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Streptococcal pharyngitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617790/clinical-management-and-patient-persistence-with-antibiotic-course-in-suspected-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis-for-primary-prevention-of-rheumatic-fever-the-perspective-from-a-new-zealand-emergency-department
#1
Jeremy J Mathan, Jozsef Ekart, Anthony Houlding, Gary Payinda, Clair Mills
AIM: Rates of acute rheumatic fever in the Northland region are historically among the highest in New Zealand, impacting disproportionately on Māori children and youth. The primary aim of this study was to determine patient persistence to antibiotic treatment for group A streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis in patients presenting with sore throat to the Whangarei Hospital Emergency Department. Secondarily, this study sought to determine prescriber adherence to the national antibiotic guideline for sore throat management...
June 16, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562462/the-challenge-of-patient-notification-and-the-work-of-follow-up-generated-by-a-2-step-testing-protocol-for-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#2
Michael E Russo, Jennifer Kline, Preeti Jaggi, Amy L Leber, Daniel M Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Current guidelines recommend confirmatory testing for negative rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) for group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. We sought to describe the work of follow-up generated by this process and frequency of our inability to notify patients of positive results. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed laboratory and outreach nurse records of patients who had group A streptococcal pharyngitis testing performed in an academic pediatric emergency department during 2014...
May 30, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557742/viral-features-and-testing-for-streptococcal-pharyngitis
#3
Daniel J Shapiro, Christina E Lindgren, Mark I Neuman, Andrew M Fine
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends that clinicians forego testing for group A Streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis in patients with clinical features of viral illness. The prevalence of viral features in patients tested for GAS pharyngitis is not known. The objectives of this study were as follows: to describe the prevalence of viral features in pediatric patients for whom rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) for GAS pharyngitis are performed; and to compare the prevalence of GAS and the sensitivity of the RADT in patients with and without viral features...
May 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553774/observation-of-a-pharmacist-conducted-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis-point-of-care-test-a-time-and-motion-study
#4
Carolyn E Corn, Donald G Klepser, Allison M Dering-Anderson, Terrence G Brown, Michael E Klepser, Jaclyn K Smith
BACKGROUND: Acute pharyngitis is among the most common infectious diseases encountered in the United States, resulting in 13 million patient visits annually, with group A streptococcus (GAS) being a common causative pathogen. It is estimated that annual expenditures for the treatment of adult pharyngitis will exceed US$1.2 billion annually. This substantial projection reinforces the need to evaluate diagnosis and treatment of adult pharyngitis in nontraditional settings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research is to quantify the amount of pharmacist time required to complete a point-of-care (POC) test for a patient presenting with pharyngitis symptoms...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549960/mycotic-pseudoaneurysm-of-internal-carotid-artery-secondary-to-lemierre-s-syndrome-how-to-do-it
#5
Filippo Benedetto, David Barillà, Narayana Pipitò, Graziana Derone, Andrea Cutrupi, Chiara Barillà
We report the case of a patient with ICA mycotic pseudo-aneurysm secondary to Lemierre's syndrome, urgently treated. A 75 years old man presented to E.R. with a left swelling lesion of the neck and complaining left visions lost since that morning, fever, hypotension and dyspnoea. Since fifteen days before developing symptoms, he had sore throat and odynophagia treated with a broad coverage of antibiotic therapy for presumed streptococcal pharyngitis. Preoperative CTA images revealed a circular lesion, involving the common carotid artery, carotid bulb, and the proximal part of the internal and external carotid arteries...
May 23, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543851/guttate-psoriasis-triggered-by-perianal-streptococcal-infection
#6
F M Garritsen, D E Kraag, M de Graaf
The association of guttate psoriasis (GP) with streptococcal pharyngitis is well accepted. However, less is known about the association with perianal streptococcal infection. We report a case of a 19-month-old boy with GP after a preceding perianal streptococcal dermatitis, with no clinical signs of a streptococcal pharyngitis. Treatment with phenethicillin was given together with mometasone ointment. After 4 weeks, the perianal redness was reduced and the psoriasis had improved significantly. A review of the literature revealed nine previous case reports, comprising a total of 15 patients...
May 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528647/transition-metal-homeostasis-in-streptococcus-pyogenes-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#7
Andrew G Turner, Cheryl-Lynn Y Ong, Mark J Walker, Karrera Y Djoko, Alastair G McEwan
Trace metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu are essential for various biological functions including proper innate immune function. The host immune system has complicated and coordinated mechanisms in place to either starve and/or overload invading pathogens with various metals to combat the infection. Here, we discuss the roles of Fe, Mn and Zn in terms of nutritional immunity, and also the roles of Cu and Zn in metal overload in relation to the physiology and pathogenesis of two human streptococcal species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511165/susceptibility-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-to-fluoroquinolones-and-macrolides-in-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#8
Yaroslav O Mykhalko, Tetyana V Duhovych, Pavlo P Kish
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcal species are known as the most common cause of bacterial upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Once bacterial infection is diagnosed it demands empirical antibiotic prescription. On the other hand antimicrobial resistance is a global burden in today's medicine. For that reason, knowing of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in population is an important background for successful treatment of bacterial caused URTI. The aim of this study was to analyze S...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479019/utilization-of-influenza-and-streptococcal-pharyngitis-point-of-care-testing-in-the-community-pharmacy-practice-setting
#9
Donald G Klepser, Michael E Klepser, Jaclyn K Smith, Allison M Dering-Anderson, Maggie Nelson, Lauren E Pohren
BACKGROUND: One way to reduce the complications and costs of influenza like illness and pharyngitis is to improve access to testing and treatment in early stages of infection. Pharmacy-based screening and treatment of group A streptococcus (GAS) infection and influenza has the potential to improve patient care and population health. OBJECTIVE: To improve patient care and population health, the objective of this retrospective study was to assess if a previously validated service model could be implemented by pharmacy chains without mandated standardization...
May 2, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463666/characterisation-of-clinically-isolated-streptococcus-pyogenes-from-balanoposthitis-patients-with-special-emphasis-on-emm89-isolates
#10
Tadao Hasegawa, Nanako Hata, Hideyuki Matsui, Masanori Isaka, Ichiro Tatsuno
PURPOSE: Streptococcus pyogenes causes a variety of diseases, such as pharyngitis and toxic shock syndrome. In addition, this bacterium is a causative agent of balanoposthitis. To reveal the bacteriological characteristics of the isolates from balanoposthitis patients, we analysed 47 isolates. In addition, novel clade genotype emm89 S. pyogenes isolates have been reported to be spreading worldwide recently. Hence, we further analysed eight emm89 isolates. METHODOLOGY: A drug susceptibility experiment was performed and emm types were determined...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442182/a-retrospective-study-acute-rheumatic-fever-and-post-streptococcal-reactive-arthritis-in-japan
#11
Satoshi Sato, Yoji Uejima, Eisuke Suganuma, Tadamasa Takano, Yutaka Kawano
BACKGROUND: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and post-streptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA) are immune-mediated consequences of group A streptococcal pharyngitis. ARF has declined in developed nations. No prevalence survey of PSRA has been conducted. This study evaluated the incidence and characteristics of ARF and PSRA in Japanese children. METHODS: From 2010 to 2015, ARF and PSRA were evaluated using clinical data retrospectively collected by chart review from 528 hospitals...
April 22, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387528/palatal-petechiae-in-the-absence-of-group-a-streptococcus-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-deterioration-a-cohort-study
#12
Talia Mahony, Douglas Sidell, Hayley Gans, Michael Cooperstock, Kayla Brown, Joanne M Cheung, Bahare Farhadian, Melissa Gustafson, Margo Thienemann, Jennifer Frankovich
BACKGROUND: Palatal petechiae are 95% specific for streptococcal pharyngitis. Despite this, and despite prior research demonstrating that Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a common antecedent to pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) episodes, we anecdotally observed a low rate of documented GAS in patients with PANS and palatal petechiae. This retrospective chart review was conducted to formally report the rate of palatal petechiae and concurrent GAS in a cohort of patients with PANS and investigate other etiologic factors...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383686/cluster-of-fatal-group-a-streptococcal-emm87-infection-within-a-single-family-molecular-basis-for-invasion-and-transmission
#13
Anthony R Flores, Ruth Ann Luna, Jessica K Runge, Samuel A Shelburne, Carol J Baker
Hypervirulent disease due to group A Streptococcus (GAS) can result from strains with mutations that enhance virulence gene expression but reduce subsequent transmission. We used whole genome sequencing to investigate intra-familial spread between 4 siblings of a hypervirulent GAS strain resulting in a fatality. All invasive and pharyngeal GAS isolates had an identical mutation in a gene encoding a key regulatory protein that yielded a hyperinvasive phenotype. These data challenge the prevailing theory of reduced transmission induced by mutations that lead to hypervirulent GAS by showing that spread of hypervirulent GAS may lead to clusters of invasive disease...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372355/throat-carriage-rate-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-rural-children-in-argentina
#14
Gastón Delpech, Mónica Sparo, Beatriz Baldaccini, Gisela Pourcel, Sabina Lissarrague, Leonardo García Allende
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of group A β-hemolytic streptococci (GAS) in children living in a rural community and to investigate the association between episodes of acute pharyngitis and carrier status. METHODS: Throat swabs were collected from September to November 2013 among children 5-13 years of age from a rural community (Maria Ignacia-Vela, Argentina). The phenotypic characterization of isolates was performed by conventional tests...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367027/a-clinical-decision-rule-for-streptococcal-pharyngitis-management-an-update
#15
Hosain Nasirian, Saeedeh TarvijEslami, Esfandiar Matini, Seyedehsara Bayesh, Yasaman Omaraee
PURPOSE: Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis is a common disease worldwide. We aimed to establish a pragmatic program as a clinical decision rule for GAS pharyngitis diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This article derived from a research project on children aged 6-15 years. Five hundred and seventy-one children met the enrollment criteria on whom throat culture and validities of clinical findings were assessed in positive and negative throat culture groups. RESULTS: Positive GAS throat culture group included 99 (17...
April 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355251/immunization-with-a-streptococcal-multiple-epitope-recombinant-protein-protects-mice-against-invasive-group-a-streptococcal-infection
#16
Chih-Feng Kuo, Nina Tsao, I-Chen Hsieh, Yee-Shin Lin, Jiunn-Jong Wu, Yu-Ting Hung
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus; GAS) causes clinical diseases, including pharyngitis, scarlet fever, impetigo, necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. A number of group A streptococcus vaccine candidates have been developed, but only one 26-valent recombinant M protein vaccine has entered clinical trials. Differing from the design of a 26-valent recombinant M protein vaccine, we provide here a vaccination using the polyvalence epitope recombinant FSBM protein (rFSBM), which contains four different epitopes, including the fibronectin-binding repeats domain of streptococcal fibronectin binding protein Sfb1, the C-terminal immunogenic segment of streptolysin S, the C3-binding motif of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B, and the C-terminal conserved segment of M protein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329505/resolution-of-psoriasis-after-tonsillectomy
#17
Jameson Loyal, Sara Flores, Ali Alikhan
A 19-year-old woman experienced recalcitrantpsoriasis after streptococcal pharyngitis. Multipletreatment regimens were employed, but results werepoor until after the patient underwent tonsillectomy.
February 16, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318768/clinical-development-strategy-for-a-candidate-group-a-streptococcal-vaccine
#18
REVIEW
Florian Schödel, Nicole J Moreland, Janet T Wittes, Kim Mulholland, Ian Frazer, Andrew C Steer, John D Fraser, Jonathan Carapetis
GroupA streptococci (GAS) cause a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from benign pharyngitis and skin infections to severe invasive disease and the immune sequelae rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Pharyngitis, one of the most frequent diseases caused by GAS, is highly prevalent in school-age children in temperate climates and a major cause of antibiotic use. An efficacious vaccine would reduce disease burden associated with pharyngitis and the need of care for sick children. Importantly, GAS pharyngitis is recognised as the main precursor for acute rheumatic fever so a vaccine that is efficacious against GAS pharyngitis should also prevent acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease...
March 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285457/group-a-streptococcus-acute-rheumatic-fever-and-rheumatic-heart-disease-epidemiology-and-clinical-considerations
#19
REVIEW
Liesl J Zühlke, Andrea Beaton, Mark E Engel, Christopher T Hugo-Hamman, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Judith M Katzenellenbogen, Ntobeko Ntusi, Anna P Ralph, Anita Saxena, Pierre R Smeesters, David Watkins, Peter Zilla, Jonathan Carapetis
Early recognition of group A streptococcal pharyngitis and appropriate management with benzathine penicillin using local clinical prediction rules together with validated rapi-strep testing when available should be incorporated in primary health care. A directed approach to the differential diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever now includes the concept of low-risk versus medium-to-high risk populations. Initiation of secondary prophylaxis and the establishment of early medium to long-term care plans is a key aspect of the management of ARF...
February 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283948/evaluation-of-the-potency-neutralizing-antibody-response-and-stability-of-a-recombinant-fusion-protein-vaccine-for-streptococcus-pyogenes
#20
E Burlet, H HogenEsch, A Dunham, G Morefield
Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium that can cause a wide range of diseases, including pharyngitis, impetigo, scarlet fever, necrotizing fasciitis, rheumatic fever, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Despite the increasing burden on global health caused by GAS, there is currently no licensed vaccine available. In this study, we evaluated immunogenicity, induction of neutralizing antibodies, and stability of a new recombinant fusion protein vaccine that targets infections from GAS...
May 2017: AAPS Journal
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