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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426756/excessive-dietary-intake-of-vitamin-a-reduces-skull-bone-thickness-in-mice
#1
Thomas Lind, Caroline Öhman, Gabriela Calounova, Annica Rasmusson, Göran Andersson, Gunnar Pejler, Håkan Melhus
Calvarial thinning and skull bone defects have been reported in infants with hypervitaminosis A. These findings have also been described in humans, mice and zebrafish with loss-of-function mutations in the enzyme CYP26B1 that degrades retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, indicating that these effects are indeed caused by too high levels of vitamin A and that evolutionary conserved mechanisms are involved. To explore these mechanisms, we have fed young mice excessive doses of vitamin A for one week and then analyzed the skull bones using micro computed tomography, histomorphometry, histology and immunohistochemistry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426281/identification-of-ssea-1-expressing-enhanced-reprogramming-seer-cells-in-porcine-embryonic-fibroblasts
#2
Dong Li, Jan O Secher, Morten Juhl, Kaveh Mashayekhi, Troels T Nielsen, Bjørn Holst, Poul Hyttel, Kristine K Freude, Vanessa J Hall
Previous research has shown that a subpopulation of cells within cultured human dermal fibroblasts, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, are preferentially reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells. However, controversy exists over whether these cells are the only cells capable of being reprogrammed from a heterogeneous population of fibroblasts. Similarly, there is little research to suggest such cells may exist in embryonic tissues or other species. In order to address if such a cell population exists in pigs, we investigated porcine embryonic fibroblast populations (pEFs) and identified heterogeneous expression of several key cell surface markers...
April 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425622/targeted-disruption-of-nf1-in-osteocyte-increases-fgf23-and-osteoid-with-osteomalacia-like-bone-phenotype
#3
Nobuhiro Kamiya, Ryosuke Yamaguchi, Olumide Aruwajoye, Audrey Kim, Gen Kuroyanagi, Matthew Phipps, Naga Suresh Adapala, Jian Q Feng, Harry K W Kim
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, OMIM 162200), caused by NF1 gene mutations, exhibits multi-system abnormalities including skeletal deformities in humans. Osteocytes play critical roles in controlling bone modeling and remodeling. However, the role of neurofibromin, the protein product of the NF1 gene, in osteocytes is largely unknown. This study investigated the role of neurofibromin in osteocytes by disrupting Nf1 under the Dmp1-promoter. The conditional knockout (Nf1 cKO) mice displayed serum profile of a metabolic bone disorder with an osteomalacia-like bone phenotype...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424094/electrical-control-of-calcium-oscillations-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-using-microsecond-pulsed-electric-fields
#4
Hanna Hanna, Franck M Andre, Lluis M Mir
BACKGROUND: Human mesenchymal stem cells are promising tools for regenerative medicine due to their ability to differentiate into many cellular types such as osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes amongst many other cell types. These cells present spontaneous calcium oscillations implicating calcium channels and pumps of the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. These oscillations regulate many basic functions in the cell such as proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, the possibility to mimic or regulate these oscillations might be useful to regulate mesenchymal stem cells biological functions...
April 20, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419546/connexin43-and-runx2-interact-to-affect-cortical-bone-geometry-skeletal-development-and-osteoblast-and-osteoclast-function
#5
Atum M Buo, Ryan E Tomlinson, Eric R Eidelman, Max Chason, Joseph P Stains
The coupling of osteoblasts and osteocytes by connexin43 (Cx43) gap junctions permits the sharing of second messengers that coordinate bone cell function and cortical bone acquisition. However, details of how Cx43 converts shared second messengers into signals that converge onto essential osteogenic processes are incomplete. Here, we use in vitro and in vivo methods to show that Cx43 and Runx2 functionally interact to regulate osteoblast gene expression and proliferation, ultimately affecting cortical bone properties...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419209/estrogen-deficiency-exacerbates-type-1-diabetes-induced-bone-tnf%C3%AE-expression-and-osteoporosis-in-female-mice
#6
Sandi Raehtz, Hayley Bierhalter, Daniel Schoenherr, Narayanan Parameswaran, Laura R McCabe
Estrogen deficiency following menopause is associated with rapid bone loss, osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), characterized by hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia, is also associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk. With better treatment options, T1D patients are living longer and therefore the number of patients having both T1D and estrogen deficiency is increasing. Little is known about the mechanistic impact of T1D in conjunction with estrogen deficiency on bone physiology and density...
April 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417059/susceptibility-of-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-oscc-h103-and-h376-cell-lines-to-retroviral-oskm-mediated-reprogramming
#7
Nalini Devi Verusingam, Swee Keong Yeap, Huynh Ky, Ian C Paterson, Suan Phaik Khoo, Soon Keng Cheong, Alan H K Ong, Tunku Kamarul
Although numbers of cancer cell lines have been shown to be successfully reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), reprogramming Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) to pluripotency in relation to its cancer cell type and the expression pattern of pluripotent genes under later passage remain unexplored. In our study, we reprogrammed and characterised H103 and H376 oral squamous carcinoma cells using retroviral OSKM mediated method. Reprogrammed cells were characterized for their embryonic stem cells (ESCs) like morphology, pluripotent gene expression via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunofluorescence staining, embryoid bodies (EB) formation and directed differentiation capacity...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416686/ngf-trka-signaling-in-sensory-nerves-is-required-for-skeletal-adaptation-to-mechanical-loads-in-mice
#8
Ryan E Tomlinson, Zhi Li, Zhu Li, Liliana Minichiello, Ryan C Riddle, Arun Venkatesan, Thomas L Clemens
Sensory nerves emanating from the dorsal root extensively innervate the surfaces of mammalian bone, a privileged location for the regulation of biomechanical signaling. Here, we show that NGF-TrkA signaling in skeletal sensory nerves is an early response to mechanical loading of bone and is required to achieve maximal load-induced bone formation. First, the elimination of TrkA signaling in mice harboring mutant TrkA(F592A) alleles was found to greatly attenuate load-induced bone formation induced by axial forelimb compression...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414140/shear-stress-inhibits-il-17a-mediated-induction-of-osteoclastogenesis-via-osteocyte-pathways
#9
Chongshan Liao, Tianfan Cheng, Shuai Wang, Chengfei Zhang, Lijian Jin, Yanqi Yang
Interleukin (IL)-17 is crucial to osteoclast differentiation and activation. Osteocytes support osteoclast formation and are thought to orchestrate bone remodeling in response to fluid flow. The contribution of IL-17 to osteocyte-related bone resorption remains unclear. Here, we used the osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cell line to examine the role of IL-17 and fluid flow in osteoclastogenesis. It was the first time to demonstrate that IL-17A promoted MLO-Y4 cell proliferation, enhanced expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and induced osteoclastogenesis when MLO-Y4 cells were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells...
April 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403946/vitamin-k-and-osteoporosis-myth-or-reality
#10
REVIEW
Andrea Palermo, Dario Tuccinardi, Luca D'Onofrio, Mikiko Watanabe, Daria Maggi, Anna Rita Maurizi, Valentina Greto, Raffaella Buzzetti, Nicola Napoli, Paolo Pozzilli, Silvia Manfrini
Vitamin K is a liposoluble vitamin. The predominant dietary form, phylloquinone or vitamin K1, is found in plants and green vegetables; whereas menaquinone, or vitamin K2, is endogenously synthesized by intestinal bacteria and includes several subtypes that differ in side chain length. Aside from its established role in blood clotting, several studies now support a critical function of vitamin K in improving bone health. Vitamin K is in fact required for osteocalcin carboxylation that in turn regulates bone mineral accretion; it seems to promote the transition of osteoblasts to osteocytes and also limits the process of osteoclastogenesis...
May 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397831/microrna-mir-23a-cluster-promotes-osteocyte-differentiation-by-regulating-tgf-%C3%AE-signalling-in-osteoblasts
#11
Huan-Chang Zeng, Yangjin Bae, Brian C Dawson, Yuqing Chen, Terry Bertin, Elda Munivez, Philippe M Campeau, Jianning Tao, Rui Chen, Brendan H Lee
Osteocytes are the terminally differentiated cell type of the osteoblastic lineage and have important functions in skeletal homeostasis. Although the transcriptional regulation of osteoblast differentiation has been well characterized, the factors that regulate differentiation of osteocytes from mature osteoblasts are poorly understood. Here we show that miR-23a∼27a∼24-2 (miR-23a cluster) promotes osteocyte differentiation. Osteoblast-specific miR-23a cluster gain-of-function mice have low bone mass associated with decreased osteoblast but increased osteocyte numbers...
April 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396120/klotho-expression-in-osteocytes-regulates-bone-metabolism-and-controls-bone-formation
#12
Hirotaka Komaba, Jovana Kaludjerovic, Dorothy Z Hu, Kenichi Nagano, Katsuhiko Amano, Noriko Ide, Tadatoshi Sato, Michael J Densmore, Jun-Ichi Hanai, Hannes Olauson, Teresita Bellido, Tobias E Larsson, Roland Baron, Beate Lanske
Osteocytes within the mineralized bone matrix control bone remodeling by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast activity. Osteocytes express the aging suppressor Klotho, but the functional role of this protein in skeletal homeostasis is unknown. Here we identify Klotho expression in osteocytes as a potent regulator of bone formation and bone mass. Targeted deletion of Klotho from osteocytes led to a striking increase in bone formation and bone volume coupled with enhanced osteoblast activity, in sharp contrast to what is observed in Klotho hypomorphic (kl/kl) mice...
April 8, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386845/sub-physiological-oxygen-levels-optimal-for-growth-and-survival-of-human-atrial-cardiac-stem-cells
#13
Deepthi Sreerengam RajendranNair, Jayakumar Karunakaran, Renuka R Nair
Cardiac stem cells reside in niches where the oxygen levels are close to 3%. For cytotherapy, cells are conventionally expanded in ambient oxygen (21% O2) which represents hyperoxia compared to the oxygen tension of niches. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) are then transplanted to host tissue with lower-O2 levels. The high-O2 gradient can reduce the efficacy of cultured cells. Based on the assumption that minimizing injury due to O2 gradients will enhance the yield of functionally efficient cells, CDCs were cultured in 3% O2 and compared with cells maintained in ambient O2...
April 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384511/osteoblast-specific-deletion-of-hrpt2-cdc73-results-in-high-bone-mass-and-increased-bone-turnover
#14
Casey J Droscha, Cassandra R Diegel, Nicole J Ethen, Travis A Burgers, Mitchell J McDonald, Kevin A Maupin, Agni S Naidu, PengFei Wang, Bin T Teh, Bart O Williams
Inactivating mutations that lead to loss of heterozygosity within the HRPT2/Cdc73 gene are directly linked to the development of primary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid adenomas, and ossifying fibromas of the jaw (HPT-JT). The protein product of the Cdc73 gene, parafibromin, is a core member of the polymerase-associated factors (PAF) complex, which coordinates epigenetic modifiers and transcriptional machinery to control gene expression. We conditionally deleted Cdc73 within mesenchymal progenitors or within mature osteoblasts and osteocytes to determine the consequences of parafibromin loss within the mesenchymal lineage...
May 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379384/osteocyte-protein-expression-is-altered-in-low-turnover-osteoporosis-caused-by-mutations-in-wnt1-and-pls3
#15
Katherine Wesseling-Perry, Riikka E Mäkitie, Ville-Valtteri Välimäki, Tero Laine, Christine M Laine, Matti J Välimäki, Renata C Pereira, Outi Mäkitie
Context: Osteocytes express proteins that regulate bone remodeling and mineralization as well as osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between osteocyte-specific protein expression and bone histology in patients with monogenic osteoporosis due to WNT1 or PLS3 mutations. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional cohort study at a University Hospital. Participants: 6 patients (4 males, age range 14-72 years) with a heterozygous WNT1 mutation and 5 patients (4 males, age 9-70 years) with a hetero-/hemizygous PLS3 mutation...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377989/spatial-heterogeneity-in-the-canalicular-density-of-the-osteocyte-network-in-human-osteons
#16
Felix Repp, Philip Kollmannsberger, Andreas Roschger, Michael Kerschnitzki, Andrea Berzlanovich, Gerlinde M Gruber, Paul Roschger, Wolfgang Wagermaier, Richard Weinkamer
Osteocytes interconnect with each other forming an intricate cell network within the mineralized bone matrix. One important function of the osteocyte network is the mechano-regulation of bone remodeling, where a possible mechanism includes the fluid flow through the porosity housing the cell network - the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network (OLCN). In our study the OLCN in human osteons was three-dimensionally imaged with the aim to obtain a quantitative description of the canalicular density and spatial variations of this quantity within osteons...
June 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377986/osteocyte-secreted-factors-inhibit-skeletal-muscle-differentiation
#17
Charles L Wood, Paola Divieti Pajevic, Jonathan H Gooi
It is generally accepted that bone and muscle possess the capacity to act in an autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine manner, with a growing body of evidence that suggests muscle can secrete muscle specific cytokines or "myokines", which influence bone metabolism. However, there has been little investigation into the identity of bone specific cytokines that modulate skeletal muscle differentiation and function. This study aimed to elucidate the influence of osteocytes on muscle progenitor cells in vitro and to identify potential bone specific cytokines or "osteokines"...
June 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377980/the-metabolic-bone-disease-associated-with-the-hyp-mutation-is-independent-of-osteoblastic-hif1%C3%AE-expression
#18
Julia M Hum, Erica L Clinkenbeard, Colin Ip, Taryn A Cass, Matt Allen, Kenneth E White
Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) controls key responses to systemic phosphate increases through its phosphaturic actions on the kidney. In addition to stimulation by phosphate, FGF23 positively responds to iron deficiency anemia and hypoxia in rodent models and in humans. The disorder X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is characterized by elevated FGF23 in concert with an intrinsic bone mineralization defect. Indeed, the Hyp mouse XLH model has disturbed osteoblast to osteocyte differentiation with altered expression of a wide variety of genes, including FGF23...
June 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374174/serum-sclerostin-increases-after-acute-physical-activity
#19
Marie-Eva Pickering, Marie Simon, Elisabeth Sornay-Rendu, Karim Chikh, Marie-Christine Carlier, Anne-Lise Raby, Pawel Szulc, Cyrille B Confavreux
Physical activity has a major impact on bone density and on osteoporosis prevention. Sclerostin is produced by osteocytes and inhibits bone formation. The impact of exercise on sclerostin secretion has not been studied so far. This pilot study aimed to explore circulating sclerostin levels immediately after acute exercise. Healthy young women practicing physical activity less than 120 min per week were enrolled. The exercise was a 45-min, low-speed, treadmill running test. Blood samples were taken at rest before exercise and within 5 min after the end of exercise...
April 3, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370969/tissue-integrity-costs-and-time-associated-with-different-agents-for-histological-bone-preparation
#20
Adelino António Artur Abrantes, Alex Rafacho, Elena Riet Correa Rivero, Fernanda Viviane Mariano, Filipe Modolo Siqueira, Rogério Oliveira Gondak
The selection of an appropriate demineralizing solution in pathology laboratories depends on several factors such as the preservation of cellularity, urgency of diagnostic and financial costs. The aim of this study was to test different decalcification bone procedures in order to establish the best value of these in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples. Femurs were removed from 13 adult male Wistar rats to obtain 130 bone disks randomly divided into five groups that were demineralized in different concentrations of nitric acid (Group I); formic acid (Group II); acetic acid (Group III); EDTA, pH7...
April 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
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