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natural selection

Chen Zhou, Haimin Zou, Ming Li, Chengjun Sun, Dongxia Ren, Yongxin Li
A fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (FOSPR) sensor was developed for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) in water and juice, based on antimicrobial peptides (AMP), Magainin I, as recognition elements and silver nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs-rGO) nanocomposites assisted signal amplification. The uniform AgNPs-rGO was fixed on the surface of optical fiber and covered with gold film. Not only was the SPR response greatly enhanced, but also the AgNPs was prevented from being oxidized...
June 5, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Yang Yang, Ting Fong May Chui
Attention is increasingly being paid to low impact development (LID) practices in urban stormwater management. Because LID practices offer a wide variety of hydro-environmental benefits, it is often necessary to account for these benefits collectively in cost-benefit analysis and LID alternative selection. The conventional methods of quantifying these benefits, however, can hardly incorporate the preferences of decision makers, and commonly involve tedious parameter estimations. To address these shortcomings, this study adopts a relative performance evaluation method to assess the various hydro-environmental impacts of LID alternatives in small urban catchments...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Andrea Gredelj, Alberto Barausse, Laura Grechi, Luca Palmeri
Over the past decades, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) found in environmental matrices worldwide have raised concerns due to their toxicity, ubiquity and persistence. A widespread pollution of groundwater and surface waters caused by PFASs in Northern Italy has been recently discovered, becoming a major environmental issue, also because the exact risk for humans and nature posed by this contamination is unclear. Here, the Po River in Northern Italy was selected as a study area to assess the ecological risk posed by perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), a class of PFASs, considering the noticeable concentration of various PFAAs detected in the Po waters over the past years...
June 20, 2018: Environment International
Cristina Imaginário, Magda Rocha, Paulo Machado, Cristina Antunes, Teresa Martins
The concept of self-care in the elderly has been frequently associated with autonomy, independence and personal accountability. Self-care practices are a result of individual lifestyles and paths adapted to the circumstances and expectations of the elderly. Based on the model by Backman and Hentinen (1999), the present study attempts to categorically describe the types of self-care of the elderly. This is an exploratory study, transversal, of a quantitative nature. The sample was comprised of 313 participants, randomly selected among Elderly Care Centres in the interior North of Portugal...
May 31, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Marina T Varela, Maiara M Romaneli, Marta L Lima, Samanta E T Borborema, Andre G Tempone, João P S Fernandes
Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis are parasitic infections enrolled among the neglected tropical diseases, which urge for new treatments. In the search for new chemical entities as prototypes, gibbilimbols A/B have shown antiparasitic activity against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania infantum, and then a set of analogues (LINS03 series) of this natural product were synthesized and evaluated in vitro against the parasites. In the present paper we reported five new compounds with activity against these protozoan parasites, and quite low cytotoxicity...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Amos O Abolaji, Adeola O Adedara, Mojisola A Adie, Marta Vicente-Crespo, Ebenezer O Farombi
1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a neurotoxin with Parkinson's disease traits in animals via mechanisms linked with oxidative stress and inflammation. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol and a phytoalexin with antioxidative and antiinflammatory properties. Here, we investigated the rescue role of resveratrol on MPTP-triggered toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster for the first time. D. melanogaster (Harwich strain, 1-to 3- days old) were first orally exposed to resveratrol (0, 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg diet) and MPTP (0, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 μM) for longevity and 7 days survival assays respectively...
June 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
I Mawhinney, J Errington, N Stamper, N Torrens, M Engelsma, H-J van Roest
BACKGROUND: Sets of genital swabs are routinely taken from horses to screen for the presence of Taylorella equigenitalis, the cause of contagious equine metritis. Typically 2 to 4 different sites are swabbed at a time and tested by culture or PCR. OBJECTIVES: This study explored the feasibility of pooling these swabs for a single PCR test per animal instead of testing each swab individually. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro. METHODS: PCR signal strengths (Ct values) from 149 historical PCR positive genital swabs, together with historical data on the number of swabs in a set expected to be positive, were used to assess the suitability of pooling for screening horses for T...
June 23, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Masatsune Kainosho, Yohei Miyanoiri, Tsutomu Terauchi, Mitsuhiro Takeda
In this perspective, we describe our efforts to innovate the current isotope-aided NMR methodology to investigate biologically important large proteins and protein complexes, for which only limited structural information could be obtained by conventional NMR approaches. At the present time, it is widely believed that only backbone amide and methyl signals are amenable for investigating such difficult targets. Therefore, our primary mission is to disseminate our novel knowledge within the biological NMR community; specifically, that any type of NMR signals other than methyl and amide groups can be obtained, even for quite large proteins, by optimizing the transverse relaxation properties by isotope labeling methods...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
Lu Kang, Xiao-Hui Gao, Hao-Ran Liu, Xue Men, Hong-Nian Wu, Pei-Wu Cui, Eric Oldfield, Jian-Ye Yan
Chalcones containing tertiary amine side-chains have potent activity as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. However, the effects of the location of the tertiary amine groups as well as of other groups on AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity have not been reported. Here, we report the synthesis and testing of 36 new coumarin-chalcone hybrids (5d-7j, 9d-11f, 12k-13m) against AChE and BChE. The nature and position of the chalcone substituents had major effects on inhibitory activity as well as selectivity for AChE over BChE...
June 22, 2018: Molecular Diversity
Zdeněk Lajbner, Reuven Pnini, M Florencia Camus, Jonathan Miller, Damian K Dowling
Mitochondria are essential organelles, found within eukaryotic cells, which contain their own DNA. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has traditionally been used in population genetic and biogeographic studies as a maternally-inherited and evolutionary-neutral genetic marker. However, it is now clear that polymorphisms within the mtDNA sequence are routinely non-neutral, and furthermore several studies have suggested that such mtDNA polymorphisms are also sensitive to thermal selection. These observations led to the formulation of the "mitochondrial climatic adaptation" hypothesis, for which all published evidence to date is correlational...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Susana Patrícia Lopes, Nuno Filipe Azevedo, Maria Olívia Pereira
Selecting appropriate tools providing reliable quantitative measures of individual populations in biofilms is critical as we now recognize their true polymicrobial and heterogeneous nature. Here, plate count, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and peptide nucleic acid probe-fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) were employed to quantitate cystic fibrosis multispecies biofilms. Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Inquilinus limosus and Dolosigranulum pigrum was assessed in dual- and triple-species consortia under oxygen and antibiotic stress...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Simone Di Micco, Luana Pulvirenti, Ines Bruno, Stefania Terracciano, Alessandra Russo, Maria C Vaccaro, Dafne Ruggiero, Vera Muccilli, Nunzio Cardullo, Corrado Tringali, Raffaele Riccio, Giuseppe Bifulco
The natural product magnolol (1) and a selection of its bioinspired derivatives 2-5, were investigated by Inverse Virtual Screening in order to identify putative biological targets from a panel of 308 proteins involved in cancer processes. By this in silico analysis we selected tankyrase-2 (TNKS2), casein kinase 2 (CK2) and bromodomain 9 (Brd9) as potential targets for experimental evaluations. The Surface Plasmon Resonance assay revealed that 3-5 present a good affinity for tankyrase-2, and, in particular, 3 showed an antiproliferative activity on A549 cells higher than the well-known tankyrase-2 inhibitor XAV939 used as reference compound...
June 20, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
David Schröter, Susanne Baldermann, Monika Schreiner, Katja Witzel, Ronald Maul, Sascha Rohn, Susanne Neugart
Amaranth species are globally grown food crops. However, knowledge about the composition of their secondary metabolites is insufficient. Here, selected hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid glycosides, carotenoids and chlorophylls in the leaves of 14 genotypes from six different amaranth species were identified and quantified. For the first time, caffeic acid esters of isocitric and several aldaric acids were isolated and quantified in a leafy food matrix. High concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and chlorophylls, and moderate amounts of flavonoids and carotenoids were detected...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Emma Sherman, James F Harbertson, David R Greenwood, Silas G Villas-Bôas, Oliver Fiehn, Hildegarde Heymann
The relationship between wine flavour and wine volatile composition is well recognised, however with thousands of compounds in wine the exact nature of individual contributions may be hard to determine due to synergistic and masking effects. Untargeted chemical analyses coupled with descriptive sensory and partial least squares regression modelling can help unravel interactions to identify groups of compounds that contribute to sensory properties. Variable selection is often applied prior to modelling to eliminate irrelevant variables...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Sarah P Shubeck, Arielle E Kanters, Gurjit Sandhu, Caprice C Greenberg, Justin B Dimick
BACKGROUND: Many coaching methods have been well studied and formalized, but the approach most commonly used in the continuing education of surgeons is peer coaching. Through a qualitative thematic analysis, we sought to determine if surgeons can comfortably and effectively transition to a co-learner dynamic for effective peer coaching. METHODS: This qualitative study evaluated 20 surgeons participating in a video review coaching exercise in October 2015. Each conversation was coded by 2 authors focusing on the dynamics of the coach and coachee relationship...
June 19, 2018: Surgery
Özgen Alpay Özbek, İbrahim Mehmet Ali Öktem, Can Hüseyin Hekimoğlu, Özgür Sekreter, Mestan Emek, Gonca Atasoylu, Ayla Açıkgöz, Nur Demirpençe, Ali Ceylan, Elif Sanem Baykal, Belgin Ünal
Vaccination is the most effective way of preventing pertussis disease. Turkey commenced a routine infant immunization program using whole cell (wP) pertussis vaccine in 1968. Immunization accelerated in 1985 after participation of Turkey in the Expanded Programme on Immunization initiated by the World Health Organization. Acellular vaccine (aP) replaced wP in 2008 and a booster was added to age 6 in 2010. The immunization programme was successful in reducing the morbidity rate from 20.58 per 100.000 in 1970 to the lowest level of 0...
April 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Dominik Suter, Luuk T C G van Summeren, Olivier Blacque, Koushik Venkatesan
C^C cyclometalated platinum(II) triplet emitters bearing electronically different N-heterocyclic carbenes-(1,3-diisopropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-imidazol-2-ylidene (d), 1,3-diisopropyl-benzimidazol-2-ylidene (e), and 1,3-diisopropyl-imidazol-2-ylidene (f))-as neutral ligands and biphenyl (bph) as well as its fluorinated derivative octafluorobiphenyl (oFbph) as dianionic cyclometalating ancillary ligand were synthesized and structurally characterized by 1 H, 13 C, 19 F, and 195 Pt NMR, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and HR-ESI-MS studies...
June 22, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Aleksandra Andreevna Ageeva, Ekaterina A Khramtsova, Ilya M Magin, Peter A Purtov, Miguel A Miranda, Tatyana V Leshina
The origin of biomolecules in the pre-biological period is still a matter of debate, as is the unclarified nature of the differences in enantiomer properties, especially the medically important activity of chiral drugs. On the first issue, significant progress has been made in the last decade of the 20th century with the experimental confirmation of Frank's popular theory on chiral catalysis in spontaneous asymmetric synthesis. Prof. Soai examined the chiral catalysis of the alkylation of achiral aldehydes by achiral reagents...
June 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Seungeun Lee, Kumju Youn, GyuTae Lim, Jinhyuk Lee, Mira Jun
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, distinctively characterized by senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and synaptic loss, finally resulting in neuronal death. β-Site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and cholinesterases have been identified as therapeutic targets for AD, and the discovery of their inhibitors is of critical importance for developing preventive strategies for AD. To discover natural multi-target compounds possessing BACE1, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory properties, major citrus flavanones including hesperetin, naringenin, and hesperidin were evaluated...
June 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Seth Madlon-Kay, Michael J Montague, Lauren J N Brent, Samuel Ellis, Brian Zhong, Noah Snyder-Mackler, Julie E Horvath, Jesse Haynes Pate Skene, Michael L Platt
The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) influence pair bonding, attachment, and sociality, as well as anxiety and stress responses in humans and other mammals. The effects of these peptides are mediated by genetic variability in their associated receptors, OXTR and the AVPR gene family. However, the role of these genes in regulating social behaviors in non-human primates is not well understood. To address this question, we examined whether genetic variation in the OT receptor gene OXTR and the AVP receptor genes AVPR1A and AVPR1B influence naturally-occurring social behavior in free-ranging rhesus macaques-gregarious primates that share many features of their biology and social behavior with humans...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
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