keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

natural selection

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036860/prevalence-of-work-related-musculoskeletal-injuries-among-south-indian-hand-screen-printing-workers
#1
S Shankar, R Naveen Kumar, P Mohankumar, Srinivasan Jayaraman
BACKGROUND: Hand screen-printing (HSP) plays a predominant role in textile industries in developing countries. Workers from HSP industry were mostly affected by musculoskeletal injury due to monotonous, and prolonged work nature and poor workplace environment. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) symptoms and risk factors associated among the HSP industry workers. METHODS: Cochran's sample size for categorical data was used to select 385 HSP workers of 1000 samples from various provinces of Tamil Nadu, INDIA...
October 8, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036698/chromosomal-context-affects-the-molecular-evolution-of-sex-linked-genes-and-their-autosomal-counterparts-in-turtles-and-other-vertebrates
#2
Srihari Radhakrishnan, Nicole Valenzuela
Sex chromosomes evolve differently from autosomes because natural selection acts distinctly on them given their reduced recombination and smaller population size. Various studies of sex-linked genes compared to different autosomal genes within species support these predictions. Instead, here we take a novel alternative approach comparing the rate of evolution between subsets of genes that are sex-linked in selected reptiles/vertebrates and the same genes located in autosomes in other amniotes. We report for the first time the faster evolution of Z-linked genes in a turtle (the Chinese soft-shell turtle Pelodiscus sinensis) relative to autosomal orthologs in other taxa, including turtles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD)...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036566/the-role-of-alternative-splicing-and-differential-gene-expression-in-cichlid-adaptive-radiation
#3
Pooja Singh, Christine Börger, Heather More, Christian Sturmbauer
Species diverge eco-morphologically through the continuous action of natural selection on functionally important structures, producing alternative adaptive morphologies. In cichlid fishes, the oral and pharyngeal jaws are such key structures. Adaptive variation in jaw morphology contributes to trophic specialisation, which is hypothesised to fuel their rapid speciation in the East African Great Lakes. Much is known about the genes involved in cichlid jaw and craniofacial development. However, it is still unclear what salient sources of variation gave rise to trophic-niche specialisation, facilitating adaptive radiation...
September 27, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036534/constitutive-phenolic-biomarkers-identify-na%C3%A3-ve-quercus-agrifolia-resistant-to-phytophthora-ramorum-the-causal-agent-of-sudden-oak-death
#4
Anna O Conrad, Brice A McPherson, David L Wood, Laurence V Madden, Pierluigi Bonello
Sudden oak death, caused by the invasive pathogen Phytophthora ramorum Werres, de Cock & Man in't Veld, can be deadly for Quercus agrifolia Neé (coast live oak, CLO). However, resistant trees have been observed in natural populations. The objective of this study was to examine if pre-attack (constitutive) levels of phenolic compounds can be used as biomarkers to identify trees likely to be resistant. Naïve trees were selected from a natural population and phloem was sampled for analysis of constitutive phenolics...
September 26, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036279/strong-inhibition-of-neutrophil-sperm-interaction-in-cattle-by-selective-pi3-kinase-inhibitors
#5
Jiwon Hong, Bridget L Dicker, Shakeela N Jayasinghe, Francesca De Gregorio, Hong Tian, Dug Yeo Han, Keith R Hudson
The vast majority of sperm are lost from the female reproductive tract in hours following natural mating or artificial insemination in mammals. Multiple complex processes including uterine contractions, mucus barriers and phagocytosis of sperm by neutrophils have been reported to be involved in the sperm loss, although the contribution of each process is uncertain. If phagocytosis by neutrophils has a significant role in sperm loss, inhibition of neutrophil response to sperm could potentially reduce the dose of sperm required for artificial insemination...
October 4, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036023/percutaneous-mesh-expansion-pme-a-regenerative-wound-closure-alternative
#6
Kimberly S Khouri, Eufemiano Cardoso, Roger K Khouri
BACKGROUND: Puncture wounds in the 1-mm range usually heal without scars. Stacking rows of these punctures offers a scarless method to generate tissue by mesh expansion. We developed a percutaneous mesh expansion (PME) procedure and present our experience for its wound closure application. METHODS: Over a six-year period we applied PME to 65 consecutive patients 58-101 years-old (mean, 72) with 67 full thickness calvarial defects 2.5x3-7x8cm (mean, 14cm2) that would have all required flaps for closure...
October 12, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035868/comparative-analysis-of-codon-usage-pattern-and-its-influencing-factors-in-schistosoma-japonicum-and-ascaris-suum
#7
Gulshana A Mazumder, Arif Uddin, Supriyo Chakraborty
Schistosoma japonicum and Ascaris suum are considered as the major parasites of human which cause various life threatening diseases such as schistomiasis and ascariasis. The codon usage bias (CUB) is known as the phenomenon of more usage of a specific codon than the other synonymous codons for an amino acid. The factors that influence the codon usage bias are mutation pressure, natural selection, gene expression, gene length, GC content, RNA stability, recombination rates, codon position etc. Here we had used various bioinformatic tools and statistical analyses to understand the compositional features, expression level and codon usage bias in the genes of these two species...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035322/analysis-of-genetic-diversity-and-structure-pattern-of-indigofera-pseudotinctoria-in-karst-habitats-of-the-wushan-mountains-using-aflp-markers
#8
Yan Fan, Chenglin Zhang, Wendan Wu, Wei He, Li Zhang, Xiao Ma
Indigofera pseudotinctoria Mats is an agronomically and economically important perennial legume shrub with a high forage yield, protein content and strong adaptability, which is subject to natural habitat fragmentation and serious human disturbance. Until now, our knowledge of the genetic relationships and intraspecific genetic diversity for its wild collections is still poor, especially at small spatial scales. Here amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technology was employed for analysis of genetic diversity, differentiation, and structure of 364 genotypes of I...
October 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035305/nir-rapid-assessments-of-blumea-balsamifera-ai-na-xiang-in-china
#9
Fu-Lai Yu, Na Zhao, Zhi-Sheng Wu, Mei Huang, Dan Wang, Ying-Bo Zhang, Xuan Hu, Xiao-Lu Chen, Lu-Qi Huang, Yu-Xin Pang
Blumea balsamifera (Ai-na-xiang) is used as an important plant source of natural borneol, which is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this study was to establish the methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for determining the geographical origin of B. balsamifera, as well as developing a method for the quantitative rapid analysis of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). A total of 109 samples were collected from China in 2013 and arbitrarily divided into calibration and prediction sets using the Kennard-Stone algorithm...
October 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035293/identification-of-z-2-3-diphenylacrylonitrileas-anti-cancer-molecule-in-persian-gulf-sea-cucumber-holothuria-parva
#10
Salimeh Amidi, Zahra Hashemi, Abbasali Motallebi, Melika Nazemi, Hoda Farrokhpayam, Enayatollah Seydi, Jalal Pourahmad
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), also named cancerous hepatoma, is the most common type of malignant neoplasia of the liver. In this research, we screened the Persian Gulf sea cucumber Holothuria parva (H. parva) methanolic sub-fractions for the possible existence of selective toxicity on liver mitochondria isolated from an animal model of HCC. Next, we purified the most active fraction. Thus the structure of the active molecule was identified. HCC was induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) protocol...
October 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035063/religious-anti-gay-prejudice-as-a-predictor-of-mental-health-abuse-and-substance-use
#11
Babucarr J Sowe, Alan J Taylor, Jac Brown
Anti-gay, or homonegative, prejudice is generally considered harmful to the wellbeing of sexual minority individuals. However, the origins or nature of such prejudice may vary. Despite a sizable body of literature suggesting homonegative prejudice is frequently religious-based, the psychological impact of exposure to religious anti-gay prejudice remains largely undetermined. Addressing this research gap, the authors examined whether opposition to same-sex sexuality on religious grounds predicted detrimental outcomes among same- and both-sex attracted individuals, as well as their heterosexual counterparts...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035003/hepatitis-b-core-related-antigen-hbcrag-an-emerging-marker-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#12
REVIEW
L-Y Mak, D K-H Wong, K-S Cheung, W-K Seto, C-L Lai, M-F Yuen
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cannot be completely eradicated due to the presence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nuclei of infected hepatocytes. While quantification of intrahepatic cccDNA requires liver biopsies, serological markers can be non-invasive alternatives to reflect intrahepatic viral replicative activity. Recently, hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been advocated as a novel serum marker for disease monitoring and prognostication of CHB...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034978/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-promote-coexistence-and-niche-divergence-of-sympatric-palm-species-on-a-remote-oceanic-island
#13
Owen G Osborne, Rishi De-Kayne, Martin I Bidartondo, Ian Hutton, William J Baker, Colin G N Turnbull, Vincent Savolainen
Microbes can have profound effects on their hosts, driving natural selection, promoting speciation and determining species distributions. However, soil-dwelling microbes are rarely investigated as drivers of evolutionary change in plants. We used metabarcoding and experimental manipulation of soil microbiomes to investigate the impact of soil and root microbes in a well-known case of sympatric speciation, the Howea palms of Lord Howe Island (Australia). Whereas H. forsteriana can grow on both calcareous and volcanic soils, H...
October 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034516/identifying-gene-gene-interactions-using-penalized-tensor-regression
#14
Mengyun Wu, Jian Huang, Shuangge Ma
Gene-gene (G×G) interactions have been shown to be critical for the fundamental mechanisms and development of complex diseases beyond main genetic effects. The commonly adopted marginal analysis is limited by considering only a small number of G factors at a time. With the "main effects, interactions" hierarchical constraint, many of the existing joint analysis methods suffer from prohibitively high computational cost. In this study, we propose a new method for identifying important G×G interactions under joint modeling...
October 16, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034210/biomarkers-for-response-of-melanoma-patients-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-a-systematic-review
#15
Charissa A C Jessurun, Julien A M Vos, Jacqueline Limpens, Rosalie M Luiten
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), targeting CTLA-4 or PD-1 molecules, have shown impressive therapeutic results. However, only 20-40% of advanced melanoma patients have durable responses to ICI, and these positive effects must be balanced against severe off-target immune toxicity and high costs. This urges the development of predictive biomarkers for ICI response to select patients with likely clinical benefit from treatment. Although many candidate biomarkers exist, a systematic overview of biomarkers and their usefulness is lacking...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033917/newly-isolated-bacteriophages-from-the-podoviridae-siphoviridae-and-myoviridae-families-have-variable-effects-on-putative-novel-dickeya-spp
#16
Špela Alič, Tina Naglič, Magda Tušek-Žnidarič, Maja Ravnikar, Nejc Rački, Matjaž Peterka, Tanja Dreo
Soft rot pathogenic bacteria from the genus Dickeya cause severe economic losses in orchid nurseries worldwide, and there is no effective control currently available. In the last decade, the genus Dickeya has undergone multiple changes as multiple new taxa have been described, and just recently a new putative Dickeya species was reported. This study reports the isolation of three bacteriophages active against putative novel Dickeya spp. isolates from commercially produced infected orchids that show variable host-range profiles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033780/evolutionary-musicology-meets-embodied-cognition-biocultural-coevolution-and-the-enactive-origins-of-human-musicality
#17
REVIEW
Dylan van der Schyff, Andrea Schiavio
Despite evolutionary musicology's interdisciplinary nature, and the diverse methods it employs, the field has nevertheless tended to divide into two main positions. Some argue that music should be understood as a naturally selected adaptation, while others claim that music is a product of culture with little or no relevance for the survival of the species. We review these arguments, suggesting that while interesting and well-reasoned positions have been offered on both sides of the debate, the nature-or-culture (or adaptation vs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033669/evolutionary-algorithms-and-synthetic-biology-for-directed-evolution-commentary-on-on-the-mapping-of-genotype-to-phenotype-in-evolutionary-algorithms-by-peter-a-whigham-grant-dick-and-james-maclaurin
#18
EDITORIAL
Douglas B Kell
I rehearse two issues around the commentary of Whigham and colleagues. (1) There really are many more reasons than those given as to why natural evolution cannot reasonably find or select the 'optimal' individual. (2) A series of experimental molecular biology programmes, known generically as directed evolution, can use operators and selection schemes that natural evolution cannot. When developed further using the methods of synthetic biology, there are no operators or schemes for in silico evolution that cannot be applied precisely to directed evolution...
2017: Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033521/reliability-of-rubrics-in-the-assessment-of-orthodontic-oral-presentation
#19
Naif A Bindayel
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of using rubrics in dental education, specifically for undergraduate students' assessment in orthodontic oral presentation. METHODS: A rubric-based case presentation assessment form was introduced to three contributing instructors. In each instructor's group, the course director, along with the assigned instructor, assessed 8 randomly selected fourth year male dental students utilizing the same assessment form (total of 24 students)...
October 2017: Saudi Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032711/identification-of-rosmarinic-acid-and-sulfated-flavonoids-as-inhibitors-of-microfouling-on-the-surface-of-eelgrass-zostera-marina
#20
Chi Guan, Delphine Parrot, Jutta Wiese, Frank D Sönnichsen, Mahasweta Saha, Deniz Tasdemir, Florian Weinberger
A bioassay-guided approach was used to identify defense compounds that are present on the surface of Zostera marina and which inhibit settlement of microfoulers at natural concentrations. Moderately polar eelgrass surface extracts inhibited the settlement of seven marine bacteria and one yeast that originated from non-living substrata. In contrast, five other bacterial strains that had been directly isolated from eelgrass surfaces were all insensitive, which suggested a selective effect of surface metabolites on the microbial communities present on eelgrass...
October 16, 2017: Biofouling
keyword
keyword
40684
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"