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Mohammed Saleh, Mohammad Y Hajeer, Dieter Muessig
Background: Hawley retainers (HRs) and vacuum formed retainers (VFRs) are the most commonly used removable retainers in the orthodontic practice. Patients' cooperation in wearing these appliances is affected by the levels of discomfort and oral impairment. The evidence regarding their acceptably among orthodontic patients is limited. Aims: To compare the acceptability of HRs and VFRs over a 6-month period in a group of fixed orthodontic patients. Trial Design: Two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
Víctor Martínez-Agramunt, Sheila Ruiz-Botella, Eduardo Peris
Two nickel-cornered organometallic metalla-rectangles containing a pyrene-linked-di-N-heterocyclic carbene have been prepared. The dimensions of one side of the rectangle were modulated by either using pyrazine or 4,4'-bipyridine. The two molecules were tested as hosts for the recognition of seven small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in [D6 ]acetone. By using (1) H NMR spectroscopy titrations, it could be established that the host-guest stoichiometries of the inclusion complexes formed were 1:1 for the pyrazine-based host, and 1:2 for the host containing bipyridine, in accordance with the larger dimensions of the latter...
April 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Avra Selick, Janet Durbin, Nhi Vu, Karen O'Connor, Tiziana Volpe, Elizabeth Lin
Family support is a core component of the Early Psychosis Intervention (EPI) model, yet it continues to have relatively low rates of implementation in practice. This paper reports results of a literature review on facilitators and barriers to delivering family interventions in EPI programmes. A search was conducted of 4 electronic databases, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Joanna Briggs, from 2000 to 2015 using terms related to early onset psychosis, family work and implementation. Four thousand four hundred and two unique studies were identified, 7 of which met inclusion criteria...
April 18, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Craig R Jackson, Rosemary J Groom, Neil R Jordan, J Weldon McNutt
BACKGROUND: Spacing patterns mediate competitive interactions between conspecifics, ultimately increasing fitness. The degree of territorial overlap between neighbouring African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) packs varies greatly, yet the role of factors potentially affecting the degree of overlap, such as relatedness and pack size, remain unclear. We used movement data from 21 wild dog packs to calculate the extent of territory overlap (20 dyads). RESULTS: On average, unrelated neighbouring packs had low levels of overlap restricted to the peripheral regions of their 95% utilisation kernels...
2017: Movement Ecology
Bassim El-Sabawi, Adelyn L Ho, Michael Sosin, Ketan M Patel
BACKGROUND: The impact of post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) on patient-centered outcomes of breast reconstruction remains unclear. This comprehensive review aims to consolidate the available data regarding aesthetic outcomes, patient satisfaction, and the BREAST-Q(©) following breast reconstruction in the setting of PMRT to facilitate the informed consent and shared decision-making process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of the literature published from 2000 to 2016 in the PubMed/MEDLINE database was performed to identify all manuscripts reporting aesthetic outcome, patient satisfaction, or BREAST-Q(©) scores of patients undergoing PMRT and breast reconstruction...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Kenisha Garnett, Tim Cooper, Philip Longhurst, Simon Jude, Sean Tyrrel
The technical expertise that politicians relied on in the past to produce cost-effective and environmentally sound solutions no longer provides sufficient justification to approve waste facilities. Local authorities need to find more effective ways to involve stakeholders and communities in decision-making since public acceptance of municipal waste facilities is integral to delivering effective waste strategies. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored attitudes towards greater levels of public involvement in UK waste management decision-making...
April 13, 2017: Waste Management
John F Nagle
Values of the bending modulus KC and the tilt modulus Kθ are reported for single component lipid bilayers. The lipids studied have the common names DOPC, DMPC, diC22:1PC, SOPC, POPC, diPhyPC, DLPC, DPPC, DHPC and DEPC, listed in the order of number of samples examined. The experimental method, thus far the only one that measures the tilt modulus of lipid bilayers, first obtains diffuse X-ray scattering data from oriented stacks of bilayers. The values of the moduli emerge from fitting the data to the accepted tilt-dependent continuum model for the free energy of a single bilayer, further enhanced by interactions between bilayers in the stack...
April 12, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Anuradha Narayanan, Shuba Kumar, Krishna Kumar Ramani
PURPOSE: To understand the perceptions of adolescents and their parents about spectacle compliance of adolescents in Southern India. METHODS: Using a qualitative snapshot design, three focus group discussions were conducted each with parents and adolescents studying in schools located in and around Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Purposive sampling technique was used in the selection of participants. Separate focus group guides were developed for parents and adolescents. All focus group discussions were conducted in the school premises and audio recorded...
May 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Kelly K O'Brien, Anne-Marie Tynan, Stephanie A Nixon, Richard H Glazier
BACKGROUND: HIV is increasingly considered a chronic illness. More individuals are living longer and aging with the health-related consequences associated with HIV and multi-morbidity. Exercise is a self-management approach that can promote health for people aging with HIV. We examined the safety and effectiveness of progressive resistive exercise (PRE) interventions on immunological, virological, cardiorespiratory, strength, weight, body composition, and psychological outcomes in adults living with HIV...
April 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Luca Bertolaccini, Benedetta Bedetti, Alessandro Brunelli, Katerina Marinova, Federico Raveglia, Gaetano Rocco, Yaron Shargall, Piergiorgio Solli, Gonzalo Varela, Kostas Papagiannopoulos, Jaroslaw Kuzdzal, Gilbert Massard, Enrico Ruffini, Pierre-Emmanuel Falcoz, Carlos Martinez-Barenys, Isabelle Opitz, Hasan F Batirel, Alper Toker, Marco Scarci
OBJECTIVES: In the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) survey about management of malignant pleural effusions (MPE), 56% of respondents are not informed of any relevant clinical guidelines and 52%, who are aware of the existence of guidelines, declared that they are in need of updating or revision. The ESTS Pleural Diseases Working Group developed a benchmarking project on quality of previous guidelines on the management of MPE. METHODS: The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument was used to assess each guideline...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Lauren M Dinour, Jacalyn M Szaro
BACKGROUND: Many mothers experience barriers to maintaining a breastfeeding relationship with their infants upon returning to work and, consequently, terminate breastfeeding earlier than recommended or intended. As such, employers are in a unique position to help further increase breastfeeding rates, durations, and exclusivity. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to examine the literature regarding employer-based programs, policies, and interventions to support breastfeeding among working mothers...
April 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Bharath Natarajan, Caglar Emiroglu, Jan Obrzut, Douglas M Fox, Beatriz Pazmino, Jack F Douglas, Jeffrey W Gilman
A known deterrent to the large-scale development and use of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) in composite materials is their affinity for moisture, which has a profound effect on dispersion, wetting, interfacial adhesion, matrix crystallization, water uptake, and hydrothermal stability. To quantify and control the hydration and confinement of absorbed water in CNCs, we studied sulfated-CNCs neutralized with sodium cations and CNCs functionalized with less hydrophilic methyl(triphenyl)phosphonium cations. Films were cast from water suspensions at 20 °C under controlled humidity and drying rate, yielding CNC materials with distinguishably different dielectric properties and cholesteric structures...
April 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Moritz Pfohl, Daniel D Tune, Arko Graf, Jana Zaumseil, Ralph Krupke, Benjamin S Flavel
In this work, a comprehensive methodology for the fitting of single-walled carbon nanotube absorption spectra is presented. Different approaches to background subtraction, choice of line profile, and calculation of full width at half-maximum are discussed both in the context of previous literature and the contemporary understanding of carbon nanotube photophysics. The fitting is improved by the inclusion of exciton-phonon sidebands, and new techniques to improve the individualization of overlapped nanotube spectra by exploiting correlations between the first- and second-order optical transitions and the exciton-phonon sidebands are presented...
March 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Gideon A Erkenswick, Mrinalini Watsa, Alfonso S Gozalo, Nicole Dmytryk, Patricia G Parker
Parasite-host relationships are influenced by several factors intrinsic to hosts, such as social standing, group membership, sex, and age. However, in wild populations, temporal variation in parasite distributions and concomitant infections can alter these patterns. We used microscropy and molecular methods to screen for naturally occurring haemoparasitic infections in two Neotropical primate host populations, the saddleback (Leontocebus weddelli) and emperor (Saguinus imperator) tamarin, in the lowland tropical rainforests of southeastern Peru...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Vini Simas, Wayne Hing, Rodney Pope, Mike Climstein
BACKGROUND: Age-related bone loss is a major health concern. Only exercises associated with high-impact and mechanical loading have been linked to a positive effect on bone turnover; however, these types of exercises may not always be appropriate for middle-aged and older adults due to physical decline or chronic disorders such as osteoarthritis. Water-based exercise (WBE) has been shown to affect different components of physical fitness, has lower risks of traumatic fracture, and applies less stress to joints...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Felix Vaughan, Noah Linden, Frederick R Manby
We investigate the extent to which the dynamics of excitons in the light-harvesting complex LH2 of purple bacteria can be described using a Markovian approximation. To analyse the degree of non-Markovianity in these systems, we introduce a measure based on fitting Lindblad dynamics, as well as employing a recently introduced trace-distance measure. We apply these measures to a chromophore-dimer model of exciton dynamics and use the hierarchical equation-of-motion method to take into account the broad, low-frequency phonon bath...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Victor Adalid, André Döring, Sreenath Pruthviraj Kyathanahally, Christine Sandra Bolliger, Chris Boesch, Roland Kreis
OBJECTIVE: Simultaneous modeling of true 2-D spectroscopy data, or more generally, interrelated spectral datasets has been described previously and is useful for quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy applications. In this study, a combined method of reference-lineshape enhanced model fitting and two-dimensional prior-knowledge fitting for the case of diffusion weighted MR spectroscopy is presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Time-dependent field distortions determined from a water reference are applied to the spectral bases used in linear-combination modeling of interrelated spectra...
April 5, 2017: Magma
F T Kurz, C H Ziener, M Rückl, A Hahn, V J F Sturm, K Zhang, L R Buschle, M Bendszus, S Heiland, H P Schlemmer, W R Bauer, T Kampf
Tissue-inherent relaxation parameters offer valuable information about the arrangement of capillaries: in an external field, capillaries act as magnetic perturbers to generate local inhomogeneous fields due to the susceptibility difference of deoxygenated blood and the surrounding tissue. These field inhomogeneities influence the free induction decay in a characteristic way, and, conversely, the above tissue parameters can be recovered by multi-parametric fits of adequate theoretical models to experimentally sampled free induction decays...
April 1, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Marianne Skreden, Elling Bere, Linda R Sagedal, Ingvild Vistad, Nina C Øverby
BACKGROUND: A healthy diet is important for pregnancy outcome and the current and future health of woman and child. The aims of the study were to explore the changes from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), and to describe associations with maternal educational level, body mass index (BMI) and age. METHODS: Healthy nulliparous women were included in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) trial from September 2009 to February 2013, recruited from eight antenatal clinics in southern Norway...
April 4, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Dongsheng Yang, Xiangai Cheng, Yu Liu, Chao Shen, Zhongjie Xu, Xin Zheng, Tian Jiang
In recent years, CsPbBr<sub>3</sub> quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention due to their bright prospects in solar cell studies. Dielectric properties are important for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Here, the dielectric properties of a CsPbBr<sub>3</sub> QD solution are investigated between 0.1 and 2.0 THz by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The measured frequency-dependent transmitted ratio is found to decrease from 0.96 to 0.80 in this range. By comparing different concentrations of the QD solution, the frequency-averaged absorption is linearly increased with the increase in QD concentration...
April 1, 2017: Applied Optics
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