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Francesca Stufano, Marco Boscarino, Paolo Bucciarelli, Luciano Baronciani, Alberto Maino, Giovanna Cozzi, Flora Peyvandi
An increased von Willebrand factor propeptide (VWFpp) to VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) ratio (VWFpp/VWF:Ag) indicates an enhanced clearance of VWF. This finding has been described in von Willebrand disease (VWD) and in acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). A distinction between these two diseases, one congenital and the other acquired, is primarily based on family and personal history of bleeding. However, if this information is scanty, the diagnosis might be challenging due to the lack of an effective diagnostic biomarker...
June 18, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Ivy B Ramis, Júlia S Vianna, Ana Júlia Reis, Andrea von Groll, Daniela F Ramos, Miguel Viveiros, Pedro E Almeida da Silva
New drugs are needed to treat infections with antimicrobial-resistant Mycobacterium abscessus ; therefore, we evaluated usnic acid as an antimicrobial agent and efflux inhibitor (EI) against M. abscessus . Usnic acid showed antimicrobial activity, and synergistically, the EI verapamil increased this activity. In addition, when we evaluated the interaction of antimicrobials with usnic acid, the increase of their activity was observed. Finally, usnic acid showed an efflux inhibitory effect between the classical EIs verapamil and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazine...
June 18, 2018: Planta Medica
Marc R Larochelle, Dana Bernson, Thomas Land, Thomas J Stopka, Na Wang, Ziming Xuan, Sarah M Bagley, Jane M Liebschutz, Alexander Y Walley
Background: Opioid overdose survivors have an increased risk for death. Whether use of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) after overdose is associated with mortality is not known. Objective: To identify MOUD use after opioid overdose and its association with all-cause and opioid-related mortality. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: 7 individually linked data sets from Massachusetts government agencies...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Limin Feng, Jianzhou Yang, Wennan Liu, Qing Wang, Huijie Wang, Le Shi, Liyan Fu, Qiang Xu, Baohe Wang, Tian Li
BACKGROUND Reperfusion injury is one of the leading causes of myocardial cell death and heart failure. This study was performed to identify new candidate lipid biomarkers for the purpose of optimizing the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, assessing the severity of myocardial I/R injury and trying to find the novel mechanism related to lipids. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty patients who were diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were randomly selected for this study...
June 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Lucio Díaz-Flores, Ricardo Gutiérrez, Miriam González-Gómez, Pino García, Francisco J Sáez, Lucio Díaz-Flores, José Luis Carrasco, Juan F Madrid
Vein segmentation is a vascular remodeling process mainly studied in experimental conditions and linked to hemodynamic factors, with clinical implications. The aim of this work is to assess the morphologic characteristics, associated findings, and mechanisms that participate in vein segmentation in humans. To this end, we examined 156 surgically obtained cases of hemorrhoidal disease. Segmentation occurred in 65 and was most prominent in 15, which were selected for serial sections, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence procedures...
June 18, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Chao Wu, Zujin Luo, Baosen Pang, Wenyi Wang, Mingqin Deng, Rong Jin, Xirennayi Muhataer, Yafang Li, Qifeng Li, Xiaohong Yang
Background/Aims Pigeon breeder's lung (PBL) results from Th1/Th2 cell imbalance. B cells inhibit the immune activity of Th1, and EBF3 is a key B cell factor. This study explored the relationship between EBF3 and Th1/Th2 imbalance in chronic PBL cases complicated with pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Methods Twenty Uygur PBL+PF patients, 20 pigeon breeders without PBL or PF, and 20 healthy individuals without pigeon breeding history constituted the patient I, negative control, and normal control groups, respectively...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Yasser Morera-Gómez, Jesús Miguel Santamaría, David Elustondo, Carlos Manuel Alonso-Hernández, David Widory
The constant increase of anthropogenic emissions of aerosols, usually resulting from a complex mixture from various sources, leads to a deterioration of the ambient air quality. The stable isotope compositions (δ13 C and δ15 N) of total carbon (TC) and nitrogen (TN) in both PM10 and emissions from potential sources were investigated for first time in a rural and an urban Caribbean costal sites in Cuba to better constrain the origin of the contamination. Emissions from road traffic, power plant and shipping emissions were discriminated by coupling their C and N contents and corresponding isotope signatures...
June 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Giovanni Bacci, Martina Cerri, Lorenzo Lastrucci, Francesco Ferranti, Valentina Ferri, Bruno Foggi, Daniela Gigante, Roberto Venanzoni, Daniele Viciani, Alessio Mengoni, Lara Reale, Andrea Coppi
The microbiota inhabiting the soil, as well as the rhizosphere, represents a key determinant of several plant functions. Like for humans, dysbiosis of the plant-associated microbiota may be a co-causal agent in disease with still obscure eziology. In the last decades, the common reed Phragmites australis has been deeply studied for its disappearance from natural stands, but no clear causative agents have been identified and no laboratory models of such "reed die-back syndrome" (RDBS) have been developed...
June 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Naoki Iwasa, Satoshi Takashima, Tatsuo Iwasa, Kazuko Iwasa, Tomomi Suzuki, Yui Kobatake, Hitoshi Kitagawa, Naohito Nishii
This study examined the predictive value of serum cystatin C (Cys-C) concentration, measured during routine periodic health examinations, in the renal prognosis of dogs. A cohort of 140 dogs weighing <15 kg whose serum Cys-C concentrations were measured during periodic health examinations from December 2013 to March 2016 were prospectively studied, with renal disease-related death the predicted end point. Of the 140 dogs, nine died from renal diseases during the follow-up period (539 ± 249 days)...
June 14, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Sudeep Bhatia, Neil Stewart
We study how people evaluate and aggregate the attributes of naturalistic choice objects, such as movies and food items. Our approach applies theories of object representation in semantic memory research to large-scale crowd-sourced data, to recover multiattribute representations for common choice objects. We then use standard choice experiments to test the predictive power of various decision rules for weighting and aggregating these multiattribute representations. Our experiments yield three novel conclusions: 1...
June 15, 2018: Cognition
Thiago Henrique Scarabello Stape, Patrik Wik, Mustafa Murat Mutluay, Anas Aaqel Salim Al-Ani, Arzu Tezvergil-Mutluay
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether selective dentin etching protocols using reduced phosphoric acid (H3 PO4 ) etching-times would affect the resin-dentin interaction of a universal adhesive to improve long-term bonding effectiveness. METHODS: Mid-coronal flat dentin surfaces were produced on sound third molars, selectively etched with 32% H3 PO4 for 3, 5, 10 or 15 s and bonded with a universal adhesive (Scotchbond Universal, 3 M ESPE: SU). SU in self-etch mode and a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive were used as control groups...
June 8, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Indira Singh Chauhan, G SubbaRao, Jai Shankar, Lalit Kumar Singh Chauhan, Govind J Kapadia, Neeloo Singh
Curcumin is the major phenolic compound found in turmeric, a dry powder of rhizomes and roots of the plant, Curcuma longa L., which is widely used as spice and food colorant around the world, and in herbal medicinal practice in Asian countries. The present study reports the leishmanicidal activity of trans-dibenzalacetone (DBA), a synthetic monoketone analog of curcumin, against Leishmania donovani parasites. We for the first time report the antiproliferative effect of a curcumin analog (DBA) on the intracellular amastigotes of L...
June 15, 2018: Parasitology International
Chen Cheng, Shen Yu-Feng, Hu Yang, Liu Lei, Chen Wei-Chao, Wang Gao-Xue, Zhu Bin
As one of nine piscine viruses recognized by the International Office of Epizootics, spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is an important pathogen bringing high mortality to cyprinids. Up to now, there is no approved therapy on SVCV, making them strong public health threat in aquaculture. In this study, the anti-SVCV activities of 12 plant crude extracts were investigated by using epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells. Among these plants, Psoralea corylifolia Linn. showed the highest inhibition on SVCV replication, with an inhibitory percentage of 67...
June 15, 2018: Virus Research
Xin Zhou, Zipeng Lu, Tongshan Wang, Zebo Huang, Wei Zhu, Yi Miao
The differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plasma of pancreatic cancer (PC) patients may act as a diagnostic biomarker. A four-stage study was performed to identify plasma miRNAs with potential in detecting PC. Exiqon panels (20 PC vs. 10 normal controls (NCs)) were applied in the screening phase to obtain miRNA profiling. The identified miRNAs were further assessed in the training (40 PC vs. 40 NCs) and testing stages (112 PC vs. 116 NCs) with qRT-PCR assays. A six-miRNA signature including up-regulated miR-122-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-193b-3p, miR-221-3p and miR-27b-3p was identified...
June 15, 2018: Gene
Ahmet Aydın, Gulcin Tugcu
Epinephrine and norepinephrine have been used in the management of anaphylactic reactions and cardiac resuscitation, along with treatment of asthma and glaucoma extensively, but their toxicological profiles are not yet completed. Based on this circumstance, various toxicological endpoints of epinephrine and norepinephrine were explored. Since there is a paucity of some endpoints' data, readacross was applied to fill the data gaps using analog approach. Along with structural similarity, biological and mechanistic plausibility were also considered in analog selection...
June 15, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ferenc Köteles, Péter Babulka, Renáta Szemerszky, Zsuzsanna Dömötör, Szilvia Boros
Essential oils of herbal origin are widely used in the treatment of diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract primarily due to their antibacterial and antiviral effects. Menthol, the major component of the essential oil of mint (Mentha) species, exhibits antispasmodic activity, which might result in improved lung function. In a randomized experiment, 106 healthy participants received nebulized peppermint, eucalyptus, or rosemary essential oil for 15 min or no treatment (control). None of the essential oils had an impact on the measured spirometric variables (forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow, the ratio of the volume of air forcibly blown out in the first second to forced vital capacity)...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
A G Arranja, W E Hennink, A G Denkova, R W A Hendrikx, J F W Nijsen
The aim of this study was the development of radioactive holmium phosphate microspheres (HoPO4 -MS) with a high holmium content and that are stable in human serum for selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) of liver cancer. To this end, holmium acetylacetonate microspheres (HoAcAc-MS) were prepared (34.2 ± 1.0 µm in diameter, holmium content of 46.2 ± 0.8 and density of 1.7 g/cm3 ) via an emulsification and solvent evaporation method. The concentration of HoAcAc in the organic solvent, the temperature of emulsification and the stirring speed were varied for the preparation of the HoAcAc-MS to obtain microspheres with different diameters ranging from 11 to 35 µm...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Céline Parmentier, Delilah F G Hendriks, Bruno Heyd, Philippe Bachellier, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg, Lysiane Richert
Cholestasis represents a major subtype of drug-induced liver injury and novel preclinical models for its prediction are needed. Here we used primary human hepatocytes (PHH) from different donors in 2D-sandwich (2D-sw) and/or 3D-spheroid cultures to study inter-individual differences in response towards cholestatic hepatotoxins after short-term (48-72 h) and long-term repeated exposures (14 days). Cholestatic liabilities were determined by comparing cell viability upon exposure to the highest non-cytotoxic drug concentration in the presence and absence of a non-cytotoxic concentrated bile acid (BA) mixture...
June 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
María P Di Yorio, Daniela I Pérez Sirkin, José A Muñoz-Cueto, Tomás H Delgadin, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Gustavo M Somoza, Paula G Vissio
Reproduction is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The first neuropeptide identified that regulates this function was the decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Nowadays, in gnatostomates, a number of GnRH variants have been identified and classified into three different types: GnRH1, GnRH2, and GnRH3. Almost 30 years later, a new peptide that inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and secretion was discovered and thus named as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). In avians and mammals, the interaction and regulation between GnRH and GnIH neurons has been widely studied; however, in other vertebrate groups there is little information about the relationship between these neurons...
June 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Jung Hyun Park, Hyeong Jun Ku, Jin Hyup Lee, Jeen-Woo Park
Acute lung injury (ALI) is an acute failure of the respiratory system with unacceptably high mortality, for which effective treatment is urgently necessary. Infiltrations by immune cells, such as leukocytes and macrophages, are responsible for the inflammatory response in ALI, which is characterized by excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lung tissues exposed to various pathogen-associated molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from microbial organisms. α-Ketoglutarate (α-KG) is a key metabolic intermediate and acts as a pro-inflammatory metabolite, which is responsible for LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production through NF-κB signaling pathway...
June 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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