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Aldo J Montano-Loza, Paul Angulo, Judith Meza-Junco, Carla M M Prado, Michael B Sawyer, Crystal Beaumont, Nina Esfandiari, Mang Ma, Vickie E Baracos
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is frequently associated with cirrhosis, and cirrhotic patients may develop simultaneous loss of skeletal muscle and gain of adipose tissue, culminating in the condition of sarcopenic obesity. Additionally, muscle depletion is characterized by both a reduction in muscle size and increased proportion of muscular fat, termed myosteatosis. In this study, we aimed to establish the frequency and clinical significance of sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and myosteatosis in cirrhotic patients...
May 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Mark W Hamrick, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Danielle M Frechette
Skeletal muscle and bone share common embryological origins from mesodermal cell populations and also display common growth trajectories early in life. Moreover, muscle and bone are both mechanoresponsive tissues, and the mass and strength of both tissues decline with age. The decline in muscle and bone strength that occurs with aging is accompanied in both cases by an accumulation of adipose tissue. In bone, adipocyte (AC) accumulation occurs in the marrow cavities of long bones and is known to increase with estrogen deficiency, mechanical unloading, and exposure to glucocorticoids...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
M Pędziwiatr, M Pisarska, P Major, A Grochowska, M Matłok, K Przęczek, T Stefura, A Budzyński, S Kłęk
INTRODUCTION: Progressive skeletal muscle loss (sarcopenia) is a negative prognostic factor in patients treated for colorectal cancer. Nevertheless, the clinical impact of those changes in body composition has been analyzed only in patients undergoing open resections. The aim of the study was to assess whether laparoscopy may eliminate the deleterious prognostic impact of sarcopenia and whether the combination with enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol may improve postoperative recovery also in sarcopenic patients...
June 2016: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Qian Zhao, Joseph M Zmuda, Allison L Kuipers, Pallavi Jonnalagadda, Clareann H Bunker, Alan L Patrick, Ada O Youk, Iva Miljkovic
BACKGROUND: fat infiltration within and around skeletal muscle (i.e. myosteatosis) increases with ageing, is greater in African versus European ancestry men and is associated with poor health. Myosteatosis studies of mortality are lacking, particularly among African ancestry populations. METHODS: in the Tobago Health study, a prospective longitudinal study, we evaluated the association of all-cause mortality with quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measured lower leg myosteatosis (intermuscular fat (IM fat) and muscle density) in 1,652 African ancestry men using Cox proportional hazards models...
July 2016: Age and Ageing
Ragesh B Thandassery, Aldo J Montano-Loza
Most widely recognized complications in cirrhotic patients include ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, kidney dysfunction, and hepatocellular carcinoma; however, malnutrition and muscle wasting (sarcopenia) constitute common complications which negatively impact survival, quality of life, and response to stressors, such as infection and surgery in patients with cirrhosis. Despite the important role that malnutrition and sarcopenia play in the prognosis of patients with cirrhosis, they are frequently overlooked, in part because nutritional assessment can be a difficult task in patients with cirrhosis due to fluid retention and/or overweight...
June 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
G Malietzis, A C Currie, T Athanasiou, N Johns, N Anyamene, R Glynne-Jones, R H Kennedy, K C H Fearon, J T Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Muscle depletion is characterized by reduced muscle mass (myopenia), and increased infiltration by intermuscular and intramuscular fat (myosteatosis). This study examined the role of particular body composition profiles as prognostic markers for patients with colorectal cancer undergoing curative resection. METHODS: Patients with colorectal cancer undergoing elective surgical resection between 2006 and 2011 were included. Lumbar skeletal muscle index (LSMI), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) surface area and mean muscle attenuation (MA) were calculated by analysis of CT images...
April 2016: British Journal of Surgery
Ilse Reinders, Rachel A Murphy, Ingeborg A Brouwer, Marjolein Visser, Lenore Launer, Kristin Siggeirsdottir, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Vilmundur Gudnason, Palmi V Jonsson, Thomas F Lang, Tamara B Harris
Muscle composition may affect mortality risk, but prior studies have been limited to specific samples or less precise determination of muscle composition. We evaluated associations of thigh muscle composition, determined using computed tomography imaging, and knee extension strength with mortality risk among 4,824 participants aged 76.4 (standard deviation (SD), 5.5) years from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study (2002-2006). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios...
January 1, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
George Malietzis, Gui Han Lee, David Bernardo, Alexandra I F Blakemore, Stella C Knight, Morgan Moorghen, Hafid O Al-Hassi, John T Jenkins
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The host local immune response (LIR) to cancer is a determinant of cancer outcome. Regulation of this local response is largely achieved through chemokine synthesis from the tumor microenvironment such as C-Chemokine-Receptor-7 (CCR7). We examined the LIR measured as CCR7 expression, in colorectal cancers (CRC) and explored relationships with body composition (BC) and survival. METHODS: A study of paraffin-embedded tissue specimens was carried out in 116 patients with non-metastatic CRC...
July 2015: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Masaki Kaibori, Morihiko Ishizaki, Hiroya Iida, Kosuke Matsui, Tatsuma Sakaguchi, Kentaro Inoue, Toshihiko Mizuta, Yasushi Ide, Junji Iwasaka, Yutaka Kimura, Fumikazu Hayashi, Daiki Habu, Masanori Kon
BACKGROUND: It has recently been reported that myosteatosis, the infiltration of fat in skeletal muscle, is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study investigated the effect of skeletal muscle fat accumulation on short- and long-term outcomes following partial hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and aimed to identify prognostic factors. METHODS: The records of 141 HCC patients who underwent hepatectomy were retrospectively reviewed...
July 2015: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Iva Miljkovic, Allison L Kuipers, Jane A Cauley, Tanushree Prasad, Christine G Lee, Kristine E Ensrud, Peggy M Cawthon, Andrew R Hoffman, Thuy-Tien Dam, Christopher L Gordon, Joseph M Zmuda
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle fat infiltration (myosteatosis) increases with aging, and has been associated with poor metabolic and musculoskeletal health, independent of overall adiposity. Studies examining the relationship of myosteatosis and mortality among older individuals recruited without regard to their health status are sparse. METHODS: We evaluated the association of peripheral computed tomography measured calf myosteatosis (intermuscular fat and muscle density as a measure of intramuscular fat) with mortality in 1,063 community-dwelling older men...
September 2015: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Raffaella Mastrocola, Massimo Collino, Debora Nigro, Fausto Chiazza, Giuseppe D'Antona, Manuela Aragno, Marco A Minetto
Aim of this study was to investigate whether advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) accumulate in skeletal myofibers of two different animal models of diabesity and whether this accumulation could be associated to myosteatosis. Male C57Bl/6j mice and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were divided into three groups and underwent 15 weeks of dietary manipulation: standard diet-fed C57 group (C57, n = 10), high-fat high-sugar diet-fed C57 group (HFHS, n = 10), and standard diet-fed ob/ob group (OB/OB, n = 8). HFHS mice and OB/OB mice developed glycometabolic abnormalities in association with decreased mass of the gastrocnemius muscle, fast-to-slow transition of muscle fibers, and lipid accumulation (that occurred preferentially in slow compared to fast fibers)...
2015: PloS One
Massimo Collino, Raffaella Mastrocola, Debora Nigro, Fausto Chiazza, Manuela Aragno, Giuseppe D'Antona, Marco A Minetto
Nutrient overload leads to impaired muscle oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity. However, comparative analyses of the effects of dietary manipulation on skeletal muscles with different fiber composition are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the selective adaptations in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles evoked by administration of high-fat diet for 12 weeks in 10 mice (HFD mice) compared to 10 animals fed with a normal chow diet (control mice). Mice fed with the HFD diet exhibited hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and lower exercise capacity in comparison to control mice...
2014: BioMed Research International
Julia B Ewaschuk, Alaa Almasud, Vera C Mazurak
Image-based methods such as computed tomography for assessing body composition enables quantification of muscle mass and muscle density and reveals that low muscle mass and myosteatosis (fat infiltration into muscle) are common in people with cancer. Myosteatosis and low muscle mass have emerged as independent risk factors for mortality in cancer; however, the characteristics and pathogenesis of these features have not been resolved. Muscle depletion is associated with low plasma eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) in cancer and supplementation with n-3 fatty acids has been shown to ameliorate muscle loss and myosteatosis in clinical studies, suggesting a relationship between n-3 fatty acids and muscle health...
June 2014: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Elena Zoico, Francesca Corzato, Clara Bambace, Andrea P Rossi, Rocco Micciolo, Saverio Cinti, Tamara B Harris, Mauro Zamboni
The mechanisms impairing muscle quality and leading to myofibrosis (MF) and myosteatosis (MS) are incompletely known. In biopsies of paraspinous muscle (PM) of 16 elderly men undergoing elective vertebral surgery, we histologically determined the area of MF and MS expressed as muscle quality index (MQI), in order to investigate the relation between them, as well as the main predictors of muscle quality. Total PM area and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) were evaluated by MRI and body composition by DXA. Circulating fasting glucose, insulin, hs-CRP, leptin, adiponectin and IL-6 were measured and HOMA index calculated...
November 2013: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
S Carda, C Cisari, M Invernizzi
Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by a decrease in muscle mass and function (strength and mobility) that is frequently observed in the elderly. In people with paresis and altered mobility due to central nervous system (CNS) diseases, this definition then may not be applicable. In CNS diseases, mainly stroke and spinal cord injury, different and specific patterns of muscle loss and muscle changes have been described, due to denervation, disuse atrophy, spasticity and myosteatosis. The main observations available about these phenomena in CNS diseases are reviewed, and a broad view on the specific physiopathological mechanisms is also described...
February 2013: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Iva Miljkovic, Jane A Cauley, Patty Y Wang, Kathleen F Holton, Christine G Lee, Yahtyng Sheu, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Andrew R Hoffman, Cora B Lewis, Eric S Orwoll, Marcia L Stefanick, Elsa S Strotmeyer, Lynn M Marshall
OBJECTIVE: Skeletal muscle adipose tissue (AT) infiltration (myosteatosis) increases with aging and may contribute to the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It remains unclear if myosteatosis is associated to glucose and insulin homeostasis independent of total and central adiposity. DESIGN AND METHODS: The association between intermuscular AT (IMAT) in the abdominal skeletal muscles (total, paraspinal, and psoas) and fasting serum glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 393 nondiabetic Caucasian men aged 65+ was evaluated...
October 2013: Obesity
Iva Miljkovic, Allison L Kuipers, Candace M Kammerer, Xiaojing Wang, Clareann H Bunker, Alan L Patrick, Victor W Wheeler, Lewis H Kuller, Rhobert W Evans, Joseph M Zmuda
UNLABELLED: Abstract Background: Skeletal muscle adipose tissue (AT) infiltration, or myosteatosis, appears to be greater in African compared with European ancestry individuals and may play a role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease that disproportionally affects African ancestry populations. Inflammation is one mechanism that may link myosteatosis with increased T2DM risk, but studies examining the relationship between inflammation and myosteatosis are lacking. METHODS: To examine these associations, we measured skeletal muscle subcutaneous AT, intermuscular AT, and skeletal muscle density using quantitative computed tomography and serum markers of inflammation in 471 individuals from 8 Afro-Caribbean multigenerational families [mean family size 67; mean age 43 years; mean body mass index (BMI) 28 kg/m(2)]...
August 2011: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Thomas Lang, Jane A Cauley, Frances Tylavsky, Douglas Bauer, Steven Cummings, Tamara B Harris
Fatty infiltration of muscle, myosteatosis, increases with age and results in reduced muscle strength and function and increased fall risk. However, it is unknown if increased fatty infiltration of muscle predisposes to hip fracture. We measured the mean Hounsfield unit (HU) of the lean tissue within the midthigh muscle bundle (thigh muscle HU, an indicator of intramuscular fat), its cross-sectional area (CSA, a measure of muscle mass) by computed tomography (CT), bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and total-body percent fat by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), isokinetic leg extensor strength, and the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) in 2941 white and black women and men aged 70 to 79 years...
March 2010: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Iva Miljkovic, Joseph M Zmuda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the epidemiology of myosteatosis and its association with diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of myosteatosis (fat infiltration in skeletal muscle) in diabetes has received considerable attention. There is reasonably consistent evidence that myosteatosis contributes to glucose and insulin abnormalities and diabetes, possibly even independent of overall obesity. Novel hypotheses that link myosteatosis with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes have also recently been proposed...
May 2010: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Dennis R Taaffe, Tim R Henwood, Michael A Nalls, Duncan G Walker, Thomas F Lang, Tamara B Harris
BACKGROUND: Aging skeletal muscle is characterized not only by a reduction in size (sarcopenia) and strength but also by an increase in fatty infiltration (myosteatosis). An effective countermeasure to sarcopenia is resistance exercise; however, its effect on fatty infiltration is less clear. OBJECTIVE: To examine in resistance-trained older persons whether muscle attenuation, a noninvasive measure of muscle density reflecting intramuscular lipid content, is altered with training status...
2009: Gerontology
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