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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088033/a-bayesian-spatial-random-parameters-tobit-model-for-analyzing-crash-rates-on-roadway-segments
#1
Qiang Zeng, Huiying Wen, Helai Huang, Mohamed Abdel-Aty
This study develops a Bayesian spatial random parameters Tobit model to analyze crash rates on road segments, in which both spatial correlation between adjacent sites and unobserved heterogeneity across observations are accounted for. The crash-rate data for a three-year period on road segments within a road network in Florida, are collected to compare the performance of the proposed model with that of a (fixed parameters) Tobit model and a spatial (fixed parameters) Tobit model in the Bayesian context. Significant spatial effect is found in both spatial models and the results of Deviance Information Criteria (DIC) show that the inclusion of spatial correlation in the Tobit regression considerably improves model fit, which indicates the reasonableness of considering cross-segment spatial correlation...
January 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067022/effectiveness-of-interventions-on-physical-activity-in-overweight-or-obese-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-including-studies-with-objectively-measured-outcomes
#2
REVIEW
C F J Nooijen, M R Galanti, K Engström, J Möller, Y Forsell
There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies...
February 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064170/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-brain-volumes-in-men-and-women-in-the-finger-study
#3
Heikki Pentikäinen, Tiia Ngandu, Yawu Liu, Kai Savonen, Pirjo Komulainen, Merja Hallikainen, Miia Kivipelto, Rainer Rauramaa, Hilkka Soininen
BACKGROUND: high cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with larger brain volumes but data on sex differences in the association of CRF with brain volumes are scarce. We investigated whether the association of CRF with total grey matter (GM) and white matter volumes as well as medial temporal lobe and striatum volumes is different between men and women at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: we used baseline data from The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) in which the inclusion criteria were set to select individuals with cognitive performance at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age according to Finnish population norms...
January 6, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064026/systematic-review-of-field-based-physical-fitness-tests-for-children-and-adolescents-with-intellectual-disabilities
#4
REVIEW
Marieke Wouters, Heleen M Evenhuis, Thessa I M Hilgenkamp
BACKGROUND: Testing physical fitness in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) can be challenging. This review provides an overview on psychometric properties of field-based physical fitness tests studied in children and adolescents with ID. METHODS: A literature search was performed in March 2014. Studies were included if they evaluated feasibility, reliability and/or validity of a field-based physical fitness test in children and adolescents with ID...
January 5, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063349/considerations-for-the-inclusion-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness-as-a-vital-sign-in-the-clinical-setting
#5
Ovuokerie Addoh, Meghan K Edwards, Paul D Loprinzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 24, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061800/does-a-pbl-based-medical-curriculum-predispose-training-in-specific-career-paths-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#6
Jordan Tsigarides, Laura R Wingfield, Myutan Kulendran
BACKGROUND: North American medical schools have used problem-based learning (PBL) structured medical education for more than 60 years. However, it has only recently been introduced in other medical schools outside of North America. Since its inception, there has been the debate on whether the PBL learning process predisposes students to select certain career paths. OBJECTIVES: To review available evidence to determine the predisposition of specific career paths when undertaking a PBL-based medical curriculum...
January 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059121/structural-effects-of-lanthanide-dopants-on-alumina
#7
Ketan Patel, Victoria Blair, Justin Douglas, Qilin Dai, Yaohua Liu, Shenqiang Ren, Raymond Brennan
Lanthanide (Ln(3+)) doping in alumina has shown great promise for stabilizing and promoting desirable phase formation to achieve optimized physical and chemical properties. However, doping alumina with Ln elements is generally accompanied by formation of new phases (i.e. LnAlO3, Ln2O3), and therefore inclusion of Ln-doping mechanisms for phase stabilization of the alumina lattice is indispensable. In this study, Ln-doping (400 ppm) of the alumina lattice crucially delays the onset of phase transformation and enables phase population control, which is achieved without the formation of new phases...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058696/size-exponents-for-scaling-maximal-oxygen-uptake-in-over-6500-humans-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Lorenzo Lolli, Alan M Batterham, Kathryn L Weston, Greg Atkinson
BACKGROUND: Maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text] 2max) is conventionally normalized to body size as a simple ratio or using an allometric exponent < 1. Nevertheless, the most appropriate body size variable to use for scaling and the value of the exponent are still enigmatic. Studies tend to be based on small samples and can, therefore, lack precision. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to provide a quantitative synthesis of reported static allometric exponents used for scaling [Formula: see text] 2max to whole body mass and fat-free mass...
January 6, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053516/psychometric-properties-of-the-anxiety-inventory-for-respiratory-disease-in-patients-with-copd-in-china
#9
Xiao-Yan Dong, Lan Wang, Yan-Xia Tao, Xiu-Li Suo, Yue-Chuan Li, Fang Liu, Yue Zhao, Qing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Anxiety is a common comorbidity in patients with COPD in China, and it can significantly decrease patients' quality of life. Almost all anxiety measurements contain somatic items that can overlap with symptoms of COPD and side effects of medicines, which can lead to bias in measuring anxiety in patients with COPD. Therefore, a brief and disease-specific non-somatic anxiety measurement scale, the Anxiety Inventory for Respiratory Disease (AIR), which has been developed and validated in its English version, is needed for patients with COPD in China...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048206/su-f-t-685-evaluation-of-tumor-hypoxic-fraction-using-serial-volumetric-imaging-during-radiation-therapy
#10
A Chvetsov
PURPOSE: To develop a tumor response model which could be uses to compute tumor hypoxic fraction using serial volumetric tumor imaging. This algorithm may be used for treatment response assessment and also for guidance of more expensive PET imaging of hypoxia. METHODS: Previously developed two-level cell population tumor response model was modified to include a third cell level describing hypoxic and necrotic cells. This third level was considered constant value during radiotherapy treatment; therefore, inclusion additional parameter did not compromise stability of model fitting to imaging data...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046397/we-h-bra-07-mechanistic-modelling-of-the-relative-biological-effectiveness-of-heavy-charged-particles
#11
S McMahon, A McNamara, J Schuemann, K Prise, H Paganetti
Purpose Uncertainty in the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of heavy charged particles compared to photons remains one of the major uncertainties in particle therapy. As RBEs depend strongly on clinical variables such as tissue type, dose, and radiation quality, more accurate individualised models are needed to fully optimise treatments. MethodsWe have developed a model of DNA damage and repair following X-ray irradiation in a number of settings, incorporating mechanistic descriptions of DNA repair pathways, geometric effects on DNA repair, cell cycle effects and cell death...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046175/acute-effects-of-general-anesthesia-with-propofol-pentobarbital-or-isoflurane-plus-propofol-on-plasma-metabolites-and-hormones-in-adult-pigs
#12
G Daş, A Vernunft, S Görs, E Kanitz, J M Weitzel, K-P Brüssow, C C Metges
Experimental setups for physiological research, in which acute operative interventions need to be performed, can require inclusion of general anesthesia (GA), which may interfere or confound with the effects of the experimental factors of interest on measured variables. It was recently shown that the most commonly used sedatives/anesthetics in pigs (e.g., ketamine, xylazine, azaperone) affect physiological responses and thus the primary metabolic readouts have the potential to be confounded. To extend the search for a physiologically-friendly anesthesia regime for such studies, we investigated effects of GA induced by propofol (Prop) or pentobarbital (Pent) or propofol plus isoflurane (Prop + Isof) on plasma concentrations of commonly measured metabolites and hormones...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043069/comparison-of-multivariate-poisson-lognormal-spatial-and-temporal-crash-models-to-identify-hot-spots-of-intersections-based-on-crash-types
#13
Wen Cheng, Gurdiljot Singh Gill, Ravi Dasu, Meiquan Xie, Xudong Jia, Jiao Zhou
Most of the studies are focused on the general crashes or total crash counts with considerably less research dedicated to different crash types. This study employs the Systemic approach for detection of hotspots and comprehensively cross-validates five multivariate models of crash type-based HSID methods which incorporate spatial and temporal random effects. It is anticipated that comparison of the crash estimation results of the five models would identify the impact of varied random effects on the HSID. The data over a ten year time period (2003-2012) were selected for analysis of a total 137 intersections in the City of Corona, California...
December 30, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039137/attenuation-of-cryptosporidium-across-the-wastewater-treatment-train-recycled-water-fit-for-purpose
#14
Brendon King, Stella Fanok, Renae Phillips, Melody Lau, Ben van den Akker, Paul Monis
: Compliance with guideline removal targets for Cryptosporidium, which do not provide any credit for the inactivation of oocysts through wastewater treatment processes, can considerably increase the cost of providing recycled water. Here we present the application of an integrated assay to quantify both oocyst numbers and infectivity after various treatment stages at three Victorian and two South Australian (SA) Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs). Oocyst density in the raw sewage was commensurate with community disease burden, with early rounds of sampling capturing a widespread cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Victoria...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035273/does-cooperation-mean-kinship-between-spatially-discrete-ant-nests
#15
Duncan S Procter, Joan E Cottrell, Kevin Watts, Stuart W A'Hara, Michael Hofreiter, Elva J H Robinson
Eusociality is one of the most complex forms of social organization, characterized by cooperative and reproductive units termed colonies. Altruistic behavior of workers within colonies is explained by inclusive fitness, with indirect fitness benefits accrued by helping kin. Members of a social insect colony are expected to be more closely related to one another than they are to other conspecifics. In many social insects, the colony can extend to multiple socially connected but spatially separate nests (polydomy)...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033527/apoptotic-capacity-and-risk-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#16
Zhensheng Liu, Hongliang Liu, Peng Han, Fengqin Gao, Kristina R Dahlstrom, Guojun Li, Kouros Owzar, Jose P Zevallos, Erich M Sturgis, Qingyi Wei
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke and alcohol drinking are the major risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Smoking and drinking cause DNA damage leading to apoptosis, and insufficient apoptotic capacity may favour development of cancer because of the dysfunction of removing damaged cells. In the present study, we investigated the association between camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptotic capacity and risk of SCCHN in a North American population. METHODS: In a case-control study of 708 SCCHN patients and 685 matched cancer-free controls, we measured apoptotic capacity in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes in response to in vitro exposure to CPT by using the flow cytometry-based method...
December 26, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030630/system-wide-adaptations-of-desulfovibrio-alaskensis-g20-to-phosphate-limited-conditions
#17
Tanja Bosak, Florence Schubotz, Ana de Santiago-Torio, Jennifer V Kuehl, Hans K Carlson, Nicki Watson, Mirna Daye, Roger E Summons, Adam P Arkin, Adam M Deutschbauer
The prevalence of lipids devoid of phosphorus suggests that the availability of phosphorus limits microbial growth and activity in many anoxic, stratified environments. To better understand the response of anaerobic bacteria to phosphate limitation and starvation, this study combines microscopic and lipid analyses with the measurements of fitness of pooled barcoded transposon mutants of the model sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20. Phosphate-limited G20 has lower growth rates and replaces more than 90% of its membrane phospholipids by a mixture of monoglycosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), glycuronic acid diacylglycerol (GADG) and ornithine lipids, lacks polyphosphate granules, and synthesizes other cellular inclusions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028634/evaluation-of-body-weight-and-visual-scores-for-genetic-improvement-of-nelore-cattle
#18
F M Paterno, M E Buzanskas, W Koury Filho, R B Lôbo, S A Queiroz
The aims of our study were to estimate genetic parameters for body weight and visual scores and to evaluate their inclusion as selection criteria in the Nelore breeding program in Brazil. The traits studied were the body weight adjusted to 210 (W210) and to 450 (W450) days of age and visual scores for body structure, finishing precocity, and muscling evaluated at weaning (BSW, FPW, and MSW) and yearling (BSY, FPY, and MSY) ages. A total of 33,242, 26,259, 23,075, and 26,057 observations were considered to analyze W210, W450, and visual scores at weaning and yearling...
December 27, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028299/gene-expression-in-obstetric-antiphospholipid-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#19
M Muhammad Aliff, S Muhammad Shazwan, M M Nur Fariha, A R Hayati, A R Nur Syahrina, M Maizatul Azma, A H Nazefah, S Jameela, A A Asral Wirda
BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a multisystem disease that may present as venous or arterial thrombosis and/or pregnancy complications with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Until today, heterogeneity of pathogenic mechanism fits well with various clinical manifestations. Moreover, previous studies have indicated that genes are differentially expressed between normal and in the disease state. Hence, this study systematically searched the literature on human gene expression that was differentially expressed in Obstetric APS...
December 2016: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025646/ketorolac-tromethamine-spray-prevents-postendotracheal-intubation-induced-sore-throat-after-general-anesthesia
#20
H L Yang, F C Liu, S C Tsai, P K Tsay, H T Lin, H E Liu
Background. Postoperative sore throat is one of the major complaints of general anesthesia in the postanesthesia care unit. This prospective study investigated the preventive effect of ketorolac tromethamine spray in postendotracheal-intubation-induced sore throat after general anesthesia. Methods. Surgical patients undergoing general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were recruited from a medical center. Patients were randomly assigned to group K (treated with 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray) or group D (treated with distilled water spray)...
2016: BioMed Research International
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