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Streptococcal pharyngitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351278/analysis-of-the-tonsillar-microbiome-in-young-adults-with-sore-throat-reveals-a-high-relative-abundance-of-fusobacterium-necrophorum-with-low-diversity
#1
T Prescott Atkinson, Robert M Centor, Li Xiao, Fuchenchu Wang, Xiangqin Cui, William Van Der Pol, Casey D Morrow, Amy E Ratliff, Donna M Crabb, Arthur H Totten, Carlos A Estrada, Michael B Faircloth, Ken B Waites
Fusobacterium necrophorum (Fn), a gram-negative anaerobe, is increasingly implicated as an etiologic agent in older adolescents and young adults with sore throat. Inadequately treated Fn pharyngitis may result in suppurative complications such as peritonsillar abscess and Lemierre's syndrome. Data from the literature suggest that the incidence of life-threating complications in these age groups from Fn pharyngitis (Lemierre's syndrome) in the United States exceeds those associated with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis (acute rheumatic fever)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322750/use-of-streptococcus-salivarius-k12-to-reduce-the-incidence-pharyngo-tonsillitis-and-acute-otitis-media-in-children-a-retrospective-analysis-in-not-recurrent-pediatric-subjects
#2
Francesco DI Pierro, Paolo Risso, Elena Poggi, Anna Timitilli, Sara Bolloli, Maurizio Bruno, Egidio Caneva, Riccardo Campus, Alessandro Giannattasio
BACKGROUND: Previous trials, performed in subjects affected by recurrent streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillar infection, have shown that the use for 90 days of Streptococcus salivarius K12 (K12), an oral colonizing probiotic producing lantibiotic bacteriocins, reduces the occurrence of streptococcal and viral pharyngitis and acute otitis media (AOM). The aim was to evaluate the role of K12 in reducing the incidence of streptococcal and viral pharyngo-tonsillitis and AOM when administered in two separate trimesters, from October to December and then from April to June, in pediatric subjects with non-recurrent streptococcal infection...
January 11, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319521/polish-physicians-attitudes-towards-antibiotic-prescription-and-antimicrobial-resistance
#3
Beata Mazińska, Waleria Hryniewicz
Antimicrobial resistance has been one of the biggest global current issues in medicine and public health. Overuse and imprudent use of antimicrobial agents are recognized as one of the leading causes of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the attitudes of Polish physicians practicing at the community level towards antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance. The majority of physicians taking part in the survey believed that Polish people overuse antibiotics (98%). Most physicians (91%) considered that antimicrobial resistance is a major problem at present...
September 27, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306334/non-rheumatic-streptococcal-myocarditis-mimicking-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-an-adolescent-male
#4
Caitlin E O'Brien, John D Coulson, Priya Sekar, Jon R Resar, Kristen Nelson McMillan
An adolescent male with a recent history of streptococcal pharyngitis presented with severe substernal chest pain, troponin leak, and ST-segment elevation, which are suggestive of acute inferolateral myocardial infarction. The coronary angiogram was normal. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with non-rheumatic streptococcal myocarditis. He was treated with amoxicillin and had excellent recovery. Non-rheumatic streptococcal myocarditis is an important mimic of acute myocardial infarction in young adults.
January 8, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305544/evaluation-of-simplexa%C3%A2-group-a-strep-direct-kit-compared-to-hologic%C3%A2-group-a-streptococcal-direct-assay-for-detection-of-group-a-streptococcus-gas-in-throat-swabs
#5
Deirdre L Church, Tracie Lloyd, Oscar Larios, Daniel B Gregson
Diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis is confirmed by detection of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) in patient throat samples. Testing of throat samples has historically relied on culture but new molecular methods allow much faster test turnaround time (i.e., same day vs. 48-72h for culture). Our laboratory uses the Hologic® GAS Direct (GASD) assay for screening more than 125,000 throat samples per annum. Simplexa™ GAS Direct is a new real-time PCR (qPCR) assay that does not require initial DNA extraction. Performance of Simplexa qPCR was compared to GASD...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290238/antimicrobial-treatment-of-ent-infections
#6
R Cohen, H Haas, M Lorrot, S Biscardi, O Romain, F Vie Le Sage, V Hentgen, E Grimprel
ENT infections are the most common childhood infections and the leading causes of antibiotic prescriptions. These infections are mainly due to viruses and most of them (even if bacterial species are implicated) resolve spontaneously. Therefore, the first message is to not prescribe antibiotics in the following situations: common cold, non-streptococcal pharyngitis, laryngitis, non-purulent otitis media, etc. For sore throat/pharyngitis, the antibiotic treatment decision is based mainly on the use of group A streptococcus rapid diagnostic tests...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260224/association-of-broad-vs-narrow-spectrum-antibiotics-with-treatment-failure-adverse-events-and-quality-of-life-in-children-with-acute-respiratory-tract-infections
#7
Jeffrey S Gerber, Rachael K Ross, Matthew Bryan, A Russell Localio, Julia E Szymczak, Richard Wasserman, Darlene Barkman, Folasade Odeniyi, Kathryn Conaboy, Louis Bell, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Alexander G Fiks
Importance: Acute respiratory tract infections account for the majority of antibiotic exposure in children, and broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections is increasing. It is not clear whether broad-spectrum treatment is associated with improved outcomes compared with narrow-spectrum treatment. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum antibiotic treatment for acute respiratory tract infections in children...
December 19, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244068/short-courses-of-penicillin-for-streptococcal-pharyngitis-are-not-supported-by-the-evidence
#8
Carl Llor, Lars Bjerrum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200894/potential-for-severe-airway-obstruction-from-pediatric-retropharyngeal-abscess
#9
Michelle M LeRiger, Veronica Miler, Joseph D Tobias, Vidya T Raman, Charles A Elmaraghy, Kris R Jatana
Retropharyngeal abscesses in the pediatric population can cause severe respiratory distress. We report a rare case of significant airway obstruction in a 14-month-old patient requiring rapid, emergent tracheotomy after attempts at endotracheal intubation by an experienced airway surgeon were unsuccessful. The patient was diagnosed with streptococcal pharyngitis 9 days prior to presentation to our facility and was being treated with amoxicillin. Prompt diagnosis, communication, and appropriate multidisciplinary airway management can lead to successful outcomes even in these severe cases...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185672/diagnosis-and-management-of-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis-and-associated-complications
#10
Michelle N. Vazquez, Jennifer E. Sanders
Although group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adolescents, many viral and bacterial infections mimic the symptoms of GAS pharyngitis. Emergency clinicians must recognize the symptomatology of GAS pharyngitis and use appropriate means of diagnosis and treatment to promote good antibiotic stewardship. This issue reviews the signs and symptoms of GAS pharyngitis, as well as associated complications, and provides recommendations for appropriate treatment that focuses on reducing the severity and duration of symptoms, reducing the incidence of nonsuppurative complications, and reducing transmission...
December 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170852/t-cell-subsets-an-integral-component-in-pathogenesis-of-rheumatic-heart-disease
#11
REVIEW
Devinder Toor, Neha Sharma
Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a consequence of pharyngeal infection of group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. Carditis is the most common manifestation of ARF which occurs in 30-45% of the susceptible individuals. Overlooked ARF cases might further progress towards rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in susceptible individuals, which ultimately leads to permanent heart valve damage. Molecular mimicry between streptococcal antigens and human proteins is the most widely accepted theory to describe the pathogenesis of RHD...
November 23, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144049/characterization-of-children-with-recurrent-eczema-herpeticum-and-response-to-treatment-with-interferon-gamma
#12
Kavita Darji, Stephanie Frisch, Eric Adjei Boakye, Elaine Siegfried
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) has been used treat severe atopic dermatitis, with equivocal results. Recurrent eczema herpeticum is an underappreciated, therapeutically challenging complication of severe atopic dermatitis. Defects in IFN-γ and other cytokine pathways have been identified in individuals with confirmed eczema herpeticum. This suggests possible benefit from IFN-γ treatment for confirmed eczema herpeticum. The objective of the current study was to evaluate immunologic and microbial parameters and response to IFN-γ treatment in children with confirmed eczema herpeticum...
November 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135828/improved-diagnostic-performance-of-an-immunofluorescence-based-rapid-antigen-detection-test-for-group-a-streptococci-in-children-with-pharyngitis
#13
Laurence Lacroix, Abdessalam Cherkaoui, Diane Schaller, Sergio Manzano, Annick Galetto-Lacour, Ulrich Pfeifer, René Tabin, Alain Gervaix
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis are important to prevent complications. Most available rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) have shown excellent specificity but often lack sensitivity. Our objective was to compare the diagnostic performances of a new fluorescence-based immunoassay and a classic immunochromatographic RADT using standard throat culture or PCR as references. MATERIALS/METHODS: Prospective observational study in 2 pediatric emergency departments in children aged 3 to 15 years old presenting with pharyngitis and a McIsaac score ≥ 2...
November 11, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072309/hla-cw6-and-psoriasis
#14
REVIEW
L Chen, T F Tsai
Psoriasis is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic background. HLA-Cw6 is one of the most strongly associated psoriasis susceptibility allele. It is repeatedly observed to affect disease course, phenotypic features, severity, comorbidities, and treatment outcomes. To the best of our knowledge, the roles of HLA-Cw6 in psoriasis have not yet been thoroughly reviewed. The worldwide frequency of HLA-Cw6 allele varies greatly, with HLA-Cw6 allele frequency being generally higher in Caucasians compared to Asians...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045629/signs-and-symptoms-of-group-a-versus-non-group-a-strep-throat-a-meta-analysis
#15
Thuy N Thai, Ariella P Dale, Mark H Ebell
Introduction: Both non-Group A streptococcal (non-GAS) pharyngitis and Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis are commonly found in patients with sore throat. It is not known whether or not they present with similar signs and symptoms compared to patients with non-streptococcal pharyngitis. Methods: MEDLINE was searched for prospective studies that reported throat culture for both GAS and non-GAS as a reference standard, and reported at least one sign, symptom, or the Centor score...
October 13, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989283/abdominal-pain-and-nausea-in-the-diagnosis-of-streptococcal-pharyngitis-in-boys
#16
Hiroshi Igarashi, Naoki Nago, Hiromichi Kiyokawa, Motoharu Fukushi
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess the accuracy of gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, in the diagnosis of Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis in children and to determine differences in diagnostic accuracy in boys versus girls. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study included 5,755 consecutive patients aged <15 years with fever in the electronic database at a primary care practice. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded in the database according to the International Classification of Primary Care codes, and the data were extracted electronically...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971103/towards-developing-a-vaccine-for-rheumatic-heart-disease
#17
REVIEW
Geethanjali Devadoss Gandhi, Navaneethakrishnan Krishnamoorthy, Ussama M Abdel Motal, Magdi Yacoub
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the most serious manifestations of rheumatic fever, which is caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS or Streptococcus pyogenes) infection. RHD is an auto immune sequelae of GAS pharyngitis, rather than the direct bacterial infection of the heart, which leads to chronic heart valve damage. Although antibiotics like penicillin are effective against GAS infection, improper medical care such as poor patient compliance, overcrowding, poverty, and repeated exposure to GAS, leads to acute rheumatic fever and RHD...
March 31, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951419/group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis-immune-responses-involved-in-bacterial-clearance-and-gas-associated-immunopathologies
#18
REVIEW
Amelia T Soderholm, Timothy C Barnett, Matthew J Sweet, Mark J Walker
Streptococcus pyogenes, the Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adults. Innate and adaptive host immune responses are fundamental for defense against streptococcal pharyngitis and are central to the clinical manifestation of disease. Host immune responses also contribute to the severe poststreptococcal immune diseases that constitute the major disease burden for this organism. However, until recently, little was known about the host responses elicited during infection...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951316/streptococcus-pyogenes-camp-factor-promotes-bacterial-adhesion-and-invasion-in-pharyngeal-epithelial-cells-without-serum-via-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#19
Mie Kurosawa, Masataka Oda, Hisanori Domon, Toshihito Isono, Yuki Nakamura, Issei Saitoh, Haruaki Hayasaki, Masaya Yamaguchi, Shigetada Kawabata, Yutaka Terao
Streptococcus pyogenes is a bacterium that causes systemic diseases, such as pharyngitis and toxic shock syndrome, via oral- or nasal-cavity infection. S. pyogenes produces various molecules known to function with serum components that lead to bacterial adhesion and invasion in human tissues. In this study, we identified a novel S. pyogenes adhesin/invasin. Our results revealed that CAMP factor promoted streptococcal adhesion and invasion in pharyngeal epithelial Detroit562 cells without serum. Recombinant CAMP factor initially localized on the membranes of cells and then became internalized in the cytosol following S...
September 23, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930240/anti-bacterial-activity-of-phenolic-compounds-against-streptococcus-pyogenes
#20
Sabrina Macé, Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Streptococcus pyogenes is the leading cause of bacterial pharyngitis. To reduce the use of antibiotics, antimicrobial phytochemical-containing remedies, which have long been in use in traditional medicine, may provide new approaches for management of streptococcal pharyngitis. The objective of this study was to assess the inhibitory activities of 25 natural phenolic compounds against three strains of S. pyogenes. METHODS: After an initial screening, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the nine most effective phenolic compounds were determined...
May 1, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
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