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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475172/brain-network-alteration-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-cognitive-impairment
#1
Hongyu Yang, Chao Zhang, Chang Liu, Tao Yu, Guojun Zhang, Nan Chen, Kuncheng Li
The aims of this study were to investigate the brain network alternation in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with and without cognitive impairment (CI) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and to further explore the potential mechanisms of epilepsy-induced CI. Forty patients with TLE and nineteen healthy controls (HCs) were recruited for this study. All participants received the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test, and the patients were divided into CI (n=21) and cognitive nonimpairment (CNI) groups (n=19) according to MoCA performance...
February 20, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475094/effects-of-levetiracetam-and-sulthiame-on-eeg-in-benign-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Moritz Tacke, Ingo Borggraefe, Lucia Gerstl, Florian Heinen, Katharina Vill, Michaela Bonfert, Thomas Bast, Bernd Axel Neubauer, Friedrich Baumeister, Martina Baethmann, Karl Bentele, Christian Blank, Harald M Blank, Harald Bode, Friedrich Bosch, Ulrich Brandl, Knut Brockmann, Peter Dahlem, Jan-Peter Ernst, Evemarie Feldmann, Andreas Fiedler, Michael Gerigk, Soeren Heß, Christiane Hikel, Hans-Georg Hoffmann, Matthias Kieslich, Joerg Klepper, Gerhard Kluger, Hartmut Koch, Walter Koch, Rudolf Korinthenberg, Ilona Krois, Hermann Kühne, Gerhard Kurlemann, Michaela Mandl, Ulrike Mause, Peter Navratil, Joachim Opp, Johann Penzien, Viola Prietsch, Axel Quattländer, Dietz Rating, Ulrike Schara, Mohammed G Shamdeen, Andreas Sprinz, Hildegard Wendker-Magrabi, Ulrich Stephani, Hiltrud Muhle, Hans-Michael Straßburg, Bärbel Töpke, Regina Trollmann, Elisabeth Tuschen-Hofstätter, Stephan Waltz, Gabriele Weber, Frank U Wien, Markus Wolff, Tilman Polster, Hedwig Freitag, Ötzcam Sönmez, Klaus Reinhardt, Marion Traus, Zeecam Hoovey
PURPOSE: BECTS (benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes) is associated with characteristic EEG findings. This study examines the influence of anti-convulsive treatment on the EEG. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial including 43 children with BECTS, EEGs were performed prior to treatment with either Sulthiame or Levetiracetam as well as three times under treatment. Using the spike-wave-index, the degree of EEG pathology was quantified. The EEG before and after initiation of treatment was analyzed...
February 3, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475054/intravenous-infusion-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-reduces-epileptogenesis-in-a-rat-model-of-status-epilepticus
#3
Shinobu Fukumura, Masanori Sasaki, Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, Shinichi Oka, Masahito Nakazaki, Hiroshi Nagahama, Tomonori Morita, Takuro Sakai, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi, Jeffery D Kocsis, Osamu Honmou
OBJECTIVE: Status epilepticus (SE) causes neuronal cell death, aberrant mossy fiber sprouting (MFS), and cognitive deteriorations. The present study tested the hypothesis that systemically infused mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduce epileptogenesis by inhibiting neuronal cell death and suppressing aberrant MFS, leading to cognitive function preservation in a rat model of epilepsy. METHODS: SE was induced using the lithium-pilocarpine injection model. The seizure frequency was scored using a video-monitoring system and the Morris water maze test was carried out to evaluate cognitive function...
February 14, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474534/cdkl5-protein-substitution-therapy-rescues-neurological-phenotypes-of-a-mouse-model-of-cdkl5-disorder
#4
Stefania Trazzi, Marianna De Franceschi, Claudia Fuchs, Stefano Bastianini, Rocchina Viggiano, Leonardo Lupori, Raffaele Mazziotti, Giorgio Medici, Viviana Lo Martire, Elisa Ren, Roberto Rimondini, Giovanna Zoccoli, Renata Bartesaghi, Tommaso Pizzorusso, Elisabetta Ciani
Cyclin-dependent kinase like-5 (CDKL5) disorder is a rare neurodevelopmental disease caused by mutations in the CDKL5 gene. The consequent misexpression of the CDKL5 protein in the nervous system leads to a severe phenotype characterized by intellectual disability, motor impairment, visual deficits, and early-onset epilepsy. No therapy is available for CDKL5 disorder. It has been reported that a protein transduction domain (TAT) is able to deliver macromolecules into cells and even into the brain when fused to a given protein...
February 20, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474118/young-people-s-experiences-of-living-with-epilepsy-the-significance-of-family-resilience
#5
Judith Chew, John Carpenter, Anne M Haase
OBJECTIVE: Young people with chronic illnesses, such as epilepsy, tend to have poorer psychosocial outcomes compared to their peers. Nevertheless, not all young people experience difficulties adapting to living with epilepsy. The aim of this study was to examine family processes, as little is known about their impact on young people's adaptation to the condition. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 young people, aged between 13 and 16 years old, to explore their experiences of living with epilepsy from the perspective of family resilience...
February 23, 2018: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473981/theta-frequency-decreases-throughout-the-hippocampal-formation-in-a-focal-epilepsy-model
#6
A Kilias, U Häussler, K Heining, U P Froriep, C A Haas, U Egert
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is characterized by focal, recurrent spontaneous seizures, sclerosis and granule cell dispersion in the hippocampal formation. Changes in theta rhythm properties have been correlated with the severity of hippocampal restructuring and were suggested as a cause of memory deficits accompanying epilepsy. For severe sclerosis, it has even been questioned whether theta band oscillations persists. We asked how theta oscillations change with graded restructuring along the longitudinal hippocampal axis and whether these changes correlate with the overall severity of temporal lobe epilepsy...
February 23, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473693/prediction-of-memory-formation-based-on-absolute-electroencephalographic-phases-in-rhinal-cortex-and-hippocampus-outperforms-prediction-based-on-stimulus-related-phase-shifts
#7
Marlene Derner, Amirhossein Jahanbekam, Christian Bauckhage, Nikolai Axmacher, Juergen Fell
Absolute (i.e. measured) rhinal and hippocampal phase values are predictive for memory formation. It has been an open question, whether the capability of mediotemporal structures to react to stimulus presentation with phase shifts may be similarly indicative of successful memory formation. We analyzed data from 27 epilepsy patients implanted with depth electrodes in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, who performed a continuous word recognition task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) phase information related to the first presentation of repeatedly presented words was used for prediction of subsequent remembering versus forgetting applying a support vector machine...
February 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473152/white-matter-spongiosis-with-vigabatrin-therapy-for-infantile-spasms
#8
Phillip L Pearl, Annapurna Poduri, Sanjay P Prabhu, Chellamani Harini, Richard Goldstein, Richard M Atkinson, Dawna Armstrong, Hannah Kinney
The histopathology, "white matter spongiosis," defined by electron microscopy (EM) as "intramyelinic edema," has been associated with vigabatrin therapy in various animal models, but its role or significance in clinical studies is unknown. We conducted a neuropathological examination on a 27-month-old boy with bilateral polymicrogyria and epilepsy after sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The patient was initiated on vigabatrin at 4 months of age, which controlled infantile spasms, and was continued as maintenance therapy...
February 23, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472384/neuropsychological-testing
#9
EDITORIAL
Chiara Zucchella, Angela Federico, Alice Martini, Michele Tinazzi, Michelangelo Bartolo, Stefano Tamburin
Neuropsychological testing is a key diagnostic tool for assessing people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment, but can also help in other neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy. While cognitive screening tests offer gross information, detailed neuropsychological evaluation can provide data on different cognitive domains (visuospatial function, memory, attention, executive function, language and praxis) as well as neuropsychiatric and behavioural features...
February 22, 2018: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471558/indication-technique-and-long-term-results-after-shoulder-arthrodesis-performed-with-plate-fixation
#10
Ulrich Irlenbusch, Olaf Rott, Lars Irlenbusch
AIM: Arthrodesis of the shoulder joint is a radical event, so it is difficult to explain its significance to patients. It has been the last resort in hopeless cases. Knowledge of long-term results and evaluation of advantages and disadvantages seems to be helpful in this regard. METHODS: Eleven patients with mean age of 45 (31 - 58) years were operated between 2000 and 2013. All patients could be included in the investigation (FU mean 8.5 [3 - 16] years; 8 male and 3 female; right 9, left 2)...
February 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471335/after-70-years-of-fighting-an-age-old-scourge-onchocerciasis-in-uganda-the-end-is-in-sight
#11
Moses N Katabarwa, Thomson Lakwo, Peace Habomugisha, Thomas R Unnasch, Rolf Garms, Lauri Hudson-Davis, Edson Byamukama, Annet Khainza, Johnson Ngorok, Edridah Tukahebwa, Frank O Richards
Onchocerciasis causes severe itching, serious skin disease and ocular damage leading to visual impairment or permanent blindness. It is associated with hanging groin, epilepsy, Nakalanga dwarfism and, most recently, nodding disease. This disease affected communities in 17 transmission foci in 37 districts of Uganda, where about 6.7 million people are once at risk. The efforts against onchocerciasis in Uganda commenced in the late 1940s, when vector control was launched using dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane; by 1973, Simulium damnosum had been eliminated in the Victoria focus...
March 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471258/outcomes-of-pregnancies-in-women-taking-antiepileptic-drugs-for-non-epilepsy-indications
#12
Dana Jazayeri, Janet Graham, Alison Hitchcock, Terence J O'Brien, Frank J E Vajda
PURPOSE: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), particularly valproate (VPA), are known to be teratogens when taken by women with epilepsy (WWE), but the risk in women who take these drugs for indications other than epilepsy have been little studied. This study aims to investigate the incidence of birth defects in children born to mothers taking AEDs for non-epilepsy indications. METHODS: The Australian Pregnancy Register (APR), established in 1998, is a prospective observational study operating with ethical approval and informed written consent for participation...
February 17, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471099/the-dynamics-of-error-processing-in-the-human-brain-as-reflected-by-high-gamma-activity-in-noninvasive-and-intracranial-eeg
#13
Martin Völker, Lukas D J Fiederer, Sofie Berberich, Jiří Hammer, Joos Behncke, Pavel Kršek, Martin Tomášek, Petr Marusič, Peter C Reinacher, Volker A Coenen, Moritz Helias, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Wolfram Burgard, Tonio Ball
Error detection in motor behavior is a fundamental cognitive function heavily relying on cortical information processing. Neural activity in the high-gamma frequency band (HGB) closely reflects such local cortical processing, but little is known about its role in error processing, particularly in the healthy human brain. Here we characterize the error-related response of the human brain based on data obtained with noninvasive EEG optimized for HGB mapping in 31 healthy subjects (15 females, 16 males), and additional intracranial EEG data from 9 epilepsy patients (4 females, 5 males)...
February 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471054/developmental-changes-of-gaba-immunoreactivity-in-cortico-thalamic-networks-of-an-absence-seizure-model
#14
REVIEW
Cristiano Bombardi, Marcello Venzi, Vincenzo Crunelli, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
Absence seizures (ASs) are associated with abnormalities in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission in the thalamus and the cortex. In the present study, we used light microscopy GABA immunocytochemistry to quantify the GABA-immunoreactive (GABA-IR) neurons and neuropil in the thalamic ventral basal (VB) nucleus, the nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT), the dorsal lateral geniculate (dLGN), the primary motor cortex (M1) and perioral region of the somatosensory cortex (S1po) of genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS)...
February 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471022/temporal-lobe-epilepsy-induced-neurodegeneration-and-cognitive-deficits-implications-for-aging
#15
REVIEW
Vrinda M, Arun S, Srikumar B N, Bindu M Kutty, Shankaranarayana Rao B S
Epilepsy is a neurological condition associated with seizures, neurodegeneration, circuit reorganization, and other structural and functional abnormalities. These elements ultimately lead to behavioural alterations such as anxiety, depression, and importantly cognitive impairment like learning disability and memory impairment. These factors can attribute to acceleration of aging and cognitive impairment in middle-aged people, which is otherwise evident in dementia and Alzheimer's disease among elderly people...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470694/new-prospects-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-ameliorating-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
Neveen A Salem, Marwa El-Shamarka, Yasser Khadrawy, Shaimaa El-Shebiney
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is present in 30% of epileptic patients and does not respond to conventional treatments. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) induce endogenous neural stem cells, inhibit neurodegeneration, and promote brain self-repair mechanisms. The present study addresses the feasibility of BMSCs transplantation against pilocarpine-induced TLE experimentally. BMSCs were injected either intravenously (IV) or in hippocampus bilaterally (IC). Increased cell count of BMSCs was achieved via IC route...
February 22, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469655/valentin-magnan-and-sergey-korsakov-french-and-russian-pioneers-in-the-study-of-alcohol-abuse
#17
Paul Eling, Alla Vein
This study focuses on two outstanding psychiatrists: the Frenchman Valentin Magnan (1835-1916) and the Russian Sergey Korsakov (1854-1900). Their international renown is primarily associated with their investigations into health consequences of alcohol consumption; they were pioneers in this field, and happened to know each other well. The similarities and differences are shown in social and scientific approaches adopted by these two scientists. In his work, Magnan focused mainly on absinthe and epilepsy; he considered alcoholism to be a hereditary mental disorder...
February 22, 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468672/ca-v-3-2-drives-sustained-burst-firing-which-is-critical-for-absence-seizure-propagation-in-reticular-thalamic-neurons
#18
Stuart M Cain, John R Tyson, Hyun-Beom Choi, Rebecca Ko, Paulo J C Lin, Jeffrey M LeDue, Kim L Powell, Louis-Philippe Bernier, Ravi L Rungta, Yi Yang, Pieter R Cullis, Terence J O'Brien, Brian A MacVicar, Terrance P Snutch
OBJECTIVE: Genetic alterations have been identified in the CACNA1H gene, encoding the CaV 3.2 T-type calcium channel in patients with absence epilepsy, yet the precise mechanisms relating to seizure propagation and spike-wave-discharge (SWD) pacemaking remain unknown. Neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) express high levels of CaV 3.2 calcium channels, and we investigated whether a gain-of-function mutation in the Cacna1h gene in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) contributes to seizure propagation and pacemaking in the TRN...
February 21, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468591/a-rat-model-of-perinatal-seizures-provoked-by-global-hypoxia
#19
Jason A Justice, Russell M Sanchez
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) refers to acute brain injury that results from perinatal asphyxia. HIE is a major cause of neonatal seizures, and outcomes can range from apparent recovery to severe cognitive impairment, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy. Acute partial seizures frequently aid in indicating the severity and localization of brain injury. However, evidence also suggests that the occurrence of seizures further increases the likelihood of epilepsy in later life regardless of the severity of the initial injury...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468563/neurobiological-correlates-of-alpha-tocopherol-antiepileptogenic-effects-and-microrna-expression-modulation-in-a-rat-model-of-kainate-induced-seizures
#20
Patrizia Ambrogini, Maria Cristina Albertini, Michele Betti, Claudia Galati, Davide Lattanzi, David Savelli, Michael Di Palma, Stefania Saccomanno, Desirée Bartolini, Pierangelo Torquato, Gabriele Ruffolo, Fabiola Olivieri, Francesco Galli, Eleonora Palma, Andrea Minelli, Riccardo Cuppini
Seizure-triggered maladaptive neural plasticity and neuroinflammation occur during the latent period as a key underlying event in epilepsy chronicization. Previously, we showed that α-tocopherol (α-T) reduces hippocampal neuroglial activation and neurodegeneration in the rat model of kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE). These findings allowed us to postulate an antiepileptogenic potential for α-T in hippocampal excitotoxicity, in line with clinical evidence showing that α-T improves seizure control in drug-resistant patients...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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