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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786180/-bartter-syndrome-severe-rare-orphan-kidney-disease-a-step-towards-therapy-through-pharmacogenetic-and-epidemiological-studies
#1
EDITORIAL
Elena Conte, Paola Imbrici, Dalila Sahbani, Antonella Liantonio, Diana Conte
Bartter syndromes (BS) types 1-5 are rare salt-losing tubulopathies presenting with overlapping clinical phenotypes including marked salt wasting and hypokalemia leading to polyuria, polydipsia, volume contraction, muscle weakness and growth retardation. These diseases are due to an impairment of sodium, potassium, chloride reabsorption caused by mutations in genes encoding for ion channel or transporters expressed in specific nephron tubule segments. Particularly, BS type 3 is a clinically heterogeneous form caused by mutations in CLCNKB gene which encodes the ClC-Kb chloride channel involved in NaCl reabsorption in the renal tubule...
May 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770700/quality-use-of-the-pathology-data-in-home-medicines-reviews-a-retrospective-evaluation
#2
Vera H Buss, Alison Shield, Sam Kosari, Mark Naunton
BACKGROUND: Laboratory tests can be important tools for the assessment of pharmacotherapy. Nonetheless, there are no previous studies that have explicitly focused on the role of pathology data in Home Medicines Reviews (HMR), an Australian medication review program. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate pharmacists' recommendations regarding laboratory testing in the medication review process. METHODS: This retrospective review of HMRs assessed the prevalence of the pathology data provided by general practitioners...
May 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742910/an-overview-of-animal-models-related-to-schizophrenia
#3
Ian R Winship, Serdar M Dursun, Glen B Baker, Priscila A Balista, Ludmyla Kandratavicius, Joao Paulo Maia-de-Oliveira, Jaime Hallak, John G Howland
Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder that is poorly treated with current therapies. In this brief review, we provide an update regarding the use of animal models to study schizophrenia in an attempt to understand its aetiology and develop novel therapeutic strategies. Tremendous progress has been made developing and validating rodent models that replicate the aetiologies, brain pathologies, and behavioural abnormalities associated with schizophrenia in humans. Here, models are grouped into 3 categories-developmental, drug induced, and genetic-to reflect the heterogeneous risk factors associated with schizophrenia...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734225/evidenced-based-treatment-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-an-updated-review-of-validated-psychotherapeutic-and-pharmacological-approaches
#4
Meredith E Charney, Samantha N Hellberg, Eric Bui, Naomi M Simon
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Evaluate psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic approaches to treating patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. ABSTRACT: A strong evidence base exists for psychological and pharmacological interventions for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The published literature investigating the effectiveness of these treatments in reducing the symptoms and impairments associated with PTSD has expanded substantially in recent years...
May 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704597/modelling-fragile-x-syndrome-in-the-laboratory-setting-a-behavioral-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Francesca Melancia, Viviana Trezza
Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation and the most frequent monogenic cause of syndromic autism spectrum disorders. The syndrome is caused by the loss of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), a key RNA-binding protein involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal morphology. Patients show intellectual disability, social deficits, repetitive behaviors and impairments in social communication. The aim of this review is to outline the importance of behavioral phenotyping of animal models of FXS from a developmental perspective, by showing how the behavioral characteristics of FXS at the clinical level can be translated into effective, developmentally-specific and clinically meaningful behavioral readouts in the laboratory setting...
April 25, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518253/endovascular-revascularisation-versus-conservative-management-for-intermittent-claudication
#6
REVIEW
Farzin Fakhry, Hugo Jp Fokkenrood, Sandra Spronk, Joep Aw Teijink, Ellen V Rouwet, M G Myriam Hunink
BACKGROUND: Intermittent claudication (IC) is the classic symptomatic form of peripheral arterial disease affecting an estimated 4.5% of the general population aged 40 years and older. Patients with IC experience limitations in their ambulatory function resulting in functional disability and impaired quality of life (QoL). Endovascular revascularisation has been proposed as an effective treatment for patients with IC and is increasingly performed. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this systematic review is to summarise the (added) effects of endovascular revascularisation on functional performance and QoL in the management of IC...
March 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513209/pharmacotherapy-in-temporomandibular-disorders-a-review
#7
Aviv Ouanounou, Michael Goldberg, Daniel A Haas
Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a collective term that includes disorders of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and of the masticatory muscles and their associated structures. TMDs are characterized by pain, joint sounds and restricted mandibular movement, and drugs are widely used in the management of that pain. Pharmacological agents commonly used for the treatment of TMDs include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, corticosteroids, muscle relaxants, antidepressants, anticonvulsants and benzodiazepines...
July 2017: Journal—Canadian Dental Association, Journal de L'Association Dentaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473029/fluoxetine-administration-in-juvenile-monkeys-implications-for-pharmacotherapy-in-children
#8
REVIEW
Mari S Golub, Casey E Hogrefe, Richard J Sherwood, Christoph W Turck
Fluoxetine therapy has been approved for children with major depressive disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder for over 14 years and has expanded to other childhood behavior disorders. As use increases, more detail on fluoxetine effects during juvenile brain development can help maintain safe and effective use of this therapy. Here, a narrative review is provided of previously published findings from a large nonhuman primate project. Fluoxetine was administered to juvenile male rhesus monkeys for an extended period (2 years) prior to puberty...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385122/how-to-face-a-patient-with-benzodiazepine-dependence-in-primary-health-care-strategies-for-withdrawal
#9
REVIEW
Josefina Aguiluz, Matías Álvarez, Eduardo Pimentel, Carolina Abarca, Philippa Moore
Benzodiazepines are widely used in primary health care, and their prolonged use is an important problem given the medical consequences particularly in older adults, such as dependence, cognitive impairment, and risk of falls, among others. Primary care doctors generally have few tools to help with managing withdrawal from benzodiazepines. We conducted a review of the best available evidence on practical strategies to avoid dependence at the time of the initial prescription, and to help the patient with prolonged and probably dependent use...
January 30, 2018: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310970/lithium-stress-and-resilience-in-bipolar-disorder-deciphering-this-key-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity-regulator
#10
REVIEW
Rodrigo Machado-Vieira
BACKGROUND: Lithium is the lightest metal and the only mood stabilizer that has been used for over half a century for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). As a small ion, lithium is omnipresent, and consequently, its molecular mechanisms and targets are widespread. Currently, lithium is a crucial pharmacotherapy for the treatment of acute mood episodes, prophylactic therapy, and suicide prevention in BD. Besides, lithium blood level is the most widely used biomarker in clinical psychiatry...
June 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283237/memory-cognition-and-the-endogenous-evoked-potentials-of-the-brain-the-estimation-of-the-disturbance-of-cognitive-functions-and-capacity-of-working-memory-without-the-psychological-testing
#11
V V Gnezditskiy, O S Korepina, A V Chatskaya, O I Klochkova
Cognition, cognitive and memory impairments is widely discussed in the literature, especially in the psycho physiological and the neurologic. In essence, this literature is dedicated to the psycho physiological tests, different scales. However, instrument neurophysiologic methods not so widely are used for these purposes. This review is dedicated to the instrument methods of neurophysiology, in particular to the endogenous evoked potentials method Р 300 (by characteristic latency 300 ms), in the estimation of cognitive functions and memory, to their special features dependent on age and to special features to their changes with the pathology...
January 2017: Uspekhi Fiziologicheskikh Nauk
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202586/pharmacological-treatments-available-for-the-management-of-underactive-bladder-in-neurological-conditions
#12
REVIEW
Seyedeh-Sanam Ladi-Seyedian, Behnam Nabavizadeh, Lida Sharifi-Rad, Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh
Underactive bladder (UAB) is a common cause of lower urinary tract dysfunction which has an increasing incidence with aging. It is characterized as an incompetent detrusor contraction with reduced strength and/or duration to completely empty the bladder. UAB is observed in both men and women. The exact definition, classification, and pathophysiological mechanism responsible for UAB is still debatable, however neurologic, myogenic, and iatrogenic causes are explained. The symptom complex related to UAB includes hesitancy, diminished sensation of bladder filling, a slow urinary stream, increased post-void residue, and etc...
February 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188907/prescribing-patterns-in-a-psychiatrically-referred-sample-of-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Julia Shekunov, Janet Wozniak, Kristina Conroy, Elizabeth Pinsky, Maura Fitzgerald, Melissa F de Leon, Abigail Belser, Joseph Biederman, Gagan Joshi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of psychopharmacologic interventions in a psychiatrically referred sample of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: This retrospective chart review aimed at collecting demographic and clinical information, including data on DSM-IV-TR criteria-based psychiatric disorders and related current medication treatment and response. Data were collected in December 2011. Clinicians identified the target disorder for each medication and any adverse events...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170097/mild-cognitive-impairment-due-to-alzheimer-disease-contemporary-approaches-to-diagnostics-and-pharmacological-intervention
#14
REVIEW
Sergey O Bachurin, Svetlana I Gavrilova, Anna Samsonova, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev
Alzheimer disease (AD) and related forms of dementia are among the main medical and social problems in the economically developed countries. It is connected with significant increase in human life span in these regions and with the absence of efficient medicines for treatment and prevention of such diseases. Lack of positive results in the developing of novel drugs for AD treatment stimulates special attention on problem of early diagnosis and drug discovery for pharmacotherapy on the very early stages of dementia, in particular, on mild cognitive impairments (MCI) due to AD...
March 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124985/pharmacotherapy-and-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#15
Luciano Viale, Natalia Paola Catoira, Guillermo Di Girolamo, Claudio Daniel González
Stroke is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases worldwide, especially among the elderly population. There are various mechanisms that enhance motor recovery after a stroke. In clinical practice, we have the opportunity to enhance plasticity by designing specific rehabilitation programs. Areas covered: There are a variety of drugs commonly administered to people after the acute phase of a stroke. These drugs may modify motor performance. Herein reviewed is the evidence concerning motor enhancement or decline in stroke patients, produced by drugs commonly used in rehabilitation settings...
January 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111076/electroconvulsive-therapy-for-depression-with-comorbid-borderline-personality-disorder-or-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-matched-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Tyler S Kaster, David S Goldbloom, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Benoit H Mulsant, Daniel M Blumberger
BACKGROUND: The impact of comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on clinical and cognitive outcomes of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with major depressive episodes (MDE) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Compare clinical response and adverse cognitive effects for MDE patients with comorbid BPD or PTSD to MDE only. METHODS: In a matched retrospective cohort study of 75 patients treated with ECT at an academic psychiatric hospital with DSM-IV MDE and either comorbid BPD, PTSD or both (MDE + BPD/PTSD), 75 MDE patients without BPD or PTSD (MDE-only) were matched...
January 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076058/pharmacotherapy-of-cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-disease
#17
REVIEW
Cyndya A Shibao, Horacio Kaufmann
Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunctions, including neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension and post-prandial hypotension, are relatively common in patients with Parkinson disease. Recent evidence suggests that early autonomic impairment such as cardiac autonomic denervation and even neurogenic orthostatic hypotension occur prior to the appearance of the typical motor deficits associated with the disease. When neurogenic orthostatic hypotension develops, patients with Parkinson disease have an increased risk of mortality, falls, and trauma-related to falls...
November 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074412/molecular-mechanism-of-doxorubicin-induced-cardiomyopathy-an-update
#18
REVIEW
Kaviyarasi Renu, Abilash V G, Tirupathi Pichiah P B, Sankarganesh Arunachalam
Doxorubicin is utilized for anti-neoplastic treatment for several decades. The utility of this drug is limited due to its side effects. Generally, doxorubicin toxicity is originated from the myocardium and then other organs are also ruined. The mechanism of doxorubicin is intercalated with the DNA and inhibits topoisomerase 2. There are various signalling mechanisms involved in doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. First and foremost, the doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity is due to oxidative stress. Cardiac mitochondrial damage is supposed after few hours following the revelation of doxorubicin...
January 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052031/do-pharmaceuticals-improve-driving-in-individuals-with-adhd-a-review-of-the-literature-and-evidence-for-clinical-practice
#19
REVIEW
Craig B H Surman, Ronna Fried, Lauren Rhodewalt, Heidi Boland
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as a disorder of impaired attention and/or behavioral control. Studies suggest that the condition can dispose individuals to a higher risk of automobile accidents. ADHD symptoms respond to pharmacotherapy in a majority of uncomplicated cases. Evidence on how pharmacotherapies for ADHD impact driving behavior or outcomes could allow clinicians to support on-road safety rationally. We therefore undertook a review to identify the evidence base to date indicating positive or negative effects of pharmacotherapies on driving behavior in individuals with ADHD...
October 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047301/pimavanserin-novel-pharmacotherapy-for-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#20
Zeyad T Sahli, Frank I Tarazi
Pimavanserin is the first FDA-approved atypical antipsychotic drug indicated for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP). Areas covered: This review focuses on the preclinical discovery of pimavanserin. It analyzes the pharmacological, behavioral and molecular mechanisms of pimavanserin and their contribution to the therapeutic advantages of the drug as reported in published preclinical and clinical studies, press releases and product labels. Expert opinion: Pimavanserin exhibits a unique pharmacological profile with nanomolar affinity at serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors...
January 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
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