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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332434/occurrence-of-ergot-alkaloids-in-wheat-from-albania
#1
Dritan Topi, Breda Jakovac-Strajn, Katarina Pavšič-Vrtač, Gabrijela Tavčar-Kalcher
In the present study, the occurrence of ergot alkaloids in wheat harvested in Albania was investigated. A total of 71 samples of winter wheat collected in the years 2014 and 2015 were analysed for the twelve most important ergot alkaloids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In the harvesting year 2014, 48.6% of samples were contaminated with ergot alkaloids, whereas in 2015 only 19.4% of samples were contaminated. In 2014, the concentrations of total ergot alkaloids ranged from 17.3 to 975...
March 23, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300233/ergot-alkaloids-synthetic-approaches-to-lysergic-acid-and-clavine-alkaloids
#2
REVIEW
Haichao Liu, Yanxing Jia
Covering: 2000 to 2017Ergot alkaloids are among the most important pharmaceuticals and natural toxins. Significant progress has been achieved in recent years on the research of ergot alkaloids. In this review, we re-introduced the history of ergot alkaloids. Meanwhile, we summarized all the natural products and semi-synthetic derivatives of ergot alkaloids. We also briefly described the biosynthesis and semi-synthesis of ergot alkaloid drugs from raw materials obtained by fermentation. Moreover, we reviewed the advances that have been made in the total synthesis of ergot alkaloids since 2000...
March 16, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277860/conservative-treatment-of-pelvic-congestion-syndrome-indications-and-opportunities
#3
S G Gavrilov, O O Turischeva
This brief review describes conservative treatment methods for pelvic venous congestion. The authors present an analysis of the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ergot alkaloid derivatives, hormonal agents, venoprotective agents, and compression therapy in the treatment of varicose disease of the pelvic veins (VDPV), as well as indications for medical therapy. The paucity of studies addressing this topic and the need for large multidisciplinary studies to explore the opportunities for non-surgical treatment of VDPV are highlighted...
March 3, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257512/quantitative-molecular-diagnostic-assays-of-grain-washes-for-claviceps-purpurea-are-correlated-with-visual-determinations-of-ergot-contamination
#4
Alexia Comte, Tom Gräfenhan, Matthew G Links, Sean M Hemmingsen, Tim J Dumonceaux
We examined the epiphytic microbiome of cereal grain using the universal barcode chaperonin-60 (cpn60). Microbial community profiling of seed washes containing DNA extracts prepared from field-grown cereal grain detected sequences from a fungus identified only to Class Sordariomycetes. To identify the fungal sequence and to improve the reference database, we determined cpn60 sequences from field-collected and reference strains of the ergot fungus, Claviceps purpurea. These data allowed us to identify this fungal sequence as deriving from C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240164/effects-of-dietary-mycotoxins-on-gut-microbiome
#5
Kexin Du, C Wang, Ping Liu, Yuan Li, Xi Ma
The harmful effects of mycotoxins on intestinal health have received worldwide attention. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, and include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids. Insuring the absence or low levels of mycotoxins is critical for food and feed safety. Currently, the studies in this field have illuminated the adverse effects of mycotoxins on gut health including intestinal integrity and the gut-associated immune system...
February 22, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168931/ergot-alkaloids-of-the-clavicipitaceae
#6
Simona Florea, Daniel G Panaccione, Christopher Lewis Schardl
Ergot alkaloids are highly diverse in structure, exhibit diverse effects on animals, and are produced by diverse fungi in phylum Ascomycota, including pathogens and mutualistic symbionts of plants. These mycotoxins are best known from the fungal family, Clavicipitaceae, and are named for the ergot fungi that, through millennia, have contaminated grains and caused mass poisonings, with effects ranging from dry gangrene to convulsions and death. However, they are also useful sources of pharmaceuticals for a variety of medical purposes...
February 7, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107016/total-syntheses-of-hibiscone-c-and-lysergine-a-cyclization-fragmentation-strategy
#7
Yandong Lu, Haosen Yuan, Shijie Zhou, Tuoping Luo
The first asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-hibiscone C and a concise synthesis of ergot alkaloid lysergine are described. Both syntheses were achieved using the radical cyclization/fragmentation strategy. This cascade reaction enabled the application of the strained bicycle as a synthon for the synthesis of highly substituted decalins in an efficient and stereoselective manner.
January 20, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106398/synthesis-of-lysergol-and-its-analogues-to-assess-serotonin-receptor-activity
#8
Haosen Yuan, Zhixian Guo, Tuoping Luo
An efficient synthesis of ergot alkaloid lysergol and its analogues is described, providing compounds for functional evaluation at the human 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, or 5-HT2C receptors. Key features of the synthesis include the development of a tandem reaction to construct the multifunctionalized piperidine skeleton and use of a rhodium-catalyzed [3 + 2] annulation in the late-stage indole formation.
January 20, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096656/analysis-of-pramipexole-dose-response-relationships-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Ying Wang, Sheng-Gang Sun, Sui-Qiang Zhu, Chun-Feng Liu, Yi-Ming Liu, Qing Di, Hui-Fang Shang, Yan Ren, Wei Xiang, Sheng-Di Chen
BACKGROUND: Pramipexole (PPX), a non-ergot dopamine receptor agonist, is a first-line treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). A critical dose level above which a better benefit-to-harm ratio exists has not been examined. METHODS: Chinese PD patients (n=464) were retrospectively analyzed by PPX maintenance dose, PD stage, combined levodopa dose, and baseline tremor contribution. The sum score of Baseline Activities of Daily Living (part II) and Motor Examination (III) of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS II+III) was used as a covariate for final score adjustment...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074041/transcription-factor-xpp1-is-a-switch-between-primary-and-secondary-fungal-metabolism
#10
Christian Derntl, Bernhard Kluger, Christoph Bueschl, Rainer Schuhmacher, Robert L Mach, Astrid R Mach-Aigner
Fungi can produce a wide range of chemical compounds via secondary metabolism. These compounds are of major interest because of their (potential) application in medicine and biotechnology and as a potential source for new therapeutic agents and drug leads. However, under laboratory conditions, most secondary metabolism genes remain silent. This circumstance is an obstacle for the production of known metabolites and the discovery of new secondary metabolites. In this study, we describe the dual role of the transcription factor Xylanase promoter binding protein 1 (Xpp1) in the regulation of both primary and secondary metabolism of Trichoderma reesei Xpp1 was previously described as a repressor of xylanases...
January 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046145/effects-of-cows-grazing-toxic-endophyte-infected-tall-fescue-or-novel-endophyte-infected-tall-fescue-in-late-gestation-on-cow-performance-reproduction-and-progeny-growth-performance-and-carcass-characteristics
#11
L M Shoup, L M Miller, M Srinivasan, F A Ireland, D W Shike
Very little is known regarding the effects of cow exposure to toxic ergot alkaloids in late gestation and the subsequent, long-term effects on progeny. Therefore, the objectives were to determine the effects of grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue () or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue during late gestation on cow BW, BCS, hair coat score (HCS), respiration rates, milk production, and reproduction and on growth performance and carcass characteristics of progeny. Eighty gestating, Angus × Simmental cows (age = 6...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031641/ergotism-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Claudia A Liegl, Michael A McGrath
A case of ergotism is presented to illustrate the role of duplex ultrasonography in the diagnosis and management of this nonatherosclerotic cause of peripheral arterial disease. Historical aspects of ergotism are discussed together with reference to the relative vulnerability of different segments of the arterial circulation. Our case emphasizes the potential for complete reversibility of the vascular changes if recognized early.
December 2016: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960261/a-concise-history-of-mycotoxin-research
#13
John I Pitt, J David Miller
Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins entered human food supplies about the time when mankind first began to cultivate crops and to store them from one season to the next, perhaps 10,000 years ago. The storage of cereals probably initiated the transition by mankind from hunter-gatherer to cultivator, at the same time providing a vast new ecological niche for fungi pathogenic on grain crops or saprophytic on harvested grain, many of which produced mycotoxins. Grains have always been the major source of mycotoxins in the diet of man and his domestic animals...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885368/structural-characterization-of-eash-aspergillus-japonicus-an-oxidase-involved-in-cycloclavine-biosynthesis
#14
Dorota Jakubczyk, Lorenzo Caputi, Clare E M Stevenson, David M Lawson, Sarah E O'Connor
Aj_EasH is a non-heme iron- and α-keto-glutarate-dependent oxidase that is responsible for an unusual cyclopropyl ring formation in the biosynthesis of the fungal ergot alkaloid cycloclavine. The three dimensional structure of Aj_EasH (2.2 Å resolution) reported here provides insight into the mechanism of this unusual and complex reaction.
December 6, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883998/the-non-ergot-derived-dopamine-agonist-quinagolide-as-an-anti-endometriotic-agent
#15
Alpaslan Akyol, Ebru Kavak, Hadice Akyol, Şehmus Pala, Ferit Gürsu
AIM: The study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a dopamine agonist, quinagolide, on experimentally induced endometriosis in a rat model. METHODS: Twenty female Wistar rats were used in this experiment. Endometriosis was surgically induced by transplantation of autologous endometrial tissue. A second laparotomy was performed 4 weeks after the first one to assess the pre-treatment implant volumes, and peritoneal lavage with saline solution was performed to assess the peritoneal cytokine levels...
November 25, 2016: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882516/risk-of-medication-overuse-headache-across-classes-of-treatments-for-acute-migraine
#16
REVIEW
Kristian Thorlund, Christina Sun-Edelstein, Eric Druyts, Steve Kanters, Shanil Ebrahim, Rahul Bhambri, Elodie Ramos, Edward J Mills, Michel Lanteri-Minet, Stewart Tepper
BACKGROUND: The most commonly prescribed medications used to treat migraine acutely are single analgesics, ergots, opioids, and triptans. Due to varying mechanisms of action across drug classes, there is reason to believe that some classes may be less likely than others to elicit Medication Overuse Headache (MOH) than others. We therefore aimed to determine whether certain classes of acute migraine drugs are more likely to elicit MOH than others. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic literature was conducted to identify studies of varying designs that reported on MOH within the considered treatment classes...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873003/localization-of-ergot-alkaloids-in-sclerotia-of-claviceps-purpurea-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#17
Julian Dopstadt, Simeon Vens-Cappell, Lisa Neubauer, Paul Tudzynski, Benedikt Cramer, Klaus Dreisewerd, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
The fungus Claviceps purpurea produces highly toxic ergot alkaloids and accumulates these in the hardened bodies of fungal mycelium. These so-called sclerotia, or ergot bodies, replace the crop seed of infected plants, which can include numerous important food- and feedstuff such as rye and wheat. While several studies have explored details of the infection process and development of ergot bodies, little information is available on the spatial distribution of the mycotoxins in the sclerotia. Here we used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) at a lateral resolution of 35 μm to visualize the distribution of two representative alkaloids, ergocristine and ergometrine, produced by Ecc93 and Gal 310 variants of C...
November 21, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861837/cardiovascular-events-conditions-and-procedures-among-people-with-episodic-migraine-in-the-us-population-results-from-the-american-migraine-prevalence-and-prevention-ampp-study
#18
Dawn C Buse, Michael L Reed, Kristina M Fanning, Tobias Kurth, Richard B Lipton
BACKGROUND: Though migraine, particularly migraine with aura, is a cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, the scope and distribution of cardiovascular disease in representative samples of people with migraine are not known. This is important because many widely used acute migraine treatments, including triptans, ergot alkaloids, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, carry precautions, warnings, or contraindications for use in persons with CV disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess the scope and distribution of cardiovascular events, conditions, and procedures in persons with episodic migraine in a representative sample of the US population, using data from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study...
January 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830762/production-of-ricinoleic-acid-containing-monoestolide-triacylglycerides-in-an-oleaginous-diatom-chaetoceros-gracilis
#19
Masataka Kajikawa, Tatsuki Abe, Kentaro Ifuku, Ken-Ichi Furutani, Dongyi Yan, Tomoyo Okuda, Akinori Ando, Shigenobu Kishino, Jun Ogawa, Hideya Fukuzawa
Ricinoleic acid (RA), a hydroxyl fatty acid, is suitable for medical and industrial uses and is produced in high-oil-accumulating organisms such as castor bean and the ergot fungus Claviceps. We report here the efficient production of RA in a transgenic diatom Chaetoceros gracilis expressing the fatty acid hydroxylase gene (CpFAH) from Claviceps purpurea. In transgenic C. gracilis, RA content increased at low temperatures, reaching 2.2 pg/cell when cultured for 7 d at 15 °C, without affecting cell growth, and was enhanced (3...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796464/ergot-and-non-ergot-dopamine-agonists-and-heart-failure-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#20
François Montastruc, Florence Moulis, Mélanie Araujo, Leila Chebane, Olivier Rascol, Jean-Louis Montastruc
PURPOSE: Some studies have suggested a potential risk of heart failure in patients with Parkinson's disease receiving dopamine (DA) agonists. However, the results are conflicting. We used VigiBase®, the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) database, to investigate a potential signal strengthening of heart failure with DA agonists in Parkinsonian patients older than 45 years. METHODS: A case/non-case (disproportionality) analysis was performed in Vigibase® using ICSRs registered between 1978 and May 2016...
January 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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