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Streptococcal pharyngitis

Diana Lennon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jacklyn R Hurst, Katherine J Kasper, Akshay N Sule, John K McCormick
Streptococcus pyogenes is a human-specific and globally prominent bacterial pathogen that despite causing numerous human infections, this bacterium is normally found in an asymptomatic carrier state. This review provides an overview of both bacterial and human factors that likely play an important role in nasopharyngeal colonization and pharyngitis, as well as the development of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Here we highlight a recently described role for bacterial superantigens in promoting acute nasopharyngeal infection, and discuss how these immune system activating toxins could be crucial to initiate the autoimmune process in rheumatic heart disease...
March 9, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Michael Gottlieb, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Pharyngitis is a common disease in the emergency department (ED). Despite a relatively low incidence of complications, there are many dangerous conditions that can mimic this disease and are essential for the emergency physician to consider. OBJECTIVE: This article provides a review of the evaluation and management of group A β-hemolytic Streptococcal (GABHS) pharyngitis, as well as important medical conditions that can mimic this disease. DISCUSSION: GABHS pharyngitis often presents with fever, sore throat, tonsillar exudates, and anterior cervical lymphadenopathy...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Masahiro Nishiyama, Ichiro Morioka, Mariko Taniguchi-Ikeda, Takeshi Mori, Kazumi Tomioka, Keita Nakanishi, Junya Fujimura, Noriyuki Nishimura, Kandai Nozu, Hiroaki Nagase, Kazuto Ishibashi, Akihito Ishida, Kazumoto Iijima
Objectives To identify clinical features that predict Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis in a Japanese paediatric primary emergency medical centre. Methods The prevalence of GAS pharyngitis according to age and body temperature (BT) was calculated among 3098 paediatric patients with pharyngitis. The numbers of GAS-positive and -negative patients for each clinical parameter, and each point increase in the McIsaac score were compared and likelihood ratios (LRs) were calculated. Results The prevalence of GAS pharyngitis was extremely low in patients aged < 1 (1...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Takahiro Yamaguchi, Ryuji Kawahara, Chihiro Katsukawa, Masashi Kanki, Tetsuya Harada, Shinya Yonogi, Satomi Iwasaki, Hirokazu Uehara, Saori Okajima, Hiroshi Nishimura, Kazushi Motomura, Masaya Miyazono, Yuko Kumeda, Kentaro Kawatsu
In September 2016, 140 patients with primary symptoms of sore throat and fever were identified in a school dormitory in Osaka, Japan. Epidemiological and laboratory investigations determined that this symptomatic condition was a food-borne outbreak of group G Streptococcus (GGS), with GGS being isolated from samples from patients, cooks and foods. The strain of GGS was identified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) of two emm types ( stG 652.0 and st C36.0). The causative food, a broccoli salad, was contaminated with the two types of SDSE, totaling 1...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Niluni M Wijesundara, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe
In the present study, essential oils (EOs) extracted from oregano, sage, cloves, and ginger were evaluated for the phytochemical profile, antibacterial, and anti-biofilm activities against Streptococcus pyogenes. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EOs. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) were determined using MTT assay and fixed biofilms were observed through scan electron microscopy...
February 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Thea Brennan-Krohn, Al Ozonoff, Thomas J Sandora
BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial etiology of pharyngitis but is difficult to distinguish clinically from viral pharyngitis. There are benefits to early antibacterial treatment of GAS pharyngitis, but administering antibiotics to children with viral pharyngitis is ineffective and costly. We evaluated adherence to guidelines that were developed to help clinicians distinguish between viral and GAS pharyngitis and guide management. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients ages 3-18 who had a rapid streptococcal test and/or throat culture performed in an outpatient setting...
February 9, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Kimberly K Abood, Megan Rose Paul, Dennis John Kuo
Venous thromboembolism is becoming increasingly recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the hospitalized pediatric population. However, young healthy athletes can present with unique risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) that can be overlooked. Here we report a case of an adolescent male with no inherited risk factors or prior history of DVTs who developed a right femoral vein DVT in the context of playing catcher in baseball after recovering from a bout of streptococcal pharyngitis...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Izabela Sitkiewicz, James M Musser
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases ranging from pharyngitis to life-threatening streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Recently, several global gene expression analyses have yielded extensive new information regarding the regulation of genes encoding known and putative virulence factors in GAS. A microarray analysis found that transcription of the GAS gene M5005_Spy_1343 was significantly increased in response to interaction with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes...
March 30, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
T Prescott Atkinson, Robert M Centor, Li Xiao, Fuchenchu Wang, Xiangqin Cui, William Van Der Pol, Casey D Morrow, Amy E Ratliff, Donna M Crabb, Arthur H Totten, Carlos A Estrada, Michael B Faircloth, Ken B Waites
Fusobacterium necrophorum (Fn), a gram-negative anaerobe, is increasingly implicated as an etiologic agent in older adolescents and young adults with sore throat. Inadequately treated Fn pharyngitis may result in suppurative complications such as peritonsillar abscess and Lemierre's syndrome. Data from the literature suggest that the incidence of life-threating complications in these age groups from Fn pharyngitis (Lemierre's syndrome) in the United States exceeds those associated with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis (acute rheumatic fever)...
2018: PloS One
Francesco DI Pierro, Paolo Risso, Elena Poggi, Anna Timitilli, Sara Bolloli, Maurizio Bruno, Egidio Caneva, Riccardo Campus, Alessandro Giannattasio
BACKGROUND: Previous trials, performed in subjects affected by recurrent streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillar infection, have shown that the use for 90 days of Streptococcus salivarius K12 (K12), an oral colonizing probiotic producing lantibiotic bacteriocins, reduces the occurrence of streptococcal and viral pharyngitis and acute otitis media (AOM). The aim was to evaluate the role of K12 in reducing the incidence of streptococcal and viral pharyngo-tonsillitis and AOM when administered in two separate trimesters, from October to December and then from April to June, in pediatric subjects with non-recurrent streptococcal infection...
January 11, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Beata Mazińska, Waleria Hryniewicz
Antimicrobial resistance has been one of the biggest global current issues in medicine and public health. Overuse and imprudent use of antimicrobial agents are recognized as one of the leading causes of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the attitudes of Polish physicians practicing at the community level towards antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance. The majority of physicians taking part in the survey believed that Polish people overuse antibiotics (98%). Most physicians (91%) considered that antimicrobial resistance is a major problem at present...
September 27, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
Caitlin E O'Brien, John D Coulson, Priya Sekar, Jon R Resar, Kristen Nelson McMillan
An adolescent male with a recent history of streptococcal pharyngitis presented with severe substernal chest pain, troponin leak, and ST-segment elevation, which are suggestive of acute inferolateral myocardial infarction. The coronary angiogram was normal. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with non-rheumatic streptococcal myocarditis. He was treated with amoxicillin and had excellent recovery. Non-rheumatic streptococcal myocarditis is an important mimic of acute myocardial infarction in young adults.
January 8, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Deirdre L Church, Tracie Lloyd, Oscar Larios, Daniel B Gregson
Diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis is confirmed by detection of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) in patient throat samples. Testing of throat samples has historically relied on culture but new molecular methods allow much faster test turnaround time (i.e., same day vs. 48-72h for culture). Our laboratory uses the Hologic® GAS Direct (GASD) assay for screening more than 125,000 throat samples per annum. Simplexa™ GAS Direct is a new real-time PCR (qPCR) assay that does not require initial DNA extraction. Performance of Simplexa qPCR was compared to GASD...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
R Cohen, H Haas, M Lorrot, S Biscardi, O Romain, F Vie Le Sage, V Hentgen, E Grimprel
ENT infections are the most common childhood infections and the leading causes of antibiotic prescriptions. These infections are mainly due to viruses and most of them (even if bacterial species are implicated) resolve spontaneously. Therefore, the first message is to not prescribe antibiotics in the following situations: common cold, non-streptococcal pharyngitis, laryngitis, non-purulent otitis media, etc. For sore throat/pharyngitis, the antibiotic treatment decision is based mainly on the use of group A streptococcus rapid diagnostic tests...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Jeffrey S Gerber, Rachael K Ross, Matthew Bryan, A Russell Localio, Julia E Szymczak, Richard Wasserman, Darlene Barkman, Folasade Odeniyi, Kathryn Conaboy, Louis Bell, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Alexander G Fiks
Importance: Acute respiratory tract infections account for the majority of antibiotic exposure in children, and broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections is increasing. It is not clear whether broad-spectrum treatment is associated with improved outcomes compared with narrow-spectrum treatment. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum antibiotic treatment for acute respiratory tract infections in children...
December 19, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Carl Llor, Lars Bjerrum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Family Practice
Michelle M LeRiger, Veronica Miler, Joseph D Tobias, Vidya T Raman, Charles A Elmaraghy, Kris R Jatana
Retropharyngeal abscesses in the pediatric population can cause severe respiratory distress. We report a rare case of significant airway obstruction in a 14-month-old patient requiring rapid, emergent tracheotomy after attempts at endotracheal intubation by an experienced airway surgeon were unsuccessful. The patient was diagnosed with streptococcal pharyngitis 9 days prior to presentation to our facility and was being treated with amoxicillin. Prompt diagnosis, communication, and appropriate multidisciplinary airway management can lead to successful outcomes even in these severe cases...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Michelle N. Vazquez, Jennifer E. Sanders
Although group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adolescents, many viral and bacterial infections mimic the symptoms of GAS pharyngitis. Emergency clinicians must recognize the symptomatology of GAS pharyngitis and use appropriate means of diagnosis and treatment to promote good antibiotic stewardship. This issue reviews the signs and symptoms of GAS pharyngitis, as well as associated complications, and provides recommendations for appropriate treatment that focuses on reducing the severity and duration of symptoms, reducing the incidence of nonsuppurative complications, and reducing transmission...
December 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
Devinder Toor, Neha Sharma
Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a consequence of pharyngeal infection of group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. Carditis is the most common manifestation of ARF which occurs in 30-45% of the susceptible individuals. Overlooked ARF cases might further progress towards rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in susceptible individuals, which ultimately leads to permanent heart valve damage. Molecular mimicry between streptococcal antigens and human proteins is the most widely accepted theory to describe the pathogenesis of RHD...
February 2018: Immunologic Research
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