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Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares, Karl De Ruyck, Valdet Uka, Laura Gámiz-Gracia, Ana M García-Campaña, Sarah De Saeger, José Diana Di Mavungu
A fundamental step in addressing the global problem of mycotoxins is the development of highly sensitive, multi-class extraction and detection methods. This constitutes a field of research that has in recent years enjoyed a steady advance. Such methods, generally based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, are widely reported successfully detecting various mycotoxins in different food and feed samples. In this work, an innovative approach to multi-class mycotoxin control is proposed, offering specific advantages: a broader inclusion of more mycotoxin classes, robust and thorough extraction for all target compounds despite their varied chemical properties, and determination of all analytes from a single injection...
March 24, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Subhajit Bhunia, Saikat Chaudhuri, Subhadip De, K Naresh Babu, Alakesh Bisai
The synthesis of the tetracyclic skeleton of ergot alkaloids has been developed via a key organocatalytic enantioselective aldol reaction using paraformaldehyde as the C1-unit in the presence of thiourea catalyst followed by a key Pd-catalyzed directed coupling accelerated by the DavePhos ligand. Utilizing the aforementioned strategy, we have synthesized a key tetracyclic intermediate in up to 95% ee with high yield.
March 20, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Karla Soares-Weiser, John Rathbone, Yusuke Ogawa, Kiyomi Shinohara, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. This review, one in a series examining the treatment of TD, covers miscellaneous treatments not covered elsewhere. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether drugs, hormone-, dietary-, or herb-supplements not covered in other Cochrane reviews on TD treatments, surgical interventions, electroconvulsive therapy, and mind-body therapies were effective and safe for people with antipsychotic-induced TD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
D M Liebe, R R White
The objective of this study was to quantitatively summarize literature reporting endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) effects on cattle ADG. This meta-analysis evaluated endophyte infection level, climate, and forage yield using a literature dataset of 138 treatments from 20 articles. Three infection level measurements were tested: endophyte infection as a percentage of infected tillers (E%); ergovaline concentration in ppb ([E]); and total ergot alkaloid concentration ([TEA])...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Chong Shi, Shazhou An, Zhengpei Yao, Carolyn A Young, Daniel G Panaccione, Stephen T Lee, Christopher L Schardl, Chunjie Li
Cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae) are an important forage component for livestock in western China, and many have seed-transmitted symbionts of the genus Epichloë, fungal endophytes that are broadly distributed geographically and in many tribes of the Poöideae. Epichloë strains can produce any of several classes of alkaloids, of which ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes can be toxic to mammalian and invertebrate herbivores, whereas lolines and peramine are more selective against invertebrates...
January 25, 2018: Mycologia
Jeannette J Lucejko, Jacopo La Nasa, Francesca Porta, Alessandro Vanzetti, Giuseppa Tanda, Claudio Filippo Mangiaracina, Alessandro Corretti, Maria Perla Colombini, Erika Ribechini
Cereals were very important in ancient diets, however evidence from archaeological sites of the vessels used for processing or storing cereals is comparatively rare. Micro-organisms, as well as chemical-physical effects can easily degrade cereals during the burial period. This can lead to a complete cereal decay and to serious difficulties in estimating the intensity of use of the cereals by ancient populations. Here, we present a novel biomarker approach entailing the detection of secondary lipid metabolites produced by ergot fungi (genus Claviceps), which are common cereal pests...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ulrike Steiner, Eckhard Leistner
Naturally occurring and semisynthetic ergot alkaloids play a role in health care or as recreational drugs in Western and indigenous Mexican societies. Evidence is summarized that ergot alkaloids present in Central American Convolvulaceae like Turbina corymbosa, Ipomoea violacea , and Ipomoea asarifolia are colonized by different species of a newly described clavicipitaceous fungal genus named Periglandula . The fungi are associated with peltate glandular trichomes on the adaxial leaf surface of its host plants...
March 2, 2018: Planta Medica
Kamila Píchová, Sylvie Pažoutová, Martin Kostovčík, Milada Chudíčková, Eva Stodůlková, Petr Novák, Miroslav Flieger, Elna van der Linde, Miroslav Kolařík
The ergot, genus Claviceps, comprises approximately 60 species of specialised ovarial grass parasites famous for the production of food toxins and pharmaceutics. Although the ergot has been known for centuries, its evolution have not been resolved yet. Our approach combining multilocus phylogeny, molecular dating and the study of ecological, morphological and metabolic features shows that Claviceps originated in South America in the Palaeocene on a common ancestor of BEP (subfamilies Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, Pooideae) and PACMAD (subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Chloridoideae, Micrairoideae, Arundinoideae, Danthonioideae) grasses...
February 23, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
M A Snider, D L Harmon, J L Klotz
Prior work using a contractility bioassay determined that the serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtype 5-HT2A is present in bovine lateral saphenous veins and plays a role in ergot alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in steers grazing endophyte-infected (Epichloë coenophiala) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). Ergot alkaloids have also been shown to be vasoactive in bovine gut vasculature. To determine what 5-HT receptors are involved in vasoconstriction of gut vasculature, contractility of ruminal and mesenteric arteries and veins collected from cattle were evaluated in the presence of agonists selective for 5-HT1B (CP 93129) 5-HT1D (L-694, 247), 5-HT2A (TCB-2), 5-HT2B (BW 723C86), 5-HT4 (BIMU-8) and 5-HT7 (LP 44) receptors...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
László Kozák, Zoltán Szilágyi, Barbara Vágó, Annamária Kakuk, László Tóth, István Molnár, István Pócsi
The hypocrealean fungus Claviceps paspali is a parasite of wild grasses. This fungus is widely utilized in the pharmaceutical industry for the manufacture of ergot alkaloids, but also produces tremorgenic and neurotoxic indole-diterpene (IDT) secondary metabolites such as paspalitrems A and B. IDTs cause significant losses in agriculture and represent health hazards that threaten food security. Conversely, IDTs may also be utilized as lead compounds for pharmaceutical drug discovery. Current protoplast-mediated transformation protocols of C...
February 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Manoj B Kudupoje, James L Klotz, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Karl A Dawson, Kyle R McLeod, Eric S Vanzant
Ergot alkaloids, in their active isomeric form, affect animal health and performance, and adsorbents are used to mitigate toxicities by reducing bioavailability. Adsorbents with high specificity (molecularly imprinted polymers: MIP) adsorb ergot alkaloids in vitro, but require evaluation for biological implications. Using ex vivo myography, synthetic polymers were evaluated for effects on the bioactivity of ergotamine tartrate (ETA). Polymers were first evaluated using isotherms. Lateral saphenous veins were collected from 17 steers for four independent studies: dose response of ETA, adsorbent dose response, validation of pre-myograph incubation conditions and MIP/ non-molecularly imprinted polymer (NIP) comparison...
January 30, 2018: Toxins
Anastasia P Athanasoulia-Kaspar, Kathrin H Popp, Gunter K Stalla
The dopaminergic treatment represents the primary treatment in prolactinomas which are the most common pituitary adenomas and account for about 40% of all pituitary tumours with an annual incidence of six to ten cases per million population. The dopaminergic treatment includes ergot and non ergot derivatives with high affinity for the dopamine receptors D1 or/and D2. Through the activation of the dopaminergic pathway on pituitary lactotrophs, the dopamine agonists inhibit the prolactin synthesis and secretion, therefore normalizing the prolactin levels and restoring eugonadism, but also lead to tumour shrinkage...
January 29, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Raman Dhariwal, George Fedak, Yves Dion, Curtis Pozniak, André Laroche, François Eudes, Harpinder Singh Randhawa
Triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) is an important feed crop which suffers severe yield, grade and end-use quality losses due to Fusarium head blight (FHB). Development of resistant triticale cultivars is hindered by lack of effective genetic resistance sources. To dissect FHB resistance, a doubled haploid spring triticale population produced from the cross TMP16315/AC Ultima using a microspore culture method, was phenotyped for FHB incidence, severity, visual rating index (VRI), deoxynivalenol (DON) and some associated traits (ergot, grain protein content, test weight, yield, plant height and lodging) followed by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping...
January 5, 2018: Genes
Julia I Bauer, Madeleine Gross, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Gerd Hamscher, Ewald Usleber
Limited availability of toxin standards for lolitrem B and ergovaline impedes routine control of grasses for endophyte toxins. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the indole-diterpene mycotoxin paxilline, in combination with a generic EIA for ergot alkaloids, as alternative parameters for screening purposes. Analysis of grass seeds and model pastures of four different grass species showed that both EIAs yielded highly positive results for paxilline and ergot alkaloids in perennial ryegrass seeds...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Saikat Chaudhuri, Subhajit Bhunia, Avishek Roy, Mrinal K Das, Alakesh Bisai
Biomimetic total syntheses of either enantiomers of a number of ergot alkaloids, chanoclavine I (1b), chanoclavine I aldehyde (1c), pyroclavine (1e), festuclavine (1f), pibocin A (1g), 9-deacetoxyfumigaclavine C (1h), and fumigaclavine G (1i), have been achieved from seco-agroclavine (1a). The advanced intermediate for seco-agroclavine (1a) was synthesized via a key thiourea-catalyzed intramolecular nitronate addition onto α,β-unsaturated ester.
January 5, 2018: Organic Letters
Abimael González-Hernández, Bruno A Marichal-Cancino, Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink, Carlos M Villalón
Migraine is a neurovascular disorder. Current acute specific antimigraine pharmacotherapies target trigeminovascular 5-HT1B/1D , 5-HT1F and CGRP receptors but, unfortunately, they induce some cardiovascular and central side effects that lead to poor treatment adherence/compliance. Therefore, new antimigraine drugs are being explored. Areas covered: This review considers the adverse (or potential) side effects produced by current and prospective antimigraine drugs, including medication overuse headache (MOH) produced by ergots and triptans, the side effects observed in clinical trials for the new gepants and CGRP antibodies, and a section discussing the potential effects resulting from disruption of the cardiovascular CGRPergic neurotransmission...
January 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Juan F Martin, Rubén Álvarez-Álvarez, Paloma Liras
The clavine alkaloids produced by the fungi of the Aspergillaceae and Arthrodermatacea families differ from the ergot alkaloids produced by Claviceps and Neotyphodium . The clavine alkaloids lack the extensive peptide chain modifications that occur in lysergic acid derived ergot alkaloids. Both clavine and ergot alkaloids arise from the condensation of tryptophan and dimethylallylpyrophosphate by the action of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase. The first five steps of the biosynthetic pathway that convert tryptophan and dimethylallyl-pyrophosphate (DMA-PP) in chanoclavine-1-aldehyde are common to both clavine and ergot alkaloids...
November 24, 2017: Genes
Paige E Bragg, Matthew D Maust, Daniel G Panaccione
Biosynthesis of the dihydrogenated forms of ergot alkaloids is of interest because many of the ergot alkaloids used as pharmaceuticals may be derived from dihydrolysergic acid (DHLA) or its precursor dihydrolysergol. The maize (Zea mays) ergot pathogen Claviceps gigantea has been reported to produce dihydrolysergol, a hydroxylated derivative of the common ergot alkaloid festuclavine. We hypothesized expression of C. gigantea cloA in a festuclavine-accumulating mutant of the fungus Neosartorya fumigata would yield dihydrolysergol because the P450 monooxygenase CloA from other fungi performs similar oxidation reactions...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Stephen D Silberstein, David W Dodick, Marcelo E Bigal, Paul P Yeung, Peter J Goadsby, Tricia Blankenbiller, Melissa Grozinski-Wolff, Ronghua Yang, Yuju Ma, Ernesto Aycardi
BACKGROUND: Fremanezumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), is being investigated as a preventive treatment for migraine. We compared two fremanezumab dose regimens with placebo for the prevention of chronic migraine. METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with chronic migraine (defined as headache of any duration or severity on ≥15 days per month and migraine on ≥8 days per month) in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive fremanezumab quarterly (a single dose of 675 mg at baseline and placebo at weeks 4 and 8), fremanezumab monthly (675 mg at baseline and 225 mg at weeks 4 and 8), or matching placebo...
November 30, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Francisco de Assis Aquino Gondim, Pamela Bastante, Wilcar Cavalcante Gondim, Joana Gurgel Holanda Filha, Florian P Thomas
In the history of Christianity, veneration of the Virgin Mary reached its greatest intensity in the XIII century. Her perceived impact on daily life was tremendous and not surprisingly this extended to the spheres of disease and healing. The purpose of this study is to compare the medical and neuropsychiatric findings in two XIII century Spanish texts of Marian miracles, both examples of the popular Catholicism (vs. official catholic doctrine). We analyzed the medical and neuropsychiatric events in the Cantigas de Santa Maria (Canticles of St...
November 21, 2017: Neurological Sciences
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