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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230913/an-unexpected-finding-in-sudep-involving-a-child-focal-myocardial-infarct-adjacent-to-bundle-of-his
#1
Jadee L Neff, Peter T Lin
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a nontraumatic, nondrowning death of an individual with epilepsy in which an autopsy with appropriate ancillary studies does not identify a cause of death. The mechanism of death in SUDEP is unknown, but is thought to involve cardiac and/or respiratory mechanisms. Research in SUDEP is hindered by a lack of consensus regarding required components of a death investigation before a cause of death may be certified as SUDEP. Histopathologic examination of the cardiac conduction system is not routinely performed in SUDEP death investigations...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230619/population-pharmacokinetics-of-topiramate-in-japanese-pediatric-and-adult-patients-with-epilepsy-using-routinely-monitored-data
#2
Masato Takeuchi, Ikuko Yano, Satoko Ito, Mitsuhiro Sugimoto, Shota Yamamoto, Atsushi Yonezawa, Akio Ikeda, Kazuo Matsubara
BACKGROUND: Topiramate is a second-generation antiepileptic drug used as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy in adults and children with partial seizures. A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to improve the topiramate dosage adjustment for individualized treatment. METHODS: Patients whose steady-state serum concentration of topiramate was routinely monitored at Kyoto University Hospital from April 2012 to March 2013 were included in the model-building data...
February 20, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230254/resistance-to-valproic-acid-as-predictor-of-treatment-resistance-in-genetic-generalized-epilepsies
#3
Joanna Gesche, Marina Khanevski, Carl Solberg, Christoph Patrick Beier
This study aimed at defining clinical predictors of drug resistance in adults with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) who were treated with a broad spectrum of antiepileptic drugs. Of a cohort of 137 unselected adult GGE patients with long-term follow up, clinical and demographic data, putative prognostic factors (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, electroencephalography [EEG]), treatment response, and data indicative of social status were collected. Fifty-eight patients had seizures within the past year. Thirty-three patients met the definition of "drug-resistant epilepsy" according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) definition...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230174/a-hydrophobic-patch-surrounding-trp154-in-human-neuroserpin-controls-the-helix-f-dynamics-with-implications-in-inhibition-and-aggregation
#4
Mohammad Farhan Ali, Abhinav Kaushik, Charu Kapil, Dinesh Gupta, Mohamad Aman Jairajpuri
Neuroserpin (NS) mediated inhibition of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is important for brain development, synapse formation and memory. Aberrations in helix F and β-sheet A movement during inhibition can directly lead to epilepsy or dementia. Conserved W154 residue in a hydrophobic patch between helix F and β-sheet A is ideally placed to control their movement during inhibition. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation on wild type (WT) NS and its two variants (W154A and W154P) demonstrated partial deformation in helix F and conformational differences in strands 1A and 2A only in W154P...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229997/pregnancy-combined-with-epilepsy-and-cerebral-cavernous-malformation
#5
Ya-Lan Xu, Jun-Tao Liu, Yi-Jun Song, Xi-Ya Zhou, Qing-Wei Qi, Xu-Ming Bian, Zhi-Qin Xu, Lei Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229464/modified-atkins-diet-is-an-effective-treatment-for-children-with-doose-syndrome
#6
Adelheid Wiemer-Kruel, Edda Haberlandt, Hans Hartmann, Gabriele Wohlrab, Thomas Bast
OBJECTIVE: Children with myoclonic astatic epilepsy (MAE; Doose syndrome) whose seizures do not respond immediately to standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at high risk of developing an epileptic encephalopathy with cognitive decline. A classic ketogenic diet (KD) is a highly effective alternative to AEDs. To date, there are only limited data on the effectiveness of the modified Atkins diet (MAD), which is less restrictive and more compatible with daily life. We report findings from a retrospective study on 30 MAE patients treated with MAD...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229395/transcranial-magnetic-and-direct-current-stimulation-in-children
#7
REVIEW
Mustafa Q Hameed, Sameer C Dhamne, Roman Gersner, Harper L Kaye, Lindsay M Oberman, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Alexander Rotenberg
Promising results in adult neurologic and psychiatric disorders are driving active research into transcranial brain stimulation techniques, particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in childhood and adolescent syndromes. TMS has realistic utility as an experimental tool tested in a range of pediatric neuropathologies such as perinatal stroke, depression, Tourette syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). tDCS has also been tested as a treatment for a number of pediatric neurologic conditions, including ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229394/epileptic-encephalopathies-clinical-syndromes-and-pathophysiological-concepts
#8
REVIEW
Markus von Deimling, Ingo Helbig, Eric D Marsh
Epileptic encephalopathies account for a large proportion of the intractable early-onset epilepsies and are characterized by frequent seizures and poor developmental outcome. The epileptic encephalopathies can be loosely divided into two related groups of named syndromes. The first comprises epilepsies where continuous EEG changes directly result in cognitive and developmental dysfunction. The second includes patients where cognitive impairment is present at seizure onset and is due to the underlying etiology but the epileptic activity may then worsen the cognitive abilities over time...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229379/a-novel-frameshift-mutation-in-the-sterol-27-hydroxylase-gene-in-an-egyptian-family-with-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-without-cataract
#9
Mohamed S Abdel-Hamid, Mahmoud Y Issa, Ghada A Otaify, Maha S Zaki
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder caused by deficiency of the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 sterol 27-hydroxylase enzyme encoded by CYP27A1 gene. CTX is characterized by tendon xanthomas, juvenile cataracts and multiple progressive neurological symptoms. Here we report on the clinical and molecular findings of a 35-years old Egyptian patient with CTX without cataract. Parents were first cousins with family history of two deceased sibs with mild impaired cognitive functions and epilepsy without appearance of tendon xanthomas...
February 22, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229367/inhibition-of-mtor-pathway-by-rapamycin-decreases-p-glycoprotein-expression-and-spontaneous-seizures-in-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy
#10
Xiaosa Chi, Cheng Huang, Rui Li, Wei Wang, Mengqian Wu, Jinmei Li, Dong Zhou
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been demonstrated to mediate multidrug resistance in various tumors by inducing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression. Here, we investigated the correlation between the mTOR pathway and P-gp expression in pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Temporal cortex specimens were obtained from patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and age-matched controls who underwent surgeries at West China Hospital of Sichuan University between June 2014 and May 2015. We established a rat model of epilepsy kindled by coriaria lactone (CL) and screened pharmacoresistant rats (non-responders) using phenytoin...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228835/recurrent-alternate-sided-homonymous-hemianopia-due-to-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-with-lactic-acidosis-and-stroke-like-episodes-melas-a-case-report
#11
Kristen M Krysko, Arun N E Sundaram
Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) can rarely cause alternate-sided homonymous hemianopia due to stroke-like episodes involving the occipital lobes, as reported in three previously published cases. The authors report an interesting case of a 16-year-old presenting with myoclonic epilepsy due to MELAS with the rare ND3 mitochondrial mutation T10191C, with recurrent alternate-sided homonymous hemianopia. Visual field and corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are presented...
February 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228621/survey-of-the-participants-of-eeg-teaching-courses-provided-by-japanese-society-of-neurology-current-state-and-gradual-evolution-for-eeg-teaching-in-the-last-5-years
#12
Kosuke Tanioka, Takefumi Hitomi, Riki Matsumoto, Ryosuke Takahashi, Shozo Tobimatsu, Takashi Inuzuka, Jun-Ichi Kira, Susumu Kusunoki, Akio Ikeda
We collected and analyzed the questionnaires from the participants in the annual EEG hands-on (5 times) and the regional EEG seminar (6 times). The board-certified neurologists among participants in the regional EEG seminar were always more than those in the annual EEG hands-on. Participants in the regional EEG seminar were more involved in EEGs than those in the annual EEG hands-on. The highly satisfactory lectures in the annual EEG hands-on were "normal EEG" and those in the regional EEG seminar were "EEG of epilepsy"...
February 22, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227964/cross-entropy-optimization-for-neuromodulation
#13
Harleen K Brar, Yunpeng Pan, Babak Mahmoudi, Evangelos A Theodorou, Harleen K Brar, Yunpeng Pan, Babak Mahmoudi, Evangelos A Theodorou, Yunpeng Pan, Harleen K Brar, Babak Mahmoudi, Evangelos A Theodorou
This study presents a reinforcement learning approach for the optimization of the proportional-integral gains of the feedback controller represented in a computational model of epilepsy. The chaotic oscillator model provides a feedback control systems view of the dynamics of an epileptic brain with an internal feedback controller representative of the natural seizure suppression mechanism within the brain circuitry. Normal and pathological brain activity is simulated in this model by adjusting the feedback gain values of the internal controller...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227963/predicting-seizures-from-local-field-potentials-recorded-via-intracortical-microelectrode-arrays
#14
Mehdi Aghagolzadeh, Leigh R Hochberg, Sydney S Cash, Wilson Truccolo, Mehdi Aghagolzadeh, Leigh R Hochberg, Sydney S Cash, Wilson Truccolo, Sydney S Cash, Wilson Truccolo, Mehdi Aghagolzadeh, Leigh R Hochberg
The need for new therapeutic interventions to treat pharmacologically resistant focal epileptic seizures has led recently to the development of closed-loop systems for seizure control. Once a seizure is predicted/detected by the system, electrical stimulation is delivered to prevent seizure initiation or spread. So far, seizure prediction/detection has been limited to tracking non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) or intracranial EEG (iEEG) signals. Here, we examine seizure prediction based on local field potentials (LFPs) from a small neocortical patch recorded via a 10×10 microelectrode array implanted in a patient with focal seizures...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227962/personalization-of-noneeg-based-seizure-detection-systems
#15
D Cogan, M Heydarzadeh, M Nourani, D Cogan, M Heydarzadeh, M Nourani, M Heydarzadeh, D Cogan, M Nourani
Seizures affect each patient differently, so personalization is a vital part of developing a reliable nonEEG based seizure detection system. This personalization must be done while the patient is undergoing video EEG monitoring in an epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) because seizure detection by EEG is considered to be the ground truth. We propose the use of confidence interval analysis for determining how many seizures must be captured from a patient before we can reliably personalize such a seizure detection system for him/her...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227960/automated-volumetry-for-unilateral-hippocampal-sclerosis-detection-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
Cristina Martins, Nadia Moreira da Silva, Guilherme Silva, Verena E Rozanski, Joao Paulo Silva Cunha, Cristina Martins, Nadia Moreira da Silva, Guilherme Silva, Verena E Rozanski, Joao Paulo Silva Cunha, Joao Paulo Silva Cunha, Guilherme Silva, Verena E Rozanski, Nadia Moreira da Silva, Cristina Martins
Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common cause of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and can be identified in magnetic resonance imaging as hippocampal atrophy and subsequent volume loss. Detecting this kind of abnormalities through simple radiological assessment could be difficult, even for experienced radiologists. For that reason, hippocampal volumetry is generally used to support this kind of diagnosis. Manual volumetry is the traditional approach but it is time consuming and requires the physician to be familiar with neuroimaging software tools...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227959/localizing-seizure-onset-zone-by-convolutional-transfer-entropy-from-ieeg
#17
Kang Lin, Yueming Wang, Kedi Xu, Junming Zhu, Jianmin Zhang, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Kang Lin, Yueming Wang, Kedi Xu, Junming Zhu, Jianmin Zhang, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Junming Zhu, Yueming Wang, Kedi Xu, Kang Lin, Jianmin Zhang
Automatic localization of the seizure onset zone (SOZ) is able to output an objective result and help clinical doctors greatly in epilepsy therapy. Transfer entropy is one of the most frequently used measures based on information theory to localize the SOZ. However, if only using transfer entropy to localize the SOZ, different results can be obtained during different periods, thus humans still need to identify which one is most reasonable. This paper proposes a new method to output only a few (e.g. 1 or 2) results along a long time slot...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227921/directionally-sensitive-peripheral-nerve-recording-bipolar-nerve-cuff-design
#18
Parisa Sabetian, Milos R Popovic, Paul B Yoo, Parisa Sabetian, Milos R Popovic, Paul B Yoo
Although bipolar nerve cuff electrodes (NCEs) are used in clinical neurostimulation therapies (e.g., epilepsy, obstructive sleep apnea), the use of this electrode as part of a closed-up controlled system is very limited. The literature points to high noise content (i.e., poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) as the primary reason for not using bipolar NCEs to record neural activity. In fact, over the past several decades, the pseudo-tripolar NCEs, the symmetric configuration of this electrode array (i.e., electrically-shorted side contacts) makes it very difficult to obtain directional information from the recorded neural activity (efferent vs...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227859/application-of-meg-coherence-in-lateralization-of-mtle
#19
Mohammad R Nazem-Zadeh, Susan M Bowyer, John E Moran, Esmaeil Davoodi-Bojd, Andrew Zillgitt, Hassan Bagher-Ebadian, Fariborz Mahmoudi, Kost V Elisevich, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh, Mohammad R Nazem-Zadeh, Susan M Bowyer, John E Moran, Esmaeil Davoodi-Bojd, Andrew Zillgitt, Hassan Bagher-Ebadian, Fariborz Mahmoudi, Kost V Elisevich, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh, Susan M Bowyer, Hassan Bagher-Ebadian, Esmaeil Davoodi-Bojd, Andrew Zillgitt, Fariborz Mahmoudi, John E Moran, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh, Kost V Elisevich, Mohammad R Nazem-Zadeh
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a noninvasive imaging method for localization of focal epileptiform activity in patients with epilepsy. This study investigates the cerebral functional abnormalities quantified by MEG coherence laterality in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). Resting state MEG data was analyzed using MEG coherence source imaging (MEG-CSI) method to determine the coherence in 54 anatomical sites in 12 adult mTLE patients and 12 age- and gender-matched controls. MEG coherence laterality, after Bonferroni adjustment, showed significant differences for right versus left mTLE in insular cortex and both lateral orbitofrontal and superior temporal gyri (p<;0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227832/sinusoidal-stimulation-trains-suppress-epileptiform-spikes-induced-by-4-ap-in-the-rat-hippocampal-ca1-region-in-vivo
#20
Zheshan Guo, Zhouyan Feng, Ying Yu, Wenjie Zhou, Zhaoxiang Wang, Xuefeng Wei, Zheshan Guo, Zhouyan Feng, Ying Yu, Wenjie Zhou, Zhaoxiang Wang, Xuefeng Wei, Ying Yu, Zhouyan Feng, Xuefeng Wei, Zhaoxiang Wang, Zheshan Guo, Wenjie Zhou
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) shows promises in the treatment of refractory epilepsy. Due to the complex causes of epilepsy, the mechanisms of DBS are still unclear. Depolarization block caused by the persistent excitation of neurons may be one of the possible mechanisms. To test the hypothesis, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) was injected in rat hippocampal CA1 region in-vivo to induce epileptiform activity. Sinusoidal stimulation trains were applied to the afferent pathway (Schaffer collaterals) of CA1 region to suppress the epileptiform spikes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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