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Cheng-Te Chen, Yu-Lan Chen, Yu-Ching Lin, Ching-Lin Hsieh, Jeng-Yi Tzeng, Kuan-Lin Chen
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to construct a computerized adaptive test (CAT) for measuring self-care performance (the CAT-SC) in children with developmental disabilities (DD) aged from 6 months to 12 years in a content-inclusive, precise, and efficient fashion. METHODS: The study was divided into 3 phases: (1) item bank development, (2) item testing, and (3) a simulation study to determine the stopping rules for the administration of the CAT-SC. A total of 215 caregivers of children with DD were interviewed with the 73-item CAT-SC item bank...
2018: PloS One
Krystal L Schulle, David A Berntsen, Loraine T Sinnott, Katherine M Bickle, Anita T Gostovic, Gilbert E Pierce, Lisa A Jones-Jordan, Donald O Mutti, Jeffrey J Walline
SIGNIFICANCE: Practitioners fitting contact lenses for myopia control frequently question whether a myopic child can achieve good vision with a high-add multifocal. We demonstrate that visual acuity is not different than spectacles with a commercially available, center-distance soft multifocal contact lens (MFCL) (Biofinity Multifocal "D"; +2.50 D add). PURPOSE: To determine the spherical over-refraction (SOR) necessary to obtain best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) when fitting myopic children with a center-distance soft MFCL...
March 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Hajri Al-Shehri, Artemis Koukounari, Michelle C Stanton, Moses Adriko, Moses Arinaitwe, Aaron Atuhaire, Narcis B Kabatereine, J Russell Stothard
Programmatic surveillance of intestinal schistosomiasis during control can typically use four diagnostic tests, either singularly or in combination, but these have yet to be cross-compared directly. Our study assembled a complete diagnostic dataset, inclusive of infection intensities, from 258 children from five Ugandan primary schools. The schools were purposely selected as typical of the endemic landscape near Lake Albert and reflective of high- and low-transmission settings. Overall prevalence was: 44.1% (95% CI 38...
March 21, 2018: Parasitology
Jared R Towers, Muriel J Hallé, Helena K Symonds, Gary J Sutton, Alexandra B Morton, Paul Spong, James P Borrowman, John K B Ford
Infanticide can be an extreme result of sexual conflict that drives selection in species in which it occurs. It is a rarely observed behaviour but some evidence for its occurrence in cetaceans exists in three species of dolphin. Here we describe observations of an adult male killer whale (Orcinus orca) and his post-reproductive mother killing a neonate belonging to an unrelated female from the same population in the North Pacific. This is the first account of infanticide reported in killer whales and the only case committed jointly by an adult male and his mother outside of humans...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Deborah Toppenberg-Pejcic, Jane Noyes, Tomas Allen, Nyka Alexander, Marsha Vanderford, Gaya Gamhewage
A rapid review of gray literature from 2015 to 2016 was conducted to identify the lessons learned for emergency risk communication from recent outbreaks of Ebola, Zika, and yellow fever. Gray literature databases and key websites were searched and requests for documents were posted to expert networks. A total of 83 documents met inclusion criteria, 68 of which are cited in this report. This article focuses on the 3 questions, out of 12 posed by World Health Organization as part of a Guideline development process, dealing most directly with communicating risk during health emergencies: community engagement, trust building, and social media...
March 20, 2018: Health Communication
Helton O Campos, Lucas R Drummond, Quezia T Rodrigues, Frederico S M Machado, Washington Pires, Samuel P Wanner, Cândido C Coimbra
Nitrate (NO3 -) is an ergogenic nutritional supplement that is widely used to improve physical performance. However, the effectiveness of NO3 - supplementation has not been systematically investigated in individuals with different physical fitness levels. The present study analysed whether different fitness levels (non-athletes v. athletes or classification of performance levels), duration of the test used to measure performance (short v. long duration) and the test protocol (time trials v. open-ended tests v...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Vadim V Chumak, Sergiy V Klymenko, Horst Zitzelsberger, Christina Wilke, Lyudmila A Rybchenko, Elena V Bakhanova
The Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986 has caused significant exposure to ionizing radiation of the Ukrainian population, in particular clean-up workers and evacuees from the exclusion zones. A study aiming at the discovery of radiation markers of the breast cancer was conducted from 2008 to 2015 within a collaborative project by HZM, LMU, and NRCRM. In this study, post-Chernobyl breast cancer cases both in radiation-exposed female patients diagnosed at age less than 60 from 1992 to 2014 and in non-exposed controls matched for residency, tumor type, age at diagnosis, TNM classification as well as tumor grading were investigated for molecular changes with special emphasis to copy number alterations and miRNA profiles...
March 17, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
M Haas, J T Siveke, M Schenk, M M Lerch, K Caca, J Freiberg-Richter, L Fischer von Weikersthal, F Kullmann, A Reinacher-Schick, M Fuchs, S Kanzler, V Kunzmann, T J Ettrich, S Kruger, C B Westphalen, S Held, V Heinemann, S Boeck
INTRODUCTION: In metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC) treatment, erlotinib is known to be more effective in patients developing skin rash. Treatment with the FOLFIRINOX regimen is only performed in fit patients following defined inclusion criteria. The present study investigates the efficacy of gemcitabine plus erlotinib (gem/erlotinib) in rash-positive patients fit for FOLFIRINOX. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For this prospective phase II study, 150 patients were recruited in 20 centres...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Sarah Sims, Mary Leamy, Nigel Davies, Katy Schnitzler, Ros Levenson, Felicity Mayer, Robert Grant, Sally Brearley, Stephen Gourlay, Fiona Ross, Ruth Harris
BACKGROUND: Intentional rounding (IR) is a structured process whereby nurses conduct one to two hourly checks with every patient using a standardised protocol. OBJECTIVE: A realist synthesis of the evidence on IR was undertaken to develop IR programme theories of what works, for whom, in what circumstances and why. METHODS: A three-stage literature search and a stakeholder consultation event was completed. A variety of sources were searched, including AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, HMIC, Google and Google Scholar, for published and unpublished literature...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Gianni Belcaro, Mark Dugall, Roberta Luzzi, Morio Hosoi, Andrea Ledda, Beatrice Feragalli, Shu Hu, Apurba Ganguly, Roberto Eggenhoffner, Ambra Corti, Luca Giacomelli
BACKGROUND: Curcumin is a powerful anti-oxidant that can be used to treat inflammation and pain in chronic conditions such as osteoarthrosis (OA). Phytoproflex® is characterized by an innovative delivery system that improves bioavailability of curcuminoids and could be useful in the management of OA. METHODS: This 4-week registry included 56 patients with knee OA treated according to the best standard management for symptomatic OA. On top of that, 24 patients used Phytoproflex® supplement preparation (an extract containing boswellic acid 90%, curcumin 20% and valeric acid 0...
April 2018: Minerva Medica
Wesley P Schweer, John F Patience, Eric R Burrough, Brian J Kerr, Nicholas K Gabler
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a significant disease in the swine industry and increasing soybean meal (SBM) consumption during this disease challenge may improve performance. Our objectives were to determine the impact of SBM level on apparent total tract (ATTD) and ileal (AID) digestibility during PRRSV infection, and to determine ileal basal endogenous losses (BEL) during PRRSV infection. Forty PRRSV negative gilts were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with high and low SBM (HSBM, 29% vs...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Stephanie Wang Zuo, Harold Wu, Wen Shen
OBJECTIVE: To examine mammographic density before and after at least 1 year of vaginal estrogen use in a small cohort of healthy postmenopausal women and women with a personal history of breast cancer. METHODS: We extracted data via chart review of patients from a single practitioner's menopause specialty clinic in Baltimore, MD. Mammographic change was primarily determined via the Bi-RADS scoring system, including the Bi-RADS density score. In addition, we conduct a narrative review of the current literature on the usage of local estrogen therapy, and systemic and local alternatives in the treatment of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) in breast cancer survivors...
March 12, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Linda Rainey, Daniëlle van der Waal, Anna Jervaeus, Yvonne Wengström, D Gareth Evans, Louise S Donnelly, Mireille J M Broeders
BACKGROUND: Increased knowledge of breast cancer risk factors provides opportunities to shift from a one-size-fits-all screening programme to a personalised approach, where screening and prevention is based on a woman's risk of developing breast cancer. However, potential implementation of this new paradigm could present considerable challenges which the present review aims to explore. METHODS: Bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies evaluating potential implications of the implementation of personalised risk-based screening and primary prevention for breast cancer...
March 9, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Nick Wasylyshyn, Brett Hemenway Falk, Javier O Garcia, Christopher N Cascio, Matthew Brook O'Donnell, C Raymond Bingham, Bruce Simons-Morton, Jean M Vettel, Emily B Falk
Individuals react differently to social experiences; for example, people who are more sensitive to negative social experiences, such as being excluded, may be more likely to adapt their behavior to fit in with others. We examined whether functional brain connectivity during social exclusion in the fMRI scanner can be used to predict subsequent conformity to peer norms. Adolescent males (n = 57) completed a two-part study on teen driving risk: a social exclusion task (Cyberball) during an fMRI session and a subsequent driving simulator session in which they drove alone and in the presence of a peer who expressed risk-averse or risk-accepting driving norms...
February 1, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Tapan Das, B P V Dileep, Pranab K Dutta
Near-infrared imaging (NIRI) is a sub-surface imaging that makes a trade-off in recovery accuracy with depth of penetration. On the other hand, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) images tissue up to several centimeters. However, DOT reconstruction has a stability issue due to the inverse problem. This paper proposes a generalized continuous-wave technique to image objects of dimensions 4-6 cm comparable to DOT. A nonlinear Rosenbrock's banana function is fitted to the approximate photon path, and the fit parameter thus obtained gives the penetration depth of each channel...
March 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Brady S Moffett, Charissa Kam, Marianne Galati, Lindsay Schmees, Gideon A Stitt, Paula A Revell, Debra L Palazzi
BACKGROUND: Obese pediatric patients often require dose reductions when initiating gentamicin therapy. An appropriate method for calculating ideal body weight for dosing gentamicin in pediatric patients has not been validated. METHODS: A retrospective, population pharmacokinetic study was designed and included non-intensive care pediatric patients who received gentamicin and had serum gentamicin concentrations sampled. Actual body weight, adjusted body weight, and fat-free mass were used to describe the pharmacokinetic variables...
March 6, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Xavier Carbonell, Andrés Chamarro, Ursula Oberst, Beatriz Rodrigo, Mariona Prades
It has been more than a decade since a concern about the addictive use of the Internet and mobile phones was first expressed, and its possible inclusion into the lists of mental disorders has recently become a popular topic of scientific discussion. Thus, it seems to be a fitting moment to investigate the prevalence of this issue over time. The aim of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of the perception of problematic Internet and smartphone use in young people over the period 2006-2017. To this end, a questionnaire on Internet use habits and two questionnaires on the negative consequences of Internet and smartphone use were administered to a sample of 792 university students...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sathej Gopalakrishnan, Sven Mensing, Rajeev M Menon, Jiuhong Zha
BACKGROUND: The clinical development program of the direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combination therapy of paritaprevir (coadministered with ritonavir) and ombitasvir, with and without dasabuvir (3-DAA [3D] and 2-DAA [2D] regimens, respectively) used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection has generated a robust dataset across various dosing regimens and patient populations. OBJECTIVE: The current analysis aimed to characterize the population pharmacokinetics in patients without cirrhosis ('non-cirrhotic') and with compensated cirrhosis ('cirrhotic'), while accounting for differences across hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes (GT) 1, 2, and 4, multiple regimens (3D regimen ± ribavirin for GT1 in global studies, 2D regimen for subgenotype 1b in Japan, 2D regimen + ribavirin for GT2 in Japan, and 2D regimen + ribavirin for GT4), and ethnicities...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Matthew Gwynfryn Thomas, Ting Ji, Jiajia Wu, QiaoQiao He, Yi Tao, Ruth Mace
The relative importance of social evolution theories such as kin selection, direct reciprocity and need-based transfers in explaining real-world cooperation is the source of much debate. Previous field studies of cooperation in human communities have revealed variability in the extent to which each of these theories explains human sociality in different contexts. We conducted multivariate social network analyses predicting costly cooperation-labouring on another household's farm-in 128 082 dyads of Mosuo farming households in southwest China...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Lukas Streese, Arne Deiseroth, Juliane Schäfer, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Henner Hanssen
Background: Age is a key determinant for the development of cardiovascular disease and higher age coincides with an increased prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. The study examines the influence of physical activity on aging processes of physiological systems focusing on the mechanisms of vascular aging. Methods/Design: The study consists of two parts. The cross-sectional approach aims at examining the association of physical fitness and cardiovascular risk with large and small artery function in healthy older active (HOA, n = 40) and sedentary (HOS, n = 40) persons as well as older sedentary individuals with increased cardiovascular risk (OSR, n = 80) aged 50-80 years...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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