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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239905/estimators-for-longitudinal-latent-exposure-models-examining-measurement-model-assumptions
#1
Brisa N Sánchez, Sehee Kim, Mary D Sammel
Latent variable (LV) models are increasingly being used in environmental epidemiology as a way to summarize multiple environmental exposures and thus minimize statistical concerns that arise in multiple regression. LV models may be especially useful when multivariate exposures are collected repeatedly over time. LV models can accommodate a variety of assumptions but, at the same time, present the user with many choices for model specification particularly in the case of exposure data collected repeatedly over time...
February 27, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239878/-appeals-to-nature-in-marriage-equality-debates-a-content-analysis-of-newspaper-and-social-media-discourse
#2
Cliodhna O'Connor
In May 2015, Ireland held a referendum to legalize same-sex marriage, which passed with 62% of the vote. This study explores the role played by 'appeals to nature' in the referendum debate. Little research has investigated how biological attributions are spontaneously generated in real-world discourse regarding sexual rights. Through content analysis of newspaper and Twitter discussion of the referendum, this study aims to (1) establish the frequency of appeals to nature and their distribution across the various 'sides' of the debate and (2) analyse the forms these natural claims took and the rhetorical functions they fulfilled...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239874/habitat-segregation-and-cryptic-adaptation-of-species-of-periophthalmus-gobioidei-gobiidae
#3
G Polgar, S Zaccara, M Babbucci, F Fonzi, C M Antognazza, N Ishak, Z Sulaiman, G Crosa
A study was conducted on the habitat distribution of four sympatric species of Periophthalmus (the silver-lined mudskipper Periophthalmus argentilineatus, the slender mudskipper Periophthalmus gracilis, the kalolo mudskipper Periophthalmus kalolo and the Malacca mudskipper Periophthalmus malaccensis) from northern Sulawesi. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions based on one mtDNA marker (16S) were used to validate the morphological taxa, identifying five molecular clades. Periophthalmus argentilineatus includes two molecular species, which are named Periophthalmus argentilineatus clades F and K...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239870/genotype-by-environment-effect-on-bioactive-compounds-in-strawberry-fragaria-x-ananassa-duch
#4
Luisa Palmieri, Domenico Masuero, Paolo Martinatti, Giuseppe Baratto, Stefan Martens, Urska Vrhovsek
BACKGROUND: The relative contribute assessment of the genotype, the environment and the genotype-by-environmental (G x E) interaction to the variety performance is necessary to determine their adaptation capacity. RESULTS: The influence of temperature, UV-irradiation and sunshine duration on quality and fruits composition was investigated in nine strawberry cultivars grown at three different altitudes. The UV-radiation intensity affected the pH and the sugar content that were higher for most of the varieties at low altitudes where the total titratable acidity (TTA) was less...
February 27, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239775/changes-in-agonist-neural-drive-hypertrophy-and-pre-training-strength-all-contribute-to-the-individual-strength-gains-after-resistance-training
#5
Thomas G Balshaw, Garry J Massey, Thomas M Maden-Wilkinson, Antonio J Morales-Artacho, Alexandra McKeown, Clare L Appleby, Jonathan P Folland
PURPOSE: Whilst neural and morphological adaptations following resistance training (RT) have been investigated extensively at a group level, relatively little is known about the contribution of specific physiological mechanisms, or pre-training strength, to the individual changes in strength following training. This study investigated the contribution of multiple underpinning neural [agonist EMG (QEMGMVT), antagonist EMG (HEMGANTAG)] and morphological variables [total quadriceps volume (QUADSVOL), and muscle fascicle pennation angle (QUADSθ p)], as well as pre-training strength, to the individual changes in strength after 12 weeks of knee extensor RT...
February 26, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239756/culturally-relevant-human-subjects-protection-training-a-case-study-in-community-engaged-research-in-the-united-states
#6
Jennifer Kue, Laura A Szalacha, Mary Beth Happ, Abigail L Crisp, Usha Menon
Non-academic members of research teams, such as community members, can perceive traditional human subjects protection training as lacking in cultural relevance. We present a case exemplar of the development of a human subjects protection training for research staff with limited English proficiency and/or no or limited research experience. Seven modules were adapted for language, cultural examples, etc., from the standard Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) human subjects protection training...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239722/transient-inhomogeneous-flow-patterns-in-supercooled-liquids-under-shear
#7
Ingo Fuereder, Patrick Ilg
Supercooled liquids and other soft glassy systems show characteristic spatial inhomogeneities in their local dynamical properties. Using detailed molecular dynamics simulations, we find that for sufficiently low temperatures and sufficiently high shear rates supercooled liquids also show transient inhomogeneous flow patterns (shear banding) in the start-up of steady shear flow, similar to what has already been observed for many other soft glassy systems. We verify that the onset of transient shear banding coincides quite well with the appearance of a stress overshoot for temperatures in the supercooled regime...
February 27, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239650/mitophagy-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-atrial-tissue-of-patients-undergoing-heart-surgery-with-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#8
Allen M Andres, Kyle C Tucker, Amandine Thomas, David J R Taylor, David Sengstock, Salik M Jahania, Reza Dabir, Somayeh Pourpirali, Jamelle A Brown, David G Westbrook, Scott W Ballinger, Robert M Mentzer, Roberta A Gottlieb
Mitophagy occurs during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and limits oxidative stress and injury. Mitochondrial turnover was assessed in patients undergoing cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Paired biopsies of right atrial appendage before initiation and after weaning from CPB were processed for protein analysis, mitochondrial DNA/nuclear DNA ratio (mtDNA:nucDNA ratio), mtDNA damage, mRNA, and polysome profiling. Mitophagy in the post-CPB samples was evidenced by decreased levels of mitophagy adapters NDP52 and optineurin in whole tissue lysate, decreased Opa1 long form, and translocation of Parkin to the mitochondrial fraction...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239596/genetic-diversity-of-atlantic-bluefin-tuna-in-the-mediterranean-sea-insights-from-genome-wide-snps-and-microsatellites
#9
Aglaia Antoniou, Panagiotis Kasapidis, Georgios Kotoulas, Constantinos C Mylonas, Antonios Magoulas
BACKGROUND: Elucidating the patterns of the Atlantic Bluefin tuna [ABFT, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758)] population structure constitutes a challenging task of great importance. Most of the unique challenges stem from its biology, as well as the attributes of the marine realm in which it disperses. Accurate information is urgently needed for stock assessment, and the identification of critical features to the persistence and adaptation of populations in order to formulate and adopt effective strategies for ABFT conservation and management...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239565/pd-l1-is-a-diverse-molecule-regulating-both-tumor-intrinsic-signaling-and-adaptive-immunosuppression
#10
Kim A Brogden, Shireen Vali, Taher Abbasi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Translational Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239517/cortical-interactions-during-the-resolution-of-information-processing-demands-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Kristina Denisova, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Suzanne Goh, Yuankai Huo, Bradley S Peterson
INTRODUCTION: Our flexible and adaptive interactions with the environment are guided by our individual representation of the physical world, estimated through sensation and evaluation of available information against prior knowledge. When linking sensory evidence with higher-level expectations for action, the central nervous system (CNS) in typically developing (TD) individuals relies in part on distributed and interacting cortical regions to communicate neuronal signals flexibly across the brain...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239464/immunotherapy-resistance-the-answers-lie-ahead-not-in-front-of-us
#12
EDITORIAL
Miles C Andrews, Jennifer A Wargo
Mechanisms of innate and adaptive resistance to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy are under intense investigation with a view to broadening the therapeutic potential of this form of treatment. In a recent manuscript by Zaretsky and colleagues, mutational events were identified that effectively crippled ongoing immunotherapy responses in patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy. These results are discussed in the light of other recent and ongoing research efforts exploring both mutational and non-mutational resistance mechanisms, highlighting the critical translational importance of longitudinal tumor sampling...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239433/domain-adaptation-with-conditional-transferable-components
#13
Mingming Gong, Kun Zhang, Tongliang Liu, Dacheng Tao, Clark Glymour, Bernhard Schölkopf
Domain adaptation arises in supervised learning when the training (source domain) and test (target domain) data have different distributions. Let X and Y denote the features and target, respectively, previous work on domain adaptation mainly considers the covariate shift situation where the distribution of the features P(X) changes across domains while the conditional distribution P(Y∣X) stays the same. To reduce domain discrepancy, recent methods try to find invariant components [Formula: see text] that have similar [Formula: see text] on different domains by explicitly minimizing a distribution discrepancy measure...
June 2016: JMLR Workshop and Conference Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239407/the-greek-orthodox-version-of-the-brief-religious-coping-b-rcope-instrument-psychometric-properties-in-three-samples-and-associations-with-mental-disorders-suicidality-illness-perceptions-and-quality-of-life
#14
Vassiliki Paika, Elias Andreoulakis, Elisavet Ntountoulaki, Dimitra Papaioannou, Konstantinos Kotsis, Vassiliki Siafaka, Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Kenneth I Pargament, Andre F Carvalho, Thomas Hyphantis
BACKGROUND: The B-RCOPE is a brief measure assessing religious coping. We aimed to assess the psychometric properties of its Greek version in people with and without long-term conditions (LTCs). Associations between religious coping and mental illness, suicidality, illness perceptions, and quality of life were also investigated. METHODS: The B-RCOPE was administered to 351 patients with diabetes, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD), and rheumatic diseases attending either the emergency department (N = 74) or specialty clinics (N = 302) and 127 people without LTCs...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239404/impact-of-a-6-week-non-energy-restricted-ketogenic-diet-on-physical-fitness-body-composition-and-biochemical-parameters-in-healthy-adults
#15
Paul Urbain, Lena Strom, Lena Morawski, Anja Wehrle, Peter Deibert, Hartmut Bertz
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD) is a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat and adequate-protein diet that without limiting calories induces different metabolic adaptations, eg, increased levels of circulating ketone bodies and a shift to lipid metabolism. Our objective was to assess the impact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted KD in healthy adults beyond cohorts of athletes on physical performance, body composition, and blood parameters. METHODS: Our single arm, before-and-after comparison study consisted of a 6-week KD with a previous preparation period including detailed instructions during classes and individual counselling by a dietitian...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239402/high-cholesterol-diet-does-not-alter-gut-microbiota-composition-in-mice
#16
Lidiya G Dimova, Nikola Zlatkov, Henkjan J Verkade, Bernt Eric Uhlin, Uwe J F Tietge
INTRODUCTION: Western diet containing both saturated fat and cholesterol impairs cardio-metabolic health partly by modulating diversity and function of the microbiota. While diet containing only high fat has comparable effects, it is unclear how diets only enriched in cholesterol impact the microbiota. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the response of host and microbiota to a high cholesterol (HC) diet in mice susceptible to cardio-metabolic disease. METHODS: LDLR knockout mice received either 1...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239400/mate-choice-for-major-histocompatibility-complex-complementarity-in-a-strictly-monogamous-bird-the-grey-partridge-perdix-perdix
#17
Dana Rymešová, Tereza Králová, Marta Promerová, Josef Bryja, Oldřich Tomášek, Jana Svobodová, Petr Šmilauer, Miroslav Šálek, Tomáš Albrecht
BACKGROUND: Sexual selection has been hypothesised as favouring mate choice resulting in production of viable offspring with genotypes providing high pathogen resistance. Specific pathogen recognition is mediated by genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encoding proteins fundamental for adaptive immune response in jawed vertebrates. MHC genes may also play a role in odour-based individual recognition and mate choice, aimed at avoiding inbreeding. MHC genes are known to be involved in mate choice in a number of species, with 'good genes' (absolute criteria) and 'complementary genes' (self-referential criteria) being used to explain MHC-based mating...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239392/zoeppritz-based-avo-inversion-using-an-improved-markov-chain-monte-carlo-method
#18
Xin-Peng Pan, Guang-Zhi Zhang, Jia-Jia Zhang, Xing-Yao Yin
The conventional Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is limited to the selected shape and size of proposal distribution and is not easy to start when the initial proposal distribution is far away from the target distribution. To overcome these drawbacks of the conventional MCMC method, two useful improvements in MCMC method, adaptive Metropolis (AM) algorithm and delayed rejection (DR) algorithm, are attempted to be combined. The AM algorithm aims at adapting the proposal distribution by using the generated estimators, and the DR algorithm aims at enhancing the efficiency of the improved MCMC method...
2017: Pet Sci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239391/regularized-least-squares-migration-of-simultaneous-source-seismic-data-with-adaptive-singular-spectrum-analysis
#19
Chuang Li, Jian-Ping Huang, Zhen-Chun Li, Rong-Rong Wang
Simultaneous-source acquisition has been recognized as an economic and efficient acquisition method, but the direct imaging of the simultaneous-source data produces migration artifacts because of the interference of adjacent sources. To overcome this problem, we propose the regularized least-squares reverse time migration method (RLSRTM) using the singular spectrum analysis technique that imposes sparseness constraints on the inverted model. Additionally, the difference spectrum theory of singular values is presented so that RLSRTM can be implemented adaptively to eliminate the migration artifacts...
2017: Pet Sci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239390/using-landscape-genetics-simulations-for-planting-blister-rust-resistant-whitebark-pine-in-the-us-northern-rocky-mountains
#20
Erin L Landguth, Zachary A Holden, Mary F Mahalovich, Samuel A Cushman
Recent population declines to the high elevation western North America foundation species whitebark pine, have been driven by the synergistic effects of the invasive blister rust pathogen, mountain pine beetle (MPB), fire exclusion, and climate change. This has led to consideration for listing whitebark pine (WBP) as a threatened or endangered species under the Endangered Species Act, which has intensified interest in developing management strategies for maintaining and restoring the species. An important, but poorly studied, aspect of WBP restoration is the spatial variation in adaptive genetic variation and the potential of blister rust resistant strains to maintain viable populations in the future...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
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