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Streptococcal pharyngitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920580/positive-clinical-outcomes-derived-from-using-streptococcus-salivarius-k12-to-prevent-streptococcal-pharyngotonsillitis-in-children-a-pilot-investigation
#1
Francesco Di Pierro, Maria Colombo, Alberto Zanvit, Amilcare S Rottoli
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12(®)) is a probiotic strain producing the bacteriocins salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B, both of which strongly antagonize the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. It successfully colonizes and exhibits persistence in the oral cavity and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. Previous observations of a small group of children indicated that the use of BLIS K12 could also reduce the occurrence of viral pharyngitis...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903001/right-in-front-of-our-eyes-evolution-of-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-with-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#2
Salaheldin M Elhamamsy, Mazen O Al-Qadi, Taro Minami, Marguerite Neill
INTRODUCTION: Toxic shock syndrome occurs from dysregulation of host inflammatory responses. Toxin- producing strains of Group A streptococcus cause TSS. Ischemic optic neuropathy rarely complicates septic shock. We present a rare case of streptococcal pharyngitis complicated by septic arthritis and TSS with reversible blindness due to non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. CASE: A 28-year-old man drove to our ED with exudative pharyngitis. A rapid streptococcal test was positive...
December 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883972/rheumatic-heart-disease-in-a-developing-country-incidence-and-trend-monastir-tunisia-2000-2013
#3
Asma Sriha Belguith, Afifa Koubaa Abdelkafi, Sana El Mhamdi, Manel Ben Fredj, Hela Abroug, Arwa Ben Salah, Inès Bouanene, Fahima Hassine, Amal Amara, Sana Bhiri, Abdelkarim Derbel, Habib Gamra, Faouzi Maatouk, Mohamed Soussi Soltani
BACKGROUND: The penicillin therapy of β hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis has aided in the decrease of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in developing countries. Tunisia is an endemic area, however, and incidence of RHD is weakly documented. We aimed at establishing the standardized incidence rate (SIR) of RHD in Monastir governorate and at determining RHD prevalence among hospitalized patients in two cardiology departments. METHODS: From the regional register of Monastir Hospital morbidity, we have selected newly diagnosed patients with RHD, residents of Monastir, and hospitalized to the 2 cardiology departments between 2000 and 2013 (2001 not included)...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874935/effect-of-administration-of-streptococcus-salivarius-k12-on-the-occurrence-of-streptococcal-pharyngo-tonsillitis-scarlet-fever-and-acute-otitis-media-in-3-years-old-children
#4
F Di Pierro, M Colombo, M G Giuliani, M L Danza, I Basile, T Bollani, A M Conti, A Zanvit, A S Rottoli
OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12) is a probiotic strain strongly antagonistic to the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. Shown to colonize the oral cavity and to be safe for human use, BLIS K12 has previously been reported to reduce pharyngo-tonsillitis episodes in children or adults known to have experienced recurrent streptococcal infection. The present study was focussed upon evaluating the role of BLIS K12 in the control of streptococcal disease and acute otitis media in children attending the first year of kindergarten...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870815/the-cape-town-clinical-decision-rule-for-streptococcal-pharyngitis-in-children
#5
Mark Emmanuel Engel, Karen Cohen, Ronald Gounden, Andre P Kengne, Dylan Dominic Barth, Andrew C Whitelaw, Veronica Francis, Motasim Badri, Annemie Stewart, James B Dale, Bongani M Mayosi, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: Existing clinical decision rules (CDR) to diagnose group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis have not been validated in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a locally applicable CDR while evaluating existing CDRs for diagnosing GAS pharyngitis in South African children. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study and enrolled 997 children aged 3-15 years presenting to primary care clinics with a complaint of sore throat, and whose parents provided consent...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845834/variation-in-quality-of-care-among-virtual-urgent-care-providers
#6
Yash M Patel
Key findings. (1) Significant variation in quality was found among companies providing virtual visits for management of common acute illnesses. (2) Variation in the performance of the telemedicine companies differed by condition. Specifically, variation across websites was significantly greater for viral pharyngitis and acute rhinosinusitis than for streptococcal pharyngitis, low back pain, ankle pain, and recurrent urinary tract infection. (3) Mode of communication (videoconference, telephone, or webchat) had no statistically significant effect on completeness of history and physical examination or adherence to key management decision guidelines...
September 2016: Findings Brief: Health Care Financing & Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797900/viral-associated-gn-hepatitis-b-and-other-viral-infections
#7
Warren L Kupin
By definition, viral-associated GN indicates the direct pathogenic relationship between active viral replication and the development of acute GN. This definition is in sharp contrast to the semantic label and pathophysiologic foundation behind postinfectious GN that uniquely develops only during a period of resolved and absent active infection. The primary example of postinfectious GN are the glomerular lesions described after a pharyngeal or cutaneous streptococcal infection and do not represent the clinical or immunologic pattern seen with viral-associated GN...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733129/comparative-m-protein-analysis-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-from-pharyngitis-and-skin-infections-in-new-zealand-implications-for-vaccine-development
#8
Deborah A Williamson, Pierre R Smeesters, Andrew C Steer, Julie Morgan, Mark Davies, Philip Carter, Arlo Upton, Stephen Y C Tong, John Fraser, Nicole J Moreland
BACKGROUND: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are responsible for a significant disease burden amongst Māori and Pacific populations in New Zealand (NZ). However, contemporary data are lacking regarding circulating group A Streptococcal (GAS) strains in NZ. Such information is important in guiding vaccine development. METHODS: GAS isolates from April to June 2015 were recovered from skin and pharyngeal samples from children living in areas of high social deprivation in Auckland, NZ, a significant proportion of which are Māori or Pacific...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614728/different-antibiotic-treatments-for-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis
#9
Mieke L van Driel, An Im De Sutter, Hilde Habraken, Sarah Thorning, Thierry Christiaens
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics provide only modest benefit in treating sore throat, although effectiveness increases in participants with positive throat swabs for group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GABHS). It is unclear which antibiotic is the best choice if antibiotics are indicated. OBJECTIVES: To assess the evidence on the comparative efficacy of different antibiotics in: (a) alleviating symptoms (pain, fever); (b) shortening the duration of the illness; (c) preventing relapse; and (d) preventing complications (suppurative complications, acute rheumatic fever, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis)...
September 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599638/pediatric-otolaryngologic-conditions-racial-and-socioeconomic-disparities-in-the-united-states
#10
Sophie Shay, Nina L Shapiro, Neil Bhattacharyya
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Determine the national incidence and disparities for common pediatric otolaryngologic conditions. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative database. METHODS: The National Health Interview Survey (2012) was analyzed, extracting children with frequent ear infections (FEI), nonstreptococcal sore throat (NSST), streptococcal pharyngitis (SP), hay fever, and sinusitis. Demographic data including age, sex, race, Hispanic ethnicity, geographic region, poverty level, and insurance status were extracted...
September 7, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579047/operator-influence-on-blinded-diagnostic-accuracy-of-point-of-care-antigen-testing-for-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis
#11
Carla Penney, Robert Porter, Mary O'Brien, Peter Daley
Background. Acute pharyngitis caused by Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a common presentation to pediatric emergency departments (ED). Diagnosis with conventional throat culture requires 18-24 hours, which prevents point-of-care treatment decisions. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are faster, but previous reports demonstrate significant operator influence on performance. Objective. To measure operator influence on the diagnostic accuracy of a RADT when performed by pediatric ED nurses and clinical microbiology laboratory technologists, using conventional culture as the reference standard...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573720/appropriateness-of-diagnosis-of-streptococcal-pharyngitis-among-thai-community-pharmacists-according-to-the-centor-criteria
#12
Woranuch Saengcharoen, Pornchanok Jaisawang, Palita Udomcharoensab, Kittika Buathong, Sanguan Lerkiatbundit
Background Inappropriate use of antibiotic treatment for pharyngitis by community pharmacists is prevalent in developing countries. Little is known about how the pharmacists identify patients with bacterial pharyngitis. Objective To ascertain the appropriateness of diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis among Thai community pharmacists according to the Centor criteria and to identify factors related to antibiotic dispensing. Setting 1040 Thai community pharmacists. Method A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists was conducted in November 2012 to March 2013...
October 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566251/estimated-burden-of-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis-among-children-in-beijing-china
#13
Shuangsheng Wu, Xiaomin Peng, Zuyao Yang, Chunna Ma, Daitao Zhang, Quanyi Wang, Peng Yang
BACKGROUND: Burden of Group A streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is scarce in developing countries, still unknown in China. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of clinical cases of pharyngitis and GAS culture-positive pharyngitis, and their outpatient visits among children aged 0-14 years in Beijing, the capital of China. METHODS: Multiplier model was used to estimate the numbers of pharyngitis cases, based on reported numbers of clinical cases and GAS culture-positive rates from GAS surveillances in Beijing, consultation rate, population coverage of GAS surveillances, sampling success rate, and test sensitivity of GAS culture from previous studies, surveys and surveillances...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565100/tonsillectomy-for-this-35-year-old-patient
#14
Aysha Ahmed, Abraham T Yacoub, Arun Ponnuru, Smitha Pabbathi, Sowmya Nanjappa, Albert L Vincent, John Greene
Is tonsillectomy an appropriate treatment modality for this adult patient's refractory group A β-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis, in light of her history of recurrent infections?
July 2016: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540457/streptococcal-pharyngitis-in-a-two-month-old-infant-a-case-report
#15
Mohammad Reza Sharif, Marzieh Aalinezhad, Seyyed Mohammad Sajad Sajadian, Mostafa Haji Rezaei
INTRODUCTION: Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis among 5 - 15-year-old children, but it is uncommon in children less than three years old and rarely happens in infants less than one year old. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 62-day-old female infant who presented with fever and poor feeding since two days before admission. At the time of admission, the patient was febrile and ill. Upon examination, a rectal temperature of 38...
May 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524981/lactobacilli-interfere-with-streptococcus-pyogenes-hemolytic-activity-and-adherence-to-host-epithelial-cells
#16
Sunil D Saroj, Lisa Maudsdotter, Raquel Tavares, Ann-Beth Jonsson
Streptococcus pyogenes [Group A streptococcus (GAS)], a frequent colonizer of the respiratory tract mucosal surface, causes a variety of human diseases, ranging from pharyngitis to the life-threatening streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome. Lactobacilli have been demonstrated to colonize the respiratory tract. In this study, we investigated the interference of lactobacilli with the virulence phenotypes of GAS. The Lactobacillus strains L. rhamnosus Kx151A1 and L. reuteri PTA-5289, but not L. salivarius LMG9477, inhibited the hemolytic activity of S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493985/a-study-to-determine-if-addition-of-palatal-petechiae-to-centor-criteria-adds-more-significance-to-clinical-diagnosis-of-acute-strep-pharyngitis-in-children
#17
Kumara V Nibhanipudi
Objective. A study to determine if addition of palatal petechiae to Centor criteria adds more value for clinical diagnosis of acute strep pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis. In children, Centor Criteria does not cover all the symptoms and signs of acute strep pharyngitis. We hypothesize that addition of palatal petechiae to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of clinical diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Methods. One hundred patients with a complaint of sore throat were enrolled in the study...
2016: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489799/accelerating-the-development-of-a-group-a-streptococcus-vaccine-an-urgent-public-health-need
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Louis Excler, Jerome H Kim
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections cause substantial worldwide morbidity and mortality, mostly associated with suppurative complications such as pharyngitis, impetigo, and non-suppurative immune syndromes such as acute rheumatic fever, rheumatic heart disease, and acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Deaths occur mostly in children, adolescents, and young adults in particular pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries. GAS strains are highly variable, and a GAS vaccine would need to overcome the issue of multiple strains...
July 2016: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456827/saliva-induced-clotting-captures-streptococci-novel-roles-for-coagulation-and-fibrinolysis-in-host-defense-and-immune-evasion
#19
Kristofer Wollein Waldetoft, Tirthankar Mohanty, Christofer Karlsson, Matthias Mörgelin, Inga-Maria Frick, Johan Malmström, Lars Björck
Streptococcal pharyngitis is among the most common bacterial infections, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Here we investigate the interactions among three major players in streptococcal pharyngitis: streptococci, plasma, and saliva. We find that saliva activates the plasma coagulation system through both the extrinsic and the intrinsic pathways, entrapping the bacteria in fibrin clots. The bacteria escape the clots by activating host plasminogen. Our results identify a potential function for the intrinsic pathway of coagulation in host defense and a corresponding role for fibrinolysis in streptococcal immune evasion...
October 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440817/point-counterpoint-a-nucleic-acid-amplification-test-for-streptococcus-pyogenes-should-replace-antigen-detection-and-culture-for-detection-of-bacterial-pharyngitis
#20
Bobbi S Pritt, Robin Patel, Thomas J Kirn, Richard B Thomson
Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have frequently been the standard diagnostic approach when specific infectious agents are sought in a clinic specimen. They can be applied for specific agents such as S. pyogenes, or commercial multiplex NAATs for detection of a variety of pathogens in gastrointestinal, bloodstream, and respiratory infections may be used. NAATs are both rapid and sensitive. For many years, S. pyogenes testing algorithms used a rapid and specific group A streptococcal antigen test to screen throat specimens, followed, in some clinical settings, by a throat culture for S...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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