Read by QxMD icon Read

Impairment, reviews pharmacotherapy

K Rygiel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which an accumulation of toxic amyloid beta in the brain precedes the emergence of clinical symptoms. AD spectrum consists of presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and symptomatic phase of dementia. At present, no pharmacotherapy exists to modify or reverse a course of AD, and only symptomatic treatments are available. Many elderly patients, diagnosed with multiple medical conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) are at increased risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and vascular dementia...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
M Kölch, P L Plener
Pharmacotherapeutic interventions are available for most psychiatric disorders in children. Evidence for these interventions varies, depending on the targeted disorders. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a sound database on efficacy and safety of medication exists. For other common disorders or psychopathological phenomena like disruptive behavior, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, or autism, data on efficacy and safety are much scarcer. This selective review aims to provide an overview about current psychopharmacological interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry...
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
Susan G Kornstein, Jelena L Kunovac, Barry K Herman, Larry Culpepper
OBJECTIVE: Review the clinical skills needed to recognize, diagnose, and manage binge-eating disorder (BED) in a primary care setting. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search of English-language publications (January 1, 2008-December 11, 2014) was conducted using the term binge-eating disorder. Relevant articles known to the authors were also included. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: Publications focusing on preclinical topics (eg, characterization of receptors and neurotransmitter systems) without discussing clinical relevance were excluded...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Simone Holley, Ruth Morris, Rebecca Knibb, Sue Latter, Christina Liossi, Frances Mitchell, Graham Roberts
BACKGROUND: Many adolescents have poor asthma control and impaired quality of life despite the availability of modern pharmacotherapy. Research suggests that poor adherence to treatment and limited engagement in self-management could be contributing factors. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the barriers and facilitators to self-management of asthma reported by adolescents using a narrative synthesis approach to integrate the findings. DESIGN: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched for all types of study design...
October 7, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Olga Peñagarikano
Autism spectrum disorder is a behavioral disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication together with the presence of stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Although highly genetic, its etiology is complex which correlates with the extensive heterogeneity found in its clinical manifestation, adding to the challenge of understanding its pathophysiology and develop targeted pharmacotherapies. The neuropeptide oxytocin is part of a highly conserved system involved in the regulation of social behavior, and both animal and human research have shown that variation in the oxytocin system accounts for interindividual differences in the expression of social behaviors in mammals...
September 7, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Noemi Faedda, Rita Cerutti, Paola Verdecchia, Daniele Migliorini, Marco Arruda, Vincenzo Guidetti
Headache is the most frequent neurological symptom and the most prevalent pain in children and adolescents, and constitutes a serious health problem that may lead to impairment in several areas. Psychosocial factors, social environment, life events, school and family stressors are all closely related to headaches. A multidisciplinary strategy is fundamental in addressing headache in children and adolescents. Applying such a strategy can lead to reductions in frequency and severity of the pain, improving significantly the quality of life of these children...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Manish Kalla, Neil Herring, David J Paterson
A hallmark of cardiovascular disease is cardiac autonomic dysregulation. The phenotype of impaired parasympathetic responsiveness and sympathetic hyperactivity in experimental animal models is also well documented in large scale human studies in the setting of heart failure and myocardial infarction, and is predictive of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in emergency revascularisation strategies for myocardial infarction, device therapy for heart failure and secondary prevention pharmacotherapies, mortality from malignant ventricular arrhythmia remains high...
August 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
K Rygiel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which an accumulation of toxic amyloid beta in the brain precedes the emergence of clinical symptoms. AD spectrum consists of presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and symptomatic phase of dementia. At present, no pharmacotherapy exists to modify or reverse a course of AD, and only symptomatic treatments are available. Many elderly patients, diagnosed with multiple medical conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) are at increased risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and vascular dementia...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Adil E Bharucha, Subhankar Chakraborty, Christopher D Sletten
Although abdominal pain is a symptom of several structural gastrointestinal disorders (eg, peptic ulcer disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 4 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with abdominal pain: functional dyspepsia, constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and functional abdominal pain syndrome. Together, these conditions affect approximately 1 in 4 people in the United States. They are associated with comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia and depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization...
August 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Marcus Shaker, Erin Salcone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The update reviews prevalence, classification, cause, and treatment options for allergic eye disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of allergic eye disease is underreported but may affect almost all patients with allergic rhinitis. Increased rates of oculonasal symptoms have been reported in the United States resulting in significant economic expenditures. The spectrum of allergic conjunctivitis and its differential considerations include seasonal and perennial conjunctivitis, vernal and atopic keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Flavia Niccolini, Marios Politis
PURPOSE: To systematically review the previous studies and current status of positron emission tomography (PET) molecular imaging research in atypical parkinsonism. METHODS: MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus electronic databases were searched for articles published until 29th March 2016 and included brain PET studies in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). Only articles published in English and in peer-reviewed journals were included in this review...
November 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
R Lenssen, A Liekweg
Many geriatric patients with multimorbidities have an increased risk for impaired renal function due to age and often the presence of comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension and heart failure. This impairment in kidney function in turn necessitates adjustments in drug therapy. A successful strategy for treating these patients includes treatment of the underlying diseases, a comprehensive review of the indications, selection of appropriate pharmacotherapeutic alternatives and for some drugs dose adjustment to the renal function...
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Susan L Samson, Alan J Garber
People with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose, or "pre-diabetes", are at high risk for progression to type 2 diabetes, as are those with metabolic syndrome or a history of gestational diabetes. Both glucose-lowering and anti-obesity pharmacotherapies have been studied to determine if the onset of type 2 diabetes can be delayed or prevented. Here we review the available data in the field. The most common theme is the reduction in insulin resistance, such as with weight loss, decreasing demands on the beta cell to improve insulin secretion and prolong its function...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Suresh C Bairwa, Nirmal Parajuli, Jason R B Dyck
Cellular energy homeostasis is a fundamental process that governs overall health of the cell and is paramount to cell survival. Central to this is the control of ATP generation and utilization, which is regulated by a complex myriad of enzymatic reactions controlling cellular metabolism. In the cardiomyocyte, ATP generated from substrate catabolism is used for numerous cellular processes including maintaining ionic homeostasis, cell repair, protein synthesis and turnover, organelle turnover, and contractile function...
July 10, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yishen Wang, Shamsher Singh, Beata Bajorek
BACKGROUND: The safety of pharmacotherapy in atrial fibrillation (AF) is compounded by a trilogy of risks old age, high-risk medications (e.g., antithrombotics, antiarrhythmics), polypharmacy due to multiple patient comorbidities. However, to date, scarce study has investigated the use of polypharmacy (including potentially inappropriate medication (PIM)) in AF patients, and how this may contribute to their overall risk of medication misadventure. OBJECTIVES: To review the extent of polypharmacy and PIM use in older patients (65 years or older) with AF...
April 2016: Pharmacy Practice
Nathan E K Procter, Nicola L Hurst, Vivek B Nooney, Hasan Imam, Raffaele De Caterina, Yuliy Y Chirkov, John D Horowitz
Altered platelet physiology may contribute to the emergence of thrombosis in patients with many forms of cardiovascular disease. Excess platelet activation may reflect increased stimulation of pro-aggregatory pathways. There is, however, increasing evidence that excessive platelet response, due to impaired efficacy of anti-aggregatory autacoids such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGI2), may be just as important. For example, diminished platelet response to NO has been documented in acute and chronic myocardial ischaemia, heart failure, aortic valve disease and in the presence of hyperglycaemia...
June 29, 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Apurba Barman, Ahana Chatterjee, Rohit Bhide
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is among the significant causes of morbidity and mortality in the present world. Around 1.6 million persons sustain TBI, whereas 200,000 die annually in India, thus highlighting the rising need for appropriate cognitive rehabilitation strategies. This literature review assesses the current knowledge of various cognitive rehabilitation training strategies. The entire spectrum of TBI severity; mild to severe, is associated with cognitive deficits of varying degree. Cognitive insufficiency is more prevalent and longer lasting in TBI persons than in the general population...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Avantika A Saraf, Alec W Petersen, Sandra F Simmons, John F Schnelle, Susan P Bell, Sunil Kripalani, Amy P Myers, Amanda S Mixon, Emily A Long, J Mary Lou Jacobsen, Eduard E Vasilevskis
BACKGROUND: More than half of the hospitalized older adults discharged to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) have more than 3 geriatric syndromes. Pharmacotherapy may be contributing to geriatric syndromes in this population. OBJECTIVES: Develop a list of medications associated with geriatric syndromes and describe their prevalence in patients discharged from acute care to SNFs. DESIGN: Literature review and multidisciplinary expert panel discussion, followed by cross-sectional analysis...
June 3, 2016: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Haye H van der Wal, Niels Grote Beverborg, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Adriaan A Voors, Peter van der Meer
INTRODUCTION: Chronic heart failure (HF) is frequently accompanied by one or more comorbidities. The presence of comorbidities in chronic HF is strongly correlated to HF severity and impaired outcome. AREAS COVERED: This review will address several comorbidities with high prevalence and/or high impact in patients with chronic HF, including diabetes, anemia, hematinic deficiencies, and hyperkalemia. The background and subsequent pharmacotherapeutic options of these comorbidities will be discussed...
August 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Jia-Kang Wang, Tzu-Lun Huang, Pei-Yuan Su, Pei-Yao Chang
Myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) can cause severe visual impairment in highly myopic patients. We review the randomized trials of two approved pharmacotherapy for treating mCNV, including intravitreal injections of ranibizumab and aflibercept. These two vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antagonists show superior ability to improve vision and reduce macular thickness, comparing with sham injections or verteporfin photodynamic therapy (vPDT). There is no severe ocular or systemic adverse reaction reported in studies associated with ranibizumab and aflibercept for mCNV...
December 2015: Eye Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"