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Single molecule

E Savi, S Peveri, C Cavaliere, S Masieri, M Montagni
The introduction of highly purified natural and recombinant single allergenic molecules represented an important improvement in the diagnosis of IgE sensitization. The identification of specific IgE against cross-reacting molecules such as profilin, lipid transfer proteins, calcium binding proteins or against “genuine molecules”, represents an added value and allows to distinguish between true and false polysensitization. In vitro tests add information to recognize patients with sensitization to genuine molecules that cause allergic diseases and to evaluate in childhood the spreading of sensitization for each molecule in order to choose the best treatment and to identify the ideal patient for allergen immunotherapy...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Arup Tarai, Jubaraj B Baruah
A series of mononuclear complexes of divalent nickel and zinc with N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(propan-2-ylidene)hydrazine carbothioamide (H2Lmethoxy) as well as with N-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-(propan-2-ylidene)hydrazine carbothioamide (H2Lnitro) have been structurally characterised. Among these two ligands, H2Lnitro formed an analogous copper(ii) complex to that of nickel and zinc, whereas H2Lmethoxy undergoes a catalytic cyclisation reaction in the presence of copper(ii) nitrate trihydrate. Control experiments based on ESR have revealed that copper(ii) is reduced to copper(i) and reverts back to copper(ii) as the cyclisation reaction proceeds, generating a catalytic reaction...
March 19, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Zhiwei Wang, Jie Zhang, Guangpu Fan, Hui Zhao, Xu Wang, Jing Zhang, Peide Zhang, Wei Wang
We developed a new method, SUT (Scheme Update on tissue Transparency), to view cardiac microstructures and unveil the molecular changes underlying cardiac diseases. SUT is an effective method to clear whole-hearts from different species. Over the course of 4 - 6 days we obtained transparent whole-layer left ventricular tissues from mice with only an approximate 1% protein loss. In addition, EAL (Electrophoretic Antibody Labeling) was used to achieve fast antibody labeling by electric force, which significantly reduced antibody incubation time from days to hours...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen, Katrin Zurfluh, Marc J A Stevens, Roger Stephan
OBJECTIVES: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) have emerged worldwide and represent a major threat to human health. Here, we report the genome sequence of K. pneumoniae 002SK2, an NDM-9 and CTX-M-15 producing strain isolated from wastewater in Switzerland and belonging to the international high-risk clone ST147. METHODS: Whole genome sequencing of K. pneumoniae 002SK2 was performed using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology RS2 reads (C4/P6 chemistry)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Bernard Knoops, Sarah Becker, Mégane Anne Poncin, Julien Glibert, Sylvie Derclaye, André Clippe, David Alsteens
Inflammation is a pathophysiological response of innate immunity to infection or tissue damage. This response is among others triggered by factors released by damaged or dying cells, termed damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules that act as danger signals. DAMPs interact with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to contribute to the induction of inflammation. However, how released peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are able to activate PRRs, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), remains elusive. Here, we used force-distance curve-based atomic force microscopy to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which extracellular human PRDX5 can activate a proinflammatory response...
March 5, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
Nathan S Bryan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To reveal the mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO) production in humans and how lifestyle, drug therapy, and hygienic practices can decrease NO production. Furthermore, to show how functional nitric oxide nutrition can overcome these limitations to restore endogenous NO production and combat cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the past decade has revealed that inorganic nitrate and nitrite found naturally in green leafy vegetables and other vegetables such as beets can provide the human body with a source of bioactive nitric oxide...
March 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Hemendra Yadav, Pulkit Sharma
Single molecule analysis can help us study genomics efficiently. It involves studying single DNA molecules for genomic studies. DNA combing is one of such techniques which allowed us to study single DNA molecules for multiple uses. DNA combing technology can be used to perform Fiber-FISH and optical mapping. Physical mapping of genomes can be studied by restriction digestion of combed DNA on glass slides. Restriction fragments can be arranged into optical maps by gathering fluorescent intensity data by CCD camera and image analysis by softwares...
March 14, 2018: Genomics
Afsar R Naqvi, Alexandra Seal, Jennifer Shango, Maria Brambila Navarette, Gloria Martinez, Gabriela Chapa, Shirin Hasan, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Dinesh Jaishankar, Deepak Shukla, Salvador Nares
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs of ~18-25 nucleotides that have gained extensive attention as critical regulators in complex gene networks including immune cell lineage commitment, differentiation, maturation, and maintenance of immune homeostasis and function. Many viruses encode miRNAs that directly downregulate the expression of factors of the innate immune system, which includes proteins involved in promoting apoptosis and recruitment. In this study, we examined the expression profiles of three previously identified viral miRNAs (v-miRs) from the human herpesvirus (HHV) family, HSV-1 (miR-H1), KSHV (miR-K12-3-3p), and HCMV (miR-US4) in healthy and diseased periodontal tissues and observed increased levels of v-miRs in diseased tissues...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
James L Januzzi, Sunil Suchindran, Adrian Coles, Maros Ferencik, Manesh R Patel, Udo Hoffmann, Geoffrey S Ginsburg, Pamela S Douglas
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to examine associations between concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) (measured by using a single-molecule counting method) and obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in 1,844 stable, symptomatic outpatients with suspected CAD randomized to undergo coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) in the PROMISE (Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain) trial. BACKGROUND: Elevated concentrations of hsTnI are associated with CAD in patients with myocardial infarction...
March 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Yai-Ping Hsiao, Chien-Chang Shen, Chung-Hsiung Huang, Yu-Chin Lin, Tong-Rong Jan
Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been shown to attenuate T helper (Th)1 and Th2 cell-mediated immunity in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of IONPs on the immune responses of Th17 cells, a subset of T cells involved in various inflammatory pathologies. For in vivo study, a murine model of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was employed. BALB/c mice received a single dose of IONPs (0.2-10 mg iron/kg) via the tail vein 1 h prior to ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization...
March 14, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Morten Møller, Johannes R Busch, Christina Jacobsen, Sissel B Lundemose, Niels Lynnerup, Martin F Rath, Jytte Banner
The morphology and neurophysin expression of the magnocellular accessory neuroendocrine system located in the rostral human hypothalamus is investigated in a series of brains obtained at autopsy. The hypothalami were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin, or after cryoprotection, frozen for cryostat sectioning. Paraffin sections were either stained with Luxol Fast blue or immunoreacted for neurophysin I or neurophysin II, the precursor molecule for oxytocin and vasopressin. Further, 50-μm-thick serial cryostat sections were immunoreacted with the same antibodies...
March 16, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Ewa Jankowska-Steifer, Justyna Niderla-Bielińska, Bogdan Ciszek, Marek Kujawa, Mateusz Bartkowiak, Aleksandra Flaht-Zabost, Daria Klosinska, Anna Ratajska
During embryonic development, hematopoietic cells are present in areas of blood-vessel differentiation. These hematopoietic cells emerge from a specific subpopulation of endothelial cells called the hemogenic endothelium. We have previously found that mouse proepicardium contained its own population of endothelial cells forming a network of vascular tubules. We hypothesize that this EC population contains cells of hematopoietic potential. Therefore, we investigated an in vitro hematopoietic potential of proepicardial cell populations...
March 16, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
David Wu, Adam Waalkes, Kelsi Penewit, Stephen J Salipante
BACKGROUND: Genomic chimerism, the co-occurrence of cells from different genetic origins, provides important diagnostic information in diverse clinical contexts, including graft injury detection and longitudinal surveillance of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients, but existing assays are limiting. Here we applied single-molecule molecular inversion probes (smMIPs), a high-throughput sequencing technology combining multiplexed target capture with read quantification mediated by unique molecular identifiers, to detect chimerism based on the presence or absence of polymorphic genomic loci...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Neil H Segal, Aiwu R He, Toshihiko Doi, Ronald Levy, Shailender Bhatia, Michael J Pishvaian, Rossano Cesari, Ying Chen, Craig B Davis, Bo Huang, Aron D Thall, Ajay K Gopal
Purpose: Utomilumab (PF-05082566) is an agonistic mAb that engages the immune costimulatory molecule 4-1BB/CD137. In this first-in-human, phase I, open-label, multicenter, multiple-dose study (NCT01307267) we evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, preliminary clinical activity, and pharmacodynamics of single-agent utomilumab in patients with advanced malignancies. Experimental Design: Dose escalation was based on a standard 3+3 design for doses of utomilumab from 0.006 to 0.3 mg/kg every 4 weeks and a time-to-event continual reassessment method for utomilumab 0...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Aykut Erbaş, Monica Olvera de la Cruz, John F Marko
We study unbinding of multivalent cationic ligands from oppositely charged polymeric binding sites sparsely grafted on a flat neutral substrate. Our molecular dynamics simulations are suggested by single-molecule studies of protein-DNA interactions. We consider univalent salt concentrations spanning roughly a 1000-fold range, together with various concentrations of excess ligands in solution. To reveal the ionic effects on unbinding kinetics of spontaneous and facilitated dissociation mechanisms, we treat electrostatic interactions both at a Debye-Hückel (DH) (or implicit ions, i...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Sandeep Choubey
Regulation of transcription is a vital process in cells, but mechanistic details of this regulation still remain elusive. The dominant approach to unravel the dynamics of transcriptional regulation is to first develop mathematical models of transcription and then experimentally test the predictions these models make for the distribution of mRNA and protein molecules at the individual cell level. However, these measurements are affected by a multitude of downstream processes which make it difficult to interpret the measurements...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Te-Sha Tsai, Sonika Tyagi, Justin C St John
STUDY QUESTION: What are the molecular differences between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-deficient and mtDNA-normal oocytes and how does mitochondrial supplementation alter these? SUMMARY ANSWER: Changes to DNA methylation in a 5' cytosine-phosphate-guanine 3' (CpG) island in the mtDNA-specific replication factor (DNA polymerase gamma (POLG)) of mtDNA-deficient oocytes mediates an increase in mtDNA copy number by the 2-cell stage that positively modulates the expression of nuclear genes, which affect cellular and metabolic processes, following autologous mitochondrial supplementation...
March 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
Jochem Deen, Su Wang, Sven Van Snick, Volker Leen, Kris Janssen, Johan Hofkens, Robert K Neely
The methyltransferase enzymes can be applied to deliver a range of modifications to pre-determined sites on large DNA molecules with exceptional specificity and efficiency. To date, however, a limited number of modifications have been delivered in this way because of the complex chemical synthesis that is needed to produce a cofactor analogue carrying a specific function, such as a fluorophore. Here, we describe a method for the direct transfer of a series of functional compounds (seven fluorescent dyes, biotin and polyethylene glycol) to the DNA duplex...
March 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Tianzhou Zha, Haorong Wu
This study investigated the expression of adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 (AMPD1) in serum of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and its clinical significance. The expression levels of AMPD1 mRNA in serum of 157 patients with PTC and 100 normal controls were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the relationships between expression level of AMPD1 in serum of PTC patients and clinicopathological factors as well as prognosis were analyzed. The results of real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR showed that the expression of AMPD1 mRNA in serum of PTC patients was lower than that in normal human serum (P<0...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Seung Yub Han, Alesia Antoine, David Howard, Bryant Chang, Woo Sung Chang, Matthew Slein, Gintaras Deikus, Sofia Kossida, Patrice Duroux, Marie-Paule Lefranc, Robert P Sebra, Melissa L Smith, Ismael Ben F Fofana
The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pathogenesis is critical for furthering our understanding of the role of antibody responses in the prevention of HIV infection, and will only increase in importance as macaque immunoglobulin (IG) gene databases are expanded. We have previously reported the construction of a phage display library from a SIV-infected rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta ) using oligonucleotide primers based on human IG gene sequences...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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