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natural selection

Maria Dellafiore, Anna Aviñó, Adele Alagia, Javier M Montserrat, Adolfo Marcelo Iribarren, Ramón Eritja
(2'S)-2'-Deoxy-2'-C-methyluridine and (2'R)-2'-deoxy-2'-C-methyluridine were incorporated in the 3'-overhang region of the sense and antisense strands and in positions 2- and 5- of the seed region of siRNA duplexes directed against Renilla luciferase, while (2'S)-2'-deoxy-2'-C-methylcytidine was incorporated in the 6- position of the seed region of the same constructions. Dual luciferase reporter assay in transfected HeLa cells was used as model system to measure IC50 values of 24 different modified duplexes...
April 14, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Mehran Bozorgi, Saeed Abbasizadeh, Faranak Samani, Seyyed Ebrahim Mousavi
The performance of synthesized cast and electrospun polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan/zinc oxide/aminopropyltriethoxylsilane (PVA/chitosan/ZnO-APTES) nano-adsorbents were compared in removal of Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from wastewater. The adsorbents were characterized by SEM, BET, FTIR and TGA analyses. Furthermore, the swelling investigations were carried out to study the adsorbent stability in aqueous solution. The effect of several parameters such as contents of ZnO-NH2 , contact time, initial Cd(II) and Ni(II) concentration and temperature on the adsorption capacity was investigated in a batch mode...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marcus Vinicius P S Nascimento, Antonio C M Munhoz, Lais C Theindl, Eduarda Talita B Mohr, Najla Saleh, Eduardo B Parisotto, Thaís A Rossa, Ariane Zamoner, Tania B Creczynski-Pasa, Fabíola B Filippin-Monteiro, Marcus M Sá, Eduardo Monguilhott Dalmarco
Although inflammation is a biological phenomenon that exists to protect the host against infections and/or related problems, its unceasing activation results in the aggravation of several medical conditions. Imidazoles, whether natural or synthetic, are molecules related to a broad spectrum of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we screened eight novel small molecules of the imidazole class synthesized by our research group for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity...
April 14, 2018: Inflammation
Carrie Cuttler, Alexander Spradlin, Ryan J McLaughlin
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is commonly used to alleviate symptoms of negative affect. However, a paucity of research has examined the acute effects of cannabis on negative affect in everyday life. The current study provides a naturalistic account of perceived changes in symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress as a function of dose and concentration of Δ9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). METHOD: Data from the app StrainprintTM (which provides medical cannabis users a means of tracking changes in symptoms as a function of different doses and chemotypes of cannabis) were analyzed using multilevel modeling...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Kathryn Linkens, Hayden R Schmidt, James J Sahn, Andrew C Kruse, Stephen F Martin
Substituted norbenzomorphans are known to display high affinity and selectivity for the two sigma receptor (σR) subtypes. In order to study the effects of simplifying the structures of these compounds, a scaffold hopping strategy was used to design several novel sets of substituted isoindolines, tetrahydroisoquinolines and tetrahydro-2-benzazepines. The binding affinities of these new compounds for the sigma 1 (σ1R) and sigma 2 (σ2R) receptors were determined, and some analogs were identified that exhibit high affinity (Ki  ≤ 25 nM) and significant selectivity (>10-fold) for σ1R or σ2R...
March 29, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ulrike Kusebauch, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Stine L Bislev, Robert L Moritz, Christine M Røntved, Emøke Bendixen
Mastitis is a major challenge to bovine health. The detection of sensitive markers for mastitis in dairy herds is of great demand. Suitable biomarkers should be measurable in milk and should report pathogen-specific changes at an early stage to support earlier diagnosis and more efficient treatment. However, the identification of sensitive biomarkers in milk has remained a challenge, in part due to their relatively low concentration in milk. In the present study, we used a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry approach, which allowed the absolute quantitation of 13 host response proteins in milk for the first time...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Kawaljit Kaur, Milica Perišić Nanut, Meng-Wei Ko, Tahmineh Safaie, Janko Kos, Anahid Jewett
Natural killer (NK) cells are known to select and differentiate cancer stem-like cells/undifferentiated tumors via lysis, and secreted/membrane bound IFN-γ and TNF-α respectively, resulting in the control of tumor growth. Several in vivo mouse models including humanized-BLT mice have been used to study the biology and significance of NK cells in selection/differentiation of stem-like tumors within the context of a reconstituted human immune system. In addition, we discuss the evidence and significance of NK cell loss at the pre-neoplastic stage...
April 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Michael J Lambrecht, Jeffery W Kelly, Ryan A Shenvi
The asmarines are a family of cytotoxic natural products whose mechanism of action is unknown. Here we used chemical synthesis to reverse engineer the asmarines and understand the functions of their individual components. We found that the potent asmarine analog "delmarine" arrested the mammalian cell cycle in G1 phase, and that both cell cycle arrest and cytotoxicity was rescued by co-treatment with ferric and ferrous salts. Cellular iron deprivation was clearly indicated by changes in iron-responsive protein markers, and cytotoxicity occurred independent of radical oxygen species (ROS) production...
April 13, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
El-Desouky Ammar, David G Hall, Saeed Hosseinzadeh, Michelle Heck
Genetic variability in insect vectors is valuable to study vector competence determinants and to select non-vector populations that may help reduce the spread of vector-borne pathogens. We collected and tested vector competency of 15 isofemale lines of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas). CLas is associated with huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most serious citrus disease worldwide. D. citri adults were collected from orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) hedges in Florida, and individual pairs (females and males) were caged on healthy Murraya plants for egg laying...
2018: PloS One
Jumpei Tsumoto, Keisuke Imai, Takeshi Masuoka, Daisuke Sakahara, Koji Kawamoto, Songsu Kang, Masayuki Komune
BACKGROUND: The surgical methods for repairing congenital macrostomia should be carefully selected from both functional and aesthetic points of view. The surgical correction of macrostomia results in normal orbicularis oris function and symmetry of the repaired lip. Herein, we report our novel technique and the results obtained, assessed retrospectively. METHODS: Twelve primary cases of macrostomia underwent surgical repair between 1996 and 2013. The age at operation ranged from 3 to 78 months...
March 28, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Jonas Klinkhammer, Daniel Schnepf, Liang Ye, Marilena Schwaderlapp, Hans Henrik Gad, Rune Hartmann, Dominique Garcin, Tanel Mahlakõiv, Peter Staeheli
Host factors restricting the transmission of respiratory viruses are poorly characterized. We analyzed the contribution of type I and type III interferon (IFN) using a mouse model in which the virus is selectively administered to the upper airways, mimicking a natural respiratory virus infection. Mice lacking functional IFN-λ receptors ( Ifnlr1-/- ) no longer restricted virus dissemination from the upper airways to the lungs. Ifnlr1-/- mice shed significantly more infectious virus particles via the nostrils and transmitted the virus much more efficiently to naïve contacts compared with wild-type mice or mice lacking functional type I IFN receptors...
April 13, 2018: ELife
Nazlı Ezgi Özkan Küçük, Erdem Şanal, Edwin Tan, Timothy Mitchison, Nurhan Özlü
Quantitative profiling of cell surface proteins is critically important for the understanding of cell-cell communication, signaling, tissue development and homeostasis. Traditional proteomics methods are challenging for cell surface proteins due to their hydrophobic nature and low abundance, necessitating alternative methods to efficiently identify and quantify this protein group. Here, we established carboxyl reactive biotinylation for selective and efficient biotinylation and isolation of surface-exposed proteins of living cells...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Adam T Sutton, Karina Fraige, Gabriel Mazzi Leme, Vanderlan da Silva Bolzani, Emily F Hilder, Alberto J Cavalheiro, R Dario Arrua, Cristiano Soleo Funari
Over the past six decades, acetonitrile (ACN) has been the most employed organic modifier in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), followed by methanol (MeOH). However, from the growing environmental awareness that leads to the emergence of "green analytical chemistry," new research has emerged that includes finding replacements to problematic ACN because of its low sustainability. Deep eutectic solvents (DES) can be produced from an almost infinite possible combinations of compounds, while being a "greener" alternative to organic solvents in HPLC, especially those prepared from natural compounds called natural DES (NADES)...
April 12, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Martin Lopez-Garcia, Nathan Masters, Heath E O'Brien, Joseph Lennon, George Atkinson, Martin J Cryan, Ruth Oulton, Heather M Whitney
Natural photonic crystals are responsible for strong reflectance at selective wavelengths in different natural systems. We demonstrate that intracellular opal-like photonic crystals formed from lipids within photosynthetic cells produce vivid structural color in the alga Cystoseira tamariscifolia . The reflectance of the opaline vesicles is dynamically responsive to environmental illumination. The structural color is present in low light-adapted samples, whereas higher light levels produce a slow disappearance of the structural color such that it eventually vanishes completely...
April 2018: Science Advances
Claudiox Claudio Silva-Vergara, Joan Fontdevila, Omar Weshahy
BACKGROUND: The tuberous breast syndrome is a condition that affects young women and can bring on serious disorders of self-esteem. There are numerous surgical techniques to correct this condition, but most of them include the use of breast implants to replace lack of volume. Nowadays, patients are increasingly becoming more demanding to get a definitive solution with minimal aesthetic sequelae. METHODS: We present a series of 11 patients with tuberous breast deformities treated with lipofilling technique...
January 2018: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
Moira A McMahon, Thazha P Prakash, Don W Cleveland, C Frank Bennett, Meghdad Rahdar
CRISPR-based gene editing is a powerful technology for engineering mammalian genomes. It holds the potential as a therapeutic, although much-needed in vivo delivery systems have yet to be established. Here, using the Cpf1-crRNA (CRISPR RNA) crystal structure as a guide, we synthesized a series of systematically truncated and chemically modified crRNAs, and identify positions that are amenable to modification while retaining gene-editing activity. Modified crRNAs were designed with the same modifications that provide protection against nucleases and enable wide distribution in vivo...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Ksenia J Zueva, Jaakko Lumme, Alexey E Veselov, Matthew P Kent, Craig R Primmer
Understanding the genomic basis of host-parasite adaptation is important for predicting the long-term viability of species and developing successful management practices. However, in wild populations, identifying specific signatures of parasite-driven selection often presents a challenge, as it is difficult to unravel the molecular signatures of selection driven by different, but correlated, environmental factors. Furthermore, separating parasite-mediated selection from similar signatures due to genetic drift and population history can also be difficult...
April 9, 2018: Marine Genomics
Hugh Desmond
Many have argued that there is no reason why natural selection should cause directional increases in measures such as body size or complexity across evolutionary history as a whole. In this paper I argue that this conclusion does not hold for selection for adaptations to environmental variability, and that, given the inevitability of environmental variability, trends in adaptations to variability are an expected feature of evolution by natural selection. As a concrete instance of this causal structure, I outline how this may be applied to a trend in phenotypic plasticity...
April 9, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Bo Wang, Shauna Hallmark, Peter Savolainen, Jing Dong
Horizontal curves have been shown to exhibit crash rates significantly higher than comparable tangent segments. Extensive research has investigated the causes of crashes on horizontal curves, particularly the curve navigation process and driver speed selection. Research in this area has generally been limited by the nature of the data, which is often inhibited by practical constraints as to the number of locations and drivers that can be observed. This study overcomes these hurdles through the use of naturalistic driving data, providing insights on how drivers navigate and react to curves on rural two-lane highways...
April 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Patrick T Dolan, Zachary J Whitfield, Raul Andino
The deterministic force of natural selection and stochastic influence of drift shape RNA virus evolution. New deep-sequencing and microfluidics technologies allow us to quantify the effect of mutations and trace the evolution of viral populations with single-genome and single-nucleotide resolution. Such experiments can reveal the topography of the genotype-fitness landscapes that shape the path of viral evolution. By combining historical analyses, like phylogenetic approaches, with high-throughput and high-resolution evolutionary experiments, we can observe parallel patterns of evolution that drive important phenotypic transitions...
April 11, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
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