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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901517/cx32-inhibits-tnf%C3%AE-induced-extrinsic-apoptosis-with-and-without-egfr-suppression
#1
Yongchang Lai, Liang Tao, Yifan Zhao, Xiaomin Zhang, Xingjuan Sun, Qin Wang, Chengfang Xu
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can trigger the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Our previous study indicated that connexin32 (Cx32) inhibited streptonigrin-induced intrinsic apoptosis via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway. However, whether Cx32 can exert effects on the extrinsic apoptosis pathway through EGFR signaling remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of Cx32 in extrinsic apoptosis induced by treatment with TNFα + cycloheximide (CHX) or afatinib in human cervical cancer (CaCx) cells...
September 7, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886304/the-roles-of-vasohibin-and-its-family-members-beyond-angiogenesis-modulators
#2
Hua Du, Jing Zhao, Ling Hai, Jing Wu, Hua Yi, Yonghong Shi
Vasohibin-1 is an intrinsic angiogenesis inhibitor, and is expressed in endothelial cells via induction by pro-angiogenesis factors. It is known to inhibit several processes of angiogenesis, with different mechanisms from extrinsic angiogenesis inhibitors. Vasohibin-2 is mainly expressed by mononuclear cells which have been mobilized from bone marrow. It not only promotes angiogenesis, but also modulates the releases of FGF-2 and VEGF, which are the two major inducers for vasohibin1. Hypoxic environment induces the expression of hypoxia-inducible Factor 1α with a result of VEGF release nearly in all tumor cell lines and tissues...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881725/nurse-like-cells-promote-cll-survival-through-lfa-3-cd2-interactions
#3
Frédéric Boissard, Marie Tosolini, Laetitia Ligat, Anne Quillet-Mary, Frederic Lopez, Jean-Jacques Fournié, Loic Ysebaert, Mary Poupot
In the tumoral micro-environment (TME) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), nurse-like cells (NLC) are tumor-associated macrophages which play a critical role in the survival and chemoresistance of tumoral cells. This pro-survival activity is known to involve soluble factors, but few data are available on the relative role of cells cross-talk. Here, we used a transcriptome-based approach to systematically investigate the expression of various receptor/ligand pairs at the surface of NLC/CLL cells. Their relative contribution to CLL survival was assessed both by fluorescent microscopy to identify cellular interactions and by the use of functional tests to measure the impact of uncoupling these pairs with blocking monoclonal antibodies...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862355/time-and-concentration-dependent-genomic-responses-of-the-rat-airway-to-inhaled-nickel-sulfate
#4
A Y Efremenko, J L Campbell, D E Dodd, A R Oller, H J Clewell
While insoluble nickel subsulfide (Ni3 S2 ) was carcinogenic in the lung in a 2-year rat bioassay, soluble nickel sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4* 6H2 O) was not. To investigate whether differences in the cellular responses to these two nickel compounds could underlie their differential activities, we conducted parallel studies to determine the gene expression changes in micro-dissected lung distal airway cells from Fischer 344 rats following inhalation of the two compounds for one and four weeks (6 hr per day, 5 days per week)...
September 1, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846712/hybrid-multiscale-modeling-and-prediction-of-cancer-cell-behavior
#5
Mohammad Hossein Zangooei, Jafar Habibi
BACKGROUND: Understanding cancer development crossing several spatial-temporal scales is of great practical significance to better understand and treat cancers. It is difficult to tackle this challenge with pure biological means. Moreover, hybrid modeling techniques have been proposed that combine the advantages of the continuum and the discrete methods to model multiscale problems. METHODS: In light of these problems, we have proposed a new hybrid vascular model to facilitate the multiscale modeling and simulation of cancer development with respect to the agent-based, cellular automata and machine learning methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842323/associations-of-statins-and-diabetes-with-diagnosis-of-ulcerated-cutaneous-melanoma
#6
Lena A von Schuckmann, David Smith, Maria Celia B Hughes, Maryrose Malt, Jolieke C van der Pols, Kiarash Khosrotehrani, Bernard M Smithers, Adele C Green
Ulcerated primary melanomas are associated with an inflammatory tumor micro-environment. We hypothesised that systemic pro-inflammatory states and anti-inflammatory medications are also associated with a diagnosis of ulcerated melanoma. In a cross-sectional study of 787 patients with newly-diagnosed clinical stage IB or II melanoma, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) for the association of pro-inflammatory factors (high body mass index (BMI), diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and smoking) or use of anti-inflammatory medications (statins, aspirin, corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), with ulcerated primary melanoma using regression models and subgroup analyses to control for melanoma thickness and mitotic rate...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835188/neutrophils-a-candidate-biomarker-and-target-for-radiation-therapy
#7
Antoine Schernberg, Pierre Blanchard, Cyrus Chargari, Eric Deutsch
BACKGROUND: Neutrophils are the most abundant blood-circulating white blood cells, continuously generated in the bone marrow. Growing evidence suggests they regulate the innate and adaptive immune system during tumor evolution. This review will first summarize the recent findings on neutrophils as a key player in cancer evolution, then as a potential biomarker, and finally as therapeutic targets, with respective focuses on the interplay with radiation therapy. A complex interplay: Neutrophils have been associated with tumor progression through multiple pathways...
August 23, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827410/neutral-tumor-evolution-in-myeloma-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis
#8
David C Johnson, Oleg Lenive, Jonathan Mitchell, Graham Jackson, Roger Owen, Mark Drayson, Gordon Cook, John R Jones, Charlotte Pawlyn, Faith E Davies, Brian A Walker, Christopher Wardell, Walter M Gregory, David Cairns, Gareth J Morgan, Richard S Houlston, Martin F Kaiser
Recent studies suggest that the evolutionary history of a cancer is important in forecasting clinical outlook. To gain insight into the clonal dynamics of multiple myeloma (MM) and its possible influence on patient outcome we analysed whole exome sequencing tumor data for 333 patients from Myeloma XI, a UK phase III trial and 434 patients from the CoMMpass study, all of which had received immunomodulatory therapy (IMiD). By analysing mutant allele frequency distributions in tumors we found that 17-20% of MM is under neutral evolutionary dynamics...
August 21, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767043/glutathione-responsive-micelles-incorporated-with-semiconducting-polymer-dots-and-doxorubicin-for-cancer-photothermal-chemotherapy
#9
Zhixiong Cai, Da Zhang, Xinyi Lin, Yunzhu Chen, Ming Wu, Zuwu Wei, Zhenxi Zhang, Xiaolong Liu, Cuiping Yao
Nanoplatform integrated with PTT and chemotherapy has been recognized a promising agent for enhancing cancer therapeutic outcomes, but still suffer from less controllability for optimizing their synergistic effects. Herein, we fabricated glutathione responsive micelles incorporated with semiconducting polymer dots and doxorubicin (referred as SPDOX NPs) for combining photothermal therapy (PTT) with chemotherapy to enhance cancer therapeutic efficiency. These micelles with excellent water dispersibility were comprised of three distinct functional components: (1) the monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-S-S-hexadecyl (mPEG-S-S-C16), which forms the micelles, can render hydrophobic substances water-soluble and improve the colloidal stability; (2) the disulfide linkages, can be cleaved in reductive environment for tumor-specific drug release due to the high GSH concentrations of tumor micro-environment; (3) Pdots and anticancer drug DOX that are loaded inside the hydrophobic core of the micelle can be applied to simultaneously perform PTT and chemotherapy to achieve significantly enhanced tumor killing efficiency both in vitro and in vivo...
August 2, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758926/emt-met-at-the-crossroad-of-stemness-regeneration-and-oncogenesis-the-ying-yang-equilibrium-recapitulated-in-cell-spheroids
#10
REVIEW
Elvira Forte, Isotta Chimenti, Paolo Rosa, Francesco Angelini, Francesca Pagano, Antonella Calogero, Alessandro Giacomello, Elisa Messina
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential trans-differentiation process, which plays a critical role in embryonic development, wound healing, tissue regeneration, organ fibrosis, and cancer progression. It is the fundamental mechanism by which epithelial cells lose many of their characteristics while acquiring features typical of mesenchymal cells, such as migratory capacity and invasiveness. Depending on the contest, EMT is complemented and balanced by the reverse process, the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET)...
July 29, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743531/metabolic-regulation-of-glioma-stem-like-cells-in-the-tumor-micro-environment
#11
Tom M Thomas, John S Yu
Cancer metabolism has emerged as one of the most interesting old ideas being revisited from a new perspective. In the early 20th century Otto Warburg declared metabolism the prime cause in a disease of many secondary causes, and this statement seems more prescient in view of modern expositions into the true nature of tumor evolution. As the complexity of tumor heterogeneity becomes more clear from a genetic perspective, it is important to consider the inevitably heterogeneous metabolic components of the tumor and the tumor microenvironment...
July 22, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733553/exosomal-tetraspanins-mediate-cancer-metastasis-by-altering-host-microenvironment
#12
Jun Lu, Jun Li, Shuo Liu, Teng Wang, Alessandro Ianni, Eva Bober, Thomas Braun, Rong Xiang, Shijing Yue
The metastases of malignant tumors develop through a cascade of events. The establishment of a pre-metastatic micro-environment is initiated by communication between tumors and host. Exosomes come into focus as the most potent intercellular communicators playing a pivotal role in this process. Cancer cells release exosomes into the extracellular environment prior to metastasis. Tetraspanin is a type of 4 times transmembrane proteins. It may be involved in cell motility, adhesion, morphogenesis, as well as cell and vesicular membrane fusion...
July 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733324/nadph-oxidase-2-derived-superoxide-drives-mitochondrial-transfer-from-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-to-leukemic-blasts
#13
Christopher R Marlein, Lyubov Zaitseva, Rachel E Piddock, Stephen Robinson, Dylan Edwards, Manar S Shafat, Zhigang Zhou, Matthew Lawes, Kristian M Bowles, Stuart A Rushworth
Improvements in the understanding of the metabolic cross-talk between cancer and its micro-environment are expected to lead to novel therapeutic approaches. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells have increased mitochondria compared to non-malignant CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. Furthermore, contrary to the Warburg hypothesis, (AML) relies on oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP. Here we report that in human AML, NOX2 generates superoxide which stimulates bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) to AML blast transfer of mitochondria through AML derived tunnelling nanotubes...
July 21, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715420/blood-vessel-tortuosity-selects-against-evolution-of-aggressive-tumor-cells-in-confined-tissue-environments-a-modeling-approach
#14
András Szabó, Roeland M H Merks
Cancer is a disease of cellular regulation, often initiated by genetic mutation within cells, and leading to a heterogeneous cell population within tissues. In the competition for nutrients and growth space within the tumors the phenotype of each cell determines its success. Selection in this process is imposed by both the microenvironment (neighboring cells, extracellular matrix, and diffusing substances), and the whole of the organism through for example the blood supply. In this view, the development of tumor cells is in close interaction with their increasingly changing environment: the more cells can change, the more their environment will change...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711634/role-of-epigenetic-modulation-in-cancer-stem-cell-fate
#15
REVIEW
Abhijeet Deshmukh, Mudra Binju, Frank Arfuso, Philip Newsholme, Arun Dharmarajan
A sub-population of the tumor micro-environment consists of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are responsible for the initiation and recurrence of cancer. Recently, epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling have been found to be involved in inducing epigenetic factors in CSCs. Most of these processes, such as DNA methylation, generally occur in the genome that is rich in Cytosine-Guanine repeat sequences, also known as CpG islands, which are distributed throughout the human genome...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710468/core-shell-nagdf4-caco3-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-ultrasonic-dual-modal-imaging-via-tumor-acidic-micro-enviroment-triggering
#16
Zuwu Wei, Xiao Lin, Ming Wu, Bixing Zhao, Ruhui Lin, Da Zhang, Yun Zhang, Gang Liu, Xiaolong Liu, Jingfeng Liu
For cancer diagnosis, a paramount challenge still exists in the exploring of methods that can precisely discriminate tumor tissues from their surrounding healthy tissues with a high target-to-background signal ratio. Here, we report a NaGdF4@CaCO3-PEG core-shell nanoparticle which has the tumor acidic microenvironment enhanced imaging signals of ultrasound and magnetic resonance. Under the acidic conditions, the CaCO3 shell will gradually dissolve which then facilitate the interaction of NaGdF4 with the external aqueous environment to enhance water proton relaxation...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688685/prognostic-role-of-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-ebv-positive-and-ebv-negative-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#17
Marc L Ooft, Jolique A van Ipenburg, Weibel W Braunius, Charlotte I Zuur, Senada Koljenović, Stefan M Willems
OBJECTIVES: Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) correlate with both better and worse prognosis in solid tumors. As therapeutic modalities for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are limited, immunotherapy could be a potential alternative. Up till now there is limited prognostic data on the role of TILs in NPC, so we assessed the prognostic role of TILs in Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV) positive and negative NPC. METHODS: Tissue of 92 NPCs was assessed for CD3, CD4, CD8, PD1 and PDL1 expression in the tumor's micro-environment...
August 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651487/identification-of-genes-and-pathways-related-to-lymphovascular-invasion-in-breast-cancer-patients-a-bioinformatics-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles
#18
Sukhontip Klahan, Henry Sung-Ching Wong, Shih-Hsin Tu, Wan-Hsuan Chou, Yan-Feng Zhang, Thien-Fiew Ho, Chih-Yi Liu, Shih-Ying Yih, Hsing Fang Lu, Sean Chun-Chang Chen, Chi-Cheng Huang, Wei-Chiao Chang
Surgery is the most effective treatment for breast cancer patients. However, some patients developed recurrence and distant metastasis after surgery. Adjuvant therapy is considered for high-risk patients depending on several prognostic markers, and lymphovascular invasion has become one of such prognostic markers that help physicians to identify the risk for distant metastasis and recurrence. However, the mechanism of lymphovascular invasion in breast cancer remains unknown. This study aims to unveil the genes and pathways that may involve in lymphovascular invasion in breast cancer...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635615/topography-on-a-subcellular-scale-modulates-cellular-adhesions-and-actin-stress-fiber-dynamics-in-tumor-associated-fibroblasts
#19
Mikheil Azatov, Xiaoyu Sun, Alexandra Suberi, John T Fourkas, Arpita Upadhyaya
Cells can sense and adapt to mechanical properties of their environment. The local geometry of the extracellular matrix, such as its topography, has been shown to modulate cell morphology, migration, and proliferation. Here we investigate the effect of micro/nanotopography on the morphology and cytoskeletal dynamics of human pancreatic tumor-associated fibroblast cells (TAFs). We use arrays of parallel nanoridges with variable spacings on a subcellular scale to investigate the response of TAFs to the topography of their environment...
June 21, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624797/lymph-node-metastasis-and-the-physicochemical-micro-environment-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-xenografts
#20
Lise Mari K Andersen, Catherine S Wegner, Trude G Simonsen, Ruixia Huang, Jon-Vidar Gaustad, Anette Hauge, Kanthi Galappathi, Einar K Rofstad
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients develop lymph node metastases early and have a particularly poor prognosis. The poor prognosis has been shown to be associated with the physicochemical microenvironment of the tumor tissue, which is characterized by desmoplasia, abnormal microvasculature, extensive hypoxia, and highly elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). In this study, we searched for associations between lymph node metastasis and features of the physicochemical microenvironment in an attempt to identify mechanisms leading to metastatic dissemination and growth...
July 18, 2017: Oncotarget
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