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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643925/a-new-cyte-in-orthodontics-osteocytes-in-tooth-movement
#1
REVIEW
E E Bumann, S A Frazier-Bowers
Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) relies on the orchestration of clinical and biologic events that include the application of clinical force followed by a cascade of cellular and molecular responses. Our understanding about OTM today has evolved from, and is largely based on historic studies. However, the advances in bone biology and clinical orthodontics today continue to pave the pathway towards an improved knowledge base, and state of the art therapeutics in OTM. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts have been the primary cells analyzed in OTM...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643924/exosomes-novel-regulators-of-bone-remodelling-and-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-orthodontics
#2
REVIEW
L S Holliday, K P McHugh, J Zuo, J I Aguirre, J K Neubert, W J Rody
Recent studies suggest that exosomes are involved in intercellular communication required for the maintenance of healthy bone. Exosomes are small (30-150 nm in diameter) extracellular vesicles that are formed in multivesicular bodies and are released from cells as the multivesicular bodies fuse with the plasma membrane. Regulatory exosomes have the capacity to exert profound control over target cells. They can stimulate plasma membrane receptors and are also internalized by the target cell delivering proteins, lipids, small molecules and functional RNAs from the cell of origin...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640098/the-characteristics-of-stem-cells-in-human-degenerative-intervertebral-disc
#3
Lin Liang, Xuefeng Li, Dapeng Li, Weimin Jiang, Heng Wang, Jie Chen, Zhiyong Sun, Niannian Zhang, Yangyi Zhu
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify which possessed the best stem-cell-like characteristics in 3 kinds of cell in human degenerative intervertebral disc: NPSCs (nucleus pulposus-derived stem cells), AFSCs (annulus fibrosus-derived stem cells), or CESCs (cartilage endplate-derived stem cells). METHODS: We separated the disc samples obtained from 15 surgically treated patients with disc degenerative diseases into nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus, and cartilage endplate...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638666/osteoma-cutis-of-the-face-in-cbct-images
#4
Daniah Alhazmi, Fatma Badr, Fatima Jadu, Ahmed M Jan, Zainab Abdulsalam
Osteoma cutis (OC) is a rare benign disorder where osseous nodules form in the reticular layer of normal skin. These nodules are formed by the deposition of lamellar bone and are characterized by osteocytes in the core and osteoclasts around the periphery. Interpretation of osteoma cutis cases has always been challenging especially using conventional two-dimensional (2D) radiographs, owing to difficulty in localization. Cone beam CT (CBCT), with its three-dimensional (3D) capabilities, offers a great tool to help detect and diagnose these calcific entities...
2017: Case Reports in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633987/a-paradigm-shift-for-bone-quality-in-dentistry-a-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Shinichiro Kuroshima, Masaru Kaku, Takuya Ishimoto, Muneteru Sasaki, Takayoshi Nakano, Takashi Sawase
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to present the current concept of bone quality based on the proposal by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and some of the cellular and molecular factors that affect bone quality. STUDY SELECTION: This is a literature review which focuses on collagen, biological apatite (BAp), and bone cells such as osteoblasts and osteocytes. RESULTS: In dentistry, the term "bone quality" has long been considered to be synonymous with bone mineral density (BMD) based on radiographic and sensible evaluations...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628035/the-brains-of-the-bones-how-osteocytes-use-wnt1-to-control-bone-formation
#6
Frank Rauch
WNT proteins drive the development and maintenance of many tissues, including bone. It is less clear which of the many WNT proteins act on bone or where these WNTs act in the skeleton; however, loss-of-function mutations in WNT1 cause bone fragility in children and adults. In this issue of the JCI, Joeng and colleagues demonstrate that bone formation is under the control of WNT1 produced by osteocytes, the cells that reside deep in the bone matrix and form dendritic networks. The implication of WNT1 in the control of bone formation identifies a potential new target for the treatment of low bone mass disorders, such as osteoporosis...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628032/osteocyte-specific-wnt1-regulates-osteoblast-function-during-bone-homeostasis
#7
Kyu Sang Joeng, Yi-Chien Lee, Joohyun Lim, Yuqing Chen, Ming-Ming Jiang, Elda Munivez, Catherine Ambrose, Brendan H Lee
Mutations in WNT1 cause osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and early-onset osteoporosis, identifying it as a key Wnt ligand in human bone homeostasis. However, how and where WNT1 acts in bone are unclear. To address this mechanism, we generated late-osteoblast-specific and osteocyte-specific WNT1 loss- and gain-of-function mouse models. Deletion of Wnt1 in osteocytes resulted in low bone mass with spontaneous fractures similar to that observed in OI patients. Conversely, Wnt1 overexpression from osteocytes stimulated bone formation by increasing osteoblast number and activity, which was due in part to activation of mTORC1 signaling...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627474/sox9-positive-periosteal-cells-in-fracture-repair-of-the-adult-mammalian-long-bone
#8
Xinjun He, Sofia Bougioukli, Brandon Ortega, Eric Arevalo, Jay R Lieberman, Andrew P McMahon
INTRODUCTION: The phases of fracture healing have been well characterized. However, the exact source and genetic profile of the skeletal progenitors that participate in bone repair is somewhat unclear. Sox9 expression in skeletal elements precedes bone and cartilage formation and a Sox9(+) cell type is retained in the adult periosteum. We hypothesized that Sox9(+) periosteal cells are multipotent skeletal progenitors normally participating in fracture repair. METHODS: To test this hypothesis we used tamoxifen (TM)-mediated lineage tracing of Sox9(+) cells in Sox9CreErt2:Td-Tomato mice...
June 13, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621746/biocompatibility-analyses-of-al%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-treated-titanium-plates-tested-with-osteocyte-and-fibroblast-cell-lines
#9
Alberto Smargiassi, Jessika Bertacchini, Marta Checchi, Francesco Cavani, Marzia Ferretti, Carla Palumbo
Osseointegration of a titanium implant is still an issue in dental/orthopedic implants durable over time. The good integration of these implants is mainly due to their surface and topography. We obtained an innovative titanium surface by shooting different-in-size particles of Al₂O₃ against the titanium scaffolds which seems to be ideal for bone integration. To corroborate that, we used two different cell lines: MLO-Y4 (murine osteocytes) and 293 (human fibroblasts) and tested the titanium scaffolds untreated and treated (i...
June 16, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620229/novel-bioactive-glass-based-injectable-bone-cement-with-improved-osteoinductivity-and-its-in-vivo-evaluation
#10
Tengjiao Zhu, Huihui Ren, Ailing Li, Bingchuan Liu, Caiyun Cui, Yanmei Dong, Yun Tian, Dong Qiu
Recently, more and more attention has been paid to the development of a new generation of injectable bone cements that are bioactive, biodegradable and are able to have appropriate mechanical properties for treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). In this study, a novel PSC/CS composite cement with high content of PSC (a phytic acid-derived bioactive glass) was prepared and evaluated in both vitro and vivo. The PSC/CS cement showed excellent injectability, good resistance to disintegration, radiopacity and suitable mechanical properties...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618255/osteocyte-regulation-of-receptor-activator-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ligand-osteoprotegerin-in-a-sheep-model-of-osteoporosis
#11
Thaqif El Khassawna, Felix Merboth, Deeksha Malhan, Wolfgang Böcker, Diaa E S Daghma, Sabine Stoetzel, Stefanie Kern, Fathi Hassan, Dirk Rosenbaum, Judith Langenstein, Natali Bauer, Anja Schlagenhauf, Angela Rösen-Wolff, Felix Schulze, Markus Rupp, Dirk Hose, Anja Secklinger, Anita Ignatius, Hans-Joachim Wilke, Katrin S Lips, Christian Heiss
Osteoporosis induction in a sheep model by steroid administration combined with ovariectomy recapitulates decreased bone formation and substandard matrix mineralization in patients. Recently, the role of osteocytes has been frequently addressed, with focus on their role in osteoclastogenesis. However, the quantification of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) signaling in osteocytes was not studied in sheep. The current study reproduced the sheep model of osteoporosis to study the RANKL/OPG ratio correlation to the method of osteoporosis induction...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612339/osteocyte-mechanobiology
#12
REVIEW
Yuhei Uda, Ehab Azab, Ningyuan Sun, Chao Shi, Paola Divieti Pajevic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past decades, osteocytes have emerged as mechano-sensors of bone and master regulators of bone homeostasis. This article summarizes latest research and progress made in understanding osteocyte mechanobiology and critically reviews tools currently available to study these cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Whereas increased mechanical forces promote bone formation, decrease loading is always associated with bone loss and skeletal fragility. Recent studies identified cilia, integrins, calcium channels, and G-protein coupled receptors as important sensors of mechanical forces and Ca(2+) and cAMP signaling as key effectors...
June 13, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611441/label-free-imaging-of-bone-multiscale-porosity-and-interfaces-using-third-harmonic-generation-microscopy
#13
Rachel Genthial, Emmanuel Beaurepaire, Marie-Claire Schanne-Klein, Françoise Peyrin, Delphine Farlay, Cécile Olivier, Yohann Bala, Georges Boivin, Jean-Claude Vial, Delphine Débarre, Aurélien Gourrier
Interfaces provide the structural basis of essential bone functions. In the hierarchical structure of bone tissue, heterogeneities such as porosity or boundaries are found at scales ranging from nanometers to millimeters, all of which contributing to macroscopic properties. To date, however, the complexity or limitations of currently used imaging methods restrict our understanding of this functional integration. Here we address this issue using label-free third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy. We find that the porous lacuno-canalicular network (LCN), revealing the geometry of osteocytes in the bone matrix, can be directly visualized in 3D with submicron precision over millimetric fields of view compatible with histology...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608504/biophysical-regulation-of-osteotomy-healing-an-animal-study
#14
Liao Wang, Maziar Aghvami, John Brunski, Jill Helms
BACKGROUND: Osteotomies have been performed for centuries yet there remains a remarkable lack of consensus on optimal methods for cutting bone. There is universal agreement, however, that preserving cell viability is critical. PURPOSE: To identify mechanobiological parameters influencing bone formation after osteotomy site preparation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A murine maxillary osteotomy model was used to evaluate healing. Computational modeling characterized stress and strain distributions in the osteotomy, as well as the magnitude and distribution of heat generated by drilling...
June 13, 2017: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607813/differential-involvement-of-wnt-signaling-in-bmp-regulation-of-cancellous-versus-periosteal-bone-growth
#15
Guangxu He, Yu Shi, Joohyun Lim, Teresita Bellido, Jiangdong Ni, Fanxin Long
Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp) are well-known to induce bone formation following chondrogenesis, but the direct role of Bmp signaling in the osteoblast lineage is not completely understood. We have recently shown that deletion of the receptor Bmpr1a in the osteoblast lineage with Dmp1-Cre reduces osteoblast activity in general but stimulates proliferation of preosteoblasts specifically in the cancellous bone region, resulting in diminished periosteal bone growth juxtaposed with excessive cancellous bone formation...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606016/research-in-the-precaution-of-recombinant-human-erythropoietin-to-steroid-induced-osteonecrosis-of-the-rat-femoral-head
#16
Lu-Yong Jiang, Xiao Yu, Qing-Jiang Pang
Objective To elucidate the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) on steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rats. Methods Twenty-four adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of eight rats each. The rats in the positive control group were injected with dexamethasone at 1 mg/kg twice a week for 5 weeks. The rats in the negative control group were injected with sodium chloride alone. The rats in the experimental group were injected with dexamethasone at 1 mg/kg twice a week for 5 weeks and rHuEPO (500 u/d/kg) daily for 5 weeks...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603080/a-novel-auditory-ossicles-membrane-and-the-development-of-conductive-hearing-loss-in-dmp1-null-mice
#17
Kun Lv, Haiyang Huang, Xing Yi, Mark E Chertoff, Chaoyuan Li, Baozhi Yuan, Robert J Hinton, Jian Q Feng
Genetic mouse models are widely used for understanding human diseases but we know much less about the anatomical structure of the auditory ossicles in the mouse than we do about human ossicles. Furthermore, current studies have mainly focused on disease conditions such as osteomalacia and rickets in patients with hypophosphatemia rickets, although the reason that these patients develop late-onset hearing loss is unknown. In this study, we first analyzed Dmp1 lac Z knock-in auditory ossicles (in which the blue reporter is used to trace DMP1 expression in osteocytes) using X-gal staining and discovered a novel bony membrane surrounding the mouse malleus...
June 8, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601732/intermittent-compressive-stress-regulates-notch-target-gene-expression-via-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-in-murine-pre-osteoblast-cell-line
#18
Jeeranan Manokawinchoke, Prasit Pavasant, Thanaphum Osathanon
OBJECTIVE: Different mechanical stimuli regulate behaviors of various cell types, including osteoblasts, osteocytes, and periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Notch signaling participates in the mechanical stress-regulated cell responses. The present study investigated the regulation of Notch target gene and sclerostin (Sost) expression in murine pre-osteoblast cell line (MC3T3-E1) under intermittent compressive stress. METHODS: MC3T3-E1 were subjected to the intermittent compressive force under the computerized controlled machine...
June 1, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594289/hypoxic-3d-cellular-network-construction-replicates-ex-vivo-the-phenotype-of-primary-human-osteocytes
#19
Saba Choudhary, Qiaoling Sun, Ciaran Mannion, Yair Kissin, Jenny Zilberberg, Woo Young Lee
Osteocytes are deeply embedded in the mineralized matrix of bone and are non-proliferative, making them a challenge to isolate and maintain using traditional in vitro culture methods without sacrificing their inimitable phenotype. We studied the synergistic effects of two microenvironmental factors that are vital in retaining, ex vivo, the phenotype of primary human osteocytes: hypoxia and 3D cellular network. In order to recapitulate the lacunocanalicular structure of bone tissue, we assembled and cultured primary human osteocytic cells with biphasic calcium phosphate microbeads in a microfluidic perfusion culture device...
June 8, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589681/corrigendum-strain-uses-gap-junctions-to-reverse-stimulation-of-osteoblast-proliferation-by-osteocytes
#20
Rosemary F L Suswillo, Behzad Javaheri, Simon C F Rawlinson, Gary P Dowthwaite, Lance E Lanyon, Andrew A Pitsillides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
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