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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908235/the-effect-of-antibiotics-on-social-aversion-following-early-life-inflammation
#1
Amanda C Kentner, Urma Khan, M MacRae, Scot E Dowd, Siyang Yan
Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to infection during early development increases the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders associated with symptoms such as a decreased desire to engage in social interactions. This disruption in social behavior can be modelled in animals by administering bacterial mimetics such as liposaccharide (LPS). However, when evaluating social interactions in the laboratory, attention is rarely directed on the reciprocal relationship as a whole, which is important as peers may drive social withdrawal...
June 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908225/disentangling-the-interaction-of-sex-differences-and-hemispheric-specialization-for-face-processing-evidence-from-erps
#2
Joanna Stasch, Bettina Mohr, Andres H Neuhaus
Recent studies on face processing and its hemispheric lateralization suggest that inconsistencies in earlier findings might be partially explained by sex differences, as findings from event-related potential studies indicated a more asymmetric functioning of the visual cortex during face encoding in men, whereas women seemed to display a more bilateral activation pattern. The aim of this study was to further investigate the role of sex differences in hemispheric specialization during face recognition. Fifty-four healthy participants (27 females and 27 males) engaged in a familiarity decision task in which famous and unfamiliar faces were presented in a lateralized tachistoscopic fashion with unilateral und bilateral presentation modes and measurement of event-related potentials and behavioral responses...
June 13, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907703/objective-sleep-characteristics-and-cardiometabolic-health-in-young-adolescents
#3
Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Mirja Quante, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Susan Redline, Emily Oken, Elsie M Taveras
: media-1vid110.1542/5778442247001PEDS-VA_2017-4085 Video Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Shorter sleep duration is associated with childhood obesity. Few studies measure sleep quantity and quality objectively or examine cardiometabolic biomarkers other than obesity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of 829 adolescents derived sleep duration, efficiency and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from >5 days of wrist actigraphy recording for >10 hours/day. The main outcome was a metabolic risk score (mean of 5 sex-specific z-scores for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol scaled inversely, and log-transformed triglycerides and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), for which higher scores indicate greater metabolic risk...
June 15, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907425/repurposing-steroidogenesis-inhibitors-for-the-therapy-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders-promises-and-caveats
#4
REVIEW
Roberto Frau, Marco Bortolato
Steroids exert a profound influence on behavioral reactivity, by modulating the functions of most neurotransmitters and shaping the impact of stress and sex-related variables on neural processes. This background - as well as the observation that most neuroactive steroids (including sex hormones, glucocorticoids and neurosteroids) are synthetized and metabolized by overlapping enzymatic machineries - points to steroidogenic pathways as a powerful source of targets for neuropsychiatric disorders. Inhibitors of steroidogenic enzymes have been developed and approved for a broad range of genitourinary and endocrine dysfunctions, opening to new opportunities to repurpose these drugs for the treatment of mental problems...
May 11, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906618/treatment-outcomes-of-17-patients-with-atypical-spinal-meningioma-including-4-with-metastases-a-retrospective-observational-study
#5
Sung Hyun Noh, Kyung Hyun Kim, Dong Ah Shin, Jeong Yoon Park, Seong Yi, Sung Uk Kuh, Keung Nyun Kim, Dong Kyu Chin, Keun Su Kim, Do Heum Yoon, Yong Eun Cho
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Because of the scarcity of atypical spinal meningioma, there is a lack of research on this type of tumor or its associated metastases. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the biological behavior of atypical spinal meningioma and identify its prognostic factors by reviewing surgical and clinical outcomes of patients with these tumors. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: A retrospective chart review was performed. PATIENT SAMPLE: We retrospectively reviewed the data from all patients who underwent spinal cord tumor excision between 1994 and 2017...
June 12, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905919/sexual-behaviors-experiences-of-sexual-violence-and-substance-use-among-women-who-inject-drugs-accessing-health-and-prevention-services-in-puerto-rico
#6
Erika M Collazo-Vargas, Brian Dodge, Debby Herbenick, Lucia Guerra-Reyes, Rasul Mowatt, Ilia M Otero-Cruz, Carlos Rodríguez-Díaz
OBJECTIVE: People who inject drugs (PWID) face numerous gender-specific health risks, which increase their susceptibility to adverse outcomes, including violence. There is a need for research on female PWID to capture their unique experiences and understand behavioral and gender-based differences. This study aimed to understand which drug use and sexual behaviors are the most prevalent among female PWID accessing health services in Puerto Rico and to gather preliminary information on those individuals' experiences of sexual violence...
June 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905621/early-life-somatic-complaints-longitudinal-associations-with-maternal-and-child-psychopathology
#7
Melissa L Engel, Dominika A Winiarski, Brooke L Reidy, Patricia A Brennan
OBJECTIVE: Somatic complaints, often associated with concurrent and future internalizing symptoms and disorders in adult samples, were examined longitudinally from preschool to school age in a sample of children at an increased familial risk for psychopathology. The behavioral correlates and sex differences of somatic complaints and the persistence of these complaints across early childhood were examined. METHOD: A longitudinal sample of 185 mothers completed a laboratory visit when children were preschool aged and an online follow-up when children were school aged...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905593/delivery-of-tdf-ftc-for-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-to-prevent-hiv-1-acquisition-in-young-adult-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-of-color-using-a-urine-adherence-assay
#8
Linden Lalley-Chareczko, Devon Clark, S Caitlin Conyngham, Athena Zuppa, Ganesh Moorthy, Karam Mounzer, Helen Koenig
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis(PrEP) for HIV prevention with daily TDF/FTC is effective when taken consistently. Currently, there is no objective way to monitor PrEP adherence. Urine has been shown to be highly correlated with plasma tenofovir levels, with urine tenofovir levels >1000ng/mL demonstrating recent(1-2 days) adherence to PrEP. SETTING: The present study was conducted at an urban community health center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. METHODS: PrEP was administered to 50 young men who have sex with men and transgender women of color using weekly, biweekly, and/or monthly dispensation schedules...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903702/characterizing-geosocial-networking-app-use-among-young-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-multi-city-cross-sectional-survey-in-the-southern-united-states
#9
Dustin T Duncan, Su Hyun Park, H Rhodes Hambrick, Derek T Dangerfield Ii, William C Goedel, Russell Brewer, Ofole Mgbako, Joseph Lindsey, Seann D Regan, DeMarc A Hickson
BACKGROUND: Understanding where and how young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) in the southern United States meet their sexual partners is germane to understanding the underlying factors contributing to the ongoing HIV transmission in this community. Men who have sex with men (MSM) commonly use geosocial networking apps to meet sexual partners. However, there is a lack of literature exploring geosocial networking app use in this particular population. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine the characteristics, preferences, and behaviors of a geographically diverse sample of geosocial networking app-using YBMSM in the southern United States...
June 14, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903698/characteristics-of-adults-use-of-facebook-and-the-potential-impact-on-health-behavior-secondary-data-analysis
#10
Kelly Bosak, Shin Hye Park
BACKGROUND: Social influences are a primary factor in the adoption of health behaviors. Social media platforms, such as Facebook, disseminate information, raise awareness, and provide motivation and support for positive health behaviors. Facebook has evolved rapidly and is now a part of many individuals' daily routine. The high degree of individual engagement and low attrition rate of this platform necessitate consideration for a potentially positive impact on health behavior. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of Facebook by adults...
June 14, 2018: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903270/-association-of-aggressive-behavior-with-separation-from-parents-and-social-anxiety-in-grade-four-to-six-of-rural-senior-primary-school-students-in-anhui-province-in-2014
#11
Qin Zhang, Yanqiu Meng, Lu Wu, Rongying Yao, Lianguo Fu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between separation from parents and social anxiety with aggressive behaviors, to provide scientific basis for the prevention of aggression. METHODS: Stratified random sampling was used to collect 1126 students ofthe fourth, fifth and sixth grade from three primary schools in Dangshan County and two primary schools in Guzhen County. The incomplete or incorrect questionnaires were eliminated, and 1024 questionnaires were valid; the effective rate was 90...
March 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903009/a-comparison-of-standard-and-compositional-data-analysis-in-studies-addressing-group-differences-in-sedentary-behavior-and-physical-activity
#12
Nidhi Gupta, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Glòria Mateu-Figueras, Marina Heiden, David M Hallman, Marie Birk Jørgensen, Andreas Holtermann
BACKGROUND: Data on time spent in physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep during a day is compositional in nature, i.e. they add up to a constant value. Compositional data have fundamentally different properties from unconstrained data in real space, and require other analytical procedures, referred to as compositional data analysis (CoDA). Most physical activity and sedentary behavior studies, however, still apply analytical procedures adapted to data in real space, which can lead to misleading results...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902951/concordance-of-teacher-rated-and-performance-based-measures-of-executive-functioning-in-preschoolers
#13
Leanne Tamm, James Peugh
The most common method used to evaluate child behavior and functioning is rating scales completed by parents and/or teachers. Given that executive functioning (EF) plays a fundamental role in the developing child's cognitive, behavioral, and social-emotional development, it would be ideal if ratings of EF and performance-based EF measures assess the same construct. However, most studies report a small to negligible association between performance-based measures and ratings of EF. There are few studies investigating this association for preschoolers, and most only include parent ratings...
June 14, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902684/an-integrated-model-to-understand-sexuality-in-older-adults-in-urban-china-the-mediating-role-of-sexual-interest
#14
Shuyan Yang, Elsie Yan, Xue Bai
BACKGROUND: The subject of sexuality in older adults has remained grossly understudied in China, despite the country having the largest older population in the world. OBJECTIVE: Guided by the Sexual Script Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this study used path analysis to test an integrated path model for sexual activity with sexual interest as a mediator. METHODS: Survey data was collected from a representative sample of 688 community-dwelling older Chinese adults aged 60 or above residing in Tianjin, China...
June 1, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902681/motives-for-drinking-alcohol-and-eating-palatable-foods-an-evaluation-of-shared-mechanisms-and-associations-with-drinking-and-binge-eating
#15
Tera L Fazzino, Amani Raheel, Natalie Peppercorn, Kelsie Forbush, Taylor Kirby, Kenneth J Sher, Christie Befort
BACKGROUND: Young adulthood is a high-risk period for heavy drinking and binge eating, both of which can impact weight and lead to obesity. Examining motives for drinking alcohol and eating palatable foods may facilitate a more integrated understanding of these behaviors during the college years. The current study tested whether shared or distinct (i.e., behavior-specific) motivational mechanisms may explain the occurrence of reward-driven drinking and eating in young adults. METHODS: A sample of college freshmen (N = 103) stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and heavy drinking status were selected to participate...
May 2, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902162/youth-risk-behavior-surveillance-united-states-2017
#16
Laura Kann, Tim McManus, William A Harris, Shari L Shanklin, Katherine H Flint, Barbara Queen, Richard Lowry, David Chyen, Lisa Whittle, Jemekia Thornton, Connie Lim, Denise Bradford, Yoshimi Yamakawa, Michelle Leon, Nancy Brener, Kathleen A Ethier
PROBLEM: Health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults in the United States. In addition, significant health disparities exist among demographic subgroups of youth defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school and between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. Population-based data on the most important health-related behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can be used to help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth at the national, state, and local levels...
June 15, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902090/a-youth-participatory-project-to-address-stis-and-hiv-among-homeless-youth
#17
Michelle T Dang, Aaron Amos, Monique Dangerfield, Brian Ford, Kayla Kern, Martha Moon
The purpose of this study was to conduct a youth participatory action research project to address the disparities in sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV rates among homeless youth. Four youth served as co-investigators and cultural informants for the project. The team conducted focus groups (N = 22; ages 16-22) and in-depth interviews (N = 20; ages 18-24) with homeless youth to explore decisions about condomless sex, knowledge of STIs and HIV, health-care access for STI-related services, and perceptions about STI testing...
June 14, 2018: Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901645/minor-physical-anomalies-in-adolescents-at-risk-for-substance-use-and-early-sex
#18
Meng-Che Tsai, Chih-Ting Lee, I-Ning Tsai, Shu-Ting Gan, Yi-Lin Liang, Sheng-Hsiang Lin
Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) are associated with disruptions of fetal development. We propose that the same genetic compositions that contribute to the presence of MPAs, also predispose individuals to health-compromising behaviors, thus considering MPAs as particular endophenotypes.We developed a screening questionnaire for problematic conduct, substance abuse, and early sexual practice. A total of 108 adolescents (55 males, 50.9%) aged 11 to 19 years were recruited and further divided into case and control groups according to their answers to the questions of health behaviors mentioned above...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899032/the-frequency-response-of-outer-hair-cell-voltage-dependent-motility-is-limited-by-kinetics-of-prestin
#19
Joseph Santos-Sacchi, Winston Tan
The voltage-dependent protein SLC26a5 (prestin) underlies outer hair cell electromotility (eM), which is responsible for cochlear amplification in mammals. The electrical signature of eM is a bell-shaped nonlinear capacitance (NLC), deriving from prestin sensor-charge (Qp ) movements, which peaks at the membrane voltage, Vh , where charge is distributed equally on either side of the membrane. Voltage dependencies of NLC and eM differ depending on interrogation frequency and intracellular chloride, revealing slow intermediate conformational transitions between anion binding and voltage-driven Qp movements...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898661/chinstrap-penguin-population-genetic-structure-one-or-more-populations-along-the-southern-ocean
#20
Isidora Mura-Jornet, Carolina Pimentel, Gisele P M Dantas, Maria Virginia Petry, Daniel González-Acuña, Andrés Barbosa, Andrew D Lowther, Kit M Kovacs, Elie Poulin, Juliana A Vianna
BACKGROUND: Historical factors, demography, reproduction and dispersal are crucial in determining the genetic structure of seabirds. In the Antarctic marine environment, penguins are a major component of the avian biomass, dominant predators and important bioindicators of ecological change. Populations of chinstrap penguins have decreased in nearly all their breeding sites, and their range is expanding throughout the Antarctic Peninsula. Population genetic structure of this species has been studied in some colonies, but not between breeding colonies in the Antarctic Peninsula or at the species' easternmost breeding colony (Bouvetøya)...
June 13, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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