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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110555/a-meta-analysis-of-pharmacotherapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-an-examination-of-efficacy-moderators-and-mediators
#1
Joshua Curtiss, Leigh Andrews, Michelle Davis, Jasper Smits, Stefan G Hofmann
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is among the most prevalent mental disorders, associated with impaired functioning and poor quality of life. Pharmacotherapy is the most widely utilized treatment option. The current study provides an updated meta-analytic review of the efficacy of pharmacotherapy and examines moderators and mediators of treatment efficacy. Areas Covered: A comprehensive search of the current literature yielded 52 randomized, pill placebo-controlled trials of pharmacotherapy for adults diagnosed with SAD...
February 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103749/clinical-practice-with-anti-dementia-drugs-a-revised-third-consensus-statement-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#2
John T O'Brien, Clive Holmes, Matthew Jones, Roy Jones, Gill Livingston, Ian McKeith, Peter Mittler, Peter Passmore, Craig Ritchie, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Alistair Burns
The British Association for Psychopharmacology coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its previous 2011 guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A-D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomised controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and both structural (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerised tomography) brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy in particular situations (B)...
February 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101793/substance-use-disorders-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-dangerous-but-understudied-combination
#3
REVIEW
Kimberly N Walter, Julie A Wagner, Eda Cengiz, William V Tamborlane, Nancy M Petry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews research on substance use and disorders (SUDs) among adults with diabetes. It describes epidemiological data on SUDs in persons with type 2 diabetes, overviews effects of substance use on diabetes outcomes, and discusses treatments for SUDs in patients with diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of current smoking range from 10 to 26% and alcohol use disorders are 0-5%. Rates of illicit SUDs are 3-4%, but there are no population-based studies using nationally representative samples...
January 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978794/mitochondrial-dysfunctions-in-bipolar-disorder-effect-of-the-disease-and-pharmacotherapy
#4
Tereza Cikánková, Ekaterina Sigitova, Martina Zvěřová, Zdeněk Fišar, Jiří Raboch, Jana Hroudová
Exact pathophysiological mechanisms of bipolar disorder have not been sufficiently clarified. We review the evidence of mitochondrial dysfunctions on the relation between both disease and pharmacotherapy. Mitochondria provide most of the energy production in cells; they are involved in decreased antioxidant defenses, increased lipid peroxidation, as well as abnormal calcium metabolism and take part in intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. There is increasing evidence that impaired functions of mitochondria are associated with mood disorders, a hypothesis of mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed in bipolar disorder pathogenesis...
December 13, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955715/biases-in-research-risk-factors-for-non-replicability-in-psychotherapy-and-pharmacotherapy-research
#5
F Leichsenring, A Abbass, M J Hilsenroth, F Leweke, P Luyten, J R Keefe, N Midgley, S Rabung, S Salzer, C Steinert
Replicability of findings is an essential prerequisite of research. For both basic and clinical research, however, low replicability of findings has recently been reported. Replicability may be affected by research biases not sufficiently controlled for by the existing research standards. Several biases such as researcher allegiance or selective reporting are well-known for affecting results. For psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy research, specific additional biases may affect outcome (e.g. therapist allegiance, therapist effects or impairments in treatment implementation)...
December 13, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914248/the-difficult-lives-of-individuals-with-bipolar-disorder-a-review-of-functional-outcomes-and-their-implications-for-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Michael J Gitlin, David J Miklowitz
BACKGROUND: Most longitudinal or treatment studies in bipolar disorder have used symptomatic or syndromal status as the primary outcome variable. More recently, psychosocial functioning has been highlighted as a key domain of outcome. Patients with bipolar disorder appear to be impaired in all functional domains, although the factors that cause impairment have not been clearly specified. METHODS: This paper reviews cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on functional impairment and its relationship to symptomatic, neurocognitive, personality, and stress variables in bipolar disorder; and the implications of these relationships for defining treatment targets...
February 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913030/confounding-variables-and-the-performance-of-triggers-in-detecting-unreported-adverse-drug-reactions
#7
Fabiana Rossi Varallo, Carolina Dagli-Hernandez, Caroline Pagotto, Tales Rubens de Nadai, Maria Teresa Herdeiro, Patricia de Carvalho Mastroianni
PURPOSE: This study explored the performance of trigger in detecting adverse drug reactions (ADRs), the confounding variables impairing the causal association of the ADRs, and the underreporting rate by hospital health professionals. METHODS: A 6-month cross-sectional study was conducted in a public general hospital. Data collection was conducted in 2 stages: (1) screening of patient hospitalizations to identify suspected ADRs with 9 triggers developed by the Institute of Healthcare Improvement; and (2) chart review to perform the causality assessment of the suspected ADRs identified, to describe the confounding variables associated with detection of suspected ADRs that were not drug induced, and to analyze the positive predictive value of triggers in recognizing ADRs...
November 29, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910097/chronic-migraine-an-update-on-physiology-imaging-and-the-mechanism-of-action-of-two-available-pharmacologic-therapies
#8
Sheena K Aurora, Mitchell F Brin
Several lines of research support the hypothesis that migraine is a spectrum of illness, with clinical symptoms that vary along a continuum from episodic migraine to chronic migraine. Physiologic changes may result in episodic migraine evolving into chronic migraine over months to years in susceptible individuals. With chronification, headache frequency increases, becoming more disabling and less responsive to therapy. Neurophysiologic and functional imaging research has reported that chronic migraine may be associated with severity-specific metabolic, functional, and structural abnormalities in the brainstem...
January 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895149/psychotherapy-for-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-pediatrician-s-guide
#9
Vania Modesto-Lowe, Victoria Charbonneau, Pantea Farahmand
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) presents with high levels of inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. ADHD symptoms lead to decreased functionality in various life domains and result in poor academics, behavioral challenges, delayed independence, and strained relationships. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies...
November 27, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881856/stress-glucocorticoids-and-memory-implications-for-treating-fear-related-disorders
#10
Dominique de Quervain, Lars Schwabe, Benno Roozendaal
Glucocorticoid stress hormones are crucially involved in modulating mnemonic processing of emotionally arousing experiences. They enhance the consolidation of new memories, including those that extinguish older memories, but impair the retrieval of information stored in long-term memory. As strong aversive memories lie at the core of several fear-related disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias, the memory-modulating properties of glucocorticoids have recently become of considerable translational interest...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785919/pharmacotherapies-for-parkinson-s-disease-symptoms-related-to-cholinergic-degeneration
#11
REVIEW
Santiago Perez-Lloret, María Cecilia Peralta, Francisco J Barrantes
Dopamine depletion is one of the most important features of Parkinson's Disease (PD). However, insufficient response to dopaminergic replacement therapy suggests the involvement of other neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of PD. Cholinergic degeneration contributes to gait impairments, cognitive impairment, psychosis, and REM-sleep disturbances, among other symptoms. Areas covered: In this review, we explore the idea that enhancing cholinergic tone by pharmacological or neurosurgical procedures could be a first-line therapeutic strategy for the treatment of symptoms derived from cholinergic degeneration in PD...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763482/can-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-impact-cognitive-decline-in-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-overview-of-research-evidence-in-the-elderly-patient-population
#12
REVIEW
K Rygiel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which an accumulation of toxic amyloid beta in the brain precedes the emergence of clinical symptoms. AD spectrum consists of presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and symptomatic phase of dementia. At present, no pharmacotherapy exists to modify or reverse a course of AD, and only symptomatic treatments are available. Many elderly patients, diagnosed with multiple medical conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) are at increased risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and vascular dementia...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737474/pharmacotherapy-in-psychiatric-disorders-of-children-current-evidence-and-trends
#13
M Kölch, P L Plener
Pharmacotherapeutic interventions are available for most psychiatric disorders in children. Evidence for these interventions varies, depending on the targeted disorders. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a sound database on efficacy and safety of medication exists. For other common disorders or psychopathological phenomena like disruptive behavior, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, or autism, data on efficacy and safety are much scarcer. This selective review aims to provide an overview about current psychopharmacological interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry...
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733955/recognizing-binge-eating-disorder-in-the-clinical-setting-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
Susan G Kornstein, Jelena L Kunovac, Barry K Herman, Larry Culpepper
OBJECTIVE: Review the clinical skills needed to recognize, diagnose, and manage binge-eating disorder (BED) in a primary care setting. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search of English-language publications (January 1, 2008-December 11, 2014) was conducted using the term binge-eating disorder. Relevant articles known to the authors were also included. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: Publications focusing on preclinical topics (eg, characterization of receptors and neurotransmitter systems) without discussing clinical relevance were excluded...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717193/barriers-and-facilitators-to-asthma-self-management-in-adolescents-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-and-quantitative-studies
#15
Simone Holley, Ruth Morris, Rebecca Knibb, Sue Latter, Christina Liossi, Frances Mitchell, Graham Roberts
BACKGROUND: Many adolescents have poor asthma control and impaired quality of life despite the availability of modern pharmacotherapy. Research suggests that poor adherence to treatment and limited engagement in self-management could be contributing factors. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the barriers and facilitators to self-management of asthma reported by adolescents using a narrative synthesis approach to integrate the findings. DESIGN: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched for all types of study design...
October 7, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603523/lifespan-oxytocin-signaling-maturation-flexibility-and-stability-in-newborn-adolescent-and-aged-brain
#16
REVIEW
Sara Sannino, Bice Chini, Valery Grinevich
The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is a forefront molecule among neuropeptides due to its pronounced prosocial effects and its potential use in socioemotional deficits that characterize the most prevalent neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia). The effects of OT have been studied in young and adult subjects (either animals or humans), while the complete lifespan trajectories of OT system development and activity have been far less investigated. In this (mini) review, we will primarily focus on three temporal distinct periods of life-early postnatal period, puberty/adolescence, and elderly...
February 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596923/behavioral-management-of-headache-in-children-and-adolescents
#17
REVIEW
Noemi Faedda, Rita Cerutti, Paola Verdecchia, Daniele Migliorini, Marco Arruda, Vincenzo Guidetti
Headache is the most frequent neurological symptom and the most prevalent pain in children and adolescents, and constitutes a serious health problem that may lead to impairment in several areas. Psychosocial factors, social environment, life events, school and family stressors are all closely related to headaches. A multidisciplinary strategy is fundamental in addressing headache in children and adolescents. Applying such a strategy can lead to reductions in frequency and severity of the pain, improving significantly the quality of life of these children...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590099/cardiac-sympatho-vagal-balance-and-ventricular-arrhythmia
#18
REVIEW
Manish Kalla, Neil Herring, David J Paterson
A hallmark of cardiovascular disease is cardiac autonomic dysregulation. The phenotype of impaired parasympathetic responsiveness and sympathetic hyperactivity in experimental animal models is also well documented in large scale human studies in the setting of heart failure and myocardial infarction, and is predictive of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in emergency revascularisation strategies for myocardial infarction, device therapy for heart failure and secondary prevention pharmacotherapies, mortality from malignant ventricular arrhythmia remains high...
August 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531692/can-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-impact-cognitive-decline-in-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-overview-of-research-evidence-in-the-elderly%C3%A2-patient-population
#19
K Rygiel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which an accumulation of toxic amyloid beta in the brain precedes the emergence of clinical symptoms. AD spectrum consists of presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and symptomatic phase of dementia. At present, no pharmacotherapy exists to modify or reverse a course of AD, and only symptomatic treatments are available. Many elderly patients, diagnosed with multiple medical conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) are at increased risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and vascular dementia...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492916/common-functional-gastroenterological-disorders-associated-with-abdominal-pain
#20
REVIEW
Adil E Bharucha, Subhankar Chakraborty, Christopher D Sletten
Although abdominal pain is a symptom of several structural gastrointestinal disorders (eg, peptic ulcer disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 4 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with abdominal pain: functional dyspepsia, constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and functional abdominal pain syndrome. Together, these conditions affect approximately 1 in 4 people in the United States. They are associated with comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia and depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization...
August 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
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