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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335457/the-epigenetic-link-between-prenatal-adverse-environments-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Marija Kundakovic, Ivana Jaric
Prenatal adverse environments, such as maternal stress, toxicological exposures, and viral infections, can disrupt normal brain development and contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and autism. Increasing evidence shows that these short- and long-term effects of prenatal exposures on brain structure and function are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Animal studies demonstrate that prenatal exposure to stress, toxins, viral mimetics, and drugs induces lasting epigenetic changes in the brain, including genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf)...
March 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333950/drug-resistant-hiv-behaviors-and-characteristics-among-los-angeles-men-who-have-sex-with-men-with-new-hiv-diagnosis
#2
Pamina M Gorbach, Marjan Javanbakht, Lorelei Bornfleth, Robert K Bolan, Martha Lewis Blum
Epidemiology of drug resistant HIV has focused on trends and less attention has been given to identification of factors, especially behaviors including substance use, in acquisition of drug-resistant HIV. From 2009 to 2012 The Metromates Study enrolled and followed for one year men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking testing for HIV in a community clinic in Los Angeles assessing those testing positive for acute and recent HIV infection. Behavioral data were collected via Computer-Assisted Self-Interview from 125 classified as newly HIV infected and 91 as chronically infected (newly HIV-diagnosed); specimens were available and viable for resistance testing for 154 of the 216 HIV positives with new diagnoses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333755/treatment-persistence-for-infliximab-versus-adalimumab-in-crohn-s-disease-a-14-year-single-center-experience
#3
Pablo Olivera, Linda Thiriet, Amandine Luc, Cedric Baumann, Silvio Danese, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
BACKGROUND: Infliximab (IFX) and adalimumab (ADA) are widely used in the treatment of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). There are few published data on the treatment persistence of IFX and ADA in patients with CD. METHODS: We aimed to compare the persistence rates of IFX versus ADA as first- and second-line tumor necrosis factor antagonist (anti-TNF), to identify factors potentially associated with persistence, and to evaluate reasons for treatment withdrawal in CD patients...
March 16, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332944/homosexuality-religion-and-the-family-the-effects-of-religion-on-americans-appraisals-of-the-parenting-abilities-of-same-sex-couples
#4
Andrew L Whitehead
While a growing body of research focuses on Americans' attitudes toward same-sex couples as parents, very few include measures of religion and those that do fail to capture its multidimensional nature. Furthermore, many past studies rely on convenience samples of college students, or samples gathered outside the United States. Multivariate analyses of the 2012 General Social Survey-a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States-reveal that a slim majority of Americans still do not believe same-sex couples can parent as well as male-female couples and the religious beliefs, behaviors, and affiliations of Americans are significantly and at times differentially associated with appraisals of same-sex couples' parenting abilities...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332139/sensing-the-plant-surface-prior-to-feeding-and-oviposition-differences-in-external-ultrastructure-and-function-among-tarsi-of-heliconius-erato
#5
D S Silva, E A Barp, L C R Kucharski, G R P Moreira
Adult foretarsi of Heliconius erato Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) are reduced in size and are not used for walking. Foretarsi of the female have specialized sensilla that are presumably used to identify the host plant, by drumming. The mid- and hind tarsi also bear sensilla in both sexes, but these have not been described in detail, nor has their chemosensory function been determined. We described and compared the tarsi of H. erato under light and scanning electron microscopy. Behavioral experiments showed that differences in the shape, number, and size of sensilla were related to feeding and oviposition behaviors...
March 22, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332037/comparing-self-reported-demographic-and-sexual-behavioral-factors-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-recruited-through-mechanical-turk-qualtrics-and-a-hiv-sti-clinic-based-sample-implications-for-researchers-and-providers
#6
Matthew R Beymer, Ian W Holloway, Christian Grov
Recruitment for HIV research among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) has increasingly moved to the online sphere. However, there are limited data comparing the characteristics of clinic-based respondents versus those recruited via online survey platforms. MSM were recruited from three sampling sites (STI clinic, MTurk, and Qualtrics) to participate in a survey from March 2015 to April 2016. Respondents were compared between each of the sampling sites on demographics, sexual history, substance use, and attention filter passage...
March 22, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331632/group-housed-females-promote-production-of-asexual-ootheca-in-american-cockroaches
#7
Ko Katoh, Masazumi Iwasaki, Shouhei Hosono, Atsushi Yoritsune, Masanori Ochiai, Makoto Mizunami, Hiroshi Nishino
BACKGROUND: Facultative parthenogenesis, seen in many animal phyla, is a reproductive strategy in which females are able to generate offspring when mating partners are unavailable. In some subsocial and eusocial insects, parthenogenesis is often more prevalent than sexual reproduction. However, little is known about how social cooperation is linked to the promotion of parthenogenesis. The domiciliary cockroach Periplaneta americana is well-suited to addressing this issue as this species belongs to the superfamily Blattoidea, which diverged into eusocial termites and shows facultative parthenogenesis...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331250/sexual-behavior-hiv-prevalence-and-awareness-among-wives-of-migrant-workers-results-from-cross-sectional-survey-in-rural-north-india
#8
Alok Ranjan, Tarun Bhatnagar, Giridhara R Babu, Roger Detels
BACKGROUND: Migration has been linked to the spread of HIV epidemic from the urban areas of western India to the rural areas of north India. OBJECTIVES: This is the first population-based study among the wives of migrant workers of Muzaffarpur district in Bihar with objectives to describe their sexual behavior within marriage, estimate the prevalence of HIV, and to know their awareness regarding HIV/AIDS. METHODS: A two-stage cluster survey was conducted by randomly selecting 25 eligible wives from each of the 34 selected villages...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329941/-genital-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-and-associated-risk-factors-in-male-clients-attending-sexually-transmitted-disease-clinics-in-9-cities-in-guangdong-province
#9
H C Shen, S J Huang, X L Qin, P Z Zhao, Y Y Lan, H C Zou, J L Ou, L Chen, X M Luo, H P Zheng, Y Li, B Yang
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis (GCT) infection and associated risk factors in male clients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Guangdong and provide integrated intervention strategy for this group. Methods: Convenient sampling was used to recruit participants from April to June in 2015 in Guangdong province. The information about their socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behaviors were collected by using a questionnaire, and blood samples were taken from them to test the antibodies against HIV, syphilis and HCV...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329934/-hiv-infection-and-associated-factors-in-hiv-antibody-positive-clients-of-female-sex-workers-recently-reported-in-shaanxi-province
#10
T Hu, W H Chang, M Y Zhang
Objective: To investigate the current status of HIV infection and the related factors in HIV antibody positive clients of female sex workers (FSWs) recently reported in Shaanxi province. Methods: The HIV/AIDS cases newly diagnosed in males living in Shaanxi from January 1th of 2013 to June 30th of 2014 were selected and those infected through " commercial heterosexual behavior" were identified. The information about their demographic characteristics, previous unprotected heterosexual sex and the sample sources were collected, and serum or plasma samples were collected from them and tested with BED-CEIA...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329626/associations-between-indoor-tanning-and-risky-health-related-behaviors-among-high-school-students-in-the-united-states
#11
Stephanie Chapman, Kurt Ashack, Eric Bell, Myra Ann Sendelweck, Robert Dellavalle
Understanding of the associations between indoor tanning and risky health related behaviors such as sexual activity and substance abuse among adolescents across the United States is incomplete. The purpose of this study is to identify risky health related behaviors among high school students utilizing indoor tanning according to region. We analyzed the results from surveys of adolescents in 14 different states administered as part of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 2013. Data were collected and analyzed over a 4-month period from January 2016 to April 2016...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329332/excessive-daytime-sleepiness-predicts-neurodegeneration-in-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#12
Junying Zhou, Jihui Zhang, Siu Ping Lam, Joey Wy Chan, Vincent Mok, Anne Chan, Shirley Xin Li, Yaping Liu, Xiangdong Tang, Wing Ho Yung, Yun Kwok Wing
Study Objectives: To determine the association of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) with the conversion of neurodegenerative diseases in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Methods: A total of 179 patients with iRBD (79.1% males, mean age = 66.3 ± 9.8 years) were consecutively recruited. Forty-five patients with Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥ 14 were defined as having EDS. Demographic, clinical and polysomnographic data were compared between iRBD patients with and without EDS...
March 16, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329004/gnrh-mediated-olfactory-and-visual-inputs-promote-mating-like-behaviors-in-male-zebrafish
#13
Lei Li, Jennifer L Wojtowicz, John H Malin, Tao Huang, Eric B Lee, Zijiang Chen
The engagement of sexual behaviors is regulated by a number of factors which include gene expression, hormone circulation, and multi-sensory information integration. In zebrafish, when a male and a female are placed in the same container, they show mating-like behaviors regardless of whether they are kept together or separated by a net. No mating-like behaviors are observed when same-sex animals are put together. Through the olfacto-visual centrifugal pathway, activation of the terminalis nerve in the olfactory bulb increases GnRH signaling in the brain and triggers mating-like behaviors between males...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327799/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-syphilis-in-a-reference-center
#14
Natália Carolina Rodrigues Colombo Gomes, Denise Andrade Pereira Meier, Flávia Meneguetti Pieri, Elaine Alves, Silvia Paulino Ribeiro Albanese, Edvilson Cristiano Lentine, Ricardo Alexandre Arcêncio, Elma Mathias Dessunti
INTRODUCTION: The implementation of the rapid test (RT) for syphilis increases access of vulnerable populations to early diagnosis and treatment, impacting the outcomes of infection. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with syphilis in a Center for Testing and Counseling (CTC). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a Reference Center for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Londrina, Northern Paraná State, Southern Brazil...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327790/association-of-nr1i2-gene-polymorphisms-and-time-of-progression-to-aids
#15
Rúbia Marília de Medeiros, Carolina Fialho Menti, Jéssica Louise Benelli, Maria Cristina Cotta Matte, Marineide Gonçalves de Melo, Sabrina Esteves de Matos Almeida, Marilu Fiegenbaum
BACKGROUND: The time of progression towards AIDS can vary greatly among seropositive patients, and may be associated with host genetic variation. The NR1I2 (PXR) gene, a ligand-activated transcription factor, regulates the transcription immune pathway genes and can therefore be targets of viral replication mechanisms influencing time of progression to AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To verify the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs3814057, rs6785049, rs7643645, and rs2461817 in the NR1I2 (PXR) gene with progression to AIDS in HIV-1 infected patients...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327261/sex-differences-in-pediatric-dental-pain-perception
#16
Gabriela F Almeida, Daniele L Longo, Mariana Trevizan, Fabrício K de Carvalho, Paulo Nelson-Filho, Erika C Küchler, Alexandra M Queiroz
PURPOSE: To evaluate sex-related differences in dental pain perception in children. METHODS: Fifty-two children who received a dental procedure with local anesthesia were selected to participate. Pain perception levels were assessed with the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale. Twenty-four and 48 hours following the procedure, the parents were contacted by phone for a verbal survey to assess their child's postoperative pain. Age, type of dental procedure, and behavior were also evaluated as covariables...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Dentistry for Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326696/history-of-research-on-c-elegans-and-other-free-living-nematodes-as-model-organisms
#17
Victor Marc Nigon, Marie-Anne Félix
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is now a major model organism in biology. The choice of Sydney Brenner to adopt this species in the mid-1960s and the success of his team in raising it to a model organism status have been told (http://www.wormbook.org/toc_wormhistory.html; Brenner, 2001; Ankeny, 2001). Here we review the pre-Brenner history of the use of free-living nematodes as models for general questions in biology. We focus on the period that started in 1899 with the first publication of Emile Maupas mentioning Rhabditis elegans and ended in 1974 with the first publications by Brenner...
March 21, 2017: WormBook: the Online Review of C. Elegans Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326460/on-the-adult-behavioral-repertoire-of-the-sawfly-perreyia-flavipes-konow-1899-hymenoptera-pergidae-movement-mating-and-thanatosis
#18
F M Neves, M R Pie
Perreyia flavipes Konow, 1899 (Pergidae: Perreyinae) is a sawfly species with gregarious larvae commonly found in open areas in southern Brazil through Uruguay and northern Argentina. The combination of highly gregarious larvae with the production of a variety of toxins in P. flavipes has led to severe cases of intoxication in a variety of livestock species. Over the years, considerable information was discovered on the larval natural history of P. flavipes; however, virtually nothing is known about the adult behavior, particularly because of its short life-span...
March 21, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326287/safe-sex-self-efficacy-and-safe-sex-practice-in-a-southern-united-states-college
#19
Ovuokerie Addoh, Eveleen Sng, Paul D Loprinzi
Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between safe sex self-efficacy and safe-sex practice in a Southern college setting. Methods: Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between safe sex self-efficacy in four domains (mechanics, partner disapproval, assertiveness, intoxicants) and safe sex practice (outcome variable). Results: For every 1-unit increase in the composite condom use self-efficacy score, there was an 8% increase in the odds of being beyond the median safe-sex practice score (odds ration [OR]: 1...
2017: Health Promotion Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325880/balancing-selection-maintains-polymorphisms-at-neurogenetic-loci-in-field-experiments
#20
Eija Lonn, Esa Koskela, Tapio Mappes, Mikael Mokkonen, Angela M Sims, Phillip C Watts
Most variation in behavior has a genetic basis, but the processes determining the level of diversity at behavioral loci are largely unknown for natural populations. Expression of arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (Avpr1a) and oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) in specific regions of the brain regulates diverse social and reproductive behaviors in mammals, including humans. That these genes have important fitness consequences and that natural populations contain extensive diversity at these loci implies the action of balancing selection...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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