs population in vitro and specifically targeted the TICs in ALDH(bri+)-derived xenograft, retarding engraftment...
October 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
A Mas, L Stone, P M O'Connor, Q Yang, D T Kleven, C Simon, C L Walker, A Al-Hendy
Despite the high prevalence and major negative impact of uterine fibroids (UFs) on women's health, their pathogenesis remains largely unknown. While tumor initiating cells (TICs) have been previously isolated from UFs, the cell of origin for these tumors in normal myometrium has not been identified. We isolated cells with Stro1/CD44 surface markers from normal myometrium expressing stem cell markers Oct-4/c-kit/nanog that exhibited the properties of myometrial stem/progenitor-like cells (MSCs). Using a murine model for UFs, we showed that the cervix was a hypoxic "niche" and primary site (96%) for fibroid development in these animals...
October 14, 2016: Stem Cells
Matthew R Capriotti, Jennifer E Turkel, Rachel A Johnson, Flint M Espil, Douglas W Woods
Chronic tic disorders (CTDs) involve motor and/or vocal tics that often cause substantial distress and impairment. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) schedules of reinforcement produce robust, but incomplete, reductions in tic frequency in youth with CTDs; however, a more robust reduction may be needed to affect durable clinical change. Standard, fixed-amount DRO schedules have not commonly yielded such reductions, so we evaluated a novel, progressive-amount DRO schedule, based on its ability to facilitate sustained abstinence from functionally similar behaviors...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Joohi Jimenez-Shahed, Ilknur Telkes, Ashwin Viswanathan, Nuri F Ince
Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging treatment strategy for severe, medication-refractory Tourette syndrome (TS). Thalamic (Cm-Pf) and pallidal (including globus pallidus interna, GPi) targets have been the most investigated. While the neurophysiological correlates of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the GPi and subthalamic nucleus (STN) are increasingly recognized, these patterns are not well characterized in other disease states. Recent findings indicate that the cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between beta band and high frequency oscillations (HFOs) within the STN in PD patients is pathologic...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hui Tian, Qi Wang
To conduct a quantitative analysis of microcirculation blood perfusion in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before and after transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE) using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). From 2013 June to 2105 October, a total of 106 HCC patients undergoing TACE were recruited. CEUS was performed before and after TACE to determine time-intensity curve (TIC) and perfusion quantitative parameters of the HCC lesions and surrounding liver parenchyma. Quantitative perfusion parameters were obtained using the region of interest method...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Marjorie Flahaut, Nicolas Jauquier, Nadja Chevalier, Katya Nardou, Katia Balmas Bourloud, Jean-Marc Joseph, David Barras, Christian Widmann, Nicole Gross, Raffaele Renella, Annick Mühlethaler-Mottet
BACKGROUND: The successful targeting of neuroblastoma (NB) by associating tumor-initiating cells (TICs) is a major challenge in the development of new therapeutic strategies. The subfamily of aldehyde dehydrogenases 1 (ALDH1) isoenzymes, which comprises ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, and ALDH1A3, is involved in the synthesis of retinoic acid, and has been identified as functional stem cell markers in diverse cancers. By combining serial neurosphere passages with gene expression profiling, we have previously identified ALDH1A2 and ALDH1A3 as potential NB TICs markers in patient-derived xenograft tumors...
October 10, 2016: BMC Cancer
Pavel Istomin, Elena Istomina, Aleksandr Nadutkin, Vladislav Grass, Mikhail Presniakov
The bulk MAX phase Ti4SiC3 was first synthesized with a yield of 86% by a long-time thermal treatment of TiO2 and SiC powder mixture with a molar ratio of 2:3 at 1600 °C under vacuum conditions. It was found that the appearance of Ti4SiC3 was preceded by the formation of TiC and Ti3SiC2 as a result of the following reactions: (1) combined carbothermic and silicothermic reduction of TiO2 to TiC accompanied by evolution of SiO and CO gases; (2) silicidation of TiC with gaseous SiO, leading to the growth of Ti3SiC2...
October 10, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Qingjun Wang, Yong Guo, Jing Zhang, Zijun Wang, Minhua Huang, Yun Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether the indicators obtained from intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging can improve the characterization of benign and malignant breast masses compared with conventional dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 23 benign and 31 malignant breast masses of 48 patients. Main indicators were initial enhancement ratio (IER), time-signal intensity curve (TIC), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), tissue diffusivity (D), pseudodiffusivity (D*), and perfusion fraction (f)...
August 2016: Breast Care
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