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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229424/three-dimensional-printed-scaffolds-with-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-for-rabbit-mandibular-reconstruction-and-engineering
#1
Dongdong Fang, Michael Roskies, Mohamed-Nur Abdallah, Mohammed Bakkar, Jack Jordan, Li-Chieh Lin, Faleh Tamimi, Simon D Tran
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) derived from both the bone marrow and adipose tissue possess the ability to differentiate into multiple cell lineages, regulate the immune function by secreting numerous bioactive paracrine factors, and hold great potential in cell therapy and tissue engineering. When combined with three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds, MSC can be used for bone defect reconstruction and engineering. This protocol describes the isolation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSC) and adipose-tissue derived stem cells (ADSC) from rabbits for subsequent seeding on tissue-engineered 3D-printed scaffolds and transplantation into a rabbit-model with the goal of repairing large osseous mandibular defects (one quarter of the lower jaw is removed surgically)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229417/a-simplified-and-systematic-method-to-isolate-culture-and-characterize-multiple-types-of-human-dental-stem-cells-from-a-single-tooth
#2
Mohammed Bakkar, Younan Liu, Dongdong Fang, Camille Stegen, Xinyun Su, Murali Ramamoorthi, Li-Chieh Lin, Takako Kawasaki, Nicholas Makhoul, Huan Pham, Yoshinori Sumita, Simon D Tran
This chapter describes a simplified method that allows the systematic isolation of multiple types of dental stem cells such as dental pulp stem cells (DPSC), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC), and stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) from a single tooth. Of specific interest is the modified laboratory approach to harvest/retrieve the dental pulp tissue by minimizing trauma to DPSC by continuous irrigation, reduction of frictional heat from the bur rotation, and reduction of the bur contact time with the dentin...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229177/advanced-glycation-end-product-3-age3-increases-apoptosis-and-the-expression-of-sclerostin-by-stimulating-tgf-%C3%AE-expression-and-secretion-in-osteocyte-like-mlo-y4-a2-cells
#3
Masakazu Notsu, Ippei Kanazawa, Ayumu Takeno, Maki Yokomoto-Umakoshi, Ken-Ichiro Tanaka, Toru Yamaguchi, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) cause bone fragility due to deterioration in bone quality. We previously reported that AGE3 induced apoptosis and inhibited differentiation via increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling in osteoblastic cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that AGE3 increased apoptosis and sclerostin expression and decreased receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteocyte-like cells. However, it remains unclear whether TGF-β signaling is involved in the effects of AGEs on apoptosis and the expression of sclerostin and RANKL in osteocytes...
February 22, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224982/corrigendum-siks-control-osteocyte-responses-to-parathyroid-hormone
#4
Marc N Wein, Yanke Liang, Olga Goransson, Thomas B Sundberg, Jinhua Wang, Elizabeth A Williams, Maureen J O'Meara, Nicolas Govea, Belinda Beqo, Shigeki Nishimori, Kenichi Nagano, Daniel J Brooks, Janaina S Martins, Braden Corbin, Anthony Anselmo, Ruslan Sadreyev, Joy Y Wu, Kei Sakamoto, Marc Foretz, Ramnik J Xavier, Roland Baron, Mary L Bouxsein, Thomas J Gardella, Paola Divieti-Pajevic, Nathanael S Gray, Henry M Kronenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222169/decellularized-wharton-s-jelly-from-human-umbilical-cord-as-a-novel-3d-scaffolding-material-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#5
Sushma Jadalannagari, Gabriel Converse, Christopher McFall, Eric Buse, Michael Filla, Maria T Villar, Antonio Artigues, Adam J Mellot, Jinxi Wang, Michael S Detamore, Richard A Hopkins, Omar S Aljitawi
In tissue engineering, an ideal scaffold attracts and supports cells thus providing them with the necessary mechanical support and architecture as they reconstruct new tissue in vitro and in vivo. This manuscript details a novel matrix derived from decellularized Wharton's jelly (WJ) obtained from human umbilical cord for use as a scaffold for tissue engineering application. This decellularized Wharton's jelly matrix (DWJM) contained 0.66 ± 0.12 μg/mg sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and was abundant in hyaluronic acid, and completely devoid of cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222099/morphological-study-of-tooth-development-in-podoplanin-deficient-mice
#6
Kenyo Takara, Naoki Maruo, Kyoko Oka, Chiaki Kaji, Yuji Hatakeyama, Naruhiko Sawa, Yukinari Kato, Junro Yamashita, Hiroshi Kojima, Yoshihiko Sawa
Podoplanin is a mucin-type highly O-glycosylated glycoprotein identified in several somatyic cells: podocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, lymph node stromal fibroblastic reticular cells, osteocytes, odontoblasts, mesothelial cells, glia cells, and others. It has been reported that podoplanin-RhoA interaction induces cytoskeleton relaxation and cell process stretching in fibroblastic cells and osteocytes, and that podoplanin plays a critical role in type I alveolar cell differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217833/lengthening-primary-cilia-enhances-cellular-mechanosensitivity
#7
M Spasic, C R Jacobs
The primary cilium is a mechanosensor in a variety of mammalian cell types, initiating and directing intracellular signalling cascades in response to external stimuli. When primary cilia formation is disrupted, cells have diminished mechanosensitivity and an abrogated response to mechanical stimulation. Due to this important role, we hypothesised that increasing primary cilia length would enhance the downstream response and therefore, mechanosensitivity. To test this hypothesis, we increased osteocyte primary cilia length with fenoldopam and lithium and found that cells with longer primary cilia were more mechanosensitive...
February 20, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214296/abnormally-high-and-heterogeneous-bone-matrix-mineralization-after-childhood-solid-organ-transplantation-a-complex-pathology-of-low-bone-turnover-and-local-defects-in-mineralization
#8
Nadja Fratzl-Zelman, Helena Valta, Renata C Pereira, Barbara M Misof, Paul Roschger, Hannu Jalanko, Kathrine Wesseling-Perry, Klaus Klaushofer, Outi Mäkitie
Chronic renal, liver and heart failure in children associates with multiple skeletal complications. Increased fracture incidence often persists after transplantation and could be related to alterations in bone material properties. In the present cohort study we evaluated bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) by quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) in 23 pediatric solid organ allograft recipients with suspected osteoporosis. We measured BMDD in the entire cross-sectional area of transiliac bone biopsies obtained from kidney (n = 9), liver (n = 9) and heart (n = 5) transplant recipients (aged 7...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212898/low-serum-iron-is-associated-with-high-serum-intact-fgf23-in-elderly-men-the-swedish-mros-study
#9
Catharina Lewerin, Östen Ljunggren, Herman Nilsson-Ehle, Magnus K Karlsson, Hans Herlitz, Mattias Lorentzon, Claes Ohlsson, Dan Mellström
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF23) is a protein that is produced by osteoblasts and osteocytes. Increased serum levels of FGF23 have been associated with increased risks of osteoporotic fractures and cardiovascular disease, particularly in participants with poor renal function. Serum iron (Fe) has been suggested as a regulator of FGF23 homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Fe and iron status are determinants of the levels of intact FGF23 (iFGF23) in elderly men...
February 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205330/effect-of-matrix-stiffness-on-osteoblast-functionalization
#10
Tao Zhang, Shiyu Lin, Xiaoru Shao, Qi Zhang, Changyue Xue, Shu Zhang, Yunfeng Lin, Bofeng Zhu, Xiaoxiao Cai
OBJECTIVES: Stiffness of bone tissue differs response to its physiological or pathological status, such as osteoporosis or osteosclerosis. Consequently, the function of cells residing in bone tissue including osteoblasts (OBs), osteoclasts and osteocytes will be affected. However, to the best of our knowledge, the detailed mechanism of how extracellular matrix stiffness affects OB function remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a study that exposed rat primary OBs to polydimethylsiloxane substrates with varied stiffness to investigate the alterations of cell morphology, osteoblastic differentiation and its potential mechanism in mechanotransduction...
February 15, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204985/comparison-of-strain-measurement-in-the-mouse-forearm-using-subject-specific-finite-element-models-strain-gaging-and-digital-image-correlation
#11
Mark Begonia, Mark Dallas, Mark L Johnson, Ganesh Thiagarajan
Mechanical loading in bone leads to the activation of bone-forming pathways that are most likely associated with a minimum strain threshold being experienced by the osteocyte. To investigate the correlation between cellular response and mechanical stimuli, researchers must develop accurate ways to measure/compute strain both externally on the bone surface and internally at the osteocyte level. This study investigates the use of finite element (FE) models to compute bone surface strains on the mouse forearm...
February 15, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188861/functions-of-rho-family-of-small-gtpases-and-rho-associated-coiled-coil-kinases-in-bone-cells-during-differentiation-and-mineralization
#12
REVIEW
Agnieszka Strzelecka-Kiliszek, Saida Mebarek, Monika Roszkowska, René Buchet, David Magne, Slawomir Pikula
BACKGROUND: Members of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinases (ROCKs) are effectors of Rho family of small GTPases. ROCKs have multiple functions that include regulation of cellular contraction and polarity, adhesion, motility, proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, maturation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). SCOPE OF THE REVIEW: Here, we focus on the action of RhoA and RhoA effectors, ROCK1 and ROCK2, in cells related to tissue mineralization: mesenchymal stem cells, chondrocytes, pre-osteoblasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, lining cells and osteoclasts...
February 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183805/klotho-expression-in-long-bones-regulates-fgf23-production-during-renal-failure
#13
Jovana Kaludjerovic, Hirotaka Komaba, Tadatoshi Sato, Reinhold G Erben, Roland Baron, Hannes Olauson, Tobias E Larsson, Beate Lanske
Circulating levels of bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) increase early during acute and chronic kidney disease and are associated with adverse outcomes. Membrane-bound Klotho acts as a permissive coreceptor for FGF23, and its expression was recently found in osteoblasts/osteocytes. We hypothesized that Klotho in bone cells is part of an autocrine feedback loop that regulates FGF23 expression during renal failure. Thus, we induced renal failure in mice with targeted deletion of Klotho in long bones...
February 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181063/connexin43-and-the-intercellular-signaling-network-regulating-skeletal-remodeling
#14
REVIEW
Megan C Moorer, Joseph P Stains
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review highlights recent developments into how intercellular communication through connexin43 facilitates bone modeling and remodeling. RECENT FINDINGS: Connexin43 is required for both skeletal development and maintenance, particularly in cortical bone, where it carries out multiple functions, including preventing osteoclastogenesis, restraining osteoprogenitor proliferation, promoting osteoblast differentiation, coordinating organized collagen matrix deposition, and maintaining osteocyte survival...
February 8, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178531/in%C3%A2-vivo-human-somitogenesis-guides-somite-development-from-hpscs
#15
Haibin Xi, Wakana Fujiwara, Karen Gonzalez, Majib Jan, Simone Liebscher, Ben Van Handel, Katja Schenke-Layland, April D Pyle
Somites form during embryonic development and give rise to unique cell and tissue types, such as skeletal muscles and bones and cartilage of the vertebrae. Using somitogenesis-stage human embryos, we performed transcriptomic profiling of human presomitic mesoderm as well as nascent and developed somites. In addition to conserved pathways such as WNT-β-catenin, we also identified BMP and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling as major regulators unique to human somitogenesis. This information enabled us to develop an efficient protocol to derive somite cells in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs)...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177161/vdr-in-osteoblast-lineage-cells-primarily-mediates-vitamin-d-treatment-induced-increase-in-bone-mass-by-suppressing-bone-resorptiontdg-ang-tok
#16
Yuko Nakamichi, Nobuyuki Udagawa, Kanji Horibe, Toshihide Mizoguchi, Yoko Yamamoto, Takashi Nakamura, Akihiro Hosoya, Shigeaki Kato, Tatsuo Suda, Naoyuki Takahashi
Long-term treatment with active vitamin D [1α,25(OH)2 D3 ] and its derivatives is effective for increasing bone mass in patients with primary and secondary osteoporosis. Derivatives of 1α,25(OH)2 D3 , including eldecalcitol (ELD), exert their actions through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). ELD is more resistant to metabolic degradation than 1α,25(OH)2 D3 . It is reported that ELD treatment causes a net increase in bone mass by suppressing bone resorption rather than by increasing bone formation in animals and humans...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177150/commentary-the-skeleton-is-a-storehouse-of-mineral-that-is-plundered-during-lactation-and-fully-replenished-afterwards
#17
Christopher S Kovacs
During lactation, mammals resorb mineral from the maternal skeleton to provide calcium to milk. Rodents lose 25-35% of skeletal ash weight, ash calcium content, and bone mineral content by DXA, and have compromised material properties of bone, as assessed by crushing vertebrae and 3-pt bend tests of femora or tibiae. The strength, stiffness, and toughness of vertebrae, femora, and tibiae are reduced by as much as 60%. The effects of lactation are not uniform throughout the skeleton, but instead resorption is much more marked in the trabecular-rich spine than in the appendicular skeleton or whole body...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167279/nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-inhibits-osteogenic-differentiation-and-enhances-adipogenic-differentiation
#18
Linghao Wang, Ke Chen, Xinxing Wan, Fang Wang, Zi Guo, Zhaohui Mo
Osteoporosis is one of the most common skeletal disease featured by osteopenia and adipose accumulation in bone tissue. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is an essential player in aging-related chronic diseases like osteoporosis, particularly due to the causal caspase-1 activation and its correlation to adipose accumulation in bone tissue. Moreover, the expression of anti-aging/senescence SIRT1 was reported to decline along with aging. As the major cellular contributor of bone formation, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells processing mutually exclusive differentiatability toward osteocytes or adipocytes...
February 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163952/unintended-targeting-of-dmp1-cre-reveals-a-critical-role-for-bmpr1a-signaling-in-the-gastrointestinal-mesenchyme-of-adult-mice
#19
Joohyun Lim, Joseph Burclaff, Guangxu He, Jason C Mills, Fanxin Long
Cre/loxP technology has been widely used to study cell type-specific functions of genes. Proper interpretation of such data critically depends on a clear understanding of the tissue specificity of Cre expression. The Dmp1-Cre mouse, expressing Cre from a 14-kb DNA fragment of the mouse Dmp1 gene, has become a common tool for studying gene function in osteocytes, but the presumed cell specificity is yet to be fully established. By using the Ai9 reporter line that expresses a red fluorescent protein upon Cre recombination, we find that in 2-month-old mice, Dmp1-Cre targets not only osteocytes within the bone matrix but also osteoblasts on the bone surface and preosteoblasts at the metaphyseal chondro-osseous junction...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163724/kindlin-2-modulates-the-survival-differentiation-and-migration-of-induced-pluripotent-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#20
Mohsen Moslem, Reto Eggenschwiler, Christian Wichmann, Raymund Buhmann, Tobias Cantz, Reinhard Henschler
Kindlin-2 is a multidomain intracellular protein that can be recruited to β-integrin domains to activate signaling, initiate transcriptional programs, and bind to E-cadherin. To explore its involvement in cell fate decisions in mesenchymal cells, we studied the effects of Kindlin-2 modification (overexpression/knockdown) in induced pluripotent cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (iPSC-MSCs). Kindlin-2 overexpression resulted in increased proliferation and reduced apoptosis of iPSC-MSCs, as well as inhibition of their differentiation towards osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes...
2017: Stem Cells International
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