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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913030/confounding-variables-and-the-performance-of-triggers-in-detecting-unreported-adverse-drug-reactions
#1
Fabiana Rossi Varallo, Carolina Dagli-Hernandez, Caroline Pagotto, Tales Rubens de Nadai, Maria Teresa Herdeiro, Patricia de Carvalho Mastroianni
PURPOSE: This study explored the performance of trigger in detecting adverse drug reactions (ADRs), the confounding variables impairing the causal association of the ADRs, and the underreporting rate by hospital health professionals. METHODS: A 6-month cross-sectional study was conducted in a public general hospital. Data collection was conducted in 2 stages: (1) screening of patient hospitalizations to identify suspected ADRs with 9 triggers developed by the Institute of Healthcare Improvement; and (2) chart review to perform the causality assessment of the suspected ADRs identified, to describe the confounding variables associated with detection of suspected ADRs that were not drug induced, and to analyze the positive predictive value of triggers in recognizing ADRs...
November 29, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910097/chronic-migraine-an-update-on-physiology-imaging-and-the-mechanism-of-action-of-two-available-pharmacologic-therapies
#2
Sheena K Aurora, Mitchell F Brin
Several lines of research support the hypothesis that migraine is a spectrum of illness, with clinical symptoms that vary along a continuum from episodic migraine to chronic migraine. Physiologic changes may result in episodic migraine evolving into chronic migraine over months to years in susceptible individuals. With chronification, headache frequency increases, becoming more disabling and less responsive to therapy. Neurophysiologic and functional imaging research has reported that chronic migraine may be associated with severity-specific metabolic, functional, and structural abnormalities in the brainstem...
December 2, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895149/psychotherapy-for-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-pediatrician-s-guide
#3
Vania Modesto-Lowe, Victoria Charbonneau, Pantea Farahmand
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) presents with high levels of inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. ADHD symptoms lead to decreased functionality in various life domains and result in poor academics, behavioral challenges, delayed independence, and strained relationships. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies...
November 27, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881856/stress-glucocorticoids-and-memory-implications-for-treating-fear-related-disorders
#4
Dominique de Quervain, Lars Schwabe, Benno Roozendaal
Glucocorticoid stress hormones are crucially involved in modulating mnemonic processing of emotionally arousing experiences. They enhance the consolidation of new memories, including those that extinguish older memories, but impair the retrieval of information stored in long-term memory. As strong aversive memories lie at the core of several fear-related disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias, the memory-modulating properties of glucocorticoids have recently become of considerable translational interest...
November 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785919/pharmacotherapies-for-parkinson-s-disease-symptoms-related-to-cholinergic-degeneration
#5
Santiago Perez-Lloret, María Cecilia Peralta, Francisco J Barrantes
Dopamine depletion is one of the most important features of Parkinson's Disease (PD). However, insufficient response to dopaminergic replacement therapy suggests the involvement of other neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of PD. Cholinergic degeneration contributes to gait impairments, cognitive impairment, psychosis, and REM-sleep disturbances, among other symptoms. Areas covered: In this review, we explore the idea that enhancing cholinergic tone by pharmacological or neurosurgical procedures could be a first-line therapeutic strategy for the treatment of symptoms derived from cholinergic degeneration in PD...
November 7, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763482/can-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-impact-cognitive-decline-in-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-overview-of-research-evidence-in-the-elderly-patient-population
#6
K Rygiel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which an accumulation of toxic amyloid beta in the brain precedes the emergence of clinical symptoms. AD spectrum consists of presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and symptomatic phase of dementia. At present, no pharmacotherapy exists to modify or reverse a course of AD, and only symptomatic treatments are available. Many elderly patients, diagnosed with multiple medical conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) are at increased risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and vascular dementia...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737474/pharmacotherapy-in-psychiatric-disorders-of-children-current-evidence-and-trends
#7
M Kölch, P L Plener
Pharmacotherapeutic interventions are available for most psychiatric disorders in children. Evidence for these interventions varies, depending on the targeted disorders. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a sound database on efficacy and safety of medication exists. For other common disorders or psychopathological phenomena like disruptive behavior, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, or autism, data on efficacy and safety are much scarcer. This selective review aims to provide an overview about current psychopharmacological interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry...
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733955/recognizing-binge-eating-disorder-in-the-clinical-setting-a-review-of-the-literature
#8
Susan G Kornstein, Jelena L Kunovac, Barry K Herman, Larry Culpepper
OBJECTIVE: Review the clinical skills needed to recognize, diagnose, and manage binge-eating disorder (BED) in a primary care setting. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search of English-language publications (January 1, 2008-December 11, 2014) was conducted using the term binge-eating disorder. Relevant articles known to the authors were also included. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: Publications focusing on preclinical topics (eg, characterization of receptors and neurotransmitter systems) without discussing clinical relevance were excluded...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717193/barriers-and-facilitators-to-asthma-self-management-in-adolescents-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-and-quantitative-studies
#9
Simone Holley, Ruth Morris, Rebecca Knibb, Sue Latter, Christina Liossi, Frances Mitchell, Graham Roberts
BACKGROUND: Many adolescents have poor asthma control and impaired quality of life despite the availability of modern pharmacotherapy. Research suggests that poor adherence to treatment and limited engagement in self-management could be contributing factors. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the barriers and facilitators to self-management of asthma reported by adolescents using a narrative synthesis approach to integrate the findings. DESIGN: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched for all types of study design...
October 7, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603523/oxytocin-in-animal-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Olga Peñagarikano
Autism spectrum disorder is a behavioral disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication together with the presence of stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Although highly genetic, its etiology is complex which correlates with the extensive heterogeneity found in its clinical manifestation, adding to the challenge of understanding its pathophysiology and develop targeted pharmacotherapies. The neuropeptide oxytocin is part of a highly conserved system involved in the regulation of social behavior, and both animal and human research have shown that variation in the oxytocin system accounts for interindividual differences in the expression of social behaviors in mammals...
September 7, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596923/behavioral-management-of-headache-in-children-and-adolescents
#11
REVIEW
Noemi Faedda, Rita Cerutti, Paola Verdecchia, Daniele Migliorini, Marco Arruda, Vincenzo Guidetti
Headache is the most frequent neurological symptom and the most prevalent pain in children and adolescents, and constitutes a serious health problem that may lead to impairment in several areas. Psychosocial factors, social environment, life events, school and family stressors are all closely related to headaches. A multidisciplinary strategy is fundamental in addressing headache in children and adolescents. Applying such a strategy can lead to reductions in frequency and severity of the pain, improving significantly the quality of life of these children...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590099/cardiac-sympatho-vagal-balance-and-ventricular-arrhythmia
#12
REVIEW
Manish Kalla, Neil Herring, David J Paterson
A hallmark of cardiovascular disease is cardiac autonomic dysregulation. The phenotype of impaired parasympathetic responsiveness and sympathetic hyperactivity in experimental animal models is also well documented in large scale human studies in the setting of heart failure and myocardial infarction, and is predictive of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in emergency revascularisation strategies for myocardial infarction, device therapy for heart failure and secondary prevention pharmacotherapies, mortality from malignant ventricular arrhythmia remains high...
August 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531692/can-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-impact-cognitive-decline-in-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-overview-of-research-evidence-in-the-elderly%C3%A2-patient-population
#13
K Rygiel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which an accumulation of toxic amyloid beta in the brain precedes the emergence of clinical symptoms. AD spectrum consists of presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and symptomatic phase of dementia. At present, no pharmacotherapy exists to modify or reverse a course of AD, and only symptomatic treatments are available. Many elderly patients, diagnosed with multiple medical conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) are at increased risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and vascular dementia...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492916/common-functional-gastroenterological-disorders-associated-with-abdominal-pain
#14
REVIEW
Adil E Bharucha, Subhankar Chakraborty, Christopher D Sletten
Although abdominal pain is a symptom of several structural gastrointestinal disorders (eg, peptic ulcer disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 4 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with abdominal pain: functional dyspepsia, constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and functional abdominal pain syndrome. Together, these conditions affect approximately 1 in 4 people in the United States. They are associated with comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia and depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization...
August 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490123/an-update-on-ocular-allergy
#15
Marcus Shaker, Erin Salcone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The update reviews prevalence, classification, cause, and treatment options for allergic eye disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of allergic eye disease is underreported but may affect almost all patients with allergic rhinitis. Increased rates of oculonasal symptoms have been reported in the United States resulting in significant economic expenditures. The spectrum of allergic conjunctivitis and its differential considerations include seasonal and perennial conjunctivitis, vernal and atopic keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470326/a-systematic-review-of-lessons-learned-from-pet-molecular-imaging-research-in-atypical-parkinsonism
#16
Flavia Niccolini, Marios Politis
PURPOSE: To systematically review the previous studies and current status of positron emission tomography (PET) molecular imaging research in atypical parkinsonism. METHODS: MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus electronic databases were searched for articles published until 29th March 2016 and included brain PET studies in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). Only articles published in English and in peer-reviewed journals were included in this review...
November 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447457/-strategies-of-age-adapted-pharmacotherapy-in-renal-failure
#17
R Lenssen, A Liekweg
Many geriatric patients with multimorbidities have an increased risk for impaired renal function due to age and often the presence of comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension and heart failure. This impairment in kidney function in turn necessitates adjustments in drug therapy. A successful strategy for treating these patients includes treatment of the underlying diseases, a comprehensive review of the indications, selection of appropriate pharmacotherapeutic alternatives and for some drugs dose adjustment to the renal function...
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432071/prevention-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-potential-of-pharmacological-agents
#18
REVIEW
Susan L Samson, Alan J Garber
People with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose, or "pre-diabetes", are at high risk for progression to type 2 diabetes, as are those with metabolic syndrome or a history of gestational diabetes. Both glucose-lowering and anti-obesity pharmacotherapies have been studied to determine if the onset of type 2 diabetes can be delayed or prevented. Here we review the available data in the field. The most common theme is the reduction in insulin resistance, such as with weight loss, decreasing demands on the beta cell to improve insulin secretion and prolong its function...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412473/the-role-of-ampk-in-cardiomyocyte-health-and-survival
#19
Suresh C Bairwa, Nirmal Parajuli, Jason R B Dyck
Cellular energy homeostasis is a fundamental process that governs the overall health of the cell and is paramount to cell survival. Central to this is the control of ATP generation and utilization, which is regulated by a complex myriad of enzymatic reactions controlling cellular metabolism. In the cardiomyocyte, ATP generated from substrate catabolism is used for numerous cellular processes including maintaining ionic homeostasis, cell repair, protein synthesis and turnover, organelle turnover, and contractile function...
July 10, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382425/old-age-high-risk-medication-polypharmacy-a-trilogy-of-risks-in-older-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#20
Yishen Wang, Shamsher Singh, Beata Bajorek
BACKGROUND: The safety of pharmacotherapy in atrial fibrillation (AF) is compounded by a trilogy of risks old age, high-risk medications (e.g., antithrombotics, antiarrhythmics), polypharmacy due to multiple patient comorbidities. However, to date, scarce study has investigated the use of polypharmacy (including potentially inappropriate medication (PIM)) in AF patients, and how this may contribute to their overall risk of medication misadventure. OBJECTIVES: To review the extent of polypharmacy and PIM use in older patients (65 years or older) with AF...
April 2016: Pharmacy Practice
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