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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491480/new-treatment-strategies-of-depression-based-on-mechanisms-related-to-neuroplasticity
#1
REVIEW
Yu-Jhen Huang, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Chieh-Hsin Lin
Major depressive disorder is a severe and complex mental disorder. Impaired neurotransmission and disrupted signalling pathways may influence neuroplasticity, which is involved in the brain dysfunction in depression. Traditional neurobiological theories of depression, such as monoamine hypothesis, cannot fully explain the whole picture of depressive disorders. In this review, we discussed new treatment directions of depression, including modulation of glutamatergic system and noninvasive brain stimulation. Dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission plays an important role in the pathophysiology of depression...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465711/treatment-modalities-for-patients-with-gambling-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Sam-Wook Choi, Young-Chul Shin, Dai-Jin Kim, Jung-Seok Choi, Seohee Kim, Seung-Hyun Kim, HyunChul Youn
BACKGROUND: Gambling disorder (GD) is defined as persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior leading to clinically significant impairment or distress. The prevalence of GD has been shown to be 1.2-7.1% in the general population. GD can severely impact on personal and vocational wellbeing as well as lead to financial problems, and has been known to be difficult to treat. This review describes the available pharmacotherapy/psychosocial treatments for GD patients, and summarizes data on the effectiveness of these GD treatments...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429134/systematic-review-of-quality-of-life-and-functional-outcomes-in-randomized-placebo-controlled-studies-of-medications-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
REVIEW
David R Coghill, Tobias Banaschewski, César Soutullo, Matthew G Cottingham, Alessandro Zuddas
Children, adolescents and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience functional impairment and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in addition to symptoms of inattention/hyperactivity-impulsivity. To synthesize qualitatively the published evidence from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy on functional impairment or HRQoL in patients with ADHD, a systematic PubMed searching and screening strategy was designed to identify journal articles meeting pre-specified criteria...
April 20, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335658/dopamine-antagonists-for-treatment-resistance-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-review-and-focus-on-bdnf-stimulators-loxapine-and-amitriptyline
#4
REVIEW
Jessica A Hellings, L Eugene Arnold, Joan C Han
Drug development and repurposing are urgently needed for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and psychiatric comorbidity, which often presents as aggression and self-injury. Areas covered: We review dopamine antagonists, including classical and atypical, as well as unconventional antipsychotics in ASD. The older antipsychotic loxapine is discussed in terms of preliminary albeit limited evidence in ASD. Emerging promise of amitriptyline in ASD is discussed, together with promising BDNF effects of loxapine and amitriptyline...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331987/hypertension-up-to-date-sprint-to-spyral
#5
REVIEW
Saarraaken Kulenthiran, Sebastian Ewen, Michael Böhm, Felix Mahfoud
Hypertension is the most common chronic cardiovascular condition with increasing prevalence all over the world. Treatment of patients at risk requires a multimodal therapeutic concept to adjust blood pressure, including systematic identification of secondary causes of hypertension or pseudo-resistance, lifestyle modification, polypharmacy, and as well as accompanying risk factors and comorbidities. The present review discusses recent studies on patients with increased cardiovascular risk potentially influencing future treatment strategies...
March 22, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296657/neuroendocrine-derangements-in-early-septic-shock-pharmacotherapy-for-relative-adrenal-and-vasopressin-insufficiency
#6
James W Schurr, Paul M Szumita, Jeremy R DeGrado
Septic shock is a leading cause of mortality in intensive care units throughout the world. While this disease state represents a highly complex pathophysiology involving numerous organ systems, the early approach to care includes adequate hemodynamic support traditionally achieved via infusions of vasoactive medications after adequate fluid resuscitation. Relative adrenal and vasopressin deficiencies are a common feature of septic shock that contribute to impaired hemodynamics. Hydrocortisone and vasopressin are endocrine system hormone analogues that target the acute neuroendocrine imbalance associated with septic shock...
March 14, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110555/a-meta-analysis-of-pharmacotherapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-an-examination-of-efficacy-moderators-and-mediators
#7
Joshua Curtiss, Leigh Andrews, Michelle Davis, Jasper Smits, Stefan G Hofmann
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is among the most prevalent mental disorders, associated with impaired functioning and poor quality of life. Pharmacotherapy is the most widely utilized treatment option. The current study provides an updated meta-analytic review of the efficacy of pharmacotherapy and examines moderators and mediators of treatment efficacy. Areas Covered: A comprehensive search of the current literature yielded 52 randomized, pill placebo-controlled trials of pharmacotherapy for adults diagnosed with SAD...
February 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103749/clinical-practice-with-anti-dementia-drugs-a-revised-third-consensus-statement-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#8
John T O'Brien, Clive Holmes, Matthew Jones, Roy Jones, Gill Livingston, Ian McKeith, Peter Mittler, Peter Passmore, Craig Ritchie, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Alistair Burns
The British Association for Psychopharmacology coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its previous 2011 guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A-D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomised controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and both structural (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerised tomography) brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy in particular situations (B)...
February 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101793/substance-use-disorders-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-dangerous-but-understudied-combination
#9
REVIEW
Kimberly N Walter, Julie A Wagner, Eda Cengiz, William V Tamborlane, Nancy M Petry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews research on substance use and disorders (SUDs) among adults with diabetes. It describes epidemiological data on SUDs in persons with type 2 diabetes, overviews effects of substance use on diabetes outcomes, and discusses treatments for SUDs in patients with diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of current smoking range from 10 to 26% and alcohol use disorders are 0-5%. Rates of illicit SUDs are 3-4%, but there are no population-based studies using nationally representative samples...
January 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978794/mitochondrial-dysfunctions-in-bipolar-disorder-effect-of-the-disease-and-pharmacotherapy
#10
Tereza Cikánková, Ekaterina Sigitova, Martina Zvěřová, Zdeněk Fišar, Jiří Raboch, Jana Hroudová
Exact pathophysiological mechanisms of bipolar disorder have not been sufficiently clarified. We review the evidence of mitochondrial dysfunctions on the relation between both disease and pharmacotherapy. Mitochondria provide most of the energy production in cells; they are involved in decreased antioxidant defenses, increased lipid peroxidation, as well as abnormal calcium metabolism and take part in intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. There is increasing evidence that impaired functions of mitochondria are associated with mood disorders, a hypothesis of mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed in bipolar disorder pathogenesis...
December 13, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955715/biases-in-research-risk-factors-for-non-replicability-in-psychotherapy-and-pharmacotherapy-research
#11
F Leichsenring, A Abbass, M J Hilsenroth, F Leweke, P Luyten, J R Keefe, N Midgley, S Rabung, S Salzer, C Steinert
Replicability of findings is an essential prerequisite of research. For both basic and clinical research, however, low replicability of findings has recently been reported. Replicability may be affected by research biases not sufficiently controlled for by the existing research standards. Several biases such as researcher allegiance or selective reporting are well-known for affecting results. For psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy research, specific additional biases may affect outcome (e.g. therapist allegiance, therapist effects or impairments in treatment implementation)...
December 13, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914248/the-difficult-lives-of-individuals-with-bipolar-disorder-a-review-of-functional-outcomes-and-their-implications-for-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Michael J Gitlin, David J Miklowitz
BACKGROUND: Most longitudinal or treatment studies in bipolar disorder have used symptomatic or syndromal status as the primary outcome variable. More recently, psychosocial functioning has been highlighted as a key domain of outcome. Patients with bipolar disorder appear to be impaired in all functional domains, although the factors that cause impairment have not been clearly specified. METHODS: This paper reviews cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on functional impairment and its relationship to symptomatic, neurocognitive, personality, and stress variables in bipolar disorder; and the implications of these relationships for defining treatment targets...
February 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913030/confounding-variables-and-the-performance-of-triggers-in-detecting-unreported-adverse-drug-reactions
#13
Fabiana Rossi Varallo, Carolina Dagli-Hernandez, Caroline Pagotto, Tales Rubens de Nadai, Maria Teresa Herdeiro, Patricia de Carvalho Mastroianni
PURPOSE: This study explored the performance of trigger in detecting adverse drug reactions (ADRs), the confounding variables impairing the causal association of the ADRs, and the underreporting rate by hospital health professionals. METHODS: A 6-month cross-sectional study was conducted in a public general hospital. Data collection was conducted in 2 stages: (1) screening of patient hospitalizations to identify suspected ADRs with 9 triggers developed by the Institute of Healthcare Improvement; and (2) chart review to perform the causality assessment of the suspected ADRs identified, to describe the confounding variables associated with detection of suspected ADRs that were not drug induced, and to analyze the positive predictive value of triggers in recognizing ADRs...
April 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910097/chronic-migraine-an-update-on-physiology-imaging-and-the-mechanism-of-action-of-two-available-pharmacologic-therapies
#14
Sheena K Aurora, Mitchell F Brin
Several lines of research support the hypothesis that migraine is a spectrum of illness, with clinical symptoms that vary along a continuum from episodic migraine to chronic migraine. Physiologic changes may result in episodic migraine evolving into chronic migraine over months to years in susceptible individuals. With chronification, headache frequency increases, becoming more disabling and less responsive to therapy. Neurophysiologic and functional imaging research has reported that chronic migraine may be associated with severity-specific metabolic, functional, and structural abnormalities in the brainstem...
January 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895149/psychotherapy-for-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-pediatrician-s-guide
#15
Vania Modesto-Lowe, Victoria Charbonneau, Pantea Farahmand
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) presents with high levels of inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. ADHD symptoms lead to decreased functionality in various life domains and result in poor academics, behavioral challenges, delayed independence, and strained relationships. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies...
November 27, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881856/stress-glucocorticoids-and-memory-implications-for-treating-fear-related-disorders
#16
Dominique de Quervain, Lars Schwabe, Benno Roozendaal
Glucocorticoid stress hormones are crucially involved in modulating mnemonic processing of emotionally arousing experiences. They enhance the consolidation of new memories, including those that extinguish older memories, but impair the retrieval of information stored in long-term memory. As strong aversive memories lie at the core of several fear-related disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias, the memory-modulating properties of glucocorticoids have recently become of considerable translational interest...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785919/pharmacotherapies-for-parkinson-s-disease-symptoms-related-to-cholinergic-degeneration
#17
REVIEW
Santiago Perez-Lloret, María Cecilia Peralta, Francisco J Barrantes
Dopamine depletion is one of the most important features of Parkinson's Disease (PD). However, insufficient response to dopaminergic replacement therapy suggests the involvement of other neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of PD. Cholinergic degeneration contributes to gait impairments, cognitive impairment, psychosis, and REM-sleep disturbances, among other symptoms. Areas covered: In this review, we explore the idea that enhancing cholinergic tone by pharmacological or neurosurgical procedures could be a first-line therapeutic strategy for the treatment of symptoms derived from cholinergic degeneration in PD...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763482/can-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-impact-cognitive-decline-in-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-overview-of-research-evidence-in-the-elderly-patient-population
#18
REVIEW
K Rygiel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which an accumulation of toxic amyloid beta in the brain precedes the emergence of clinical symptoms. AD spectrum consists of presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and symptomatic phase of dementia. At present, no pharmacotherapy exists to modify or reverse a course of AD, and only symptomatic treatments are available. Many elderly patients, diagnosed with multiple medical conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) are at increased risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and vascular dementia...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737474/pharmacotherapy-in-psychiatric-disorders-of-children-current-evidence-and-trends
#19
M Kölch, P L Plener
Pharmacotherapeutic interventions are available for most psychiatric disorders in children. Evidence for these interventions varies, depending on the targeted disorders. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a sound database on efficacy and safety of medication exists. For other common disorders or psychopathological phenomena like disruptive behavior, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, or autism, data on efficacy and safety are much scarcer. This selective review aims to provide an overview about current psychopharmacological interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry...
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733955/recognizing-binge-eating-disorder-in-the-clinical-setting-a-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
Susan G Kornstein, Jelena L Kunovac, Barry K Herman, Larry Culpepper
OBJECTIVE: Review the clinical skills needed to recognize, diagnose, and manage binge-eating disorder (BED) in a primary care setting. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search of English-language publications (January 1, 2008-December 11, 2014) was conducted using the term binge-eating disorder. Relevant articles known to the authors were also included. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: Publications focusing on preclinical topics (eg, characterization of receptors and neurotransmitter systems) without discussing clinical relevance were excluded...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
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