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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647808/characterization-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-regrowth-patterns-suggests-a-trade-off-between-undamaged-fitness-and-damage-tolerance
#1
Daniel R Scholes, Erika N Rasnick, Ken N Paige
Herbivory is a fundamental type of plant-animal interaction that presents substantial selection pressure on plants to replace lost tissues and to prevent subsequent losses in fitness. Apical herbivory, which entails removal or damage to the apical meristem, causes a change in plant architecture by disrupting the balance of hormones produced in part by the apical meristem. Therefore, for an annual semelparous plant, the ability to preserve reproductive success following damage (i.e., to tolerate damage) is largely dependent on the plant's pre-damage investment into fitness and its regrowth pattern following damage...
June 24, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647644/from-quantum-measurement-to-biology-via-retrocausality
#2
REVIEW
Koichiro Matsuno
A reaction cycle in general or a metabolic cycle in particular owes its evolutionary emergence to the covering reaction environment acting as a measurement apparatus of a natural origin. The quantum measurement of the environmental origin underlying the molecular processes observed in the biological realm is operative cohesively between the measuring and the measured. The measuring part comes to pull in a quantum as an indivisible lump available from an arbitrary material body to be measured. The inevitable difference between the impinging quantum upon the receiving end on the part of the environment and the actual quantum pulled into the receiving end comes to effectively be nullified through the retrocausative propagation of the corresponding wave function proceeding backwards in time...
June 21, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647269/quantum-chemical-investigation-on-photodegradation-mechanisms-of-sulfamethoxypyridazine-with-dissolved-inorganic-matter-and-hydroxyl-radical
#3
Shaheen Shah, Ce Hao
Sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP) is one of the commonly used sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs). SAs are mainly studied to undergo triplet-sensitized photodegradation in water under natural sunlight with other coexisting aquatic environmental organic pollutants. In this work, SMP was selected as a representative of SAs. We studied the mechanisms of triplet-sensitized photodegradation of SMP and the influence of selected dissolved inorganic matter, i.e., anions (Br(-), Cl(-), and NO3(-)) and cations ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+)) on SMP photodegradation mechanism by quantum chemical methods...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647262/development-of-a-hybrid-photo-bioreactor-and-nanoparticle-adsorbent-system-for-the-removal-of-co2-and-selected-organic-and-metal-co-pollutants
#4
Andrea A Rocha, Christian Wilde, Zhenzhong Hu, Oleg Nepotchatykh, Yevgen Nazarenko, Parisa A Ariya
Fossil fuel combustion and many industrial processes generate gaseous emissions that contain a number of toxic organic pollutants and carbon dioxide (CO2) which contribute to climate change and atmospheric pollution. There is a need for green and sustainable solutions to remove air pollutants, as opposed to conventional techniques which can be expensive, consume additional energy and generate further waste. We developed a novel integrated bioreactor combined with recyclable iron oxide nano/micro-particle adsorption interfaces, to remove CO2, and undesired organic air pollutants using natural particles, while generating oxygen...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647126/mers-cov-infection-mind-the-public-knowledge-gap
#5
Amen Bawazir, Eman Al-Mazroo, Hoda Jradi, Anwar Ahmed, Motasim Badri
In August 2015, the Corona outbreak caused by Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was the 9th episode since June 2012 in Saudi Arabia. Little is known about the public awareness toward the nature or prevention of the disease. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge of the adult population in Riyadh toward the MERS-CoV. In this cross-sectional survey, a self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected participants visiting malls in Riyadh. The questionnaire contained measurable epidemiological and clinical MERS-CoV knowledge level variables and relevant source of information...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646808/traditional-uyghur-medicine-concepts-historical-perspective-and-modernization
#6
Adelijang Wusiman, Saifuding Abula, Mikeremu Shayibuzhati, Xiaoying Zhang
Context • Traditional Uyghur medicine (TUM) is rooted in ancient Uyghur medical theory that was developed with the combined essence of different traditional medicines, such as Han Chinese, Egyptian, ancient Greek, Arabian, Persian, and Indian medicines. Modern experimental methods and technologies for disease diagnoses have accelerated the modernization of Uyghur medicine. Objective • The research team intended to compile a comprehensive introduction to TUM and to determine the current state of research in the field to establish a basis for future modernization of Uygur medicine...
June 23, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646791/disorganised-schizotypy-is-selectively-associated-with-poorer-semantic-processing-in-non-clinical-individuals
#7
Eric Josiah Tan, Susan Lee Rossell
The nature and severity of semantic memory (SM) impairments in schizophrenia has been related to symptoms, mainly formal thought disorder (FTD), and other clinical factors like length of illness. Symptom-related studies in schizophrenia are often confounded by clinical factors, for example medication and hospitalisations. We completed a schizotypy analogue study to examine the relationship between SM processing and FTD using an analogue schizotypy score referred to as cognitive disorganisation. Sixty individuals without a history of mental illness (M=22...
June 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646756/protein-functionalization-of-zno-nanostructure-exhibits-selective-and-enhanced-toxicity-to-breast-cancer-cells-through-oxidative-stress-based-cell-death-mechanism
#8
Sailendra Mahanta, S Prathap, Deependra Kumar Ban, Subhankar Paul
Zinc oxide nanostructure (ZnONS) was chemically synthesized and functionalized (FZnONSBLA) with a small protein bovine α-lactalbumin (BLA) by chemical cross-linking methods. Both nano-structures were characterized using various techniques such as electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, photo-luminescence and X-ray diffraction. Electron microscopy and DLS analysis revealed their (ZnONS and FZnONSBLA) average size of 200nm and 450nm, respectively. When cytotoxicity of both the nanostructures were assessed in breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDAMB231 by MTT assay and PI/Annexin V staining (FACS), FZnONSBLA demonstrated higher cell death than ZnONS primarily due to generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646611/prediction-in-ecology-a-first-principles-framework
#9
Michael C Dietze
Quantitative predictions are ubiquitous in ecology, yet there is limited discussion on the nature of prediction in this field. Herein I derive a general quantitative framework for analyzing and partitioning the sources of uncertainty that control predictability. The implications of this framework are assessed conceptually and linked to classic questions in ecology, such as the relative importance of endogenous (density dependent) versus exogenous factors, stability versus drift, and the spatial scaling of processes...
June 24, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646572/general-fate-model-for-microconstituents-in-an-activated-sludge-system
#10
Bahman Banihashemi
Nine lab-scale continuous flow porous-pot bioreactors operating at various solids retention times and hydraulic retention times were conducted to simulate activated sludge (AS) systems and to evaluate the biodegradation kinetic models for the fate of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), bisphenol-A (BPA), and triclosan (TCS) at the µg/L range. Mathematical models were applied to describe the degradation mechanism of selected microconstituents (MCs) and pseudo second-order model were found to best fit the results when active MCs degraders (XC) were used (r2= 0...
June 16, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646455/human-nucleus-pulposus-intervertebral-disc-cells-becoming-senescent-using-different-treatments-exhibit-a-similar-transcriptional-profile-of-catabolic-and-inflammatory-genes
#11
Sotiris-Spyros Vamvakas, Eleni Mavrogonatou, Dimitris Kletsas
PURPOSE: Chronic low back pain has been associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, which is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading proteases and inflammatory molecules in the degenerate tissue. IVD degeneration could be the outcome of natural organismal ageing and/or of the exposure of the disc to cumulative stressful environmental stimuli and is accompanied by an increased population of senescent cells in the tissue. On the other hand, senescent cells are known to secrete proteolytic enzymes and inflammatory molecules, which can contribute to ECM catabolism...
June 23, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646346/adenosine-and-sleep
#12
Michael Lazarus, Jiang-Fan Chen, Zhi-Li Huang, Yoshihiro Urade, Bertil B Fredholm
The classic endogenous somnogen adenosine promotes sleep via A1 and A2A receptors. In this chapter, we present an overview of the current knowledge regarding the regulation of adenosine levels, adenosine receptors, and available pharmacologic and genetic tools to manipulate the adenosine system. This is followed by a summary of current knowledge of the role of adenosine and its receptors in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. Despite strong data implicating numerous brain areas, including the basal forebrain, the tuberomammillary nucleus, the lateral hypothalamus, and the nucleus accumbens, in the adenosinergic control of sleep, the complete neural circuitry in the brain involved in the sleep-promoting effects of adenosine remains unclear...
June 24, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645965/the-perspective-of-european-researchers-of-national-occupational-safety-and-health-institutes-for-contributing-to-a-european-research-agenda-a-modified-delphi-study
#13
Diana Gagliardi, Bruna M Rondinone, Marco Mirabile, Giuliana Buresti, Peter Ellwood, Michel Hery, Peter Paszkiewicz, Antonio Valenti, Sergio Iavicoli
OBJECTIVES: This study, developed within the frame of the Partnership for European Research on Occupational Safety and Health joint research activities and based on the frame designed by the 2013 European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) study, is the first example of using the points of view of European occupational safety and health (OSH) researchers.The objective is to identify priorities for OSH research that may contribute to the achievement of present and future sustainable growth objectives set by the European strategies...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645748/developmental-and-genetic-mechanisms-of-neural-circuit-evolution
#14
REVIEW
Maria Antonietta Tosches
No matter how a nervous system is genetically built, natural selection acts on the functional outcome of its activity. To understand how nervous systems evolve, it is essential to analyze how their functional units - the neural circuits - change and adapt over time. Different developmental and genetic mechanisms participate to the structural evolution of neural circuits. These mechanisms involve regulatory changes at the level of different gene sets. Functional constraints on neural circuit evolution suggest that these mechanisms are not employed randomly, and that the evolution of neuroanatomy might be biased...
June 20, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645663/failure-torque-of-ceramic-neck-titanium-implant
#15
Waleed Elshahawy, Raed Ajlouni, Khaldoun Ajlouni, Abdelfattah Sadakah
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Dental implants are typically made of titanium. However, with the current systems on the market, the implant neck often shows through the gingival tissues as a black or dark gray line and/or as a grayish discoloration of the peri-implant soft tissue. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to test a new implant design. The key component of this design is the ceramic shell that covers the polished collar of the tissue-level titanium implant and masks its dark color to mimic natural dentition...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645630/evolution-of-cyclodextrin-nanosponges
#16
Fabrizio Caldera, Maria Tannous, Roberta Cavalli, Marco Zanetti, Francesco Trotta
Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (CD-NSs) are insoluble, highly cross-linked 3D network polymers used in several scientific and technological fields, the main area of investigation concerns the pharmaceutical applications, in which CD-NSs have been mostly employed as drug delivery systems. CD-NSs can be generally grouped into four consecutive generations, taking into account their chemical composition and properties. The 1st generation of NSs are plain nanosponges, subdivided into four main types: urethane, carbonate, ester and ether NSs, depending on the chemical nature of the functional group connecting the CD to the cross-linker...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645307/aberrant-intestinal-microbiota-due-to-il-1-receptor-antagonist-deficiency-promotes-il-17-and-tlr4-dependent-arthritis
#17
Rebecca Rogier, Thomas H A Ederveen, Jos Boekhorst, Harm Wopereis, Jose U Scher, Julia Manasson, Sanne J C M Frambach, Jan Knol, Johan Garssen, Peter M van der Kraan, Marije I Koenders, Wim B van den Berg, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Shahla Abdollahi-Roodsaz
BACKGROUND: Perturbation of commensal intestinal microbiota has been associated with several autoimmune diseases. Mice deficient in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Il1rn (-/-) mice) spontaneously develop autoimmune arthritis and are susceptible to other autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, diabetes, and encephalomyelitis; however, the mechanisms of increased susceptibility to these autoimmune phenotypes are poorly understood. We investigated the role of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in regulation of commensal intestinal microbiota, and assessed the involvement of microbiota subsets and innate and adaptive mucosal immune responses that underlie the development of spontaneous arthritis in Il1rn (-/-) mice...
June 23, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645146/analysis-of-in-vitro-evolution-reveals-the-underlying-distribution-of-catalytic-activity-among-random-sequences
#18
Abe Pressman, Janina E Moretti, Gregory W Campbell, Ulrich F Müller, Irene A Chen
The emergence of catalytic RNA is believed to have been a key event during the origin of life. Understanding how catalytic activity is distributed across random sequences is fundamental to estimating the probability that catalytic sequences would emerge. Here, we analyze the in vitro evolution of triphosphorylating ribozymes and translate their fitnesses into absolute estimates of catalytic activity for hundreds of ribozyme families. The analysis efficiently identified highly active ribozymes and estimated catalytic activity with good accuracy...
June 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644915/mechanistic-insights-on-the-reduction-of-co2-to-silylformates-catalyzed-by-ir-nsin-species
#19
Luis A Oro, Alejandro Julián, Jefferson Guzmán, E A Jaseer, Francisco Fernández-Alvarez, Raquel Royo, Victor Polo, María Pilar García Orduña, Fernando Lahoz
The hydrosilylation of CO2 with different silanes such as HSiEt3, HSiMe2Ph, HSiMePh2, HSiMe(OSiMe3)2 and HSi(OSiMe3)3 in presence of catalytic ammounts of the iridium(III) complex [Ir(H)(CF3CO2)(NSiN*)(coe)] (1; NSiN* = fac-bis-(4-methylpyridine-2-yloxy); coe = cis-cyclooctene) has been comparatively studied. The activity of the hydrosilylation catalytic system based on 1 depends on the nature of the reducing agent, where HSiMe(OSiMe3)2 has proven to be the most active. The aforementioned reactions were found to be highly selective to the formation of the corresponding silylformate...
June 23, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644739/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-new-fixed-dose-combinations
#20
Vicente Soriano
The advent of oral direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has revolutionized the hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapeutic landscape providing cure rates over 90%. However, a subset of patients remains at higher risk for treatment failure, including those infected with: i) genotype 3 and cirrhosis; ii) resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) occurring either as natural polymorphisms or selected after prior DAA failure; and iii) poor drug adherence associated with social disabilities (homeless, psychiatric illnesses, injection drug use, alcoholism, etc...
June 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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