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Heather Armstrong, Michael Bording-Jorgensen, Stephanie Dijk, Eytan Wine
Cancer is a multifaceted condition, in which a senescent cell begins dividing in an irregular manner due to various factors such as DNA damage, growth factors and inflammation. Inflammation is not typically discussed as carcinogenic; however, a significant percentage of cancers arise from chronic microbial infections and damage brought on by chronic inflammation. A hallmark cancer-inducing microbe is Helicobacter pylori and its causation of peptic ulcers and potentially gastric cancer. This review discusses the recent developments in understanding microbes in health and disease and their potential role in the progression of cancer...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Jeffrey K Holden, Christian N Cunningham
The Hippo pathway is a critical transcriptional signaling pathway that regulates cell growth, proliferation and organ development. The transcriptional enhanced associate domain (TEAD) protein family consists of four paralogous transcription factors that function to modulate gene expression in response to the Hippo signaling pathway. Transcriptional activation of these proteins occurs upon binding to the co-activator YAP/TAZ whose entry into the nucleus is regulated by Lats1/2 kinase. In recent years, it has become apparent that the dysregulation and/or overexpression of Hippo pathway effectors is implicated in a wide range of cancers, including prostate, gastric and liver cancer...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Mathias Kranz, Ralf Bergmann, Torsten Kniess, Birgit Belter, Christin Neuber, Zhengxin Cai, Gang Deng, Steffen Fischer, Jiangbing Zhou, Yiyun Huang, Peter Brust, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Jens Pietzsch
Sigma-1 receptors (Sig1R) are highly expressed in various human cancer cells and hence imaging of this target with positron emission tomography (PET) can contribute to a better understanding of tumor pathophysiology and support the development of antineoplastic drugs. Two Sig1R-specific radiolabeled enantiomers ( S )-(-)- and ( R )-(+)-[18 F]fluspidine were investigated in several tumor cell lines including melanoma, squamous cell/epidermoid carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and glioblastoma. Dynamic PET scans were performed in mice to investigate the suitability of both radiotracers for tumor imaging...
March 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Morgan J Cichon, Nancy E Moran, Ken M Riedl, Steven J Schwartz, Steven K Clinton
The carotenoid lycopene is a bioactive component of tomatoes and is hypothesized to reduce risk of several chronic diseases, such as prostate cancer. The metabolism of lycopene is only beginning to be understood and some studies suggest that metabolites of lycopene may be partially responsible for bioactivity associated with the parent compound. The detection and characterization of these compounds in vivo is an important step in understanding lycopene bioactivity. The metabolism of lycopene likely involves both chemical and enzymatic oxidation...
March 20, 2018: Metabolites
Colleen A F Lawton
Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin cancer diagnosed in U.S. men and kills over 27 000 men annually. Thus, improving the outcomes for patients diagnosed with this disease is imperative. There has been a considerable amount of research done over the past several decades resulting in more cures than ever, but the death rate is still unacceptable. This oration addresses the progress that we have made over the past several decades and outlines the work yet to be done, as well as some processes to make that work happen...
April 2018: Radiology
Jia-Nan Wang, Hao-Jian Zhang, Jia-Qi Li, Wan-Jing Ding, Zhong-Jun Ma
Nine new indolocarbazoles (1-9) were isolated from the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. DT-A61. Among them compounds 1-8 featured a hydroxy group at the C-3 or C-9 position. All purified compounds were identified by 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS data. The absolute configurations of 4-6, 8, and 9 were determined by electronic circular dichroism spectroscopic data. Compound 7 exhibited significant activity against human prostate PC-3 cancer cells with an IC50 value of 0.16 μM. Compounds 1, 5, 6, and 9 showed moderate inhibition against the same cell line with IC50 values of 8...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Janet Fallon, Martin Plummeridge, Richard Daly, Andrew Medford
We report a case of a 68-year-old gentleman, found to have a right hilar soft tissue mass whilst undergoing CT staging for prostate cancer. MRI imaging showed a heterogenous, enhancing solid mass without evidence of fat content. A linear probe endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration was performed using a 19G needle. This confirmed the diagnosis of a benign chondroid hamartoma, avoiding the need for more invasive surgical biopsy.
February 7, 2018: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Heung Jae Park, Chang Hoo Park, Yoosoo Chang, Seungho Ryu
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of sitting time and physical activity level with the incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in a large sample of Korean men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort study was performed in 69 795 Korean men, free of LUTS at baseline, who were followed up annually or biennially for a mean of 2.6 years. Physical activity level and sitting time were assessed using the validated Korean version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form...
March 20, 2018: BJU International
Louise Stone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
Clemens Thoma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
Xue Li, Lanlan Pan, Lin Wei, Zunyan Yi, Xiao Wang, Zhongju Ye, Lehui Xiao, Hung-Wing Li, Jianfang Wang
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an intercellular glycoprotein produced primarily by the prostate gland, which is commonly chosen as the initial target for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. In this work, we demonstrate a simple yet sensitive sandwich-type single-particle enumeration (SPE) immunoassay for the quantitative detection of PSA in a flow chamber. The design is based on the luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) between upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs)...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Sonia-Yuki Selmi, Emmanuel Promayon, Jocelyne Troccaz
PURPOSE: We present a hybrid 2D-3D ultrasound (US) rigid registration method for navigated prostate biopsy that enables continuous localization of the biopsy trajectory during the exam. METHODS: Current clinical computer-assisted biopsy systems use either sensor-based or image-based approaches. We combine the advantages of both in order to obtain an accurate and real-time navigation based only on an approximate localization of the US probe. Starting with features extracted in both 2D and 3D images, our method introduces a variant of the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Ingrid L Bakker, Sandra T van Tiel, Joost Haeck, Gabriela N Doeswijk, Erik de Blois, Marcel Segbers, Theodosia Maina, Berthold A Nock, Marion de Jong, Simone U Dalm
PURPOSE: The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), overexpressed on various tumor types, is an attractive target for receptor-mediated imaging and therapy. Another interesting approach would be the use of GRPR radioligands for pre-operative imaging and subsequent radio-guided surgery, with the goal to improve surgical outcome. GRPR radioligands were successfully implemented in clinical studies, especially Sarabesin 3 (SB3) is an appealing GRPR antagonist with high receptor affinity...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Rihito Aizawa, Kenji Takayama, Kiyonao Nakamura, Takahiro Inoue, Takashi Kobayashi, Shusuke Akamatsu, Toshinari Yamasaki, Osamu Ogawa, Takashi Mizowaki
BACKGROUND: Although definitive external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is one of the treatment options for non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (NM-CRPC), there are limited data on the long-term outcomes of this treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 31 NM-CRPC patients consecutively treated with definitive EBRT. The median age was 74 years upon EBRT initiation. The initial T stage distribution was as follows: T1c in 3, T2 in 11, T3 in 14, and T4 in 3 cases, respectively...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Juan Pablo Sade, Carlos Alberto Vargas Báez, Martin Greco, Carlos Humberto Martínez, Miguel Ángel Álvarez Avitia, Carlos Palazzo, Narciso Hernández Toriz, Patricia Isabel Bernal Trujillo, Diogo Assed Bastos, Fabio Augusto Schutz, Santiago Bella, Lucas Nogueira, Neal D Shore
Prostate cancer is a significant burden and cause of mortality in Latin America. This article reviews the treatment options for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and provides consensus recommendations to assist Latin American prostate cancer specialists with clinical decision making. A multidisciplinary expert panel from Latin America reviewed the available data and their individual experience to develop clinical consensus opinions for the use of life-prolonging agents in mCRPC, with consideration given to factors influencing patient selection and treatment monitoring...
March 19, 2018: Medical Oncology
Matthew A Morgan, Nicholas Papanicolaou
PURPOSE: This article reviews current prostatectomy techniques and then techniques for fluoroscopic voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) evaluation of the prostate and bladder after prostatectomy. Both normal post-prostatectomy appearances and complications will be reviewed. CONCLUSION: VCUG is a useful evaluation for both common and uncommon post-prostatectomy complications and appropriate interpretation of the VCUG complications is important to aid the urologist's clinical decision making...
March 19, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Austin B Hopper, Ajay P S Sandhu, J Kellogg Parsons, Brent Rose, John P Einck
Purpose: Cryotherapy is an option for the primary treatment of localized prostate cancer, along with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy, and brachytherapy. Although it is known that local recurrence can occur in >20% of patients treated with primary cryotherapy, unfortunately there is a paucity of data on later salvage treatments. The use of external beam radiation therapy is an attractive option after cryotherapy failure, but there is little data on its efficacy and toxicity...
January 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Essilvo Sulejmani, Houjian Cai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Oncoscience
George Awuku Asare, Sabina Ekua Andam, Henry Asare-Anane, Seth Ammanquah, Yvonne Anang-Quartey, Daniel K Afriyie, Iddis Musah
Background: Oxidative stress and antioxidants have been implicated in many diseases including prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Lipid peroxidation contributes to oxidative stress. However, new and emerging antioxidants such as paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and arylesterase (ARE) associated with lipoprotein peroxidation have not been examined in BPH patients. PON1 and ARE, a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol-bound enzyme system of antioxidants, protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and HDL from oxidation by hydrolysis...
March 2018: Prostate International
Lynn Tan, Luke L Wang, Weranja Ranasinghe, Raj Persad, Damien Bolton, Nathan Lawrentschuk, Shomik Sengupta
Background: The aim of the paper is to investigate the outcomes of patients younger than 55 years in Victoria, Australia undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Data on all men undergoing RP in Victoria between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2014 were obtained from the Victorian Cancer Registry. Tumor characteristics including Gleason grade, stage of disease (based on final pathology specimen), and cause of death were also obtained...
March 2018: Prostate International
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