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Pattern completion and hippocampus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218403/the-storage-and-recall-of-memories-in-the-hippocampo-cortical-system
#1
REVIEW
Edmund T Rolls
A quantitative computational theory of the operation of the hippocampus as an episodic memory system is described. The CA3 system operates as a single attractor or autoassociation network (1) to enable rapid one-trial associations between any spatial location (place in rodents or spatial view in primates) and an object or reward and (2) to provide for completion of the whole memory during recall from any part. The theory is extended to associations between time and object or reward to implement temporal order memory, which is also important in episodic memory...
December 7, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162816/impairments-of-spatial-memory-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-model-via-degeneration-of-hippocampal-cholinergic-synapses
#2
Houze Zhu, Huanhuan Yan, Na Tang, Xinyan Li, Pei Pang, Hao Li, Wenting Chen, Yu Guo, Shu Shu, You Cai, Lei Pei, Dan Liu, Min-Hua Luo, Hengye Man, Qing Tian, Yangling Mu, Ling-Qiang Zhu, Youming Lu
Choline acetyltransferase neurons in the vertical diagonal band of Broca (vChATs) degenerate in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we report that vChATs directly innervate newly generated immature neurons (NGIs) in the dorsal hippocampus (dNGIs) of adult mice and regulate both the dNGIs survival and spatial pattern separation. In a mouse model that exhibits amyloid-β plaques similar to AD patients, cholinergic synaptic transmission, dNGI survival and spatial pattern separation are impaired...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149767/the-effects-of-sleep-on-the-neural-correlates-of-pattern-separation
#3
Christopher R Doxey, Cooper Hodges, Ty Bodily, Nathan M Muncy, C Brock Kirwan
Effective memory representations must be specific to prevent interference between episodes that may overlap in terms of place, time, or items present. Pattern separation, a computational process performed by the hippocampus, overcomes this interference by establishing non-overlapping memory representations. Although it is widely accepted that declarative memories are consolidated during sleep, the effects of sleep on pattern separation have yet to be elucidated. We used whole-brain, high-resolution functional neuroimaging to investigate the effects of sleep on a task that places high demands on pattern separation...
November 17, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141678/novel-functions-of-lhx2-and-pax6-in-the-developing-telencephalon-revealed-upon-combined-loss-of-both-genes
#4
Geeta Godbole, Achira Roy, Ashwin S Shetty, Shubha Tole
Patterning of the telencephalic neuroepithelium is a tightly regulated process controlled by transcription factors and signalling molecules. The cortical primordium is flanked by two signalling centres, the hem medially, and the antihem laterally. The hem induces the formation of the hippocampus in adjacent neuroepithelium. Therefore, the position of the hem defines the position of the hippocampus in the brain. The antihem is positioned at the boundary between the dorsal and ventral telencephalon and proposed to provide patterning cues during development...
November 15, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118106/sleep-in-humans-stabilizes-pattern-separation-performance
#5
A Hanert, F D Weber, A Pedersen, J Born, T Bartsch
Replay of hippocampal neural representations during sleep is thought to promote systems consolidation of declarative memory. How this reprocessing of memory during sleep affects the hippocampal representation itself, is unclear. Here we tested hippocampal stimulus processing, i.e., pattern separation, before and after periods of sleep and wakefulness in humans (female and male participants). Pattern separation deteriorated across the wake period but remained stable across sleep (p = .013) with this sleep-wake difference being most pronounced for stimuli with low similarity to targets (p = ...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116882/lingering-cognitive-states-shape-fundamental-mnemonic-abilities
#6
Anuya Patil, Katherine Duncan
Why are people sometimes able to recall associations in exquisite detail while at other times left frustrated by the deficiencies of memory? Although this apparent fickleness of memory has been extensively studied by investigating factors that build strong memory traces, researchers know less about whether memory success also depends on cognitive states that are in place when a cue is encountered. Motivating this possibility, neurocomputational models propose that the hippocampus's capacity to support associative recollection (pattern completion) is biased by persistent neurochemical states, which can be elicited by exposure to familiarity and novelty...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988234/dynamics-of-goldfish-subregional-hippocampal-pallium-activity-throughout-spatial-memory-formation
#7
Francisco M Ocaña, Sara Uceda, Jorge L Arias, Cosme Salas, Fernando Rodríguez
The teleost fish hippocampal pallium, like the hippocampus of tetrapods, is essential for relational map-like spatial memories. In mammals, these relational memories involve the dynamic interactions among different hippocampal subregions and between the hippocampus-neocortex network, which performs specialized operations such as memory encoding and retrieval. However, how the teleost hippocampal homologue operates to achieve comparably sophisticated spatial cognition capabilities is largely unknown. In the present study, the progressive changes in the metabolic activity of the pallial regions that have been proposed as possible homologues of the mammalian hippocampus were monitored in goldfish...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923531/hippocampal-infarction-identification-of-three-new-types
#8
A Förster, M Al-Zghloul, P Eisele, H Wenz, J Böhme, C Groden, E Neumaier-Probst
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hippocampal infarction (HI) is common but yet still not comprehensively studied. In the present study, we aimed to identify novel HI patterns and to describe additional ischemic lesions outside the hippocampus to draw conclusions regarding the underlying vessel occlusion. METHODS: In 222 patients (mean age 69.9 (±13.6) years; 129 (58.1%) male, 93 (41.9%) female) with HI, diffusion-weighted images were analyzed with emphasis on HI patterns and associated ischemic lesions outside the hippocampus...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923275/in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-images-reveal-neuroanatomical-sex-differences-through-the-application-of-voxel-based-morphometry-in-c57bl-6-mice
#9
Cassandra E Meyer, Florian Kurth, Stefano Lepore, Josephine L Gao, Hadley Johnsonbaugh, Mandavi R Oberoi, Stephen J Sawiak, Allan MacKenzie-Graham
Behaviorally relevant sex differences are often associated with structural differences in the brain and many diseases are sexually dimorphic in prevalence and progression. Characterizing sex differences is imperative to gaining a complete understanding of behavior and disease which will, in turn, allow for a balanced approach to scientific research and the development of therapies. In this study, we generated novel tissue probability maps (TPMs) based on 30 male and 30 female in vivo C57BL/6 mouse brain magnetic resonance images and used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to analyze sex differences...
September 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912681/divergence-in-morris-water-maze-based-cognitive-performance-under-chronic-stress-is-associated-with-the-hippocampal-whole-transcriptomic-modification-in-mice
#10
Seung H Jung, Milene L Brownlow, Matteo Pellegrini, Ryan Jankord
Individual susceptibility determines the magnitude of stress effects on cognitive function. The hippocampus, a brain region of memory consolidation, is vulnerable to stressful environments, and the impact of stress on hippocampus may determine individual variability in cognitive performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to define the relationship between the divergence in spatial memory performance under chronically unpredictable stress and an associated transcriptomic alternation in hippocampus, the brain region of spatial memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867209/identification-and-molecular-profiling-of-dc-sign-like-from-big-belly-seahorse-hippocampus-abdominalis-inferring-its-potential-relevancy-in-host-immunity
#11
Eunyoung Jo, Don Anushka Sandaruwan Elvitigala, Qiang Wan, Minyoung Oh, Chulhong Oh, Jehee Lee
Dendritic-cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) is a C-type lectin that functions as a pattern recognition receptor by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). It is also involved in various events of the dendritic cell (DC) life cycle, such as DC migration, antigen capture and presentation, and T cell priming. In this study, a DC-SIGN-like gene from the big belly seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis (designated as ShDCS-like) was identified and molecularly characterized. The putative, complete ORF was found to be 1368 bp in length, encoding a protein of 462 amino acids with a molecular mass of 52...
December 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814638/field-repetition-and-local-mapping-in-the-hippocampus-and-the-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#12
REVIEW
Roddy M Grieves, Éléonore Duvelle, Emma R Wood, Paul A Dudchenko
Hippocampal place cells support spatial cognition and are thought to form the neural substrate of a global "cognitive map." A widely held view is that parts of the hippocampus also underlie the ability to separate patterns or to provide different neural codes for distinct environments. However, a number of studies have shown that in environments composed of multiple, repeating compartments, place cells and other spatially modulated neurons show the same activity in each local area. This repetition of firing fields may reflect pattern completion and may make it difficult for animals to distinguish similar local environments...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810973/the-influence-of-combat-experience-on-psychologically-healthy-soldiers-attentiveness-to-environmental-threats
#13
Bethany Ranes, Chris P Long, Stephanie Traynham, Amanda Hayes
INTRODUCTION: In contrast to previous research that has primarily examined how psychological disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], anxiety) are affected by and affect individuals' threat perceptions, this study examines the relationship between combat experience and threat-monitoring in psychologically healthy Soldiers. Existing research has established how prolonged or intense experiences with war-related stressors can lead individuals to undergo an unconscious fear-conditioning process that affects the circuitry of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex regions of the brain...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776200/regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-14-rgs14-is-expressed-pre-and-postsynaptically-in-neurons-of-hippocampus-basal-ganglia-and-amygdala-of-monkey-and-human-brain
#14
Katherine E Squires, Kyle J Gerber, Jean-Francois Pare, Mary Rose Branch, Yoland Smith, John R Hepler
Regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a multifunctional signaling protein primarily expressed in mouse pyramidal neurons of hippocampal area CA2 where it regulates synaptic plasticity important for learning and memory. However, very little is known about RGS14 protein expression in the primate brain. Here, we validate the specificity of a new polyclonal RGS14 antibody that recognizes not only full-length RGS14 protein in primate, but also lower molecular weight forms of RGS14 protein matching previously predicted human splice variants...
August 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774647/discrimination-of-a-medial-functional-module-within-the-temporal-lobe-using-an-effective-connectivity-model-a-ccep-study
#15
Julien Krieg, Laurent Koessler, Jacques Jonas, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Christian G Bénar, Louis G Maillard
The temporal lobe is classically divided in two functional systems: the ventral visual pathway and the medial temporal memory system. However, their functional separation has been challenged by studies suggesting that the medial temporal lobe could be best understood as an extension of the hierarchically organized ventral visual pathway. Our purpose was to investigate (i) whether cerebral regions within the temporal lobe could be grouped into distinct functional assemblies, and (ii) which regions were central within these functional assemblies...
November 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760565/familiarity-and-recollection-vs-representational-models-of-medial-temporal-lobe-structures-a-single-case-study
#16
Emilie Lacot, Stéphane Vautier, Stefan Kőhler, Jérémie Pariente, Chris B Martin, Michèle Puel, Jean-Albert Lotterie, Emmanuel J Barbeau
Although it is known that medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures support declarative memory, the fact these structures have different architectonics and circuitry suggests they may also play different functional roles. Selective lesions of MTL structures offer an opportunity to understand these roles. We report, in this study, on JMG, a patient who presents highly unusual lesions that completely affected all MTL structures except for the right hippocampus and parts of neighbouring medial parahippocampal cortex...
September 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755546/temporal-spatial-characteristics-of-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-electrocorticogram-for-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Ruihua Zhang, Ye Ren, Chunyan Liu, Na Xu, Xiaoli Li, Fengyu Cong, Tapani Ristaniemi, YuPing Wang
OBJECTIVE: Neural activity of the epileptic human brain contains low- and high-frequency oscillations in different frequency bands, some of which have been used as reliable biomarkers of the epileptogenic brain areas. However, the relationship between the low- and high-frequency oscillations in different cortical areas during the period from pre-seizure to post-seizure has not been completely clarified. METHODS: We recorded electrocorticogram data from the temporal lobe and hippocampus of seven patients with temporal lobe epilepsy...
September 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701481/place-and-grid-cells-in-a-loop-implications-for-memory-function-and-spatial-coding
#18
César Rennó-Costa, Adriano B L Tort
Place cells in the hippocampus and grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex have different codes for space. However, how one code relates to the other is ill understood. Based on the anatomy of the entorhinal-hippocampal circuitry, we constructed a model of place and grid cells organized in a loop to investigate their mutual influence in the establishment of their codes for space. Using computer simulations, we first replicated experiments in rats that measured place and grid cell activity in different environments, and then assessed which features of the model account for different phenomena observed in neurophysiological data, such as pattern completion and pattern separation, global and rate remapping of place cells, and realignment of grid cells...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658048/increased-activation-of-the-hippocampus-during-a-chinese-character-subvocalization-task-in-adults-with-cleft-lip-and-palate-palatoplasty-and-speech-therapy
#19
Wenjing Zhang, Chunlin Li, Long Chen, Xiyue Xing, Xiangyang Li, Zhi Yang, Haiyan Zhang, Renji Chen
This study aimed to explore brain activation in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) using a Chinese character subvocalization task, in which the stimuli were selected from a clinical articulation evaluation test. CLP is a congenital disability. Individuals with CLP usually have articulation disorder caused by abnormal lip and palate structure. Previous studies showed that primary somatosensory and motor areas had a significant difference in activation in patients with CLP. However, whether brain activation was restored to a normal level after palatoplasty and speech rehabilitation is not clear...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580823/ethanol-and-the-developing-brain-inhibition-of-neuronal-activity-and-neuroapoptosis
#20
Nailya Lotfullina, Roustem Khazipov
Ethanol induces massive neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. One of the main hypotheses that has been put forward to explain the deleterious actions of ethanol in the immature brain involves an inhibition of neuronal activity. Here, we review recent evidence for this hypothesis obtained in the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus of neonatal rodents. In both structures, ethanol strongly inhibits brain activity. At the doses inducing massive neuroapoptosis, ethanol completely suppresses the early activity patterns of spindle-bursts and gamma oscillations in the neocortex and the early sharp-waves in the hippocampus...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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