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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782852/atp6v1h-regulates-the-growth-and-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells
#1
Lin Li, Shaoqing Yang, Yanli Zhang, Dongrui Ji, Zuolin Jin, Xiaohong Duan
ATP6V1H encodes subunit H of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) and may regulate osteoclastic function. The deficiency of ATP6V1H caused bone loss in human, mouse and zebrafish. In this report, we identified the mechanisms by which ATP6V1H regulates proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). We found that ATP6V1H was expressed in BMSCs, andAtp6v1h+/- BMSCs exhibited the lower proliferation rate, cell cycle arrest and reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity, as well as the increased adipogenic potentials...
May 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768876/protection-by-neostigmine-and-atropine-against-brain-and-liver-injury-induced-by-acute-malathion-exposure
#2
Omar M E Abdel-Salam, Eman R Youness, Reham Shehab ElNemr Esmail, Nadia A Mohammed, Yasser A Khadrawy, Amany A Sleem, Amany Mamdouh Abdulaziz
We examined the effect of treatment with neostigmine alone or with atropine on brain oxidative stress and on brain and liver tissue damage following acute malathion toxicity. Rats were intraperitoneally treated with malathion 150 mg/kg along with neostigmine (200 or 400 μg/kg) or neostigmine (200 μg/kg) + atropine (1 mg/kg) and euthanized 4 h later. Results indicated that compared with the saline group, malathion resulted in (i) higher brain malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (46.4% and 86.2%); (ii) decreased brain reduced glutathione (GSH) (67...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763913/intraventricular-injection-of-lkb1-inhibits-the-formation-of-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats-by-activating-the-ampk-pomc-neurons-sympathetic-nervous-system-axis
#3
Pengjiao Xi, Jianying Du, Huimin Liang, Jie Han, Zhaoxia Wu, Haomin Wang, Lu He, Qiming Wang, Haize Ge, Yongmei Li, Jie Xue, Derun Tian
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity is increasingly becoming a major public health problem worldwide. Peripheral LKB1 inhibits white fat generation, but the effect of central LKB1 on diet-induced obesity (DIO) is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether LKB1 over-expression in the hypothalamus can inhibit the development of obesity. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. LKB1-AAV-EGFP (2.0 × 108 or 2.0 × 1010 vector genomes) or Control-AAV-EGFP (2...
May 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760648/profile-of-arachidonic-acid-derived-inflammatory-markers-and-its-modulation-by-nitro-oleic-acid-in-an-inherited-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#4
Andrés Trostchansky, Mauricio Mastrogiovanni, Ernesto Miquel, Sebastián Rodríguez-Bottero, Laura Martínez-Palma, Patricia Cassina, Homero Rubbo
The lack of current treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) highlights the need of a comprehensive understanding of the biological mechanisms of the disease. A consistent neuropathological feature of ALS is the extensive inflammation around motor neurons and axonal degeneration, evidenced by accumulation of reactive astrocytes and activated microglia. Final products of inflammatory processes may be detected as a screening tool to identify treatment response. Herein, we focus on (a) detection of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolization products by lipoxygenase (LOX) and prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase in SOD1G93A mice and (b) evaluate its response to the electrophilic nitro-oleic acid (NO2 -OA)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759081/comparative-study-of-the-paraspinal-muscles-after-ovf-between-the-insufficient-union-and-sufficient-union-using-mri
#5
Marina Katsu, Tetsuro Ohba, Shigeto Ebata, Hirotaka Haro
BACKGROUND: Identification of poor prognostic factors for OVF is important but has not yet been clearly established. Despite paraspinal muscles could play an important role in the etiology of OVF, what influence time-dependent changes in paraspinal muscles have after OVF, and the impact on conservative treatments for patients who have an OVF remain largely unknown. The purposes of this study were to (1) evaluate time-dependent changes of the paraspinal musculature using MRI after injury in patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs), and (2) compare paraspinal muscles between conservatively treated patients with OVF who have successful union and those failed to conservative treatment...
May 14, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751074/effects-of-high-fructose-intake-on-liver-injury-progression-in-high-fat-diet-induced-fatty-liver-disease-in-ovariectomized-female-mice
#6
Tomoko Ohashi, Masaki Kato, Akihiro Yamasaki, Akifumi Kuwano, Hideo Suzuki, Motoyuki Kohjima, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Epidemiology shows that the morbidity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increased in postmenopausal women and chronic high fructose intake induces NAFLD progression. To analyze the effects of high fructose intake on estrogen deficiency, we evaluated liver disease progression using ovariectomized mice fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Hepatic steatosis developed in all HFD groups. Fructose intake significantly increased the liver weight and serum alanine aminotransferase, which was not exacerbated by ovariectomy alone...
May 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747160/targeting-liver-cancer-and-associated-pathologies-in-mice-with-a-mitochondrial-vdac1-based-peptide
#7
Srinivas Pittala, Yakov Krelin, Varda Shoshan-Barmatz
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most lethal cancer worldwide. Despite progress in identifying risk factors, the incidence of HCC is increasing. Moreover, therapeutic options are limited and survival is poor. Therefore, alternative and innovative therapeutic strategies are urgently required. R-Tf-D-LP4, a cell-penetrating peptide derived from the mitochondrial multifunctional protein the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1), is identified here as a highly effective liver cancer treatment. Recently, we demonstrated that R-Tf-D-LP4 induced apoptosis and inhibited tumor growth in mouse models...
May 7, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743925/-gynostemma-pentaphyllum-attenuates-the-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice-a-biomedical-investigation-integrated-with-in-silico-assay
#8
Ming Hong, Zhe Cai, Lei Song, Yongqiang Liu, Qi Wang, Xiangfei Feng
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common type of liver disease in developed countries. Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the progression of NAFLD. Modern pharmacological study and clinical trials have demonstrated the remarkable antioxidant activity of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) in chronic liver disease. One aim of this study was to explore the potential protective effects and mechanisms of action of GP extract on NAFLD. The in vivo results showed that GP extract could alleviate fatty degeneration and haptic fibrosis in NAFLD mice...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713767/monitoring-skeletal-muscle-chronic-fatty-degenerations-with-fast-t1-mapping
#9
Benjamin Marty, Bertrand Coppa, Pierre G Carlier
OBJECTIVES: To develop a fast, high-resolution T1-mapping sequence dedicated to skeletal muscle imaging, and to evaluate the potential of T1 as a robust and sensitive biomarker for the monitoring of chronic fatty degenerations in a dystrophic disease. METHODS: The magnetic resonance imaging sequence consisted of the acquisition of a 1,000-radial-spokes FLASH echo-train following magnetisation inversion, resulting in 10s scan time per slice. Temporal image series were reconstructed using compressed sensing and T1 maps were computed using Bloch simulations...
April 30, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709414/contractile-property-measurement-of-the-torn-supraspinatus-muscle-using-real-time-tissue-elastography
#10
Takuma Yuri, Nariyuki Mura, Issei Yuki, Hiromi Fujii, Yoshiro Kiyoshige
HYPOTHESIS: In the restoration of shoulder abduction, decreased contractility of the torn rotator cuff muscle may be a cause of a poor result. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the contractile property of the torn supraspinatus muscle measured by real-time tissue elastography and the Goutallier stage as modified by Fuchs et al. METHODS: The muscular hardness of the torn supraspinatus muscle was measured in 32 patients at rest and during isometric contraction with the shoulder abducted to 60° in the scapular plane...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700357/comparative-analyses-and-structural-insights-of-the-novel-cytochrome-p450-fusion-protein-family-cyp5619-in-oomycetes
#11
Hans Denis Bamal, Wanping Chen, Samson Sitheni Mashele, David R Nelson, Abidemi Paul Kappo, Rebamang Anthony Mosa, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Jack A Tuszynski, Khajamohiddin Syed
Phylogenetic and structural analysis of P450 proteins fused to peroxidase/dioxygenase has not been reported yet. We present phylogenetic and in silico structural analysis of the novel P450 fusion family CYP5619 from the deadliest fish pathogenic oomycete, Saprolegnia diclina. Data-mining and annotation of CYP5619 members revealed their unique presence in oomycetes. CYP5619 members have the highest number of conserved amino acids among eukaryotic P450s. The highest number of conserved amino acids (78%) occurred in the peroxidase/dioxygenase domain compared to the P450 domain (22%)...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694386/attenuation-of-choroidal-neovascularization-by-dietary-intake-of-%C3%AF-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-lutein-in-mice
#12
Ryoji Yanai, Shang Chen, Sho-Hei Uchi, Tomoaki Nanri, Kip M Connor, Kazuhiro Kimura
Dietary ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and lutein each protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We here examined the effects of ω-3 LCPUFAs and lutein supplementation in a mouse model of AMD. Mice were assigned to four groups: (1) a control group fed an ω-3 LCPUFA-free diet, (2) a lutein group fed an ω-3 LCPUFA-free diet with oral administration of lutein, (3) an ω-3 group fed an ω-3 LCPUFA-supplemented diet, and (4) an ω-3 + lutein group fed an ω-3 LCPUFA-supplemented diet with oral administration of lutein...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692271/menopause-does-not-affect-fatty-liver-severity-in-women-a-population-study-in-a-mediterranean-area
#13
Nicola Veronese, Maria Notarnicola, Alberto Osella, Anna Maria Cisternino, Rosa Reddavide, Rosa Inguaggiato, Vito Guerra, Ornella Rotolo, Iris Zinzi, Marisa Chiloiro, Gioacchino Leandro, Mario Correale, Valeria Tutino, Giovanni Misciagna, Caterina Bonfiglio, Gabriella Caruso
Estrogens could protect the liver from fatty degeneration, but there is little information about whether menopause is associated with the severity of alcoholic (AFL) and non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL). Our aim was to evaluate the distribution of fatty liver detected by ultrasound in pre- and post-menopausal women, as well as the factors associated with these conditions. In this cross-sectional study, the years from menopause were investigated through self-reported information. The degree of fatty liver was assessed through a standardized ultrasound examination (scores 0 to 6, higher values reflecting a greater severity)...
April 22, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682502/frontiers-of-complex-disease-mechanisms-membrane-surface-tension-may-link-genotype-to-phenotype-in-glaucoma
#14
Howard R Petty
Although many monogenic diseases are understood based upon structural changes of gene products, less progress has been made concerning polygenic disease mechanisms. This article presents a new interdisciplinary approach to understand complex diseases, especially their genetic polymorphisms. I focus upon primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Although elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and oxidative stress are glaucoma hallmarks, the linkages between these factors and cell death are obscure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote the formation of oxidatively truncated phosphoglycerides (OTP), free fatty acids, lysophosphoglycerides, oxysterols, and other chemical species that promote membrane disruption and decrease membrane surface tension...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676840/behavioral-morphological-and-electrophysiological-assessment-of-the-effects-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-on-large-and-small-nerve-fibers-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rat-zucker-lean-and-wistar-rats
#15
E Garcia-Perez, T Schönberger, M Sumalla, B Stierstorfer, R Solà, H Doods, J Serra, N Gorodetskaya
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The most common presentation is in the form of a distal axonal sensory-motor polyneuropathy that involves large and small nerve fibers in variable proportion. METHODS: Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (ZDF), Zucker Lean (ZL) and Wistar Han (WH) rats were used to asses the behavioral, morphological and electrophysiological effects that T2DM have on peripheral large and small nerve fibers of 6-40 week-old rats...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675203/lipid-biochemical-changes-detected-in-normal-appearing-white-matter-of-chronic-multiple-sclerosis-by-spectral-coherent-raman-imaging
#16
K W C Poon, C Brideau, R Klaver, G J Schenk, J J Geurts, P K Stys
Multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibits demyelination, inflammatory infiltration, axonal degeneration, and gliosis, affecting widespread regions of the central nervous system (CNS). While white matter MS lesions have been well characterized pathologically, evidence indicates that the MS brain may be globally altered, with subtle abnormalities found in grossly normal appearing white matter (NAWM). These subtle changes are difficult to investigate by common methods such as histochemical stains and conventional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656363/2-pentadecyl-2-oxazoline-reduces-neuroinflammatory-environment-in-the-mptp-model-of-parkinson-disease
#17
Marika Cordaro, Rosalba Siracusa, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Alessio Filippo Peritore, Ramona D'Amico, Enrico Gugliandolo, Rosanna Di Paola, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Current pharmacological management of Parkinson disease (PD) does not provide for disease modification, but addresses only symptomatic features. Here, we explore a new approach to neuroprotection based on the use of 2-pentadecyl-2-oxazoline (PEA-OXA), the oxazoline derivative of the fatty acid amide signaling molecule palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in an experimental model of PD. Daily oral treatment with PEA-OXA (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced behavioral impairments and neuronal cell degeneration of the dopaminergic tract induced by four intraperitoneal injections of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) on 8-week-old male C57 mice...
April 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622084/morphologic-variations-in-the-pineal-gland-of-the-albino-rat-after-a-chronic-alcoholisation-process
#18
J Martínez-Salvador, A Ruiz-Torner, A Blasco-Serra, F Martínez-Soriano, A A Valverde-Navarro
We studied the effect of alcohol on the pineal gland of 48 male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group underwent a previous progressive alcoholisation period with ethanol diluted in water at a concentration of 40%. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, and the ultrastructure, karyometric indices, and number of synaptic bodies in the pineal gland were analysed. The results showed progressive morphologic alterations in the ethanol-treated animals, which culminated in fatty degeneration of the pineal parenchyma after 6 months...
April 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615085/expression-patterns-of-stat3-erk-and-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-are-associated-with-development-and-histologic-severity-of-hepatic-steatosis-a-retrospective-study
#19
Euno Choi, Won Kim, Sae Kyung Joo, Sunyoung Park, Jeong Hwan Park, Yun Kyung Kang, So-Young Jin, Mee Soo Chang
BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis renders hepatocytes vulnerable to injury, resulting in the progression of preexisting liver disease. Previous animal and cell culture studies implicated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and estrogen-receptor α in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis and disease progression. However, to date there have been few studies performed using human liver tissue to study hepatic steatosis...
April 3, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587967/the-gluteal-muscles-in-end-stage-osteoarthritis-of-the-hip-intra-and-interobserver-reliability-and-agreement-of-mri-assessments-of-muscle-atrophy-and-fatty-degeneration
#20
K Kivle, E Lindland, K E Mjaaland, A H Pripp, S Svenningsen, L Nordsletten
AIM: To assess the intra- and interobserver reliability and agreement of muscular atrophy and fatty degeneration of the gluteal muscles on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with end-stage osteoarthritis of the hip. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with end-stage osteoarthritis of the hip, who scheduled for hip replacement surgery, were included in the study. The cross-sectional areas of the gluteus medius and minimus muscles were manually circumscribed and automatically calculated, while intramuscular fatty degeneration was assessed using the semi-quantitative classification system of Goutallier...
March 24, 2018: Clinical Radiology
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