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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055268/early-age-of-e-cigarette-use-onset-mediates-the-association-between-impulsivity-and-e-cigarette-use-frequency-in-youth
#1
Krysten W Bold, Meghan E Morean, Grace Kong, Patricia Simon, Deepa R Camenga, Dana A Cavallo, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
BACKGROUND: Identifying risk factors for youth e-cigarette use is critical, given high rates of e-cigarette use and unknown health effects of long-term use. The current study examined whether an early age of onset of e-cigarette use mediates the association between impulsivity and e-cigarette frequency. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data of e-cigarette users (n=927) were collected from 8 high schools in southeastern Connecticut. The sample was 44.7% female (mean age 16...
October 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055207/hormonal-contraceptive-use-in-smokers-prevalence-of-use-and-associations-with-smoking-motives
#2
Alicia M Allen, Kim Lundeen, Lynn E Eberly, Sharon S Allen, Mustafa al'Absi, Myra Muramoto, Dorothy Hatsukami
INTRODUCTION: While endogenous sex hormones influence smoking-related outcomes, little is known about the role of hormonal contraceptives (HCs). This is despite dated estimates suggesting that HC use is prevalent among female smokers. Therefore, we sought to update estimates of the prevalence of HC use among female smokers and explore the association of HC use with various smoking motives (SMs). METHODS: This online cross-sectional survey recruited female smokers between the ages of 18-35...
October 13, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054817/attend-or-defend-sex-differences-in-behavioral-autonomic-and-respiratory-response-patterns-to-emotion-eliciting-films
#3
Frank H Wilhelm, Julina A Rattel, Melanie Wegerer, Michael Liedlgruber, Simon Schweighofer, Sylvia D Kreibig, Vitaliy Kolodyazhniy, Jens Blechert
Sex differences in emotional reactivity have been studied primarily for negative but less so for positive stimuli; likewise, sex differences in the psychophysiological response-patterning during such stimuli are poorly understood. Thus, the present study examined sex differences in response to negative/positive and high/low arousing films (classified as threat-, loss-, achievement-, and recreation-related, vs. neutral films), while measuring 18 muscular, autonomic, and respiratory parameters. Sex differences emerged for all films, but were most prominent for threat-related films: Despite equivalent valence and arousal ratings, women displayed more facial-muscular and respiratory responding than men and pronounced sympathetic activation (preejection period, other cardiovascular and electrodermal measures), while men showed coactivated sympathetic/parasympathetic responding (including increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia)...
October 17, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054286/functional-roles-of-orexin-hypocretin-receptors-in-reward-circuit
#4
Abbas Haghparast, Zahra Fatahi, Reza Arezoomandan, Sara Karimi, Zahra Taslimi, Shahram Zarrabian
Since its first discovery in 1998, it has become clear that the orexinergic system plays an important role in regulating a number of functions including food, sex, social connections, and most prominently reward-related behaviors. Orexinergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus project extensively to other brain areas, two most important of which are the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens that are involved in reward processing. In this review, we have presented the work in our laboratory along with the work of others and have discussed the possible functions we can infer from the research...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054077/relationship-between-empathic-processing-and-drinking-behavior-in-project-match
#5
Charles S H Robinson, Kathryn Fokas, Katie Witkiewitz
INTRODUCTION: Family relationships, social connectedness and a greater network of supportive others each predict better drinking outcomes among individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The association between social factors and drinking may be related to the ability of individuals to take the perspectives of others' mental and emotional states, defined as empathic processing (EP). As such, it may be the case that EP is associated with social support (SS) and drinking behavior among individuals with AUD, yet few prior studies have attempted to define EP in an AUD sample...
October 3, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054014/sex-differences-in-behavioral-and-neurochemical-effects-of-gonadectomy-and-aromatase-inhibition-in-rats
#6
N Kokras, N Pastromas, D Papasava, C de Bournonville, C A Cornil, C Dalla
Aromatase inhibitors, which are widely used for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers, have been associated with psychiatric side effects ranging from mania to depression. In the present study, we investigated sex differences in the behavioral and neurochemical effects of aromatase inhibition on male and female, sham-operated or gonadectomized adult rats. Three weeks after surgery, rats received chronic treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole or vehicle and were then subjected to the open field test, which assesses general activity...
October 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050704/patterns-of-food-avoidance-and-eating-behavior-in-women-with-fibromyalgia
#7
María Mar López-Rodríguez, José Granero Molina, Isabel María Fernández Medina, Cayetano Fernández Sola, Alicia Ruiz Muelle
INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia is a form of non-articular rheumatic disorder of unknown origin. It is characterized by widespread, chronic musculoskeletal pain. Patients with fibromyalgia suffer more frequently eating disorders, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Studies have pointed out to nutrition as a relevant factor in these patients. Some of them think that diet has an influence on fibromyalgia symptoms, and tend to adopt certain dietary patterns. This, combined with access to non-scientific information about diets and supplements, makes analysis of dietary behavior, avoidance, and restrictions particularly important...
November 2017: Endocrinología, diabetes y nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050504/transgender-research-in-the-21st-century-a-selective-critical-review-from-a-neurocognitive-perspective
#8
Sven C Mueller, Griet De Cuypere, Guy T'Sjoen
Gender dysphoria describes the psychological distress caused by identifying with the sex opposite to the one assigned at birth. In recent years, much progress has been made in characterizing the needs of transgender persons wishing to transition to their preferred gender, thus helping to optimize care. This critical review of the literature examines their common mental health issues, several individual risk factors for psychiatric comorbidity, and current research on the underlying neurobiology. Prevalence rates of persons identifying as transgender and seeking help with transition have been rising steeply since 2000 across Western countries; the current U...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049523/oral-human-papillomavirus-infection-differences-in-prevalence-between-sexes-and-concordance-with-genital-human-papillomavirus-infection-nhanes-2011-to-2014
#9
Kalyani Sonawane, Ryan Suk, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Jagpreet Chhatwal, Peihua Qiu, Timothy Wilkin, Alan G Nyitray, Andrew G Sikora, Ashish A Deshmukh
Background: The burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is disproportionately high among men, yet empirical evidence regarding the difference in prevalence of oral HPV infection between men and women is limited. Concordance of oral and genital HPV infection among men is unknown. Objective: To determine the prevalence of oral HPV infection, as well as the concordance of oral and genital HPV infection, among U.S...
October 17, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049464/clustering-of-neuropsychiatric-disease-in-first-degree-and-second-degree-relatives-of-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#10
Margaret O'Brien, Tom Burke, Mark Heverin, Alice Vajda, Russell McLaughlin, John Gibbons, Susan Byrne, Marta Pinto-Grau, Marwa Elamin, Niall Pender, Orla Hardiman
Importance: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition primarily involving the motor system. There is increasing epidemiologic evidence of an association between ALS and a wider spectrum of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders among family members, including schizophrenia and psychotic illness and suicidal behavior. Objective: To examine the frequency and range of neuropsychiatric conditions that occur within individual first-degree and second-degree relatives of patients with ALS...
October 16, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048965/the-effectiveness-of-hiv-prevention-interventions-in-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-ethnic-minority-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Isabel Ruiz-Perez, Matthew Murphy, Guadalupe Pastor-Moreno, Antonio Rojas-García, Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco
BACKGROUND: Surveys in the United States and Europe have shown a plateau of new HIV cases, with certain regions and populations disproportionately affected by the disease. Ethnic minority women and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups are disproportionately affected by HIV. Previous reviews have focused on prevention interventions targeting ethnic minority men who have sex with men, have not accounted for socioeconomic status, or have included only interventions carried out in clinical settings...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048189/sex-related-marijuana-expectancies-as-predictors-of-sexual-risk-behavior-following-smoked-marijuana-challenge
#12
Linda M Skalski, Rachel L Gunn, Amy Caswell, Stephen Maisto, Jane Metrik
Marijuana use has been associated with sexual risk behavior, but the mechanisms that underlie this relationship are not well understood. The present study examined whether marijuana acutely increased sexual risk on a behavioral decision-making task and whether sex-related marijuana outcome expectancies influenced sexual risk decisions after marijuana administration. Participants were heterosexual marijuana users (n = 126) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 study conditions using a 2 × 2 factorial design crossing drug administration (received 2...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047021/the-influence-of-constructed-family-membership-on-hiv-risk-behaviors-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-new-orleans
#13
Meagan C Zarwell, William T Robinson
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) represent more new HIV infections than all other at-risk populations. Many young black MSM belong to constructed families (i.e., the house ball community, gay families, and pageant families) which are often organized in a family structure with members referred to as parents and children. Many constructed families are associated with a family surname which is informally adopted by members. In some cases, however, constructed families do not identify with a collective family name...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047000/latent-class-analysis-of-hiv-risk-behaviors-among-russian-women-at-risk-for-alcohol-exposed-pregnancies
#14
Som Bohora, Mark Chaffin, Alla Shaboltas, Barbara Bonner, Galina Isurina, Julia Batluk, David Bard, Larissa Tsvetkova, Larissa Skitnevskaya, Elena Volkova, Tatiana Balachova
The number of HIV cases attributed to heterosexual contact and the proportion of women among HIV positive individuals has increased worldwide. Russia is a country with the highest rates of newly diagnosed HIV infections in the region, and the infection spreads beyond traditional risk groups. While young women are affected disproportionately, knowledge of HIV risk behaviors in women in the general population remains limited. The objectives of this study were to identify patterns of behaviors that place women of childbearing age at high risk for HIV transmission and determine whether socio-demographic characteristics and alcohol use are predictive of the risk pattern...
October 19, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046482/blunted-rise-in-brain-glucose-levels-during-hyperglycemia-in-adults-with-obesity-and-t2dm
#15
Janice J Hwang, Lihong Jiang, Muhammad Hamza, Elizabeth Sanchez Rangel, Feng Dai, Renata Belfort-DeAguiar, Lisa Parikh, Brian B Koo, Douglas L Rothman, Graeme Mason, Robert S Sherwin
In rodent models, obesity and hyperglycemia alter cerebral glucose metabolism and glucose transport into the brain, resulting in disordered cerebral function as well as inappropriate responses to homeostatic and hedonic inputs. Whether similar findings are seen in the human brain remains unclear. In this study, 25 participants (9 healthy participants; 10 obese nondiabetic participants; and 6 poorly controlled, insulin- and metformin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) participants) underwent 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy scanning in the occipital lobe to measure the change in intracerebral glucose levels during a 2-hour hyperglycemic clamp (glucose ~220 mg/dl)...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046359/androgens-trigger-different-growth-responses-in-genetically-identical-human-hair-follicles-in-organ-culture-that-reflect-their-epigenetic-diversity-in-life
#16
Benjamin H Miranda, Matthew R Charlesworth, Desmond J Tobin, David T Sharpe, Valerie A Randall
Male sex hormones-androgens-regulate male physique development. Without androgen signaling, genetic males appear female. During puberty, increasing androgens harness the hair follicle's unique regenerative ability to replace many tiny vellus hairs with larger, darker terminal hairs (e.g., beard). Follicle response is epigenetically varied: some remain unaffected (e.g., eyelashes) or are inhibited, causing balding. How sex steroid hormones alter such developmental processes is unclear, despite high incidences of hormone-driven cancer, hirsutism, and alopecia...
October 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043920/simultaneity-of-leisure-behaviors-and-common-mental-disorders-among-healthcare-workers
#17
Saulo Vasconcelos Rocha, Aline Rodrigues Barbosa, Tania Maria de Araújo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the aggregation of four leisure behaviors and the association between the number of leisure behaviors and common mental disorders (CMD). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a representative sample of healthcare workers of Brazil. The aggregation of the types of leisure activities was assessed by comparing the prevalence observed with the expected prevalence. The logistic regression analysis evaluated the association between the number of leisure behaviors and CMD...
October 18, 2017: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043852/beliefs-about-others-perceptions-gender-typicality-scale-development-and-relationships-to-gender-nonconformity-sexual-orientation-and-well-being
#18
Laura Green, Katharine A Rimes, Qazi Rahman
The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of "other-perceived" gender typicality and test its relationship with gender nonconformity, sexual orientation, and psychological distress. Data on these variables were collected from 632 participants (142 heterosexual men, 77 gay men, 50 bisexual men, 174 heterosexual women, 85 lesbian women, and 104 bisexual women). We designed a Beliefs About Others' Perceptions-Gender Typicality (BOP-GT) scale on which participants reported how masculine or feminine they thought other people perceived their gendered behavior, interests, appearance, and activities...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043467/do-subjective-alcohol-screening-tools-correlate-with-biomarkers-among-high-risk-transgender-women-and-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-lima-peru
#19
M C Herrera, K A Konda, S R Leon, B Brown, G M Calvo, H J Salvatierra, C F Caceres, J D Klausner, R Deiss
Alcohol abuse can influence sexual risk behavior; however, its measurement is not straightforward. This study compared self-reported alcohol use, via the AUDIT and CAGE, with levels of phosphatidylethanol (Peth), a phospholipid biomarker that forms with chronic, heavy drinking, among high-risk MSM and TW in Lima, Peru. Chi square, Fisher's exact, Wilcoxon ranksum tests compared the instruments. Receiver operating curves determined sensitivity and specificity of the self-reported measures. Among 69 MSM and 17 TW, PEth was positive for 86% (95% CI 77-93%) of participants, while 67% reported binge-drinking in the last 2 weeks...
October 17, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043033/behavior-and-season-affect-crayfish-detection-and-density-inference-using-environmental-dna
#20
Nicholas Dunn, Victoria Priestley, Alba Herraiz, Richard Arnold, Vincent Savolainen
Although the presence/absence of aquatic invertebrates using environmental DNA (eDNA) has been established for several species, inferring population densities has remained problematic. The invasive American signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana), is the leading cause of decline in the UK's only native crayfish species, Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet). Methods to detect species at low abundances offer the opportunity for the early detection, and potential eradication, of P. leniusculus before population densities reach threatening levels in areas occupied by A...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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