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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728365/effects-of-inclusion-level-and-adaptation-period-on-nutrient-digestibility-and-digestible-energy-of-wheat-bran-in-growing-finishing-pigs
#1
Jinbiao Zhao, Shuai Zhang, Fei Xie, Defa Li, Chengfei Huang
Objective: This experiment was to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels and adaptation periods on digestible energy (DE) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of chemical constituents in diets supplemented with wheat bran. Methods: Thirty-six crossbred barrows with an initial body weight (BW) of 85.0 ± 2.1 kg were allotted to 6 diets in a completely randomized block design with 6 pigs per diet. Diets included a corn-soybean basal diet and 5 additional diets which formulated by replacing corn and soybean meal in control diet with 15, 25, 35, 45, or 55% wheat bran...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728358/tropical-plant-supplementation-effects-on-the-performance-and-parasite-burden-of-goats
#2
Juan Jose Romero, Miguel Augusto Zarate, Ibukun M Ogunade, Kathy G Arriola, Adegbola Tolulope Adesogan
Objective: Examine the effects of supplementing bahiagrass hay (BG) with potentially anthelmintic quantities of hays of perennial peanut (PEA) or sericea lespedeza (LES) or seeds of velvet bean (MUC) or papaya (PAP) on the intake and nutritive value (Experiment 1), and the performance and parasite burden (Experiment 2) of goats. Methods: In experiment 1, 38 male goats (27.4 ± 5.7 kg BW) were randomly assigned to each of 5 treatments: 1) BG alone and BG plus 2) PEA; 3) LES; 4) MUC; and 5) PAP...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728346/suggestions-for-promoting-evidence-based-public-health-in-korea
#3
Jong-Myon Bae
The Public Health (EBPH) is defined as a decision-making in the domain of public health using current best evidences. Debates about the latent tuberculosis infection control program suggested by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017 bring the need for promoting EBPH. To do this, three strategies were suggested as following: drawing some necessary evidences by evaluating policy-evidence gaps, delivering good quality and relevant evidences timely by conducting systematic reviews and adapting public health guidelines, and making the value-driven decisions by training and educating public health policy makers...
July 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728172/blur-adaptation-to-central-retinal-disease
#4
Fuensanta A Vera-Diaz, Russell L Woods, Eli Peli
Purpose: The long-term, low-resolution vision experienced by individuals affected by retinal disease that causes central vision loss (CVL) may change their perception of blur through adaptation. This study used a short-term adaptation paradigm to evaluate adaptation to blur and sharpness in patients with CVL. Methods: A variation of Webster's procedure was used to measure the point of subjective neutrality (PSN). The image that appeared normal after adaptation to each of seven blur and sharpness levels (PSN) was measured in 12 patients with CVL (20/60 to 20/320) and 5 subjects with normal sight (NS)...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728169/correlations-between-macular-skin-and-serum-carotenoids
#5
Christopher D Conrady, James P Bell, Brian M Besch, Aruna Gorusupudi, Kelliann Farnsworth, Igor Ermakov, Mohsen Sharifzadeh, Maia Ermakova, Werner Gellermann, Paul S Bernstein
Purpose: Ocular and systemic measurement and imaging of the macular carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been employed extensively as potential biomarkers of AMD risk. In this study, we systematically compare dual wavelength retinal autofluorescence imaging (AFI) of macular pigment with skin resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) and serum carotenoid levels in a clinic-based population. Methods: Eighty-eight patients were recruited from retina and general ophthalmology practices from a tertiary referral center and excluded only if they did not have all three modalities tested, had a diagnosis of macular telangiectasia (MacTel) or Stargardt disease, or had poor AFI image quality...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728130/superficial-plantar-cutaneous-sensation-does-not-trigger-barefoot-running-adaptations
#6
M A Thompson, K M Hoffman
It has long been proposed that the gait alterations associated with barefoot running are mediated by alterations in sensory feedback, yet there has been no data to support this claim. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the role of superficial plantar cutaneous feedback in barefoot and shod running. METHODS: 10 healthy active subjects (6 male, 4 female); mass: 65.2+9.7kg; age: 27+7.1years participated in this study. 10 over-ground running trials were completed in each of the following conditions: barefoot (BF), shod (SHOD), anesthetized barefoot (ANEST BF) and anesthetized shod (ANEST SHOD)...
June 27, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728063/factors-associated-with-non-return-to-work-in-the-severely-injured-victims-3-years-after-a-road-accident-a-prospective-study
#7
C Pélissier, E Fort, L Fontana, B Charbotel, M Hours
Road accidents may impact victims' physical and/or mental health and socio-occupational life, particularly the capacity to return to work. The purpose of our study is to assess modifiable medical and socio-occupational factors of non-return to work in the severely injured 3 years after a road accident. Among1,168 road accidents casualties in the Rhône administrative Département of France followed for five years, 141 of the 222 severely injured (Maximal Abbreviated Injury Scale ≥ 3) aged more than 16 years who were in work at the time of the accident, reported whether they had returned to work in the 3 years following the accident...
July 17, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728039/cognitive-restructuring-of-gambling-related-thoughts-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Maxime Chrétien, Isabelle Giroux, Annie Goulet, Christian Jacques, Stéphane Bouchard
Gamblers' thoughts have a fundamental influence on their gambling problem. Cognitive restructuring is the intervention of choice to correct those thoughts. However, certain difficulties are noted in the application of cognitive restructuring techniques and the comprehension of their guidelines. Furthermore, the increase of skill game players (e.g. poker) entering treatment creates a challenge for therapists, as these gamblers present with different thoughts than those of the gamblers usually encountered in treatment (e...
July 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728021/memory-takes-time
#9
REVIEW
Nikolay Vadimovich Kukushkin, Thomas James Carew
Memory is an adaptation to particular temporal properties of past events, such as the frequency of occurrence of a stimulus or the coincidence of multiple stimuli. In neurons, this adaptation can be understood in terms of a hierarchical system of molecular and cellular time windows, which collectively retain information from the past. We propose that this system makes various timescales of past experience simultaneously available for future adjustment of behavior. More generally, we propose that the ability to detect and respond to temporally structured information underlies the nervous system's capacity to encode and store a memory at molecular, cellular, synaptic, and circuit levels...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727933/genotype-specific-acquisition-evolution-and-adaptation-of-characteristic-mutations-in-hepatitis-e-virus
#10
Aqsa Ikram, Mohamad S Hakim, Jian-Hua Zhou, Wenshi Wang, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis but also provokes chronic infection in immunocompromised patients. Although the pathogenesis and treatment outcome involve complex interplay between the virus and host, the nature of adaptive responses of HEV to the host immune system remain obscure at best. In this study, we employed large-scale proteomic bioinformatics to profile characteristic mutations in human HEV isolates associated to ribavirin treatment failure, chronic hepatitis, hepatic failure or altered immunoreactivity...
July 20, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727895/how-to-become-a-killer-or-is-it-all-accidental-virulence-strategies-in-oral-streptococci
#11
Izabela Sitkiewicz
Streptococci are a diverse group of gram positive microorganisms sharing common virulence traits and similar strategies to escape the oral niche and establish an infection in other parts of the host organism. Invasive infection with oral streptococci is "a perfect storm" that requires the concerted action of multiple biotic and abiotic factors. Our understanding of streptococcal pathogenicity and infectivity should probably be less mechanistic and driven not only by the identification of novel virulence factors...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727850/hybrid-cubature-kalman-filtering-for-identifying-nonlinear-models-from-sampled-recording-estimation-of-neuronal-dynamics
#12
Mahmoud K Madi, Fadi N Karameh
Kalman filtering methods have long been regarded as efficient adaptive Bayesian techniques for estimating hidden states in models of linear dynamical systems under Gaussian uncertainty. Recent advents of the Cubature Kalman filter (CKF) have extended this efficient estimation property to nonlinear systems, and also to hybrid nonlinear problems where by the processes are continuous and the observations are discrete (continuous-discrete CD-CKF). Employing CKF techniques, therefore, carries high promise for modeling many biological phenomena where the underlying processes exhibit inherently nonlinear, continuous, and noisy dynamics and the associated measurements are uncertain and time-sampled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727809/optical-modelling-of-a-supplementary-tunable-air-spaced-goggle-lens-for-rodent-eye-imaging
#13
Elie de Lestrange-Anginieur, Xiaoyun Jiang, Qiushi Ren
Aberration variations severely degrade retinal imaging in small animal eyes. Previously, the approach of a goggle lens with a matching corneal index was proposed to overcome the on-axis resolution limit of static imaging systems, which allows the use of the full eye pupil. But this technique didn't address the problem of the large power variation, and the ensuing aberration on and off-axis, when dealing with small animal eyes. In this study, we present the concept of a tunable goggle lens, designed to compensate individual ocular aberration for different rodent eye powers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727798/cloning-and-expression-of-genes-encoding-heat-shock-proteins-in-liriomyza-trifolii-and-comparison-with-two-congener-leafminer-species
#14
Ya-Wen Chang, Jing-Yun Chen, Ming-Xing Lu, Yuan Gao, Zi-Hua Tian, Wei-Rong Gong, Chang-Sheng Dong, Yu-Zhou Du
The polyphagous agromyzid fly, Liriomyza trifolii, is a significant and important insect pest of ornamental and vegetable crops worldwide. The adaptation of insects to different environments is facilitated by heat shock proteins (HSPs), which play an important role in acclimation to thermal stress. In this study, we cloned and characterized five HSP-encoding genes of L. trifolii (Lthsp20, Lthsp40, Lthsp60, Lthsp70, and Lthsp90) and monitored their expression under different thermal stresses using real-time quantitative PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727736/persistent-damaged-bases-in-dna-allow-mutagenic-break-repair-in-escherichia-coli
#15
Jessica M Moore, Raul Correa, Susan M Rosenberg, P J Hastings
Bacteria, yeast and human cancer cells possess mechanisms of mutagenesis upregulated by stress responses. Stress-inducible mutagenesis potentially accelerates adaptation, and may provide important models for mutagenesis that drives cancers, host pathogen interactions, antibiotic resistance and possibly much of evolution generally. In Escherichia coli repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) becomes mutagenic, using low-fidelity DNA polymerases under the control of the SOS DNA-damage response and RpoS general stress response, which upregulate and allow the action of error-prone DNA polymerases IV (DinB), II and V to make mutations during repair...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727646/development-and-validation-of-a-quantitative-measure-of-adaptive-behaviors-in-women-with-pelvic-floor-disorders
#16
John T Wei, Rodney Dunn, Ingrid Nygaard, Kathryn Burgio, Emily S Lukacz, Alayne Markland, Patricia A Wren, Linda Brubaker, Matthew D Barber, J Eric Jelovsek, Cathie Spino, Susie Meikle, Nancy Janz
PURPOSE: To establish validity for the Pelvic Floor Disorders Network (PFDN) self-administered Adaptive Behavior Index (ABI) and to assess whether ABI assesses known discordance between severity of pelvic floor symptoms and self-reported bother. METHODS: In addition to the ABI questionnaire, participants in 1 of 6 Pelvic Floor Disorders Network trials completed condition-specific measures of pretreatment symptom severity (including Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory; PFDI) and health-related quality of life (Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire; PFIQ)...
July 20, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727616/iterative-reconstruction-may-improve-diagnosis-of-gout-an-ex-vivo-bio-phantom-dual-energy-computed-tomography-study
#17
Torsten Diekhoff, Maximilian Kotlyarov, Jürgen Mews, Bernd Hamm, Kay-Geert Armin Hermann
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that, compared with filtered back projection (FBP), iterative reconstruction (IR) increases the detected volume of uric acid, which serves as a measure of the sensitivity of the method, and therefore allows examinations with lower radiation exposure. Thus, the aim of our study was to evaluate the role of IR in dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for gout assessment and volumetry in an ex vivo gout model using an epoxy phantom and a biophantom. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prepared specimens with different concentrations of monosodium uric acid in ultrasound gel (30%-50%) and inserted them into an epoxy-based phantom and a porcine foreleg...
July 19, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727570/hyperosmotic-stress-stimulates-autophagy-via-polycystin-2
#18
Daniel Peña-Oyarzun, Rodrigo Troncoso, Catalina Kretschmar, Cecilia Hernando, Mauricio Budini, Eugenia Morselli, Sergio Lavandero, Alfredo Criollo
Various intracellular mechanisms are activated in response to stress, leading to adaptation or death. Autophagy, an intracellular process that promotes lysosomal degradation of proteins, is an adaptive response to several types of stress. Osmotic stress occurs under both physiological and pathological conditions, provoking mechanical stress and activating various osmoadaptive mechanisms. Polycystin-2 (PC2), a membrane protein of the polycystin family, is a mechanical sensor capable of activating the cell signaling pathways required for cell adaptation and survival...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727566/model-free-adaptive-control-for-unknown-nonlinear-zero-sum-differential-game
#19
Xiangnan Zhong, Haibo He, Ding Wang, Zhen Ni
In this paper, we present a new model-free globalized dual heuristic dynamic programming (GDHP) approach for the discrete-time nonlinear zero-sum game problems. First, the online learning algorithm is proposed based on the GDHP method to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs equation associated with H∞ optimal regulation control problem. By setting backward one step of the definition of performance index, the requirement of system dynamics, or an identifier is relaxed in the proposed method. Then, three neural networks are established to approximate the optimal saddle point feedback control law, the disturbance law, and the performance index, respectively...
July 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727565/danoc-an-efficient-algorithm-and-hardware-codesign-of-deep-neural-networks-on-chip
#20
Xichuan Zhou, Shengli Li, Fang Tang, Shengdong Hu, Zhi Lin, Lei Zhang
Deep neural networks (NNs) are the state-of-the-art models for understanding the content of images and videos. However, implementing deep NNs in embedded systems is a challenging task, e.g., a typical deep belief network could exhaust gigabytes of memory and result in bandwidth and computational bottlenecks. To address this challenge, this paper presents an algorithm and hardware codesign for efficient deep neural computation. A hardware-oriented deep learning algorithm, named the deep adaptive network, is proposed to explore the sparsity of neural connections...
July 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
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