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Fatty degeneration

Yan Gong, Zhuo Shao, Zhongjie Fu, Matthew L Edin, Ye Sun, Raffael G Liegl, Zhongxiao Wang, Chi-Hsiu Liu, Samuel B Burnim, Steven S Meng, Fred B Lih, John Paul SanGiovanni, Darryl C Zeldin, Ann Hellström, Lois E H Smith
Neovascular eye diseases including retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related-macular-degeneration are major causes of blindness. Fenofibrate treatment in type 2 diabetes patients reduces progression of diabetic retinopathy independent of its peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α agonist lipid lowering effect. The mechanism is unknown. Fenofibrate binds to and inhibits cytochrome P450 epoxygenase (CYP)2C with higher affinity than to PPARα. CYP2C metabolizes ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs)...
September 30, 2016: EBioMedicine
Yuan-Yuan Zhan, Jin-Hui Wang, Xing Tian, Shi-Xiu Feng, Lin Xue, Li-Ping Tian
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Citrullus lanatus ssp. vulgaris var. megalaspermus Lin et Chao, was also known as watermelon belongs to family Cucurbitaceae, variously used as healthy food and in the treatment of liver and lungs problems. Currently, Citrullus lanatus has become a major economic crop of medicinal and edible effects with regional characteristics. AIM: This study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of the seed melon (Citrullus lanatus ssp...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jeremy S Francis, Ireneusz Wojtas, Vladimir Markov, Steven J Gray, Thomas J McCown, R Jude Samulski, Larissa T Bilaniuk, Dah-Jyuu Wang, Darryl C De Vivo, Christopher G Janson, Paola Leone
Breakdown of neuro-glial N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) metabolism results in the failure of developmental myelination, manifest in the congenital pediatric leukodystrophy Canavan disease caused by mutations to the sole NAA catabolizing enzyme aspartoacylase. Canavan disease is a major point of focus for efforts to define NAA function, with available evidence suggesting NAA serves as an acetyl donor for fatty acid synthesis during myelination. Elevated NAA is a diagnostic hallmark of Canavan disease, which contrasts with a broad spectrum of alternative neurodegenerative contexts in which levels of NAA are inversely proportional to pathological progression...
October 4, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Valentin P Yakubenko, Tatiana V Byzova
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to be present and/or enriched in vegetable and fish oils. Among fatty acids, n-3 PUFA are generally considered to be protective in inflammation-related diseases. The guidelines for substituting saturated fatty acids for PUFAs have been highly publicized for decades by numerous health organizations. Recently, however, the beneficial properties of n-3 PUFA are questioned by detailed analyses of multiple randomized controlled clinical trials...
October 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Antonietta Stellavato, Monica Lamberti, Anna Virginia Adriana Pirozzi, Francesca de Novellis, Chiara Schiraldi
Myclobutanil is a conazole class fungicide widely used as an agrichemical. It is approved for use on fruit, vegetables and seed commodities in the EU and elsewhere to control fungi such as Ascomycetes, Fungi Imperfecti and, Basidiomycetes. Its widespread use has raised the issue of possible health risks for agrarian communities and the general population, which can be exposed to residues present in food and drinking water. The toxicities identified include adverse effects on liver and kidney and on the development of male reproductive organs...
September 28, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Kathryn E Hopperton, Marc-Olivier Trépanier, Vanessa Giuliano, Richard P Bazinet
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is a proposed mechanism by which Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology potentiates neuronal death and cognitive decline. Consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of AD in human observational studies and exerts protective effects on cognition and pathology in animal models. These fatty acids and molecules derived from them are known to have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties, presenting a potential mechanism for these protective effects...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Kristien Peeters, Paulius Palaima, Ana L Pelayo-Negro, Antonio García, Elena Gallardo, Rosario García-Barredo, Ligia Mateiu, Jonathan Baets, Björn Menten, Els De Vriendt, Peter De Jonghe, Vincent Timmerman, Jon Infante, José Berciano, Albena Jordanova
OBJECTIVE: To identify the unknown genetic cause in a large pedigree previously classified with a distinct form of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2G (CMT2G) and to explore its transcriptional consequences. METHODS: Clinical reevaluation of the pedigree was performed, followed by linkage analysis with the redefined disease statuses, and whole genome and exome sequencing. The impact of the mutation was investigated by immunoblotting and transcriptome sequencing...
September 30, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Fumiaki Takase, Atsuyuki Inui, Yutaka Mifune, Ryosuke Sakata, Tomoyuki Muto, Yoshifumi Harada, Yasuhiro Ueda, Takeshi Kokubu, Masahiro Kurosaka
Atrophy with fatty degeneration is often seen in rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons. PRP has been reported to enhance tissue repair processes after tendon ruptures. However, the effect of PRP on atrophy and fatty degeneration of the muscle is not yet known. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of PRP on degeneration change of rotator cuff muscles in vitro and in vivo. A murine myogenic cell line and a rat rotator cuff tear model were used in this study and PRP was administrated into subacromial space which is widely used in clinical practice...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Wen-Bin Xu, Jun-Hui Liu, Zhi-Jun Chen, Xiang-Qian Fang, Shun-Wu Fan, Zhi-Jun Hu
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study evaluated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histologic changes in the multifidus muscle after anterior spinal fusion. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of spinal fusion on the multifidus muscle in an anterior rabbit model through the use of MRI and histologic evaluation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Retraction and splitting approach are known to be important factors in postoperative injury and atrophy of the multifidus muscle...
September 28, 2016: Spine
S E Varitimidis, Z H Dailiana, D Christou, K Grafanaki, M G Ioannou, C Stathopoulos, K N Malizos
This study investigates the histological background of torn rotator cuff tendons, evaluates the stability of newly synthesized collagen by measuring the hydro-xyproline content and attempts to correlate these findings with the clinical outcome after reconstruction of the rotator cuff. Sixty-one patients underwent reconstruction for a -rotator cuff tear. They were evaluated preoperatively with the Constant-Murley score, MRI and ultrasound. Biopsy samples were taken from chronic rotator cuff tears and histological analysis was performed...
August 2016: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica
Francisco di Girolamo, Miguel Ángel Sanchez-Corral Mena, Juan José Sanchez Fernandez, Eduard Claver I Garrido
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2016: Medicina Clínica
Sana Salah, Houda Migaou, Zied Belaaj, Soumaya Boudokhane, Anis Jellad, Abderrazak Abid, Zohra Ben Salah Frih
OBJECTIVE: Winging of the scapula has a variety of causes and a variable prognosis. It contributes to a disruption of the scapulohumeral rhythm with a decreased flexion and abduction of the upper extremity and a source of a considerable pain. This condition can affect the ability to perform activities of daily living. The most common cause of scapula winging is serratus anterior paralysis resulting from a lesion of the long thoracic nerve. The rupture of the muscle itself remains uncommon...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Jun Yang, Ya-Li Yu, Yu Jin, Ying Zhang, Chang-Qing Zheng
AIM: To summarize and compare the clinical characteristics of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). METHODS: A total of 124 patients with DILI and 116 patients with PBC treated at Shengjing Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University from 2005 to 2013 were included. Demographic data (sex and age), biochemical indexes (total protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma glutamyltransferase), immunological indexes [immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG, IgM, antinuclear antibody, anti-smooth muscle antibody, anti-mitochondrial antibody, and anti-mitochondrial antibodies] and pathological findings were compared in PBC patients, untyped DILI patients and patients with different types of DILI (hepatocellular type, cholestatic type and mixed type)...
September 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Laís Uyeda Aivazoglou, Orlando Rondan Zotti, Marcelo de Medeiros Pinheiro, Moacir Ribeiro de Castro Junior, Andrea Puchnick, Artur da Rocha Corrêa Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila Fernandes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the imaging features of spondyloarthritis in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sacroiliac (SI) joint, topography (in thirds) and affected margin, considering that this issue is rarely addressed in the literature. METHODS: Cross-sectional study evaluating MRI (1.5T) of SI joints in 16 patients with axial spondyloarthritis for the presence of acute changes (subchondral bone edema, enthesitis, synovitis and capsulitis) and chronic changes (erosions, subchondral bone sclerosis, bony bridges, and fatty infiltration), performed by two radiologists blind for clinical data...
September 9, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
Reza Salehi, Marcos German Colazo, Stephen Tsoi, Amir Behrouzi, Benjamin K Tsang, Michael K Dyck, Masahito Oba, Divakar Justus Ambrose
The main objectives were to determine the influence of diets enriched in α-linolenic, linoleic or oleic acid on the development and transcriptomic profile of embryos collected from dairy cattle. Non-lactating Holstein cows received one of three diets supplemented with 8% rolled oilseeds: flax (FLX, n=8), sunflower (SUN, n=7) or canola (CAN, n=8). After a minimum 35-day diet adaptation, cows were superovulated, artificially inseminated and ova/embryos recovered non-surgically 7.5 days later. Cows fed FLX had less degenerated embryos and more viable embryos than those fed CAN or SUN...
September 20, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Junhua Wang, Peter D Westenskow, Mingliang Fang, Martin Friedlander, Gary Siuzdak
Photoreceptor degeneration is characteristic of vision-threatening diseases including age-related macular degeneration. Photoreceptors are metabolically demanding cells in the retina, but specific details about their metabolic behaviours are unresolved. The quantitative metabolomics of retinal degeneration could provide valuable insights and inform future therapies. Here, we determined the metabolomic 'fingerprint' of healthy and dystrophic retinas in rat models using optimized metabolite extraction techniques...
October 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Kyuri Kim, Naseem Chini, David G Fairchild, Steven K Engle, William J Reagan, Sandra D Summers, Jon C Mirsalis
There is a great need for improved diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of potential cardiac toxicity in drug development. This study reports the evaluation of several commercially available biomarker kits by 3 institutions (SRI, Eli Lilly, and Pfizer) for the discrimination between myocardial degeneration/necrosis and cardiac hypertrophy as well as the assessment of the interlaboratory and interplatform variation in results. Serum concentrations of natriuretic peptides (N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide [NT-proANP] and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]), cardiac and skeletal troponins (cTnI, cTnT, and sTnI), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) were assessed in rats treated with minoxidil (MNX) and isoproterenol (ISO)...
September 16, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Ismael Galván, Juan Garrido-Fernández, José Ríos, Antonio Pérez-Gálvez, Bernal Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan José Negro
Animals cannot synthesize carotenoid pigments de novo, and must consume them in their diet. Most mammals, including humans, are indiscriminate accumulators of carotenoids but inefficiently distribute them to some tissues and organs, such as skin. This limits the potential capacity of these organisms to benefit from the antioxidant and immunostimulatory functions that carotenoids fulfill. Indeed, to date, no mammal has been known to have evolved physiological mechanisms to incorporate and deposit carotenoids in the skin or hair, and mammals have therefore been assumed to rely entirely on other pigments such as melanins to color their integument...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Junhong Guo, Li Hong, Xiaoxia Z West, Hua Wang, Robert G Salomon
Oxidative stress causes lipid-derived oxidative modification of biomolecules that has been implicated in many pathological states. Phospholipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids are major targets of free radical-initiated oxidation. Phospholipids that incorporate docosahexaenoate (DHA) are highly enriched in important neural structures including the brain and retina, where DHA comprises 40% and 60% of total fatty acids, respectively. Oxidative fragmentation of 2-docosahexaenoyl-1-palmityl-sn-glycerophosphocholine generates esters of 4-hydroxy-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid (HOHA) and 4-keto-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid (KOHA) with 2-lysophosphatidylcholine, HOHA-PC, and KOHA-PC...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Silvia Sookoian, Puneet Puri, Gustavo O Castaño, Romina Scian, Faridodin Mirshahi, Arun J Sanyal, Carlos J Pirola
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) develops from a complex process, which includes changes in the liver methylome. Betaine plays a pivotal role in the regulation of methylogenesis. We performed a two-stage case-control study, which included patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD to explore circulating levels of betaine and its association with the histological spectrum. We also explored the association between a missense rs1805074, p.Ser646Pro variant in DMGDH (dimethylglycine dehydrogenase mitochondrial) and NAFLD severity (n=390)...
September 10, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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