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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109197/everolimus-is-better-than-rapamycin-in-attenuating-neuroinflammation-in-kainic-acid-induced-seizures
#1
Ming-Tao Yang, Yi-Chin Lin, Whae-Hong Ho, Chao-Lin Liu, Wang-Tso Lee
BACKGROUND: Microglia is responsible for neuroinflammation, which may aggravate brain injury in diseases like epilepsy. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is related to microglial activation with subsequent neuroinflammation. In the present study, rapamycin and everolimus, both as mTOR inhibitors, were investigated in models of kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. METHODS: In vitro, we treated BV2 cells with KA and LPS...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109096/-vildagliptin-suppresses-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-by-up-regulating-glucagon-like-peptide-1
#2
Yue-Tao Wen, Kun-Lun Wu, Quan-Hong Shi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vildagliptin on pentamethazol (PTZ)-induced epilepsy in rats and explore the molecular mechanism. METHODS: Samples of temporal cortex from 23 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were collected as epilepsy group and samples of temporal cortex from 14 patients with brain trauma were used as control group. Ninety male SD rats were randomly divided into control group (group A), PTZ-induced epilepsy group (group B), saline 2 mL/kg group (group C), vildagliptin 2...
January 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108955/-unforgettable-a-pictorial-essay-on-anatomy-and-pathology-of-the-hippocampus
#3
REVIEW
Sven Dekeyzer, Isabelle De Kock, Omid Nikoubashman, Stephanie Vanden Bossche, Ruth Van Eetvelde, Jeroen De Groote, Marjan Acou, Martin Wiesmann, Karel Deblaere, Eric Achten
: The hippocampus is a small but complex anatomical structure that plays an important role in spatial and episodic memory. The hippocampus can be affected by a wide range of congenital variants and degenerative, inflammatory, vascular, tumoral and toxic-metabolic pathologies. Magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred imaging technique for evaluating the hippocampus. The main indications requiring tailored imaging sequences of the hippocampus are medically refractory epilepsy and dementia...
January 20, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108871/quantitative-spm-analysis-involving-an-adaptive-template-may-be-easily-applied-to-18-f-fdg-pet-images-of-the-rat-brain
#4
Sylvain Poussier, Fatiha Maskali, Gaelle Vexiau, Antoine Verger, Henri Boutley, Gilles Karcher, Emmanuel Raffo, Pierre-Yves Marie
PURPOSE: The Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software is frequently used for the quantitative analysis of patients' brain images obtained from 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ([(18)F]FDG PET). However, its adaptation to small animals is difficult, particularly for the initial step of spatial normalization which requires a specific brain anatomical template. This study was aimed at determining whether SPM analysis can be applied to rat, and more specifically to the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy, by using an adaptive template...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108639/prevalence-of-epilepsy-seizures-as-a-comorbidity-of-neurologic-disorders-in-nursing-homes
#5
Angela K Birnbaum, Ilo E Leppik, Kenneth Svensden, Lynn E Eberly
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of epilepsy/seizure (epi/sz) comorbid with other neurologic disorders in elderly nursing home residents and to examine demographic and regional variability and associations with clinical characteristics. METHODS: We studied 5 cross-sectional cohorts of all residents in any Medicare/Medicaid-certified nursing home in the United States on July 15 of each year from 2003 to 2007. Epi/sz was identified by ICD-9 codes (345.xx or 780...
January 20, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108581/reduced-emergency-department-utilization-by-patients-with-epilepsy-using-qi-methodology
#6
Anup D Patel, Eric G Wood, Daniel M Cohen
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy or seizure care is the most common neurologic condition that presents to an emergency department (ED) and accounts for a large number of annual cases. Our aim was to decrease seizure-related ED visits from our baseline of 17 ED visits per month per 1000 patients to 13.6 ED visits per month per 1000 patients (20%) by July 2014. METHODS: Our strategy was to develop a quality improvement (QI) project utilizing the Institute for Healthcare Improvement model...
January 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105459/mog-antibody-positive-benign-unilateral-cerebral-cortical-encephalitis-with-epilepsy
#7
Ryo Ogawa, Ichiro Nakashima, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Kimihiko Kaneko, Tetsuya Akaishi, Yoshiki Takai, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato, Shuhei Nishiyama, Tatsuro Misu, Hiroshi Kuroda, Masashi Aoki, Kazuo Fujihara
OBJECTIVE: To describe the features of adult patients with benign, unilateral cerebral cortical encephalitis positive for the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody. METHODS: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, after we encountered an index case of MOG antibody-positive unilateral cortical encephalitis with epileptic seizure, we tested for MOG antibody using our in-house, cell-based assay in a cohort of 24 consecutive adult patients with steroid-responsive encephalitis of unknown etiology seen at Tohoku University Hospital (2008-2014)...
March 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105099/lamotrigine-decreases-mrp8-and-il-7-in-rat-models-of-intractable-epilepsy-secondary-to-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#8
Jianping Wei, Qingmei Nie, Feng Li
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lamotrigine and the expression of myeloid-related protein 8 (MRP8) and interleukin-7 (IL-7) in the treatment of focal cortical dysplasia with secondary intractable epilepsy. In this study, rats with focal cortical dysplasia with secondary intractable epilepsy (constructed by our laboratory) were selected and used for experimentation, 21-day Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the control group (38 rats), the observation group I (39 rats), and the observation group II (38 rats)...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104740/glucose-metabolic-profile-by-visual-assessment-combined-with-spm-analysis-in-pediatric-patients-with-epilepsy
#9
Yuankai Zhu, Shuang Wu, Haifeng Hou, Jianfeng Ji, Kai Zhang, Qing Chen, Lin Chen, Haiying Cheng, Liuyan Gao, Zexin Chen, Hong Zhang, Jianhua Feng, Mei Tian
: Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) has been used for presurgical localization of epileptogenic foci, however in non-surgical patients, the correlation between cerebral glucose metabolism and clinical severity has not been fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucose metabolic profile using (18)F-FDG PET-CT imaging in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: One hundred pediatric epilepsy patients who have received (18)F-FDG PET-CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) examinations were respectively included...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104639/hippocampal-atrophy-is-associated-with-altered-hippocampus-posterior-cingulate-cortex-connectivity-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#10
Y C Shih, C E Tseng, F-H Lin, H H Liou, W Y I Tseng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis have structural and functional abnormalities in the mesial temporal regions. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of the epileptic network in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis, we aimed to clarify the relationships between hippocampal atrophy and the altered connection between the hippocampus and the posterior cingulate cortex in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis...
January 19, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104461/cxcr4-antagonist-amd3100-reverses-the-neurogenesis-promoted-by-enriched-environment-and-suppresses-long-term-seizure-activity-in-adult-rats-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Zhike Zhou, Tingting Liu, Xiaoyu Sun, Xiaopeng Mu, Gang Zhu, Ting Xiao, Mei Zhao, Chuansheng Zhao
It has been showed that enriched environment (EE) enhances the hippocampal neurogenesis and improves the cognitive impairments, accompanied by the increased expressions of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in adult rats of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We examined whether the enhanced neurogenesis and improved cognitive functions induced by EE following seizures were mediated by SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the EE combined with CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 on neurogenesis, cognitive functions and the long-term seizure activity in the TLE model...
January 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104438/safety-of-externally-stimulated-intracranial-electrodes-during-functional-mri-at-1-5t
#12
Pallab K Bhattacharyya, Jeffery Mullin, Bryan S Lee, Jorge A Gonzalez-Martinez, Stephen E Jones
Surgical resection of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is a potential cure for medically refractory focal epilepsy. Proper identification of the EZ is essential for such resection. Synergistic application of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) simultaneously with stimulation of a single externalized intracranial stereotactic EEG (SEEG) electrode has the potential to improve identification of the EZ. While most EEG-fMRI studies use the electrodes passively to record electrical activity, it is possible to stimulate the brain using the electrodes by connecting them with conducting cables to the stimulation hardware...
January 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104433/micrornas-in-the-pathophysiology-of-epilepsy
#13
REVIEW
Gary P Brennan, David C Henshall
Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common and often drug-resistant seizure disorder. The underlying pathological processes which give rise to the development of spontaneous seizures include neuroinflammation, cell loss, neurogenesis and dendritic abnormalities and many of these are driven by insult-induced changes in gene expression and gene expression regulation. MicroRNAs are powerful modulators of post-transcriptional gene expression which are dysregulated during epileptogenesis. The advent of locked nucleic acid (LNA) based inhibitory methods and mimic technology has facilitated in vivo functional assessment of these molecules in epilepsy...
January 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104412/features-of-the-broader-autism-phenotype-in-people-with-epilepsy-support-shared-mechanisms-between-epilepsy-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Annie E Richard, Ingrid E Scheffer, Sarah J Wilson
RICHARD, A.E., I.E. Scheffer and S.J. Wilson. Features of the broader autism phenotype in people with epilepsy support shared mechanisms between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 21(1) XXX-XXX, 2016.- To inform on mechanisms underlying the comorbidity of epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we conducted meta-analyses to test whether impaired facial emotion recognition (FER) and theory of mind (ToM), key phenotypic traits of ASD, are more common in people with epilepsy (PWE) than controls...
January 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104084/access-to-vagal-projections-via-cutaneous-electrical-stimulation-of-the-neck-fmri-evidence-in-healthy-humans
#15
Eleni Frangos, Barry R Komisaruk
BACKGROUND: Stimulation of the vagus nerve via implanted electrodes is currently used to treat refractory epilepsy and depression. Recently, a non-invasive approach to vagal stimulation has demonstrated similar beneficial effects, but it remains unclear whether these effects are mediated via activation of afferent vagal fibers. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to ascertain whether afferent vagal projections can be accessed non-invasively by transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the antero-lateral surface of the neck, which overlies the course of the vagus nerve...
January 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103894/impacts-of-caring-for-a-child-with-the-cdkl5-disorder-on-parental-wellbeing-and-family-quality-of-life
#16
Yuka Mori, Jenny Downs, Kingsley Wong, Barbara Anderson, Amy Epstein, Helen Leonard
BACKGROUND: Although research in this area remains sparse, raising a child with some genetic disorders has been shown to adversely impact maternal health and family quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate such impacts in families with a child with the CDKL5 disorder, a newly recognised genetic disorder causing severe neurodevelopmental impairments and refractory epilepsy. METHODS: Data were sourced from the International CDKL5 Disorder Database to which 192 families with a child with a pathogenic CDKL5 mutation had provided data by January 2016...
January 19, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103279/aristaless-related-homeobox-arx-interacts-with-%C3%AE-catenin-bcl9-and-p300-to-regulate-canonical-wnt-signaling
#17
Il-Taeg Cho, Youngshin Lim, Jeffrey A Golden, Ginam Cho
Mutations in the Aristaless Related Homeobox (ARX) gene are associated with a spectrum of structural (lissencephaly) and functional (epilepsy and intellectual disabilities) neurodevelopmental disorders. How mutations in this single transcription factor can result in such a broad range of phenotypes remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that ARX functions through distinct interactions with specific transcription factors/cofactors to regulate unique target genes in different cell types. To identify ARX interacting proteins, we performed an unbiased proteomics screen and identified several components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, including β-catenin (CTNNB1), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9 (BCL9) and leucine rich repeat flightless interacting protein 2 (LRRFIP2), in cortical progenitor cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102781/a-neurodevelopmental-disorder-with-a-nonsense-mutation-in-the-ox-2-antigen-domain-of-the-amyloid-precursor-protein-app-gene
#18
Khue Vu Nguyen, Karen Leydiker, Raymond Wang, Jose Abdenur, William L Nyhan
We report a patient, an infant with a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting intractable complex partial epilepsy, bull's eye maculopathy, microcephaly, bilateral cataracts, truncal hypotonia, and spasticity of all four extremities. Sequencing of genomic DNA revealed mutations in (a) exon 8 (Ox-2 antigen domain) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene: c.1075C>T, p.Arg359(*) (b) exon 8 of the senataxin (SETX) gene: c.4738C>T, p.Arg1580Cys, and (c) exon 2 of the ceroid-lipofuscinosis, neuronal 8 (CLN8) gene: c...
January 19, 2017: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102460/neural-mass-models-as-a-tool-to-investigate-neural-dynamics-during-seizures
#19
Tatiana Kameneva, Tianlin Ying, Ben Guo, Dean R Freestone
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders and is characterized by recurrent seizures. We use theoretical neuroscience tools to study brain dynamics during seizures. We derive and simulate a computational model of a network of hippocampal neuronal populations. Each population within the network is based on a model that has been shown to replicate the electrophysiological dynamics observed during seizures. The results provide insights into possible mechanisms for seizure spread. We observe that epileptiform activity remains localized to a pathological region when a global connectivity parameter is less than a critical value...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102150/ultra-rare-genetic-variation-in-common-epilepsies-a-case-control-sequencing-study
#20
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Despite progress in understanding the genetics of rare epilepsies, the more common epilepsies have proven less amenable to traditional gene-discovery analyses. We aimed to assess the contribution of ultra-rare genetic variation to common epilepsies. METHODS: We did a case-control sequencing study with exome sequence data from unrelated individuals clinically evaluated for one of the two most common epilepsy syndromes: familial genetic generalised epilepsy, or familial or sporadic non-acquired focal epilepsy...
February 2017: Lancet Neurology
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