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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087282/short-term-perioperative-teriparatide-therapy-for-the-prevention-of-medication-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-a-randomized-controlled-preclinical-study-in-rats
#1
Mohammad Zandi, Arash Dehghan, Amirhossein Mohammadi-Mofrad, Payam Amini, Farshid Vahdatinia
OBJECTIVE: Dentoalveolar procedures in patients receiving bisphosphonates and other antiresorptive agents are associated with an increased risk of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of perioperative teriparatide (TPD) therapy in prevention of MRONJ. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two protocols of TPD therapy were studied. For protocol A, 25 TPD-treated (AT) and 25 control (AC) rats received 5 weekly injection of 0...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081119/sclerostin-promotes-bone-remodeling-in-the-process-of-tooth-movement
#2
Rui Shu, Ding Bai, Tzongjen Sheu, Yao He, Xianrui Yang, Chaoran Xue, Yiruo He, Mengyuan Zhao, Xianglong Han
Tooth movement is a biological process of bone remodeling induced by mechanical force. Sclerostin secreted by osteocytes is mechanosensory and important in bone remodeling. However, little is known regarding the role of sclerostin in tooth movement. In this study, models of experimental tooth movement were established in rats and mice. Sclerostin expression was investigated with immunohistochemistry staining, and osteoclastic activity was analyzed with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells underwent uniaxial compression and tension stress or were cultured in hypoxia conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076936/histochemical-and-morphological-aspects-of-fresh-frozen-bone-a-preliminary-study
#3
F S De Ponte, G Cutroneo, R Falzea, G Rizzo, L Catalfamo, A Favaloro, G Vermiglio, M Runci, A Centofanti, G Anastasi
Bone graft are used in dentistry for the reconstruction of severely atrophic jaws. Fresh frozen bone has no osteogenic property but it has osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties because its matrix contains growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate morphological and protein expression characteristics of fresh frozen bone before graft and after six months of graft in patients who needed maxillary reconstruction. After 6 month of graft we observed the presence of viable bone as evidenced by full osteocyte lacunae and by the presence of RANKR, osteocalcin positive cells and vascular endothelial growth factor...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076498/the-efficacy-of-low-level-940-nm-laser-therapy-with-different-energy-intensities-on-bone-healing
#4
Kerem Turgut Atasoy, Yavuz Tolga Korkmaz, Ersan Odaci, Hatice Hanci
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low-level 940 nm laser therapy with energy intensities of 5, 10 and 20 J/cm2 on bone healing in an animal model. A total of 48 female adult Wistar rats underwent surgery to create bone defects in the right tibias. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was applied immediately after surgery and on post-operative days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 in three study groups with energy intensities of 5 J/cm2, 10 J/cm2 and 20 J/cm2 using a 940 nm Gallium-Aluminium-Arsenide (Ga-Al-As) laser, while one control group underwent only the tibia defect surgery...
January 5, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072837/locally-produced-bdnf-promotes-sclerotic-change-in-alveolar-bone-after-nerve-injury
#5
Hiroko Ida-Yonemochi, Yurie Yamada, Hiroyuki Yoshikawa, Kenji Seo
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is released due to nerve injury, is known to promote the natural healing of injured nerves. It is often observed that damage of mandibular canal induces local sclerotic changes in alveolar bone. We reported that peripheral nerve injury promotes the local production of BDNF; therefore, it was possible to hypothesize that peripheral nerve injury affects sclerotic changes in the alveolar bone. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of BDNF on osteogenesis using in vitro osteoblast-lineage cell culture and an in vivo rat osteotomy model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064540/romosozumab-for-the-treatment-of-osteoporosis
#6
Leonardo Bandeira, E Michael Lewiecki, John P Bilezikian
Introduction Sclerostin, a glycoprotein produced primarily by osteocytes, blocks the canonical Wnt signaling bone formation pathway. Romosozumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody to sclerostin that binds to sclerostin, permitting the engagement of Wnt ligands with their co-receptors, resulting in an increase in bone formation and bone mineral density (BMD). Clinical studies with romosozumab have shown dramatic improvements in BMD at the spine and hip. Romosozumab is associated with improvement in bone strength through mechanisms that include increases in bone formation and, different from classical osteoanabolic agents, suppression of bone resorption...
January 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062525/parathyroid-hormone-1-34-and-skeletal-anabolic-action-the-use-of-parathyroid-hormone-in-bone-formation
#7
L Osagie-Clouard, A Sanghani, M Coathup, T Briggs, M Bostrom, G Blunn
: Intermittently administered parathyroid hormone (PTH 1-34) has been shown to promote bone formation in both human and animal studies. The hormone and its analogues stimulate both bone formation and resorption, and as such at low doses are now in clinical use for the treatment of severe osteoporosis. By varying the duration of exposure, parathyroid hormone can modulate genes leading to increased bone formation within a so-called 'anabolic window'. The osteogenic mechanisms involved are multiple, affecting the stimulation of osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes and the stem cell niche, and ultimately leading to increased osteoblast activation, reduced osteoblast apoptosis, upregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling, increased stem cell mobilisation, and mediation of the RANKL/OPG pathway...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061633/mechanisms-of-bone-response-to-injury
#8
Keren E Dittmer, Elwyn C Firth
Bone, despite its relatively inert appearance, is a tissue that is capable of adapting to its environment. Wolff's law, first described in the 19th century, describes the ability of bone to change structure depending on the mechanical forces applied to it. The mechanostat model extended this principle and suggested that the amount of strain a bone detects depends on bone strength and the amount of muscle force applied to the bone. Experimental studies have found that low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical loading is considered to be the most effective at increasing bone formation...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061487/thermal-induced-osteonecrosis-of-adjacent-vertebra-after-intradiscal-electrothermal-therapy
#9
Soonjoon Kim, Sun-Ho Lee, Eun-Sang Kim, Whan Eoh
A 42-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with complaints of low back pain and intermittent right thigh pain. Twelve weeks before admission, the patient received intradiscal electrothermal therapy (IDET) at a local hospital. The patient still reported low back pain after the procedure that was managed with narcotic analgesics. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and his referring physician thought the likely diagnosis was spondylodiscitis at the L4-5 spinal segment with a small epidural abscess...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060349/co-localization-of-cell-lineage-markers-and-the-tomato-signal
#10
Yan Jing, Robert J Hinton, Kevin S Chan, Jian Q Feng
The cell lineage tracing system has been used predominantly in developmental biology studies. The use of Cre recombinase allows for the activation of the reporter in a specific cell line and all progeny. Here, we used the cell lineage tracing technique to demonstrate that chondrocytes directly transform into osteoblasts and osteocytes during long bone and mandibular condyle development using two kinds of Cre, Col10a1-Cre and Aggrecan-Cre(ERT2) (Agg-Cre(ERT2)), crossed with Rosa26(tdTomato). Both Col10 and aggrecan are well-recognized markers for chondrocytes...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058621/mesenchymal-stroma-cells-in-peritoneal-dialysis-effluents-from-patients
#11
Bin Liu, Qiunong Guan, Jing Li, Gerald da Roza, Hao Wang, Caigan Du
Mesenchymal stroma cells (MSCs) have potential as an emerging cell therapy for treating many different diseases, but discovery of the practical sources of MSCs is needed for the large-scale clinical application of this therapy. This study was to identify MSCs in peritoneal dialysis (PD) effluents that were discarded after PD. The effluents were collected from patients who were on the dialysis for less than 1 month. Adherent cells from the effluents were isolated by incubation in serum-containing medium in plastic culture dishes...
January 5, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051148/tissue-microarray-analysis-applied-to-bone-diagenesis
#12
Rafael Barrios Mello, Maria Regina Regis Silva, Maria Teresa Seixas Alves, Martin Paul Evison, Marco Aurelio Guimarães, Rafaella Arrabaca Francisco, Rafael Dias Astolphi, Edna Sadayo Miazato Iwamura
Taphonomic processes affecting bone post mortem are important in forensic, archaeological and palaeontological investigations. In this study, the application of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis to a sample of femoral bone specimens from 20 exhumed individuals of known period of burial and age at death is described. TMA allows multiplexing of subsamples, permitting standardized comparative analysis of adjacent sections in 3-D and of representative cross-sections of a large number of specimens. Standard hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and silver methenamine, and picrosirius red staining, and CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemistry were applied to TMA sections...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035954/dmp1-promoter-driven-diphtheria-toxin-receptor-transgene-expression-directs-unforeseen-effects-in-multiple-tissues
#13
Ahmed Al-Jazzar, Behzad Javaheri, Matt Prideaux, Alan Boyde, Cheryl L Scudamore, Chahrazad Cherifi, Eric Hay, Mark Hopkinson, Michael Boyd, Martine Cohen-Solal, Colin Farquharson, Andrew A Pitsillides
Mice harbouring a dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1) promoter-driven human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor (HDTR) transgene (Tg) have recently been used to attain targeted ablation of osteocytes by diphtheria toxin (DT) treatment in order to define osteocyte function. Use of these Tg mice has asserted mechano- and novel paracrine regulatory osteocyte functions. To explore osteocyte roles fully, we sought to confirm the selectivity of DT effects in these transgenic mice. However, our findings revealed incomplete DT-induced osteocyte ablation, prevalent HDTR misexpression, as well as more prominent histopathological DT-induced changes in multiple organs in Tg than in wild-type (WT) littermate mice...
December 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035530/serotonergic-mechanisms-regulating-the-gi-tract-experimental-evidence-and-therapeutic-relevance
#14
Natalie Terry, Kara Gross Margolis
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is best known as a neurotransmitter critical for central nervous system (CNS) development and function. 95% of the body's serotonin, however, is produced in the intestine where it has been increasingly recognized for its hormonal, autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine actions. This chapter provides the most current knowledge of the critical autocrine and paracrine roles of 5-HT in intestinal motility and inflammation as well as its function as a hormone in osteocyte homeostasis...
December 30, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028134/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-levels-associate-with-aki-and-death-in-critical-illness
#15
David E Leaf, Kirolos A Jacob, Anand Srivastava, Margaret E Chen, Marta Christov, Harald Jüppner, Venkata S Sabbisetti, Aline Martin, Myles Wolf, Sushrut S Waikar
Elevated plasma levels of the osteocyte-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) have emerged as a powerful biomarker of cardiovascular disease and death in patients with CKD. Whether elevated urinary or plasma FGF23 levels are prospectively associated with AKI and death in critically ill patients is unknown. We therefore conducted a prospective cohort study of 350 critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units at an academic medical center to investigate whether higher urinary FGF23 levels associate with the composite end point of AKI or in-hospital mortality (AKI/death)...
December 27, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024623/role-of-magnesium-oxide-and-strontium-oxide-as-modifiers-in-silicate-based-bioactive-glasses-effects-on-thermal-behaviour-mechanical-properties-and-in-vitro-bioactivity
#16
Devis Bellucci, Antonella Sola, Roberta Salvatori, Alexandre Anesi, Luigi Chiarini, Valeria Cannillo
The composition of a CaO-rich silicate bioglass (BG_Ca-Mix, in mol%: 2.3 Na2O; 2.3 K2O; 45.6 CaO; 2.6 P2O5; 47.2 SiO2) was modified by replacing a fixed 10mol% of CaO with MgO or SrO or fifty-fifty MgO-SrO. The thermal behaviour of the modified glasses was accurately evaluated via differential thermal analysis (DTA), heating microscopy and direct sintering tests. The presence of MgO and/or SrO didn't interfere with the thermal stability of the parent glass, since all the new glasses remained completely amorphous after sintering (treatment performed at 753°C for the glass with MgO; at 750°C with SrO; at 759°C with MgO and SrO)...
March 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019674/hairy-and-enhancer-of-split-related-with-yrpw-motif-like-heyl-is-dispensable-for-bone-remodeling-in-mice
#17
Ernesto Canalis, Stefano Zanotti
Notch induces Hairy Enhancer of Split (Hes)1 and Hes-related with YRPW motif (Hey) Hey1, Hey2 and Hey-like (HeyL) expression in osteoblasts, but it is not known whether any of these target genes mediates the effect of Notch in the skeleton. We demonstrated that Notch1 activation in osteoblasts/osteocytes induces Hes1, Hey1, Hey2 and HeyL, but HeyL was induced to a greater extent than other target genes. To characterize HeyL null mice for their skeletal phenotype, microcomputed tomography (µCT) and histomorphometric analysis of HeyL null and sex-matched littermate controls was performed...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018707/recent-advances-in-nano-scaffolds-for-bone-repair
#18
REVIEW
Huan Yi, Fawad Ur Rehman, Chunqiu Zhao, Bin Liu, Nongyue He
Biomedical applications of nanomaterials are exponentially increasing every year due to analogy to various cell receptors, ligands, structural proteins, and genetic materials (that is, DNA). In bone tissue, nanoscale materials can provide scaffold for excellent tissue repair via mechanical stimulation, releasing of various loaded drugs and mediators, 3D scaffold for cell growth and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells to osteocytes. This review will therefore highlight recent advancements on tissue and nanoscale materials interaction...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017868/fabrication-of-amorphous-strontium-polyphosphate-microparticles-that-induce-mineralization-of-bone-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Werner E G Müller, Emad Tolba, Maximilian Ackermann, Meik Neufurth, Shunfeng Wang, Qingling Feng, Heinz C Schröder, Xiaohong Wang
: Here we describe the fabrication process of amorphous strontium-polyphosphate microparticles ("Sr-a-polyP-MP"). The effects of these particles on growth and gene expression were investigated with SaOS-2 cells as well as with human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and compared with those particles prepared of amorphous calcium-polyphosphate ("Ca-a-polyP-MP") and of strontium salt. The results revealed a markedly higher stimulation of growth of MSC by "Sr-a-polyP-MP" compared to "Ca-a-polyP-MP" and a significant increase in mineralization of SaOS-2 cells, as well as an enhanced upregulation of the expression of the genes encoding for alkaline phosphatase and the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), likewise performed with SaOS-2 cells...
December 23, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013361/bone-mass-and-strength-are-significantly-improved-in-mice-overexpressing-human-wnt16-in-osteocytes
#20
Imranul Alam, Austin M Reilly, Mohammed Alkhouli, Rita L Gerard-O'Riley, Charishma Kasipathi, Dana K Oakes, Weston B Wright, Dena Acton, Amie K McQueen, Bhavmik Patel, Kyung-Eun Lim, Alexander G Robling, Michael J Econs
Recently, we demonstrated that osteoblast-specific overexpression of human WNT16 increased both cortical and trabecular bone mass and structure in mice. To further identify the cell-specific role of Wnt16 in bone homeostasis, we created transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing human WNT16 in osteocytes using Dmp1 promoter (Dmp1-hWNT16 TG) on C57BL/6 (B6) background. We analyzed bone phenotypes and serum bone biomarkers, performed gene expression analysis and measured dynamic bone histomorphometry in Dmp1-hWNT16 TG and wild-type (WT) mice...
December 24, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
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