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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245090/psychological-distress-and-risk-for-suicidal-behavior-among-university-students-in-contemporary-china
#1
Fang Tang, Majella Byrne, Ping Qin
BACKGROUND: Psychological distress and suicidal behavior are important mental health problems among university students and warrant research to inform strategies for effective prevention in this young population. The present study aimed to assess psychological distress and suicidal behavior and to unravel their associations among university students. METHODS: A total of 5972 undergraduate students, randomly selected from six universities in central China, comprised the sample...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244623/attachment-figure-s-regulation-of-infant-brain-and-behavior
#2
Regina M Sullivan
Altricial infants (i.e., requiring parental care for survival), such as humans and rats, form an attachment to their caregiver and receive the nurturing and protections needed for survival. Learning has a strong role in attachment, as is illustrated by strong attachment formed to non-biological caregivers of either sex. Here we summarize and integrate results from animal and human infant attachment research that highlights the important role of social buffering (social presence) of the stress response by the attachment figure and its effect on infant processing of threat and fear through modulation of the amygdala...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244264/personality-traits-and-anxiety-and-depressive-disorders-in-patients-with-medication-overuse-headache-versus-episodic-migraine
#3
Nima Mohseni, Mansooreh Togha, Seyed Masoud Arzaghi, Sepideh Nekooie, Mehrnaz Fallah Tafti, Farzad Fatehi
Objective: An episodic migraine (EM) may lead to medication-overuse headache (MOH), an abnormal behavioral pattern of noncompliance. Anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and disorders caused by psychoactive substances other than analgesics all have been reported with MOH at higher rates than with EM. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between personality traits and anxiety and depressive disorders and headache type. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 55 patients with EM and 50 patients with MOH were recruited from were recruited from 2 university hospital clinics in Tehran, Iran, from January 2013 to November 2015...
December 14, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243876/familial-transmission-of-externalizing-syndromes-in-extended-swedish-families
#4
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Risk for criminal behavior (CB), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and drug abuse (DA) are known to be familial. We know less about their transmission across three generations. We examined 844,109 probands born in Sweden 1980-1990, their parents, aunts/uncles, and grandparents for registration in population-based registers for CB, AUD, and DA. Mean tetrachoric relative-proband correlations (95% CIs) were highest for DA (+0.24, 0.24-0.25), followed by CB (+0.23,0.22-0.23) and AUD (+0.17, 0.16-0.17). AUD and CB were relatively stably transmitted across generations, while DA resemblance among relatives was stronger in the younger generations...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243403/microglia-sculptors-of-sex-differences-and-sensitive-periods
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan Van Ryzin, Lindsay A Pickett, Margaret M McCarthy
Recent research is beginning to shift the focus of our understanding of microglia from passive members of the brain's immune system to active participants in brain development. Despite these advances, little attention has been paid to one of the most critical components of early brain development- sexual differentiation. Mounting evidence suggests that the normal developmental functions microglia perform- cell number regulation and synaptic connectivity, may be involved in the sex-specific patterning of the brain during these early critical periods, with lasting sex-dependent and sex-independent effects on behavior...
December 15, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243164/effects-of-exercise-during-chemotherapy-on-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Ian R Kleckner, Charles Kamen, Jennifer S Gewandter, Nimish A Mohile, Charles E Heckler, Eva Culakova, Chunkit Fung, Michelle C Janelsins, Matthew Asare, Po-Ju Lin, Pavan S Reddy, Jeffrey Giguere, Jeffrey Berenberg, Shelli R Kesler, Karen M Mustian
PURPOSE: Over half of all cancer patients receiving taxane-, platinum-, or vinca alkaloid-based chemotherapy experience chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), which includes numbness, tingling, pain, cold sensitivity, and motor impairment in the hands and feet. CIPN is a dose-limiting toxicity, potentially increasing mortality. There are no FDA-approved drugs to treat CIPN, and behavioral interventions such as exercise are promising yet understudied. This secondary analysis of our nationwide phase III randomized controlled trial of exercise for fatigue examines (1) effects of exercise on CIPN symptoms, (2) factors that predict CIPN symptoms, and (3) factors that moderate effects of exercise on CIPN symptoms...
December 14, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243156/comfort-eating-and-all-cause-mortality-in-the-us-health-and-retirement-study
#7
Jenna R Cummings, Ashley E Mason, Eli Puterman, A Janet Tomiyama
PURPOSE: Comfort eating is a prevalent behavior. Prior research shows that comfort eating is associated with reduced stress responses and increased metabolic risk across adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood. The purpose of the current research was to test if comfort eating prospectively predicted all-cause mortality in older adulthood. METHOD: The US Health and Retirement Study is an ongoing, nationally representative, longitudinal study of older adults...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241679/origins-and-predictors-of-friendships-in-6-to-8-year-old-children-born-at-neonatal-risk
#8
Katharina M Heuser, Julia Jaekel, Dieter Wolke
OBJECTIVE: To test effects of gestational age (GA), early social experiences, and child characteristics on children's friendships and perceived peer acceptance. STUDY DESIGN: As part of the prospective Bavarian Longitudinal Study (1147 children, 25-41 weeks GA), children's friendships (eg, number of friends, frequency of meeting friends) and perceived peer acceptance were assessed before school entry (6 years of age) and in second grade (8 years of age) using child and parent reports...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241667/correlates-of-ideal-cardiovascular-health-in-european-adolescents-the-helena-study
#9
P Henriksson, H Henriksson, I Labayen, I Huybrechts, L Gracia-Marco, F B Ortega, V España-Romero, Y Manios, M González-Gross, A Marcos, L A Moreno, Á Gutiérrez, J R Ruiz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The ideal cardiovascular health (iCVH) construct consists of 4 health behaviors (smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and diet) and 3 health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting glucose). A greater number of iCVH components in adolescence are related to better cardiovascular health, but little is known about the correlates of iCVH in adolescents. Thus, the aim of the study was to examine correlates of iCVH in European adolescents. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study comprised 637 European adolescents with complete iCVH data...
October 28, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241537/nucleus-accumbens-dopamine-signaling-regulates-sexual-preference-for-females-in-male-mice
#10
Yamit Beny-Shefer, Noga Zilkha, Yael Lavi-Avnon, Nadav Bezalel, Ilana Rogachev, Alexander Brandis, Molly Dayan, Tali Kimchi
Sexual preference for the opposite sex is a fundamental behavior underlying reproductive success, but the neural mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the role of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) in governing chemosensory-mediated preference for females in TrpC2-/- and wild-type male mice. TrpC2-/- males, deficient in VNO-mediated signaling, do not display mating or olfactory preference toward females. We found that, during social interaction with females, TrpC2-/- males do not show increased NAcc dopamine levels, observed in wild-type males...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241126/the-chronic-exposure-to-abamectin-causes-spatial-memory-deficit-and-depressive-behavior-in-mice
#11
Wellington Alves Mizael da Silva, Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães, Mateus Flores Montalvão, Bruna de Oliveira Mendes, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Guilherme Malafaia
It is known that abamectin (ABA), which is a component belonging to the group of avermectins, has been broadly used as biopesticide. Although its effect on non-target aquatic organisms is known, knowledge about its impacts on terrestrial animals such as mammals remains incipient. Thus, we aim at investigating the effects (phycical and neural-behavioral) from the chronic exposure (90 days) to ABA (1/10 of LD50) on Swiss and C57Bl/6J mice from both sexes. Accordingly, at the end of the experimental period the animals were subjected to the following tests: Novel Object Recognition Test (NORT), Morris Water Maze (MWM), Tail Suspension Test (TST), and Forced Swimming Test (FST)...
December 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240975/macroecological-patterns-of-sexual-size-dimorphism-in-turtles-of-the-world
#12
Mickey Agha, Joshua R Ennen, A Justin Nowakowski, Jeffrey E Lovich, Sarah C Sweat, Brian D Todd
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a well-documented phenomenon in both plants and animals; however, the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that drive and maintain SSD patterns across geographic space at regional and global scales are understudied, especially for reptiles. Our goal was to examine geographic variation of turtle SSD and to explore ecological and environmental correlates using phylogenetic comparative methods. We use published body size data on 135 species from nine turtle families to examine how geographic patterns and the evolution of SSD are influenced by habitat specialization, climate (annual mean temperature and annual precipitation) and climate variability, latitude, or a combination of these predictor variables...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240778/biopsychosocial-predictors-of-perceived-life-expectancy-in-a-national-sample-of-older-men-and-women
#13
Lindsay C Kobayashi, Rebecca J Beeken, Susanne F Meisel
Perceived life expectancy (PLE) is predictive of mortality risk in older adults, but the factors that may contribute to mental conceptions of PLE are unknown. We aimed to describe the sociodemographic, biomedical, behavioral, and psychological predictors of self-reported PLE estimates among older English adults. Data were from 6662 adults aged 50-79 years in the population-based English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (cross-sectional sample from 2012/13). PLE was assessed in the face-to-face study interview ("What are the chances you will live to be age x or more?" where x = current age plus 10-15 years)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240757/rct-of-an-integrated-cbt-hiv-intervention-on-depressive-symptoms-and-hiv-risk
#14
Karin Tobin, Melissa A Davey-Rothwell, Bareng A S Nonyane, Amy Knowlton, Lawrence Wissow, Carl A Latkin
Depression and depressive symptoms mediate the association between drug use and HIV risk. Yet, there are few interventions that target depressive symptoms and HIV risk for people who use drugs (PWUD). This study was a randomized controlled trial of an integrated cognitive behavioral therapy and HIV prevention intervention to reduce depressive symptoms, injection risk behaviors and increase condom use in a sample of urban people who used heroin or cocaine in the prior 6 months. A total of 315 individuals aged 18-55, who self-reported at least one HIV drug and sex risk behavior and scored ≥16 and <40 on the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale were randomized using a two-block design, stratified by sex to ensure equivalent numbers, to a 10 session intervention arm (n = 162) or a single session control arm (n = 153)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240528/associations-between-sexual-risk-related-behaviors-and-school-based-education-on-hiv-and-condom-use-for-adolescent-sexual-minority-males-and-their-non-sexual-minority-peers
#15
Catherine N Rasberry, D Susanne Condron, Catherine A Lesesne, Susan Hocevar Adkins, Ganna Sheremenko, Elizabeth Kroupa
PURPOSE: With HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates disproportionately high among adolescent sexual minority males (ASMM), it is important to understand how school-based sexual health education may relate to sexual risk-related behavior among this population. This analysis explores reported HIV/AIDS- and condom-related education and sexual risk-related behaviors among ASMM and their adolescent non-sexual-minority male (non-ASMM) peers. METHODS: Students (n = 11,681) from seven Florida high schools completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires...
December 14, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239889/are-trajectories-of-psychosocial-risk-in-adolescence-linked-to-hiv-vulnerability-in-emerging-and-young-adulthood-an-eighteen-year-longitudinal-study
#16
David Cordova, Justin Heinze, Hsing-Fang Hsieh, Ritesh Mistry, Christopher P Salas-Wright, Stephanie H Cook, Marc A Zimmerman
OBJECTIVES: To examine trajectories of adolescent psychosocial risk-drug use, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and violence victimization and observation-and the longitudinal relationship between psychosocial risk trajectories during adolescence and HIV risk behaviors in adulthood. METHODS: The eighteen-year longitudinal study was conducted from September 1994 through May 2013, in Michigan. Eight-hundred and fifty predominantly (80%) African American adolescents completed demographics and measures of drug use, depressive and anxiety symptoms, violence victimization and observation at Times 1-4, sexual risk behaviors at Times 5 and 6, and social conditions (i...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239138/greater-reward-related-neuronal-response-to-hedonic-foods-in-women-compared-with-men
#17
Kristina T Legget, Marc-Andre Cornier, Daniel H Bessesen, Brianne Mohl, Elizabeth A Thomas, Jason R Tregellas
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to identify how sex influences neurobiological responses to food cues, particularly those related to hedonic eating, and how this relates to obesity propensity, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: Adult men and women who were either obesity resistant (OR) or obesity prone (OP) underwent fMRI while viewing visual food cues (hedonic foods, neutral foods, and nonfood objects) in both fasted and fed states...
December 13, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238539/dispersal-influences-genetic-and-acoustic-spatial-structure-for-both-males-and-females-in-a-tropical-songbird
#18
Brendan A Graham, Daniel D Heath, Daniel J Mennill
Animals exhibit diverse dispersal strategies, including sex-biased dispersal, a phenomenon common in vertebrates. Dispersal influences the genetic structure of populations as well as geographic variation in phenotypic traits. Patterns of spatial genetic structure and geographic variation may vary between the sexes whenever males and females exhibit different dispersal behaviors. Here, we examine dispersal, spatial genetic structure, and spatial acoustic structure in Rufous-and-white Wrens, a year-round resident tropical bird...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238271/dual-depression-a-sex-perspective
#19
Adriana Farré, Judit Tirado-Muñoz, Marta Torrens
Mood and substance use disorders (SUDs) are mental conditions that are highly prevalent in the general population. Cooccurrence of major depression and SUD, also known as dual depression, is very common in the field of substance addiction. Sex differences are found in both major depression and SUD. This review, after presenting the state of the art of dual depression as regards prevalence, ethiopathologic mechanisms, and clinical aspects, is focused on dual depression in women. An overview of some potential factors associated with the sex gap in dual depression such as injecting, sexual risk behavior, intimate partner violence, and the reproductive cycle is presented...
December 2017: Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238235/oppositional-defiant-disorder-current-insight
#20
REVIEW
Abhishek Ghosh, Anirban Ray, Aniruddha Basu
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is diagnosed broadly on the basis of frequent and persistent angry or irritable mood, argumentativeness/defiance, and vindictiveness. Since its inception in the third Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, epidemiological and longitudinal studies have strongly suggested a distinct existence of ODD that is different from other closely related externalizing disorders, with different course and outcome and possibly discrete subtypes. However, several issues, such as symptom threshold, dimensional versus categorical conceptualization, and sex-specific symptoms, are yet to be addressed...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
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