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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758044/prickle-is-phosphorylated-by-nemo-and-targeted-for-degradation-to-maintain-prickle-spiny-legs-isoform-balance-during-planar-cell-polarity-establishment
#1
Giovanna M Collu, Andreas Jenny, Konstantin Gaengel, Ivana Mirkovic, Mei-Ling Chin, Ursula Weber, Michael J Smith, Marek Mlodzik
Planar cell polarity (PCP) instructs tissue patterning in a wide range of organisms from fruit flies to humans. PCP signaling coordinates cell behavior across tissues and is integrated by cells to couple cell fate identity with position in a developing tissue. In the fly eye, PCP signaling is required for the specification of R3 and R4 photoreceptors based upon their positioning relative to the dorso-ventral axis. The 'core' PCP pathway involves the asymmetric localization of two distinct membrane-bound complexes, one containing Frizzled (Fz, required in R3) and the other Van Gogh (Vang, required in R4)...
May 14, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748286/structural-basis-for-recognition-of-frizzled-proteins-by-clostridium-difficile-toxin-b
#2
Peng Chen, Liang Tao, Tianyu Wang, Jie Zhang, Aina He, Kwok-Ho Lam, Zheng Liu, Xi He, Kay Perry, Min Dong, Rongsheng Jin
Clostridium difficile infection is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in developed countries. The major virulence factor, C. difficile toxin B (TcdB), targets colonic epithelia by binding to the frizzled (FZD) family of Wnt receptors, but how TcdB recognizes FZDs is unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of a TcdB fragment in complex with the cysteine-rich domain of human FZD2 at 2.5-angstrom resolution, which reveals an endogenous FZD-bound fatty acid acting as a co-receptor for TcdB binding...
May 11, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743880/-trypanosoma-cruzi-exploits-wnt-signaling-pathway-to-promote-its-intracellular-replication-in-macrophages
#3
Ximena Volpini, Laura F Ambrosio, Laura Fozzatti, Constanza Insfran, Cinthia C Stempin, Laura Cervi, Claudia Cristina Motran
During the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, macrophages can act as host cells for the parasites as well as effector cells in the early anti-parasitic immune response. Thus, the targeting of specific signaling pathways could modulate macrophages response to restrict parasite replication and instruct an appropriate adaptive response. Recently, it has become evident that Wnt signaling has immunomodulatory functions during inflammation and infection. Here, we tested the hypothesis that during T. cruzi infection, the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in macrophages plays a role in modulating the inflammatory/tolerogenic response and therefore regulating the control of parasite replication...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738529/identifying-novel-strategies-for-treating-human-hair-loss-disorders-cyclosporine-a-suppresses-the-wnt-inhibitor-sfrp1-in-the-dermal-papilla-of-human-scalp-hair-follicles
#4
Nathan J Hawkshaw, Jonathan A Hardman, Iain S Haslam, Asim Shahmalak, Amos Gilhar, Xinhong Lim, Ralf Paus
Hair growth disorders often carry a major psychological burden. Therefore, more effective human hair growth-modulatory agents urgently need to be developed. Here, we used the hypertrichosis-inducing immunosuppressant, Cyclosporine A (CsA), as a lead compound to identify new hair growth-promoting molecular targets. Through microarray analysis we identified the Wnt inhibitor, secreted frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1), as being down-regulated in the dermal papilla (DP) of CsA-treated human scalp hair follicles (HFs) ex vivo...
May 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731900/downregulation-of-frizzled-7-induces-the-apoptosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-through-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#5
Yuyang Xue, Cong Chen, Wei Xu, Hao Xu, Junnian Zheng, Yuming Gu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional role of Frizzled-7 (FZD7) in the apoptosis of hepatoma cells. HepG2 and Huh-7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with FZD7 expression were selected for use in the present study. The small hairpin RNA (shRNA) eukaryotic expression vector specific to FZD7 was constructed using gene recombination, and was then transfected into HepG2 and Huh-7 hepatoma cell lines using Lipofectamine 2000 to assess whether the downregulation of FZD7 could affect the proliferative ability of these cells...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731501/sfrp1-promoter-methylation-and-renal-carcinoma-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Shijie Mo, Zexuan Su, Baoli Heng, Weijun Chen, Liping Shi, Xinghua Du, Caiyong Lai
BACKGROUND/AIM: Epigenetic inactivation of tumor suppressor genes is an important molecular mechanism in the formation and development of human tumors. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the correlation between the methylation level of the secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) gene and the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: The relevant literature was searched in detail in several electronic databases. The methodological heterogeneity was analyzed by meta-regression and subgroup analyses...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730658/differential-patterns-of-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-4-sfrp4-in-adipocyte-differentiation-adipose-depot-specificity
#7
Hua Guan, Yali Zhang, Shoucui Gao, Liang Bai, Sihai Zhao, Xian Wu Cheng, Jianglin Fan, Enqi Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) is a member of the SFRP family that acts as soluble modulators of Wnt signaling. Given the substantial rise in obesity, depot-specific fat accumulation and its associated diseases like diabetes, it is important to understand the molecular basis of depot-specific adipocyte differentiation. In the current study, we investigated the expression of SFRP4 in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in terms of their differentiation...
April 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728602/publisher-correction-a-selective-peptide-inhibitor-of-frizzled-7-receptors-disrupts-intestinal-stem-cells
#8
Aaron H Nile, Felipe de Sousa E Melo, Susmith Mukund, Robert Piskol, Simon Hansen, Lijuan Zhou, Yingnan Zhang, Yue Fu, Emily B Gogol, László G Kömüves, Zora Modrusan, Stephane Angers, Yvonne Franke, Christopher Koth, Wayne J Fairbrother, Weiru Wang, Frederic J de Sauvage, Rami N Hannoush
The version of this article originally published contained older versions of the Life Sciences Reporting Summary and the Supplementary Text and Figures. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
May 4, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721644/morphology-oriented-epigenetic-research
#9
REVIEW
Sohei Kitazawa, Ryuma Haraguchi, Riko Kitazawa
Cytosine methylation plays a major role in the regulation of sequential and tissue-specific expression of genes. De novo aberrant DNA methylation and demethylation are also crucial processes in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. The mechanisms of how and when such aberrant methylation and demethylation occur in tumor cells are still obscure, however. To evaluate subtle epigenetic alteration among minor subclonal populations, morphology-oriented epigenetic analysis is requisite, especially where heterogeneity and flexibility are as notable as in the process of cancer progression and cellular differentiation at critical stages...
May 2, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717114/frizzled-8-integrates-wnt-11-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-in-prostate-cancer
#10
Virginia Murillo-Garzón, Irantzu Gorroño-Etxebarria, Malin Åkerfelt, Mikael Christer Puustinen, Lea Sistonen, Matthias Nees, James Carton, Jonathan Waxman, Robert M Kypta
Wnt-11 promotes cancer cell migration and invasion independently of β-catenin but the receptors involved remain unknown. Here, we provide evidence that FZD8 is a major Wnt-11 receptor in prostate cancer that integrates Wnt-11 and TGF-β signals to promote EMT. FZD8 mRNA is upregulated in multiple prostate cancer datasets and in metastatic cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of patient samples reveals increased levels of FZD8 in cancer, correlating with Wnt-11. FZD8 co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with Wnt-11 and potentiates Wnt-11 activation of ATF2-dependent transcription...
May 1, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704505/research-on-epigenetic-mechanism-of-sfrp2-in-advanced-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#11
Ziye Li, Jianmin Luo
Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) has been reported to act as a tumor suppressors. This study aims to detect the biological role of SFRP2 in advanced chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In this study we examined bone marrow samples from 45 CML patients and 10 healthy donors. K562 and KCL22 cells were cultured and treated with demethylation drug and histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi). KCL22 and K562 cells were transfected with lentiviral vector (LV)-SFRP2, LV-control. The cells were then subjected to proliferation and apoptosis assays, real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Methylation-specific PCR (MSP), Western blotting, co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP) and Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), We found that SFRP2 was down-regulated in the accelerated and blast phase of CML, whereas, the levels of WNT1, WNT3 and WNT5A were up-regulated in the accelerated and blast phase of CML...
April 25, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695980/cardiac-remodeling-endothelial-cells-have-more-to-say-than-just-no
#12
REVIEW
Vincent F M Segers, Dirk L Brutsaert, Gilles W De Keulenaer
The heart is a highly structured organ consisting of different cell types, including myocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, and inflammatory cells. This pluricellularity provides the opportunity of intercellular communication within the organ, with subsequent optimization of its function. Intercellular cross-talk is indispensable during cardiac development, but also plays a substantial modulatory role in the normal and failing heart of adults. More specifically, factors secreted by cardiac microvascular endothelial cells modulate cardiac performance and either positively or negatively affect cardiac remodeling...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694926/gh-prevents-adipogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells-derived-from-human-trabecular-bone-via-canonical-wnt-signaling
#13
Simona Bolamperti, Michela Signo, Alice Spinello, GianLuigi Moro, Gianfranco Fraschini, Francesca Guidobono, Alessandro Rubinacci, Isabella Villa
The imbalance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis, which naturally accompanies bone marrow senescence, may contribute to the development of bone-associated diseases, like osteoporosis. In the present study, using primary human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) isolated from trabecular bone, we assessed the possible effect of GH on hMSC differentiation potential into adipocytes. GH (5 ng/ml) significantly inhibited the lipid accumulation in hMSCs cultured for 14 days in lipogenic medium. GH decreased the expression of the adipogenic genes, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) and adiponectin (ADN) as well as the expression of two lipogenesis-related enzymes, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and acethylCoA carboxylase (ACACA)...
April 22, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694885/wnt-signaling-mediates-ltp-dependent-spine-plasticity-and-ampar-localization-through-frizzled-7-receptors
#14
Faye McLeod, Alessandro Bossio, Aude Marzo, Lorenza Ciani, Sara Sibilla, Saad Hannan, Gemma A Wilson, Ernest Palomer, Trevor G Smart, Alasdair Gibb, Patricia C Salinas
The structural and functional plasticity of synapses is critical for learning and memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) induction promotes spine growth and AMPAR accumulation at excitatory synapses, leading to increased synaptic strength. Glutamate initiates these processes, but the contribution from extracellular modulators is not fully established. Wnts are required for spine formation; however, their impact on activity-mediated spine plasticity and AMPAR localization is unknown. We found that LTP induction rapidly increased synaptic Wnt7a/b protein levels...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674475/effect-of-sfrp5-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-5-on-the-wnt5a-wingless-type-family-member-5a-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-and-its-relevance-with-arterial-stiffness-in-human-subjects
#15
Yun Kyung Cho, Yu Mi Kang, Seung Eun Lee, Yoo La Lee, So Mi Seol, Woo Je Lee, Joong-Yeol Park, Chang Hee Jung
OBJECTIVE: SFRP5 (secreted frizzled-related protein 5) is an endogenous inhibitor of WNT5A (wingless-type family member 5a), which has been implicated in atherosclerosis. However, contradictory results have been reported about the role of SFRP5 in atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate whether SFRP5 could restore WNT5A-induced endothelial dysfunction in vitro and ex vivo. In addition, we sought to determine whether the serum concentration of SFRP5 is associated with atherosclerosis in humans...
April 19, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671342/human-articular-chondrocytes-retain-their-phenotype-in-sustained-hypoxia-while-normoxia-promotes-their-immunomodulatory-potential
#16
Claire Mennan, John Garcia, Helen McCarthy, Sharon Owen, Jade Perry, Karina Wright, Robin Banerjee, James B Richardson, Sally Roberts
Objective To assess the phenotype of human articular chondrocytes cultured in normoxia (21% O2 ) or continuous hypoxia (2% O2 ). Design Chondrocytes were extracted from patients undergoing total knee replacement ( n = 5) and cultured in ~21% (normoxic chondrocytes, NC) and 2% (hypoxic chondrocytes, HC) oxygen in both monolayer and 3-dimensional (3D) pellet culture and compared with freshly isolated chondrocytes (FC). Cells were assessed by flow cytometry for markers indicative of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), chondrogenic-potency and dedifferentiation...
April 1, 2018: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666772/frizzled-related-proteins-4-sfrp4-rs1802073g-allele-predicts-the-elevated-serum-lipid-levels-during-acitretin-treatment-in-psoriatic-patients-from-hunan-china
#17
Xingchen Zhou, Wu Zhu, Minxue Shen, Yijing He, Cong Peng, Yehong Kuang, Juan Su, Shuang Zhao, Xiang Chen, Wangqing Chen
Background: Acitretin is a second-generation synthetic retinoid, and is widely used for treating the severe psoriasis vulgaris. However, it should be chosen with caution for its cardiovascular risk, and it is reported that acitretin may increase the serum lipids. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the Frizzled-related proteins 4 (SFRP4) rs1802073 polymorphism and the changes of serum lipids in Chinese psoriatic patients during the treatment with acitretin...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649633/circulating-wnt-inhibitory-factor-1-levels-are-associated-with-development-of-cardiovascular-disease
#18
Claudia Ress, Mariya Paulweber, Georg Goebel, Karin Willeit, Kerstin Rufinatscha, Anna Strobl, Karin Salzmann, Ludmilla Kedenko, Alexander Tschoner, Gabriele Staudacher, Bernhard Iglseder, Herbert Tilg, Bernhard Paulweber, Susanne Kaser
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Wnt signaling is involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation directly and indirectly by modulating cardiovascular risk factors. We investigated whether circulating concentrations of Wnt inhibitors are associated with cardiovascular events in subjects with intermediate cardiovascular risk. METHODS: 904 non-diabetic subjects participating in the SAPHIR study were assessed. In the SAPHIR study, middle-aged women without overt atherosclerotic disease at study entry were followed up for 10 years...
March 29, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649492/a-cytoskeletal-activator-and-inhibitor-are-downstream-targets-of-the-frizzled-starry-night-planar-cell-polarity-pathway-in-the-drosophila-epidermis
#19
REVIEW
Paul N Adler
The frizzled pathway regulates the planar polarity of epithelial cells. In insects this is manifested by the polarity of cuticular structures such as hairs (trichomes) and sensory bristles. A variety of evidence has established that this is achieved by regulating the subcellular location for activating the cytoskeleton in the epithelial cells. How this is accomplished is still poorly understood. In the best-studied tissue, the Drosophila pupal wing two important cytoskeletal regulators have been identified...
April 9, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642895/wnt3a-ligand-facilitates-autophagy-in-hippocampal-neurons-by-modulating-a-novel-gsk-3%C3%AE-ampk-axis
#20
Juvenal A Ríos, Juan A Godoy, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
BACKGROUND: In the adult central nervous system (CNS), Wnt signaling regulates dendritic structure and synaptic plasticity. The Wnt signaling pathway can be divided into the canonical (β-catenin-dependent) and non-canonical pathways. In the canonical pathway, the binding of canonical ligands such as Wnt3a to the Frizzled receptor induces inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), which stabilizes β-catenin and allows its translocation to the nucleus. However, to date, few studies have focused on β-catenin-independent Wnt signaling or explained the underlying mechanisms connecting Wnt signaling to cellular energy metabolism...
April 11, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
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