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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786151/time-dependent-loss-of-trabecular-bone-in-human-tibial-plateau-fractures
#1
Lucian Bogdan Solomon, David Kitchen, Paul Hamill Anderson, Dongqing Yang, Yolandi Starczak, Masakazu Kogawa, Egon Perilli, Peter Jonathan Smitham, Mark Sean Rickman, Dominic Thewlis, Gerald James Atkins
We investigated if time between injury and surgery affects cancellous bone properties in patients suffering tibial plateau fractures (TPF), in terms of structural integrity and gene expression controlling bone loss. A cohort of 29 TPF, operated 1-17 days post-injury, had biopsies from the fracture and an equivalent contralateral limb site, at surgery. Samples were assessed using micro-computed tomography and real-time RT-PCR analysis for the expression of genes known to be involved in bone remodeling and fracture healing...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785591/association-of-reduced-sclerostin-expression-with-collapse-process-in-patients-with-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head
#2
Xiao-Jun Chen, Fan Yang, Zhen-Qiu Chen, Min-Cong He, Guo-Ju Hong, Jun-Yuan Huang, Ying-Chun Zhou, Yi-Xian Qin, Qiu-Shi Wei, Wei He
PURPOSE: Sclerostin is an osteocyte-derived protein that has a potent inhibitory effect on osteoblast activity. The osteocyte apoptosis induced by various causes of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) plays a key role in the promotion of femoral head collapse. But the effect of altering sclerostin level on the collapse of ONFH has not been studied. Our aim was to assess the role of sclerostin level in the collapse of ONFH. METHODS: Between May 2016 and November 2016, 236 subjects were enrolled in the present study...
May 21, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782843/role-of-nutritional-vitamin-d-in-osteoporosis-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Yi-Chou Hou, Chia-Chao Wu, Min-Tser Liao, Jia-Fwu Shyu, Chi-Feng Hung, Tzung-Hai Yen, Chien-Lin Lu, Kuo-Cheng Lu
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by a decrease in bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. The World Health Organization has defined osteoporosis as a decrease in bone mass (50%) and bony quality (50%). Vitamin D, a steroid hormone, is crucial for skeletal health and in mineral metabolism. Its direct action on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and interaction with nonskeletal tissues help in maintaining a balance between bone turnover and bone growth. Vitamin D affects the activity of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, suggesting that it affects bone formation, bone resorption, and bone quality...
May 18, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780142/diabetes-mellitus-induced-bone-fragility
#4
Ippei Kanazawa, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Accumulating evidence has shown that the risk of osteoporotic fractures is increased in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Thus, DM-induced bone fragility has been recently recognized as a diabetic complication. Because the fracture risk is independent of the reduction in bone mineral density, deterioration of the bone quality may be the main cause of bone fragility. Although its mechanism remains poorly understood, accumulated collagen cross-links of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and dysfunctions of osteoblast and osteocyte may be involved...
May 18, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776933/primary-cutaneous-osteosarcoma-of-the-scalp
#5
Yusra Al-Janabi, Khalid Al-Janabi, Kallirroi Tzafetta, Mahir Petkar
Primary cutaneous extraskeletal osteosarcoma (PCEO) is a rare malignant neoplasm with less than 20 cases reported in the literature to date. Presenting as a nodule or mass on the skin, commonly at sites of previous trauma or radiation, these lesions are differentiated from other neoplasms through their characteristic microscopic appearance. This report highlights a case of PCEO in a 75-year-old man with a history of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the scalp. Histological examination of a scalp nodule in the region of a previously excised SCC revealed proliferation of osteoid surrounded by malignant osteocytes...
May 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775615/extracellular-matrix-protein-dmp1-suppresses-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#6
Shufan Zhang, Huixuan Wan, Peng Wang, Mengmeng Liu, Gongchen Li, Chunxue Zhang, Yao Sun
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are self-renewing and multipotent stem cells which was investigated for diverse clinical applications. However, complex mechanism of MSCs fate determination is still not fully disclosed. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins contribute to maintain MSCs stemness by providing extracellular microenvironment. Increasing evidences show that ECM proteins could also regulate the fate of MSCs directly. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is an ECM protein enrich in bone tissue and terminal cells, which well-known in promoting osteoblasts and osteocytes maturation, and facilitate mineralization...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774455/semaphorin-3a-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bmsc-from-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-rats
#7
Qiao Qiao, Xiaoru Xu, Yingliang Song, Shuang Song, Wenzhong Zhu, Fenglan Li
Bone regeneration is impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which leads to non-healing after bone loss. The decreased osteogenic capacity of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) might be a main reason. Sema3A, as a powerful protein promoting osteocyte differentiation, shows potential for bone regeneration treatment. BMSCs may be a therapeutic solution. In this study, we divided BMSCs from T2DM rats (BMSCs-D) and normal rats (BMSCs-N), identified their ability to differentiate into different cell types...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770568/injection-of-synthetic-mesenchymal-stem-cell-mitigates-osteoporosis-in-rats-after-ovariectomy
#8
Miaoda Shen, Ronghuan Wu, Rilong Jin, Jun Pan, Fang Guo, Zhuoyang Li, Xiangjin Lin, Sanzhong Xu
Osteoporosis is a severe skeletal disorder. Patients have a low bone mineral density and bone structural deterioration. Mounting lines of evidence suggest that inappropriate apoptosis of osteoblasts/osteocytes leads to maladaptive bone remodelling in osteoporosis. It has been suggested that transplantation of stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells, may alter the trajectory of bone remoulding and mitigate osteoporosis in animal models. However, stem cells needed to be carefully stored and characterized before usage...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769195/osteocyte-driven-downregulation-of-snail-restrains-effects-of-drd2-inhibitors-on-mammary-tumor-cells
#9
Shengzhi Liu, Yao Fan, Andy Chen, Aydin Jalali, Kazumasa Minami, Kazuhiko Ogawa, Harikrishna Nakshatri, Bai-Yan Li, Hiroki Yokota
While bone is a frequent target of breast cancer-associated metastasis, little is known about the effects of tumor-bone interactions on the efficacy of tumor-suppressing agents. Here we examined the effect of two FDA-approved dopamine modulators, Fluphenazine (FP) and Trifluoperazine (TFP), on mammary tumor cells, osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. These agents suppressed proliferation and migration of mammary tumor cells chiefly by antagonizing dopamine receptor D2 and reduced bone resorption by downregulating nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (Nfatc1)...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762823/h19-promotes-the-proliferation-of-osteocytes-by-inhibiting-p53-during-fracture-healing
#10
Q-P Zhou, F Zhang, J Zhang, D Ma
OBJECTIVE: We explored the possible mechanism underlying the expression change of H19 during fracture healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 male SD mice aged from 6-8 weeks old (18.5-24.6 g) were selected to establish tibial fracture models. The left tibia undergoing sham surgery was considered as the control group, and the right tibia undergoing sawing treatment was considered as the experimental group. The control tibia and fracture tibia from three mice were harvested at six time points after operation, respectively...
April 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753194/targeting-wnt-signaling-in-the-treatment-of-osteoporosis
#11
REVIEW
Roland Baron, Francesca Gori
Osteoporosis is a widespread chronic disease characterized by low bone density, altered microstructure and bone fragility, leading to low impact fractures in affected individuals. The discovery of a few mutations that cause extremely rare human diseases has identified the WNT signaling pathway as a candidate for therapeutic intervention aimed at increasing bone mass and strength. In particular, inhibition of sclerostin, a WNT antagonist secreted by osteocytes, has proven in clinical trials to be a very efficient osteo-anabolic approach...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751971/cardiac-hypertrophy-elevates-serum-levels-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23
#12
Isao Matsui, Tatsufumi Oka, Yasuo Kusunoki, Daisuke Mori, Nobuhiro Hashimoto, Ayumi Matsumoto, Karin Shimada, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Keiichi Kubota, Sayoko Yonemoto, Tomoaki Higo, Yusuke Sakaguchi, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Takayuki Hamano, Yoshitaka Isaka
Several experimental studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) induces left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). However, the opposite directional relationship, namely a potential effect of LVH on FGF23, remains uncertain. Here we evaluated the effects of LVH on FGF23 using cardiomyocyte-specific calcineurin A transgenic mice. At six weeks, these mice showed severe LVH, with elevated levels of serum intact FGF23. FGF23 levels were elevated in cardiomyocytes, but not osteocytes, of the transgenic animals...
May 8, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751821/improved-gmp-compliant-approach-to-manipulate-lipoaspirates-to-cryopreserve-stromal-vascular-fraction-and-to-expand-adipose-stem-cells-in-xeno-free-media
#13
Francesco Agostini, Francesca Maria Rossi, Donatella Aldinucci, Monica Battiston, Elisabetta Lombardi, Stefania Zanolin, Samuele Massarut, Pier Camillo Parodi, Alessandro Da Ponte, Giovanni Tessitori, Barbara Pivetta, Cristina Durante, Mario Mazzucato
BACKGROUND: The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) derived from adipose tissue contains adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASC) and can be used for regenerative applications. Thus, a validated protocol for SVF isolation, freezing, and thawing is required to manage product administration. To comply with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), fetal bovine serum (FBS), used to expand ASC in vitro, could be replaced by growth factors from platelet concentrates. METHODS: Throughout each protocol, GMP-compliant reagents and devices were used...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750826/conditional-deletion-of-sost-in-msc-derived-lineages-identifies-specific-cell-type-contributions-to-bone-mass-and-b-cell-development
#14
Cristal S Yee, Jennifer O Manilay, Jiun C Chang, Nicholas R Hum, Deepa K Murugesh, Jamila Bajwa, Melanie E Mendez, Aris E Economides, Daniel J Horan, Alexander G Robling, Gabriela G Loots
Sclerostin (Sost) is a negative regulator of bone formation and blocking its function via antibodies has shown great therapeutic promise by increasing both bone mass in humans and animal models. Sclerostin deletion in Sost knockout mice (Sost-/- ) causes high bone mass (HBM) similar to Sclerosteosis patients. Sost-/- mice have been shown to display an up to 300% increase in bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), relative to aged matched controls, and it has been postulated that the main source of skeletal Sclerostin is the osteocyte...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746861/lenalidomide-regulates-osteocytes-fate-and-related-osteoclastogenesis-via-il-1%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-rankl-signaling
#15
Xinhua Qu, Jingtian Mei, Zhifeng Yu, Zanjing Zhai, Han Qiao, Kerong Dai
Osteolytic diseases are closely associated with osteocyte fate, indicating a more efficient and crucial role of osteocyte-targeting strategy in inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of lenalidomide (Lena) on osteocyte fate in order to regulate osteoclastogenesis via effective cascade-controlling response. Our data revealed that lenalidomide treatment notably rescued IL-1β induced loss of osteocyte viability by inhibiting osteocyte apoptosis with decreased osteoclast-related factors, RANKL and Sclerostin, as demonstrated by the restricted osteoclast formation and reduced bone resorption...
May 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745517/-progress-in-the-regulation-of-bone-remodeling-at-the-cellular-level
#16
REVIEW
Yuanbo Hu, Lesha Wang, Lei Jiang, Huazi Xu, Sipin Zhu
Bone remodeling requires an intimate cross-talk between osteoclasts and osteoblasts and is tightly coordinated with regulatory proteins that interact through complex autocrine/paracrine processes. Osteocytes, bone lining cells, osteomacs and vascular endothelial cells also regulate bone remodeling in the basic multicellular unit (BMU) via cell signaling networks of ligand-receptor complexes. In addition, through secreted and membrane-bound factors in the bone microenvironment, T and B lymphocytes mediate bone homeostasis for osteoimmunology...
June 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745033/role-of-teriparatide-in-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis-through-regulating-cellular-reactive-oxygen-species
#17
Tao Wang, Chao Han, Peng Tian, Peng-Fei Li, Xin-Long Ma
OBJECTIVE: To determine the signaling pathways mediated by teriparatide in MLO-Y4 cell lines based on the evaluation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through AKT pathways, which regulate apoptosis of bone cells. METHODS: We performed the DCFH-DA assay to investigate the role of ROS in MLO-Y4 cells caused by dexamethasone (Dex). Four groups were included: Dex group, Dex+NAC, Dex+ teriparatide group and control group (without any dispose). Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to test the SOD2 and Cat mRNA expression...
May 10, 2018: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738854/age-related-changes-in-female-mouse-cortical-bone-microporosity
#18
Haniyeh Hemmatian, Michaël R Laurent, Astrid D Bakker, Dirk Vanderschueren, Jenneke Klein-Nulend, G Harry van Lenthe
Osteocyte lacunae are small cavities within the bone matrix. Their dimensions and spatial arrangement affect bone mechanical properties. Furthermore, their size and shape affect the strain in bone tissue close to the lacunae; hence, they are supposed to affect the mechanosensory function of the osteocytes residing in the lacunae. It was the purpose of this study to quantify the morphological features of osteocyte lacunae, whether these are affected by aging and whether these vary among different anatomical location...
May 5, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738853/osteocytic-perilacunar-canalicular-turnover-in-hemodialysis-patients-with-high-and-low-serum-pth-levels
#19
Aiji Yajima, Ken Tsuchiya, David B Burr, Daniel E Minner, Keith W Condon, Caroline A Miller, Shigeru Satoh, Masaaki Inaba, Takashi Nakayama, Tatsuhiko Tanizawa, Akemi Ito, Kosaku Nitta
Osteocytic perilacunar/canalicular turnover in hemodialysis patients has not yet been reported. Osteocyte lacunae in lamellar bone and woven bone were classified as eroded surface-, osteoid surface-, and quiescent surface-predominant osteocyte lacunae (ES-Lc, OS-Lc, QS-Lc, respectively) in 55 hemodialysis patients with either high- (n = 45) or low- (n = 10) parathyroid hormone levels, and 19 control subjects without chronic kidney disease. We calculated the area and number of ES-Lc, OS-Lc, and QS-Lc...
May 5, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736606/a-multiscale-analytical-approach-to-evaluate-osseointegration
#20
REVIEW
Anders Palmquist
Osseointegrated implants are frequently used in reconstructive surgery, both in the dental and orthopedic field, restoring physical function and improving the quality of life for the patients. The bone anchorage is typically evaluated at micrometer resolution, while bone tissue is a dynamic composite material composed of nanoscale collagen fibrils and apatite crystals, with defined hierarchical levels at different length scales. In order to understand the bone formation and the ultrastructure of the interfacial tissue, analytical strategies needs to be implemented enabling multiscale and multimodal analyses of the intact interface...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
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