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Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230564/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-aggression-and-illicit-stimulant-use-is-this-self-medication
#1
Annie P Odell, Grace L Reynolds, Dennis G Fisher, Loucine M Huckabay, William C Pedersen, Pamela Xandre, Milica Miočević
This study compares adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on measures of direct and displaced aggression and illicit drug use. Three hundred ninety-six adults were administered the Wender Utah Rating Scale, the Risk Behavior Assessment, the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), and the Displaced Aggression Questionnaire (DAQ). Those with ADHD were higher on all scales of the AQ and DAQ, were younger at first use of amphetamines, and were more likely to have ever used crack and amphetamines...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229986/executive-function-training-for-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Lan Shuai, David Daley, Yu-Feng Wang, Jin-Song Zhang, Yan-Ting Kong, Xin Tan, Ning Ji
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with core deficits in executive function (EF) which predicts poorer academic and occupational functioning. This makes early intervention targeting EF impairments important to prevent long-term negative outcomes. Cognitive training is a potential ADHD treatment target. The present study aimed to explore the efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of a cognitive training program (targeting child's multiple EF components and involving parent support in daily life), as a nonpharmacological intervention for children with ADHD...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229395/transcranial-magnetic-and-direct-current-stimulation-in-children
#3
REVIEW
Mustafa Q Hameed, Sameer C Dhamne, Roman Gersner, Harper L Kaye, Lindsay M Oberman, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Alexander Rotenberg
Promising results in adult neurologic and psychiatric disorders are driving active research into transcranial brain stimulation techniques, particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in childhood and adolescent syndromes. TMS has realistic utility as an experimental tool tested in a range of pediatric neuropathologies such as perinatal stroke, depression, Tourette syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). tDCS has also been tested as a treatment for a number of pediatric neurologic conditions, including ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229329/predicting-parent-health-related-quality-of-life-evaluating-conceptual-models
#4
Ellen K Defenderfer, Tiffany M Rybak, W Hobart Davies, Kristoffer S Berlin
PURPOSE: Parents of children with chronic illnesses are at risk for poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL), with numerous identified risk factors, but the most informative statistical model considering their combined impact is unclear. The authors conceptualized risk for poor HRQoL using a summed model, comprehensive multivariate model, and latent profile analysis (LPA). METHODS: Community parents completed an online survey, providing information about demographics, child's chronic illness, family functioning, and parent and child HRQoL...
February 22, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228839/prevalence-and-effect-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-on-school-performance-among-primary-school-pupils-in-the-hohoe-municipality-ghana
#5
Kingsley Afeti, Samuel Harrenson Nyarko
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common disorders in early childhood. However, not many studies have been conducted on the prevalence and effect of ADHD on school performance in Ghana. This study sought to ascertain the prevalence of ADHD and its effect on school performance among primary school pupils in the Hohoe municipality of Ghana. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study that included 400 primary school pupils in the Hohoe Municipality of Ghana...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228742/sleep-dependent-consolidation-of-rewarded-behavior-is-diminished-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-a-comorbid-disorder-of-social-behavior
#6
Christian D Wiesner, Ina Molzow, Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Lioba Baving
Children suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often also display impaired learning and memory. Previous research has documented aberrant reward processing in ADHD as well as impaired sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memory. We investigated whether sleep also fosters the consolidation of behavior learned by probabilistic reward and whether ADHD patients with a comorbid disorder of social behavior show deficits in this memory domain, too. A group of 17 ADHD patients with comorbid disorders of social behavior aged 8-12 years and healthy controls matched for age, IQ, and handedness took part in the experiment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228718/current-concepts-on-the-physiopathological-relevance-of-dopaminergic-receptors
#7
REVIEW
Ada Ledonne, Nicola B Mercuri
Dopamine (DA) is a key neurotransmitter modulating essential functions of the central nervous system (CNS), like voluntary movement, reward, several cognitive functions and goal-oriented behaviors. The factual relevance of DAergic transmission can be well appreciated by considering that its dysfunction is recognized as a core alteration in several devastating neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and associated movement disorders, as well as, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addiction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228177/psychiatric-diagnoses-in-older-people-with-intellectual-disability-in-comparison-with-the-general-population-a-register-study
#8
A Axmon, P Björne, L Nylander, G Ahlström
AIMS: To describe the occurrence of psychiatric diagnoses in a specialist care setting in older people with intellectual disability (ID) in relation to those found in the same age group in the general population. METHOD: A cohort of people with ID (n = 7936), aged 55 years or more in 2012, was identified, as was an age and sex-matched cohort from the general population (n = 7936). Information regarding psychiatric diagnoses during 2002-2012 was collected from the National Patient Register, which contains records from all inpatient care episodes and outpatient specialist visits in Sweden...
February 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226698/differences-in-connectivity-patterns-between-child-and-adolescent-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-patients
#9
Bo-Yong Park, Jonghoon Kim, Hyunjin Park, Bo-Yong Park, Jonghoon Kim, Hyunjin Park, Hyunjin Park, Bo-Yong Park, Jonghoon Kim
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological disorder for a broad range of ages. Child and adolescent ADHD patients show different behavior patterns. The differences between child and adolescent ADHD patients have not been fully explored in terms of brain connectivity. In this study, we explored the differences of connectivity patterns between child and adolescent ADHD patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) of 52 ADHD patients (26 children and 26 adolescents)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225747/effect-of-methylphenidate-on-emotional-dysregulation-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-oppositional-defiant-disorder-conduct-disorder
#10
Ayse Kutlu, Ulku Akyol Ardic, Eyup Sabri Ercan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a frequent feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It can be observed as a dysregulation profile or a deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) profile. Oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) comorbidity is prevalent in ADHD and known to be related with ED. The first-line treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, but their effects on ED are not well studied. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on ED in ADHD + ODD/CD cases...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224622/slc2a3-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-and-duplication-influence-cognitive-processing-and-population-specific-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
Sören Merker, Andreas Reif, Georg C Ziegler, Heike Weber, Ute Mayer, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Annette Conzelmann, Stefan Johansson, Clemens Müller-Reible, Indrajit Nanda, Thomas Haaf, Reinhard Ullmann, Marcel Romanos, Andreas J Fallgatter, Paul Pauli, Tatyana Strekalova, Charline Jansch, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, Jan Haavik, Marta Ribasés, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Klaus-Peter Lesch
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with profound cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial impairments with persistence across the life cycle. Our initial genome-wide screening approach for copy number variants (CNVs) in ADHD implicated a duplication of SLC2A3, encoding glucose transporter-3 (GLUT3). GLUT3 plays a critical role in cerebral glucose metabolism, providing energy for the activity of neurons, which, in turn, moderates the excitatory-inhibitory balance impacting both brain development and activity-dependent neural plasticity...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224041/a-7q31-33q32-1-microdeletion-including-lrrc4-and-grm8-is-associated-with-severe-intellectual-disability-and-characteristics-of-autism
#12
Noriko Sangu, Keiko Shimojima, Yuya Takahashi, Tsukasa Ohashi, Jun Tohyama, Toshiyuki Yamamoto
A 4-year-old boy with severe intellectual disability (ID) and characteristics of autism was found to have a de novo 1.9-Mb microdeletion in 7q31.33q32.1, in which LRRC4, GRM8, and 11 other genes were included. GRM8 is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. LRRC4 is related to synaptic cell adhesion molecules, some of which are associated with autism. The deletion of LRRC4 may be responsible for the severe ID and characteristics of autism observed in the present patient.
2017: Human Genome Variation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223929/the-effects-of-age-from-young-to-middle-adulthood-and-gender-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-dopaminergic-midbrain
#13
Andrew C Peterson, Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, Herta H Chao, Chiang-Shan R Li
Dysfunction of the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is implicated in psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, schizophrenia and movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the prevalence of these disorders varies by age and sex, the underlying neural mechanism is not well understood. The objective of this study was to delineate the distinct resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the VTA and SNc and examine the effects of age, from young to middle-adulthood, and sex on the rsFC of these two dopaminergic structures in a data set of 250 healthy adults (18-49 years of age, 104 men)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223810/factors-associated-with-caregiver-burden-among-pharmacotherapy-treated-children-adolescents-with-adhd-in-the-caregiver-perspective-on-pediatric-adhd-survey-in-europe
#14
Moshe Fridman, Tobias Banaschewski, Vanja Sikirica, Javier Quintero, M Haim Erder, Kristina S Chen
BACKGROUND: Burden on caregivers of children/adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is multidimensional, but incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: To analyze caregiver burden across the concepts of work, social/family life, and parental worry/stress, in relation to selected contributing factors. METHODS: The online Caregiver Perspective on Pediatric ADHD survey was fielded in ten European countries. Analysis included children/adolescents (6-17 years) who were receiving/had received ADHD pharmacotherapy in the previous 6 months...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223809/a-review-of-the-efficacy-of-atomoxetine-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adult-patients-with-common-comorbidities
#15
REVIEW
David B Clemow, Chris Bushe, Michele Mancini, Michael H Ossipov, Himanshu Upadhyaya
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that is often diagnosed during childhood, but has also increasingly been recognized to occur in adults. Importantly, up to 52% of children (including adolescents) and 87% of adults with ADHD also have a comorbid psychiatric disorder. The presence of a comorbid disorder has the potential to impact diagnosis and could affect treatment outcomes. Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant treatment for ADHD. Despite numerous published studies regarding efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of ADHD in patients with comorbid disorders, there is limited information about the impact of individual common comorbid disorders on the efficacy of atomoxetine for ADHD, especially with regard to adults...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221063/what-five-decades-of-research-tells-us-about-the-effects-of-youth-psychological-therapy-a-multilevel-meta-analysis-and-implications-for-science-and-practice
#16
John R Weisz, Sofie Kuppens, Mei Yi Ng, Dikla Eckshtain, Ana M Ugueto, Rachel Vaughn-Coaxum, Amanda Jensen-Doss, Kristin M Hawley, Lauren S Krumholz Marchette, Brian C Chu, V Robin Weersing, Samantha R Fordwood
Across 5 decades, hundreds of randomized trials have tested psychological therapies for youth internalizing (anxiety, depression) and externalizing (misconduct, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder) disorders and problems. Since the last broad-based youth meta-analysis in 1995, the number of trials has almost tripled and data-analytic methods have been refined. We applied these methods to the expanded study pool (447 studies; 30,431 youths), synthesizing 50 years of findings and identifying implications for research and practice...
February 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221060/outcomes-for-adolescents-who-comply-with-long-term-psychosocial-treatment-for-adhd
#17
Brandon K Schultz, Steven W Evans, Joshua M Langberg, Alexander M Schoemann
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a large (N = 216) multisite clinical trial of the Challenging Horizons Program (CHP)-a yearlong afterschool program that provides academic and interpersonal skills training for adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Intent-to-treat analyses suggest that, as predicted, the CHP resulted in significant reductions in problem behaviors and academic impairment when compared to community care. However, attendance in the CHP ranged from zero to 60 sessions, raising questions about optimal dosing...
March 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220338/the-weiss-functional-impairment-rating-scale-parent-form-for-assessing-adhd-evaluating-diagnostic-accuracy-and-determining-optimal-thresholds-using-roc-analysis
#18
Trevor Thompson, Andrew Lloyd, Alain Joseph, Margaret Weiss
PURPOSE: The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Form (WFIRS-P) is a 50-item scale that assesses functional impairment on six clinically relevant domains typically affected in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As functional impairment is central to ADHD, the WFIRS-P offers potential as a tool for assessing functional impairment in ADHD. These analyses were designed to examine the overall performance of WFIRS-P in differentiating ADHD and non-ADHD cases using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis...
February 20, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220059/disturbance-in-maternal-environment-leads-to-abnormal-synaptic-instability-during-neuronal-circuitry-development
#19
REVIEW
Yusuke Hatanaka, Tomohiro Kabuta, Keiji Wada
Adverse maternal environment during gestation and lactation can have negative effects on the developing brain that persist into adulthood and result in behavioral impairment. Recent studies of human and animal models suggest epidemiological and experimental association between disturbances in maternal environments during brain development and the occurrence of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, and neurodegenerative diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219628/subcortical-brain-volume-differences-in-participants-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adults-a-cross-sectional-mega-analysis
#20
Martine Hoogman, Janita Bralten, Derrek P Hibar, Maarten Mennes, Marcel P Zwiers, Lizanne S J Schweren, Kimm J E van Hulzen, Sarah E Medland, Elena Shumskaya, Neda Jahanshad, Patrick de Zeeuw, Eszter Szekely, Gustavo Sudre, Thomas Wolfers, Alberdingk M H Onnink, Janneke T Dammers, Jeanette C Mostert, Yolanda Vives-Gilabert, Gregor Kohls, Eileen Oberwelland, Jochen Seitz, Martin Schulte-Rüther, Sara Ambrosino, Alysa E Doyle, Marie F Høvik, Margaretha Dramsdahl, Leanne Tamm, Theo G M van Erp, Anders Dale, Andrew Schork, Annette Conzelmann, Kathrin Zierhut, Ramona Baur, Hazel McCarthy, Yuliya N Yoncheva, Ana Cubillo, Kaylita Chantiluke, Mitul A Mehta, Yannis Paloyelis, Sarah Hohmann, Sarah Baumeister, Ivanei Bramati, Paulo Mattos, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Pamela Douglas, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Jonna Kuntsi, Philip Asherson, Katya Rubia, Clare Kelly, Adriana Di Martino, Michael P Milham, Francisco X Castellanos, Thomas Frodl, Mariam Zentis, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Andreas Reif, Paul Pauli, Terry L Jernigan, Jan Haavik, Kerstin J Plessen, Astri J Lundervold, Kenneth Hugdahl, Larry J Seidman, Joseph Biederman, Nanda Rommelse, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jaap Oosterlaan, Georg von Polier, Kerstin Konrad, Oscar Vilarroya, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Joan Carles Soliva, Sarah Durston, Jan K Buitelaar, Stephen V Faraone, Philip Shaw, Paul M Thompson, Barbara Franke
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies and meta-analyses, namely inadequate sample size and methodological heterogeneity. We aimed to investigate whether there are structural differences in children and adults with ADHD compared with those without this diagnosis...
February 16, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
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