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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822997/18f-fdg-pet-ct-in-solitary-plasmacytoma-metabolic-behavior-and-progression-to-multiple-myeloma
#1
Domenico Albano, Giovanni Bosio, Giorgio Treglia, Raffaele Giubbini, Francesco Bertagna
PURPOSE: Solitary plasmacytoma (SP) is a rare plasma-cell neoplasm, which can develop both in skeletal and/or soft tissue and frequently progresses to multiple myeloma (MM). Our aim was to study the metabolic behavior of SP and the role of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in predicting progression to MM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two patients with SP who underwent 18F-FDG-PET/CT before any treatment were included. PET images were qualitatively and semiquantitatively analyzed by measuring the maximum standardized uptake value body weight (SUVbw), lean body mass (SUVlbm), body surface area (SUVbsa), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and compared with age, sex, site of primary disease, and tumor size...
August 19, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822694/sex-and-the-housing-effects-on-behavior-cortisol-levels-and-weight-in-zebrafish
#2
Gustavo Kellermann Reolon, Gabriela Madalena de Melo, João Gabriel Dos Santos da Rosa, Leonardo José Gil Barcellos, Carla Denise Bonan
Studies with zebrafish use acclimatizing periods of at least one week immediately before the experiments. During this time, animals can be housed in sexually segregated conditions (only females or males in the tank) or in mixed-sex conditions (both sexes in the tank). The influence of sex and housing conditions regarding the presence of one or two sexes is largely unknown in zebrafish. Our aim was to evaluate the influence that sex and housing regarding the sex of animals had in the open tank task, in the inhibitory avoidance memory test, in cortisol levels and weight in zebrafish...
August 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821671/learning-and-stress-shape-the-reward-response-patterns-of-serotonin-neurons
#3
Zhong Weixin, Yi Li, Qiru Feng, Minmin Luo
The ability to predict reward promotes animal survival. Both dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) participate in reward processing. Although the learning effects on dopamine neurons have been extensively characterized, it remains largely unknown how the response of serotonin neurons evolves during learning. Moreover, while stress is known to strongly influence reward-related behavior, we know very little about how stress modulates neuronal reward responses...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821647/plasticity-beyond-v1-reinforcement-of-motion-perception-upon-binocular-central-retinal-lesions-in-adulthood
#4
Kalina Burnat, Tjing-Tjing Hu, Małgorzata Kossut, Ulf T Eysel, Lutgarde Arckens
Induction of a central retinal lesion in both eyes of adult mammals is a model for macular degeneration and leads to retinotopic map reorganization in the primary visual cortex (V1). Here we characterized the spatio-temporal dynamics of molecular activity levels in the central and peripheral representation of five higher order visual areas, V2/18, V3/19, V4/21a,V5/PMLS, area 7, and V1/17, in adult cats with central 10° retinal lesions (both sexes), by means of real-time PCR for the neuronal activity reporter gene zif268...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821382/sex-linked-behavior-evolution-stability-and-variability
#5
REVIEW
Cordelia Fine, John Dupré, Daphna Joel
Common understanding of human sex-linked behaviors is that proximal mechanisms of genetic and hormonal sex, ultimately shaped by the differential reproductive challenges of ancestral males and females, act on the brain to transfer sex-linked predispositions across generations. Here, we extend the debate on the role of nature and nurture in the development of traits in the lifetime of an individual, to their role in the cross-generation transfer of traits. Advances in evolutionary theory that posit the environment as a source of trans-generational stability, and new understanding of sex effects on the brain, suggest that the cross-generation stability of sex-linked patterns of behavior are sometimes better explained in terms of inherited socioenvironmental conditions, with biological sex fostering intrageneration variability...
July 29, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821346/sex-linked-behavior-evolution-stability-and-variability
#6
REVIEW
Cordelia Fine, John Dupré, Daphna Joel
Common understanding of human sex-linked behaviors is that proximal mechanisms of genetic and hormonal sex, ultimately shaped by the differential reproductive challenges of ancestral males and females, act on the brain to transfer sex-linked predispositions across generations. Here, we extend the debate on the role of nature and nurture in the development of traits in the lifetime of an individual, to their role in the cross-generation transfer of traits. Advances in evolutionary theory that posit the environment as a source of trans-generational stability, and new understanding of sex effects on the brain, suggest that the cross-generation stability of sex-linked patterns of behavior are sometimes better explained in terms of inherited socioenvironmental conditions, with biological sex fostering intrageneration variability...
September 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820622/latent-growth-curve-modeling-of-non-injection-drug-use-and-condomless-sexual-behavior-from-ages-18-to-21-in-gay-bisexual-and-other-ymsm-the-p18-cohort-study
#7
Perry N Halkitis, Kristen Bub, Christopher B Stults, Francesca C Bates, Farzana Kapadia
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS continues to be a health disparity faced by sexual minority men, and is exacerbated by non-injection drug use. OBJECTIVES: We sought to delineate growth in non-injection drug use and condomless sex in a sample of racially and economically diverse of gay, bisexual, and other young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as they emerged into adulthood between the ages of 18 and 21 and who came of age in the post-HAART era. METHODS: Behavioral data on drug use and condomless sex, collected via a calendar based technique over 7 waves of a cohort study of 600 YMSM, were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling to document patterns of growth in these behaviors, their associations, and the extent to which patterns and associations are moderated by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status...
August 18, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820347/association-between-eye-diagnosis-and-positive-syphilis-test-results-in-a-large-urban-sexually-transmitted-infection-primary-care-clinic-population
#8
Ann-Marie Lobo, Yan Gao, Laura Rusie, Magda Houlberg, Supriya D Mehta
In 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) released clinical advisories on rising cases of ocular syphilis. We examined the association between eye disease and syphilis infection among primary care and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients attending an urban lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) health center. We conducted a retrospective medical record review of all patients who underwent syphilis testing at Howard Brown Health between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2015...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819988/behavior-change-following-hiv-diagnosis-findings-from-a-cohort-of-los-angeles-msm
#9
Pamina M Gorbach, Marjan Javanbakht, Robert K Bolan
The effect of an HIV diagnosis on subsequent behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) remains unclear. From 2009 to 2012 the NIDA funded Metromates Study enrolled and followed for one year MSM seeking testing for HIV in Los Angeles, assessing those with new HIV diagnoses for acute/recent HIV infection. Behavioral data were collected via Computer-Assisted Self-Interview from 321 men of whom 125 were classified as recently HIV infected, 91 as not recently HIV infected, and 105 as HIV-negative. Differences over time between those with recent HIV infection, not recent HIV infection, and no HIV were evaluated using bivariate and multivariable analyses for repeat measures to assess associations between HIV group, behaviors and condomless receptive (CRAI), intersertive (CIAI), or any condomless anal intercourse (CAI)...
August 18, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819520/the-ban-on-blood-donation-on-men-who-have-sex-with-men-time-to-rethink-and-reassess-an-outdated-policy
#10
Georgios Karamitros, Nikolaos Kitsos, Ioanna Karamitrou
During the 1980s the HIV/AIDS epidemic outbreak occurred. Due to the high prevalence of the disease on men who had sex with men (MSM) a lifetime ban on blood donations on men who had sex with men (MSM) was implemented. In the recent years, organizations like the European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have established new guidelines introducing the term of "risky sexual behavior" without any reference to the sex orientation of the potential donor, however many countries are hesitant to review the ban on men who had sex with men (MSM)...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818582/associations-between-meeting-combinations-of-24-h-movement-guidelines-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-children-from-12-countries
#11
H Sampasa-Kanyinga, M Standage, M S Tremblay, P T Katzmarzyk, G Hu, R Kuriyan, C Maher, J Maia, T Olds, O L Sarmiento, C Tudor-Locke, J-P Chaput
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether meeting vs not meeting movement/non-movement guidelines (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA], screen time, sleep duration), and combinations of these recommendations, are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children from 12 countries in five major geographic regions of the world and explore whether the associations vary by study site. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, multinational cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study included 6106 children aged 9-11 years from sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States...
August 14, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818500/cryptic-sexual-dimorphism-in-spatial-memory-and-hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-in-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster
#12
Marissa A Rice, Lauren E Hobbs, Kelly J Wallace, Alexander G Ophir
Sex differences are well documented and are conventionally associated with intense sex-specific selection. For example, spatial memory is frequently better in males, presumably due to males' tendency to navigate large spaces to find mates. Alternatively, monogamy (in which sex-specific selection is relatively relaxed) should diminish or eliminate differences in spatial ability and the mechanisms associated with this behavior. Nevertheless, phenotypic differences between monogamous males and females persist, sometimes cryptically...
August 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818242/young-adult-risk-factors-for-cancer-obesity-inflammation-and-sociobehavioral-mechanisms
#13
Yang Claire Yang, Moira P Johnson, Kristen M Schorpp, Courtney E Boen, Kathleen Mullan Harris
INTRODUCTION: The paper assesses social disparities in the burdens of metabolic and inflammatory risks for cancer in the U.S. young adult population and examines psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms in such disparities. METHODS: Using data of 7,889 individuals aged 12-32 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health from 1994 to 2009, generalized linear models were used to assess the sex, race/ethnicity, and SES differences in the risks of obesity and inflammation, measured by C-reactive protein...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817325/hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-and-condomless-sex-disentangling-personal-values-from-public-health-priorities
#14
Sarah K Calabrese, Kristen Underhill, Kenneth H Mayer
Daily HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective form of HIV protection that remains unknown and inaccessible for many people in the United States despite receiving federal approval over five years ago. PrEP is supported by the public health community, but forgoing condoms while taking PrEP has proven controversial; this controversy may be contributing to the lag in PrEP uptake. We argue that limiting PrEP access based on anticipated or actual sexual behavior contradicts the goals of public health research and practice and is not scientifically justified...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816720/racial-inequities-in-hiv-prevalence-and-composition-of-risk-networks-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-hptn-037
#15
Florence Momplaisir, Mustafa Hussein, Danielle Tobin-Fiore, Laramie Smith, David Bennett, Carl Latkin, David S Metzger
BACKGROUND: HIV prevention interventions in the U.S. have failed to eliminate racial inequities. Here, we evaluate factors associated with racial inequities in HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID) using HIV Prevention Trial Network 037 data. METHODS: We measured racial homophily (i.e., all members share the same race), being in an HIV+ network (network with ≥ 1 HIV+ member) and drug and sex risk behaviors. A two-level logistic regression with a random intercept evaluated the association between being in an HIV+ network and race adjusting for individual and network-level factors...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814400/mediation-and-modification-of-genetic-susceptibility-to-obesity-by-eating-behaviors
#16
Blandine de Lauzon-Guillain, Emma Ad Clifton, Felix R Day, Karine Clément, Soren Brage, Nita G Forouhi, Simon J Griffin, Yves Akoli Koudou, Véronique Pelloux, Nicholas J Wareham, Marie-Aline Charles, Barbara Heude, Ken K Ong
Background: Many genetic variants show highly robust associations with body mass index (BMI). However, the mechanisms through which genetic susceptibility to obesity operates are not well understood. Potentially modifiable mechanisms, including eating behaviors, are of particular interest to public health.Objective: Here we explore whether eating behaviors mediate or modify genetic susceptibility to obesity.Design: Genetic risk scores for BMI (BMI-GRSs) were calculated for 3515 and 2154 adults in the Fenland and EDEN (Etude des déterminants pré et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'enfant) population-based cohort studies, respectively...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814121/perceptions-of-iranian-female-drug-users-toward-hiv-testing-a-qualitative-content-analysis
#17
Mansoureh Jamshidimanesh, Effat Merghati Khoie, Seyed Abbas Mousavi, Afsaneh Keramat, Mohammad Hassan Emamian
BACKGROUND: Drug-dependent women are the vulnerable population deprived of access to health services and also have particular relevance to public health perspective because they are important bridge population for driving HIV/AIDS epidemic. This qualitative study aimed to explore the perception of drug-dependent women regarding HIV testing. METHODS: In this qualitative study, we approached 23 women with substance use disorders in 2 of the selected drop-in centers in the south Tehran...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813114/dimensions-of-youth-psychopathy-differentially-predict-concurrent-pro-and-antisocial-behavior
#18
Guilherme W Wendt, Alice J Bartoli, Adriane Arteche
Objective: To investigate the unique contribution of narcissism and impulsivity, in addition to callous-unemotional (CU) traits, in explaining concurrent prosocial and antisocial behavior. Method: Two hundred and forty-nine schoolchildren (53% female; age 9-12 years) completed the self-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). Two statistical models were tested, predicting conduct problems (CP) and prosocial behavior (PB)...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812915/kardiovize-brno-2030-a-prospective-cardiovascular-health-study-in-central-europe-methods-baseline-findings-and-future-directions
#19
Narine K Movsisyan, Manlio Vinciguerra, Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, Šárka Kunzová, Martin Homolka, Jana Jaresova, Renata Cífková, Ondřej Sochor
Background Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in Eastern and Central Europe, where the incidence is the highest in the world. The Kardiovize Brno 2030 study was designed as a prospective cohort study to investigate the complex relationships of cardiovascular disease and outcomes with a range of biological, psychosocial, environmental, behavioral, and economic factors in an urban population of the Czech Republic. Methods We randomly selected a 1% sample of the city of Brno residents aged 25-64 years stratified by sex and age...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812848/the-elephants-in-the-room-sex-hiv-and-lgbt-populations-in-mena-intersectionality-in-lebanon-comment-on-improving-the-quality-and-quantity-of-hiv-data-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-key-challenges-and-ways-forward
#20
Rachel L Kaplan, Cynthia El Khoury
In response to this insightful editorial, we wish to provide commentary that seeks to highlight recent successes and illuminate the often unspoken hurdles at the intersections of culture, politics, and taboo. We focus on sexual transmission and draw examples from Lebanon, where the pursuit of data in quality and quantity is teaching us lessons about the way forward and where we are experiencing many of the challenges referenced in the editorial such as discrepancies between national statistics and rates derived via research as well as the impact of protracted political conflict and displacement...
December 4, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
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