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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735504/low-genetic-diversity-and-functional-constraint-of-mirna-genes-participating-pollen-pistil-interaction-in-rice
#1
Kun Wang, Xin Wang, Ming Li, Tao Shi, Pingfang Yang
In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the expression and evolution of rice miRNA genes participating pollen-pistil interaction that is crucial to rice yield. Pollen-pistil interaction is an essential reproductive process for all flowering plants. While microRNAs (miRNAs) are important noncoding small RNAs that regulate mRNA levels in eukaryotic cells, there is little knowledge about which miRNAs involved in the early stages of pollen-pistil interaction in rice and how they evolve under this conserved process...
July 22, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735145/metabolic-gene-targeted-monitoring-of-non-starter-lactic-acid-bacteria-during-cheese-ripening
#2
Alessia Levante, Francesca De Filippis, Antonietta La Storia, Monica Gatti, Erasmo Neviani, Danilo Ercolini, Camilla Lazzi
Long ripened cheeses, such as Grana Padano (GP), a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) Italian cheese, harbor a viable microbiota mainly composed of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), which contribute to the final characteristics of cheese. The NSLAB species Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lb. casei and Lb. paracasei are frequently found in GP, and form a closely related taxonomic group (Lb. casei group), making it difficult to distinguish the three species through 16S rRNA sequencing. SpxB, a metabolic gene coding for pyruvate oxidase in Lb...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735035/the-lamin-code
#3
Nadir M Maraldi
Unicellular eukaryotes and metazoa present a nuclear envelope (NE) and metazoa express in it one or more lamins that give rise to the nuclear lamina. The expression of different types of lamins is related to the complexity of the organism and the expression of type-A lamins is related to the initial steps of tissue-specific cell differentiation. Several posttranslational modifications characterize the expression of lamin A in the course of cell differentiation, and the alteration of this expression pattern leads to impressive phenotypic diseases that are collectively referred to as laminopathies...
July 19, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734097/first-report-of-ser653-asn-mutation-endowing-high-level-resistance-to-imazamox-in-downy-brome-bromus-tectorum-l
#4
Vipan Kumar, Prashant Jha
BACKGROUND: Bromus tectorum L. is one of the most troublesome grass weed species in cropland and non-cropland areas of the northwestern United States. In summer 2016, a B. tectroum accession (R) that survived imazamox at the field-use rate (44 g ha(-1) ) in an imidazolinone-tolerant (IMI-tolerant or Clearfield(™) ) winter wheat field was collected near Hammond, Carter County, MT, USA. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance profile of the B. tectroum R accession to imazamox and other ALS inhibitors, and investigate the mechanism of resistance to imazamox...
July 22, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734070/genome-scans-on-experimentally-evolved-populations-reveal-candidate-regions-for-adaptation-to-plant-resistance-in-the-potato-cyst-nematode-globodera-pallida
#5
D Eoche-Bosy, M Gautier, M Esquibet, F Legeai, A Bretaudeau, O Bouchez, S Fournet, E Grenier, J Montarry
Improving resistance durability involves to be able to predict the adaptation speed of pathogen populations. Identifying the genetic bases of pathogen adaptation to plant resistances is a useful step to better understand and anticipate this phenomenon. Globodera pallida is a major pest of potato crop for which a resistance QTL, GpaVvrn , has been identified in Solanum vernei. However, its durability is threatened as G. pallida populations are able to adapt to the resistance in few generations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genomic regions involved in the resistance breakdown by coupling experimental evolution and high-density genome scan...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733620/adaptive-evolution-of-a-hyperthermophilic-archaeon-pinpoints-a-formate-transporter-as-a-critical-factor-for-the-growth-enhancement-on-formate
#6
Hae-Chang Jung, Seong Hyuk Lee, Sung-Mok Lee, Young Jun An, Jung-Hyun Lee, Hyun Sook Lee, Sung Gyun Kang
Previously, we reported that the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 could grow on formate and produce H2. Formate conversion to hydrogen was mediated by a formate-hydrogen lyase complex and was indeed a part of chemiosmotic coupling to ATP generation. In this study, we employed an adaptation approach to enhance the cell growth on formate and investigated molecular changes. As serial transfer continued on formate-containing medium at the serum vial, cell growth, H2 production and formate consumption increased remarkably...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733602/distinct-selective-forces-and-neanderthal-introgression-shaped-genetic-diversity-at-genes-involved-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#7
Alessandra Mozzi, Diego Forni, Rachele Cagliani, Uberto Pozzoli, Mario Clerici, Manuela Sironi
In addition to high intelligence, humans evolved specialized social-cognitive skills, which are specifically affected in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Genes affected in ASD represent suitable candidates to study the evolution of human social cognition. We performed an evolutionary analysis on 68 genes associated to neurodevelopmental disorders; our data indicate that genetic diversity was shaped by distinct selective forces, including natural selection and introgression from archaic hominins...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733422/differences-in-dna-binding-specificity-of-floral-homeotic-protein-complexes-predict-organ-specific-target-genes
#8
Cezary Smaczniak, Jose M Muiño, Dijun Chen, Gerco C Angenent, Kerstin Kaufmann
Floral organ identities in plants are specified by the combinatorial action of homeotic master regulatory transcription factors. How these factors achieve their regulatory specificities is however still largely unclear. Genome-wide in vivo DNA binding data show that homeotic MADS-domain proteins recognize partly distinct genomic regions, suggesting that DNA binding specificity contributes to functional differences of homeotic protein complexes. We used in vitro systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment followed by high throughput DNA sequencing (SELEX-seq) on several floral MADS-domain protein homo- and heterodimers to measure their DNA-binding specificities...
July 21, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733280/construction-and-optimization-of-a-heterologous-pathway-for-protocatechuate-catabolism-in-escherichia-coli-enables-bioconversion-of-model-aromatic-compounds
#9
Sonya M Clarkson, Richard J Giannone, Donna M Kridelbaugh, James G Elkins, Adam M Guss, Joshua K Michener
The production of biofuels from lignocellulose yields a substantial lignin byproduct stream that currently has few applications. Biological conversion of lignin-derived compounds into chemicals and fuels has the potential to improve the economics of lignocellulose-derived biofuels, but few microbes are able both to catabolize lignin-derived aromatic compounds and generate valuable products. While Escherichia coli has been engineered to produce a variety of fuels and chemicals, it is incapable of catabolizing most aromatic compounds...
July 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733228/progressive-erosion-of-the-relaxin1-gene-in-bovids
#10
Loggan Malone, Juan C Opazo, Peter L Ryan, Federico G Hoffmann
The relaxin/insulin-like (RLN/INSL) gene family is a group of genes that encode peptide hormones involved in a variety of physiological functions related to reproduction. Previous studies have shown that relaxin plays a key role in widening of the pubic bone during labor and in gamete maturation. Because of these functions, studying the evolution of RLN1, the gene encoding for relaxin, is relevant in livestock species, most of which belong in the group Laurasiatheria, which includes cow, pig, horse, goat, and sheep in addition to bats, cetaceans and carnivores...
July 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733194/breast-cancer-molecular-stratification-from-intrinsic-subtypes-to-integrative-clusters
#11
REVIEW
Hege G Russnes, Ole Christian Lingjærde, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Carlos Caldas
Breast carcinomas can be stratified into different entities based on clinical behavior, histological features and/or by biological properties. A classification of breast cancer should be based on underlying biology, which we know must be determined by the somatic genomic landscape of mutations. Moreover, as the latest generations of anti-cancer agents are founded on biological mechanisms, a detailed molecular stratification is a requirement for appropriate clinical management. Such stratification, based on genomic drivers, will be important for selecting patients for clinical trials...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733132/plastic-and-micro-evolutionary-responses-of-a-nematode-to-the-host-immune-environment
#12
Emmanuel Guivier, Cédric Lippens, Bruno Faivre, Gabriele Sorci
Parasitic organisms have to cope with the defences deployed by their hosts and this can be achieved adopting immune evasion strategies or optimal life history traits according to the prevailing pattern of immune-mediated mortality. Parasites often encounter variable immune environments both within and between hosts, promoting the evolution of plastic strategies instead of fixed responses. Here, we explored the plasticity and micro-evolutionary responses of immunomodulatory mechanisms and life history traits to the immune environment provided by the host, using the parasitic nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus...
July 18, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733016/interaction-between-cavitation-microbubble-and-cell-a-simulation-of-sonoporation-using-boundary-element-method-bem
#13
Xiasheng Guo, Chenliang Cai, Guangyao Xu, Yanye Yang, Juan Tu, PinTong Huang, Dong Zhang
Sonoporation has been widely accepted as a significant tool for gene delivery as well as some bio-effects like hemolysis, bringing in high demands of looking into its underlying mechanism. A two-dimensional (2D) boundary element method (BEM) model was developed to investigate microbubble-cell interaction, especially the morphological and mechanical characteristics around the close-to-bubble point (CP) on cell membrane. Based on time evolution analysis of sonoporation, detailed information was extracted from the model for analysis, including volume expansion ratio of the bubble, areal expansion ratio of the cell, jet velocity and CP displacement...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732043/investigation-of-horizontal-gene-transfer-of-pathogenicity-islands-in-escherichia-coli-using-next-generation-sequencing
#14
Maxim Messerer, Wolfgang Fischer, Sören Schubert
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) contributes to the evolution of bacteria. All extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) harbour pathogenicity islands (PAIs), however relatively little is known about the acquisition of these PAIs. Due to these islands, ExPEC have properties to colonize and invade its hosts efficiently. Even though these PAIs are known to be acquired by HGT, only very few PAIs do carry mobilization and transfer genes required for the transmission by HGT. In this study, we apply for the first time next-generation sequencing (NGS) and in silico analyses in combination with in vitro experiments to decipher the mechanisms of PAI acquisition in ExPEC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731826/convergently-evolved-toxic-secondary-metabolites-in-plants-drive-the-parallel-molecular-evolution-of-insect-resistance
#15
Georg Petschenka, Vera Wagschal, Michael von Tschirnhaus, Alexander Donath, Susanne Dobler
Natural selection imposed by natural toxins has led to striking levels of convergent evolution at the molecular level. Cardiac glycosides represent a group of plant toxins that block the Na,K-ATPase, a vital membrane protein in animals. Several herbivorous insects have convergently evolved resistant Na,K-ATPases, and in some species, convergent gene duplications have also arisen, likely to cope with pleiotropic costs of resistance. To understand the genetic basis and predictability of these adaptations, we studied five independent lineages of leaf-mining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae)...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731533/improvement-of-d-lactic-acid-production-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-under-acidic-conditions-by-evolutionary-and-rational-metabolic-engineering
#16
Seung-Ho Baek, Eunice Y Kwon, Sang-Jeong Bae, Bo-Ram Cho, Seon-Young Kim, Ji-Sook Hahn
Microbial lactic acid (LA) production under acidic fermentation conditions is favorable to reduce the production cost, but circumventing LA toxicity is a major challenge. We generated D-LA-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain JHY5610 by expressing D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (Lm. ldhA) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, while deleting genes involved in ethanol production (ADH1, ADH2, ADH3, ADH4, and ADH5), glycerol production (GPD1 and GPD2), and degradation of D-LA (DLD1). Adaptive laboratory evolution of JHY5610 led to a strain JHY5710 having higher LA tolerance and D-LA-production capability...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731468/a-role-for-the-cell-wall-protein-silacidin-in-cell-size-of-the-diatom-thalassiosira-pseudonana
#17
Amy R Kirkham, Patrick Richthammer, Katrin Schmidt, Martin Wustmann, Yoshiaki Maeda, René Hedrich, Eike Brunner, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Karl-Heinz van Pée, Angela Falciatore, Thomas Mock
Diatoms contribute 20% of global primary production and form the basis of many marine food webs. Although their species diversity correlates with broad diversity in cell size, there is also an intraspecific cell-size plasticity owing to sexual reproduction and varying environmental conditions. However, despite the ecological significance of the diatom cell size for food-web structure and global biogeochemical cycles, our knowledge about genes underpinning the size of diatom cells remains elusive. Here, a combination of reverse genetics, experimental evolution and comparative RNA-sequencing analyses enabled us to identify a previously unknown genetic control of cell size in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730764/mtor-deregulation-in-oral-cavity-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#18
Nicholas S Mastronikolis, Evangelos Tsiambas, Theodoros A Papadas, Panagiotis P Fotiades, Athanasios T Papadas, Stylianos N Mastronikolis, Ioannis Kastanioudakis, Vasileios Ragos
Signal transduction pathways consist of a variety of inter- and intra-cellular molecules. They act as supporting mechanisms for cell survival and homeostasis. Among them, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays a crucial role in regulating normal cell growth based on growth factor receptors (GFRs) interaction, including epidermal GFR (type II-HER2) and insulin GFR (IGF)...
May 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730527/characterization-of-the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-acanthoscelides-obtectus-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-bruchinae-with-phylogenetic-analysis
#19
Jie Yao, Hong Yang, Renhuai Dai
Acanthoscelides obtectus is a common species of the subfamily Bruchinae and a worldwide-distributed seed-feeding beetle. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. obtectus is 16,130 bp in length with an A + T content of 76.4%. It contains a positive AT skew and a negative GC skew. The mitogenome of A. obtectus contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a non-coding region (D-loop). All PCGs start with an ATN codon, and seven (ND3, ATP6, COIII, ND3, ND4L, ND6, and Cytb) of them terminate with TAA, while the remaining five (COI, COII, ND1, ND4, and ND5) terminate with a single T, ATP8 terminates with TGA...
July 20, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730251/severe-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-determined-by-a-gastric-lymphoma-associated-with-helicobacter-pylori-positive-atrophic-gastritis
#20
Cosmin Vasile Obleagă, Cristin Constantin Vere, Ana Maria Pătraşcu, Emil Moraru, Antoanela Valentina Crafciuc, Maria Camelia Foarfă, Stelian ŞtefăniŢă Mogoantă, Costin Teodor Streba, Simona Bondari, Ştefan Paitici, Cecil Sorin Mirea, Ionică Daniel Vîlcea
The pathogenesis of gastric cancer regardless of histological structure is a classic example of gene-environment interaction, and an important epidemiological aspect was the recognized association with Helicobacter pylori infection. This paper describes a case of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in a young patient whose first sign of the disease was upper gastrointestinal bleeding and associated hemorrhagic shock. The patient is a 31-year-old man, diagnosed by endoscopy 10 years ago with H...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
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