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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888100/harnessing-wharton-s-jelly-stem-cell-differentiation-into-bone-like-nodule-on-calcium-phosphate-substrate-without-osteoinductive-factors
#1
S Mechiche Alami, H Rammal, C Boulagnon-Rombi, F Velard, F Lazar, R Drevet, D Laurent Maquin, S C Gangloff, J Hemmerlé, J C Voegel, G Francius, P Schaaf, F Boulmedais, H Kerdjoudj
An important aim of bone regenerative medicine is to design biomaterials with controlled chemical and topographical features to guide stem cell fate towards osteoblasts without addition of specific osteogenic factors. Herein, we find that sprayed bioactive and biocompatible calcium phosphate substrates (CaP) with controlled topography induce, in a well-orchestrated manner, Wharton's jelly stem cells (WJ-SCs) differentiation into osteoblastic lineage without any osteogenic supplements. The resulting WJ-SCs commitment exhibits features of native bone, through the formation of three-dimensional bone-like nodule with osteocyte-like cells embedded into a mineralized type I collagen...
November 22, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888056/sclerostin-expression-and-functions-beyond-the-osteocyte
#2
Megan M Weivoda, Stephanie J Youssef, Merry Jo Oursler
Sclerostin, the product of the SOST gene, is a secreted inhibitor of Wnt signaling that is produced by osteocytes to regulate bone formation. While it is often considered an osteocyte-specific protein, SOST expression has been reported in numerous other cell types, including hypertrophic chondrocytes and cementocytes. Of interest, SOST/sclerostin expression is altered in certain pathogenic conditions, including osteoarthritis and rheumatic joint disease, and it is unclear whether sclerostin plays a protective role or whether sclerostin may mediate disease pathogenesis...
November 22, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885179/-bone-homeostasis-and-mechano-biology
#3
Tomoki Nakashima
The weight-bearing exercises help to build bones and to maintain them strength. Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884786/osteopontin-and-the-dento-osseous-pathobiology-of-x-linked-hypophosphatemia
#4
Tchilalo Boukpessi, Betty Hoac, Benjamin R Coyac, Thibaut Leger, Camille Garcia, Philippe Wicart, Michael P Whyte, Francis H Glorieux, Agnès Linglart, Catherine Chaussain, Marc D McKee
Seven young patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH, having inactivating PHEX mutations) were discovered to accumulate osteopontin (OPN) at the sites of defective bone mineralization near osteocytes - the so-called hallmark periosteocytic (lacunar) "halos" of XLH. OPN was also localized in the pericanalicular matrix extending beyond the osteocyte lacunae, as well as in the hypomineralized matrix of tooth dentin. OPN, a potent inhibitor of mineralization normally degraded by PHEX, is a member of a family of acidic, phosphorylated, calcium-binding, extracellular matrix proteins known to regulate dental, skeletal, and pathologic mineralization...
November 21, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871909/histone-deacetylase-inhibition-enhances-in-vivo-bone-regeneration-induced-by-human-periodontal-ligament-cells
#5
Nam Cong-Nhat Huynh, Vincent Everts, Akira Nifuji, Prasit Pavasant, Ruchanee Salingcarnboriboon Ampornaramveth
: Periodontal ligament cells have the potential to differentiate into bone forming osteoblasts and thus represent a good cellular candidate for bone regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the effect of inhibition of histone deacetylases, using the inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA), on bone regeneration by human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) in a mouse calvaria bone defect. METHODS: RUNX2 protein and its acetylation was analyzed by immunoprecipitation and western blotting...
November 18, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871116/glucocorticoid-signaling-and-bone-biology
#6
T Komori
Since glucocorticoids remain an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis. Fractures may occur in as many as 30-50% of patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Under physiological conditions, glucocorticoids are required for normal bone development due to their regulation of osteoblast differentiation, possibly via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and TSC22D3. However, serum levels of endogenous corticosterone are elevated in aged mice and glucocorticoids exert negative effects on the survival of osteoblasts and osteocytes as well as angiogenesis...
November 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871114/bone-marrow-stromal-stem-cells-in-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine
#7
A Polymeri, W V Giannobile, D Kaigler
Bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) are adult multipotent cells, which have the potential to differentiate into cell types of mesodermal origin, namely osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Due to their accessibility and expansion potential, BMSCs have historically held therapeutic promise in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. More recently, it has been demonstrated that not only can bone marrow stromal stem cells directly participate in tissue regeneration, but they also have the capacity to migrate to distant sites of tissue injury, where they can participate in tissue repair either directly through their differentiation or indirectly through paracrine mechanisms...
November 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870847/creating-high-resolution-multiscale-maps-of-human-tissue-using-multi-beam-sem
#8
André F Pereira, Daniel J Hageman, Tomasz Garbowski, Christof Riedesel, Ulf Knothe, Dirk Zeidler, Melissa L Knothe Tate
Multi-beam scanning electron microscopy (mSEM) enables high-throughput, nano-resolution imaging of macroscopic tissue samples, providing an unprecedented means for structure-function characterization of biological tissues and their cellular inhabitants, seamlessly across multiple length scales. Here we describe computational methods to reconstruct and navigate a multitude of high-resolution mSEM images of the human hip. We calculated cross-correlation shift vectors between overlapping images and used a mass-spring-damper model for optimal global registration...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867498/bone-muscle-crosstalk-targets-muscle-regeneration-pathway-regulated-by-core-circadian-transcriptional-repressors-dec1-and-dec2
#9
REVIEW
Jeffrey P Gorski, Jeffrey L Price
Deletion of proprotein convertase Mbtps1 in bone osteocytes leads to a significant postnatal increase in skeletal muscle size and contractile function, while causing only a 25% increase in stiffness in long bones. Concerns about leakiness in skeletal muscle were discounted since Cre recombinase expression does not account for our findings, and, Mbtps1 protein and mRNA is not deleted. Interestingly, the response of normal skeletal muscle to exercise and the regenerative response of skeletal muscle to the deletion of Mbtps1 in bone share some key regulatory features including a preference for slow twitch muscle fibers...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866791/mesenchymal-stem-cells-the-roles-and-functions-in-cutaneous-wound-healing-and-tumor-growth
#10
REVIEW
Sei-Ichiro Motegi, Osamu Ishikawa
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow-derived non-hematopoietic progenitor cells. MSCs are able to differentiate into various types of cells, including chondrocytes, adipocytes, osteocytes, myocytes, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes. There is increasing evidence that MSCs might be located external to the vasculature, and that perivascular cells in the skin, generally called as "pericytes", might include MSCs. It has been suggested that MSCs localized around blood vessels might migrate into wounds and contribute to the restoration of injured tissues...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865207/a-multi-level-comparative-analysis-of-human-femoral-cortical-bone-quality-in-healthy-cadavers-and-surgical-safe-margin-of-osteosarcoma-patients
#11
Xuelei Zhang, Zhurong Tang, Yong Zhou, Xuening Chen, Xiangdong Zhu, Yujiang Fan, Yu Zhang, Xiao Yang, Chong-Qi Tu, Xingdong Zhang
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone. However, the potential variation it brings to the adjacent undamaged bone tissue is seldom investigated. In this study, we conducted a multi-level comparison of human femoral cortical bone quality in healthy cadavers (aged 42±11 years) and in resected safe margin of osteosarcoma patients (aged 49±15 years). The objective of this study was to document the changes with exposure to osteosarcoma condition in bone mechanical strength, structural morphology and elementary composition, evaluated by static and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
November 12, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862887/revisiting-the-links-between-bone-remodelling-and-osteocytes-insights-from-across-phyla
#12
John D Currey, Mason N Dean, Ron Shahar
We question two major tenets of bone biology: that the primary role of remodelling is to remove damage in the bone (so-called damage-driven remodelling) and that osteocytes are the only strain-sensing orchestrators of this process. These concepts are distilled largely from research on model mammal species, but in fact, there are a number of features of various bones, from mammalian and non-mammalian species, that do not accord with these 'rules'. Here, we assemble a variety of examples, ranging from species that lack osteocytes but that still seem capable of remodelling their bones, to species with osteocytic bones that do not remodel, and to instances of inter-species, inter-bone and/or intra-bone variation in bone remodelling that show that this purported repair process is not always where the 'rules' tell us it should be...
November 14, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860364/a-reproducible-method-for-the-isolation-and-expansion-of-ovine-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-bone-marrow-for-use-in-regenerative-medicine-preclinical-studies
#13
Marta Caminal, Roberto Vélez, Rosa Maria Rabanal, Daniel Vivas, Laura Batlle-Morera, Màrius Aguirre, Jordi Barquinero, Joan García, Joaquim Vives
The use of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as candidate medicines for treating a variety of pathologies is based on their qualities as either progenitors for the regeneration of damaged tissue or producers of a number of molecules with pharmacological properties. Preclinical product development programmes include the use of well characterized cell populations for proof of efficacy and safety studies before testing in humans. In the field of orthopaedics, an increasing number of translational studies use sheep as an in vivo test system because of the similarities with humans in size and musculoskeletal architecture...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859586/lactation-induced-changes-in-the-volume-of-osteocyte-lacunar-canalicular-space-alter-mechanical-properties-in-cortical-bone-tissue
#14
Serra Kaya, Jelena Basta-Pljakic, Zeynep Seref-Ferlengez, Robert J Majeska, Luis Cardoso, Timothy Bromage, Qihong Zhang, Carol R Flach, Richard Mendelsohn, Shoshana Yakar, Susannah P Fritton, Mitchell B Schaffler
Osteocytes can remove and remodel small amounts of their surrounding bone matrix through osteocytic osteolysis, which results in increased volume occupied by lacunar and canalicular space (LCS). It is well established that cortical bone stiffness and strength are strongly and inversely correlated with vascular porosity, but whether changes in LCS volume caused by osteocytic osteolysis are large enough to affect bone mechanical properties is not known. In the current studies we tested the hypotheses that i) lactation and post-lactation recovery in mice alter the elastic modulus of bone tissue, and ii) such local changes in mechanical properties are related predominantly to alterations in lacunar and canalicular volume rather than bone matrix composition...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847442/tonebp-suppresses-adipocyte-differentiation-via-modulation-of-early-signaling-in-3t3-l1-cells
#15
Soo Jin Kim, Taehee Kim, Han Na Choi, Eun Jung Cho, Jin Bong Park, Byeong Hwa Jeon, Sang Do Lee
TonEBP belongs to the Rel family of transcription factors and plays important roles in inflammation as well as kidney homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that TonEBP expression is also involved in differentiation of several cell types such as myocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. In this study, we investigated the roles of TonEBP during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. TonEBP mRNA and protein expression was dramatically reduced during adipocyte differentiation. Sustained expression of TonEBP using an adenovirus suppressed the formation of lipid droplets as well as the expression of FABP4, a marker of differentiated adipocytes...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846800/treatment-with-cinacalcet-increases-plasma-sclerostin-concentration-in-hemodialysis-patients-with-secondary-hyperparathyroidism
#16
Piotr Kuczera, Marcin Adamczak, Andrzej Więcek
BACKGROUND: Sclerostin is a paracrine acting factor, which is expressed in the osteocytes and articular chondrocytes. Sclerostin decreases the osteoblast-related bone formation through the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Osteocytes also express the Calcium sensing receptor which is a target for cinacalcet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of six-month cinacalcet treatment on plasma sclerostin concentration in hemodialysed patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT)...
November 15, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846781/osteoblast-differentiation-and-bone-matrix-formation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#17
Harry C Blair, Quitterie C Larrouture, Yanan Li, Hang Lin, Donna Beer Stolz, Li Liu, Rocky Tuan, Lisa J Robinson, Paul H Schlesinger, Deborah J Nelson
We review the characteristics of osteoblast differentiation and bone matrix synthesis. Bone in air breathing vertebrates is a specialized tissue that developmentally replaces simpler solid tissues, usually cartilage. Bone is a living organ bounded by a layer of osteoblasts that, because of transport and compartmentalization requirements, produce bone matrix exclusively as an organized tight epithelium. With matrix growth, osteoblasts are reorganized and incorporated into the matrix as living cells, osteocytes, that communicate with each other and surface epithelium via cell processes within canaliculi in the matrix...
November 16, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823934/beta-adrenergic-signaling-affect-osteoclastogenesis-via-osteocytic-mlo-y4-cells-rankl-production
#18
Qianqian Yao, Hengxing Liang, Bo Huang, Lin Xiang, Tianlu Wang, Yi Xiong, Bo Yang, Yanjun Guo, Ping Gong
The sympathetic nervous system play a pivotal role in bone remodeling through β-adrenoceptor (β-AR). However, it is not well documented whether the β-adrenoceptor pathway has the potential to influence osteocytes. In this study, cell viability, the expression of β-AR subtypes, enzymes of catecholamine synthesis or degradation, bone-related gene and protein in osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells were investigated by β-adrenergic stimulation. Isoproterenol (ISO) promoted RANKL to OPG expression in osteocytes, as well as osteoclasts formation in osteocytes-RAW264...
November 4, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814695/transcription-factor-znf25-is-associated-with-osteoblast-differentiation-of-human-skeletal-stem-cells
#19
Natalie A Twine, Linda Harkness, Moustapha Kassem, Marc R Wilkins
BACKGROUND: The differentiation of human bone marrow derived skeletal stem cells (known as human bone marrow stromal or mesenchymal stem cells, hMSCs) into osteoblasts involves the activation of a small number of well-described transcription factors. To identify additional osteoblastic transcription factors, we studied gene expression of hMSCs during ex vivo osteoblast differentiation. RESULTS: Clustering of gene expression, and literature investigation, revealed three transcription factors of interest - ZNF25, ZNF608 and ZBTB38...
November 4, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814646/blockage-of-hemichannels-alters-gene-expression-in-osteocytes-in-a-high-magneto-gravitational-environment
#20
Huiyun Xu, Dandan Ning, Dezhi Zhao, Yunhe Chen, Dongdong Zhao, Sumin Gu, Jean Xin Jiang, Peng Shang
Osteocytes, the most abundant cells in bone, are highly responsive to external environmental changes. We tested how Cx43 hemichannels which mediate the exchange of small molecules between cells and extracellular environment impact genome wide gene expression under conditions of abnormal gravity and magnetic field. To this end, we subjected osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells to a high magneto-gravitational environment and used microarray to examine global gene expression and a specific blocking antibody was used to assess the role of Cx43 hemichannels...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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