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Pattern completion and hippocampus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580823/ethanol-and-the-developing-brain-inhibition-of-neuronal-activity-and-neuroapoptosis
#1
Nailya Lotfullina, Roustem Khazipov
Ethanol induces massive neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. One of the main hypotheses that has been put forward to explain the deleterious actions of ethanol in the immature brain involves an inhibition of neuronal activity. Here, we review recent evidence for this hypothesis obtained in the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus of neonatal rodents. In both structures, ethanol strongly inhibits brain activity. At the doses inducing massive neuroapoptosis, ethanol completely suppresses the early activity patterns of spindle-bursts and gamma oscillations in the neocortex and the early sharp-waves in the hippocampus...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557507/structural-learning-difficulties-implicate-altered-hippocampal-functioning-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Melanie Ring, Claire L T Derwent, Sebastian B Gaigg, Dermot M Bowler
Structural learning is fundamental to the formation of cognitive maps that are necessary for learning, memory, and spatial navigation. It also enables successful navigation of the social world, which is something that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) find particularly difficult. To master these situations, a person needs to bind pieces of information to one another and to consider the context in which experiences happen. Such binding is a capacity of the hippocampus. Although altered hippocampal function has for long been suspected to play a role in the etiology of ASD, the relevant evidence has remained inconclusive because few behavioral tests that are known to specifically necessitate preserved hippocampal function have been employed in studies of ASD...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553833/longitudinal-changes-in-brain-metabolic-activity-after-withdrawal-from-escalation-of-cocaine-self-administration
#3
Céline Nicolas, Clovis Tauber, François-Xavier Lepelletier, Sylvie Chalon, Pauline Belujon, Laurent Galineau, Marcello Solinas
The chronic and relapsing nature of addiction suggests that drugs produce persistent adaptations in the brain that make individuals with drug addiction particularly sensitive to drug-related cues and stress and incapable of controlling drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. In animal models, several long-lasting neuroadaptations have been described. However, few studies have used brain-imaging techniques to provide a complete picture of brain functioning in the course of withdrawal from cocaine. In this study, we allowed rats to self-administer cocaine under short-access (1-h/day) or long-access (6-h/day) conditions and used 2-deoxy-2-((18)F)fluoro-d-glucose ((18)FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scanning to investigate the longitudinal changes in metabolic activity 1 and 4 weeks after discontinuation of cocaine self-administration...
May 29, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532653/hippocampal-ca1-local-field-potential-oscillations-induced-by-olfactory-cue-of-liked-food
#4
Nifareeda Samerphob, Dania Cheaha, Surapong Chatpun, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
Eating motivation is induced not only by negative energy balance but also food related cues. However, neural processing for acquisition of learned food preference remains to be established. This study aimed to identify hippocampal neural signaling in response to olfactory cue (chocolate scent) after completion of repetitive chocolate sessions. Male Swiss albino mice implanted with intracranial electrode into the hippocampus were used for local field potential (LFP) recording. Animals were given chocolate sessions (a piece of 2g chocolate per each mouse to eat on day 1, 3, 5 and 7)...
May 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485403/gad1-alternative-transcripts-and-dna-methylation-in-human-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-in-brain-development-schizophrenia
#5
R Tao, K N Davis, C Li, J H Shin, Y Gao, A E Jaffe, M C Gondré-Lewis, D R Weinberger, J E Kleinman, T M Hyde
Genetic variations and adverse environmental events in utero or shortly after birth can lead to abnormal brain development and increased risk of schizophrenia. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, plays a vital role in normal brain development. GABA synthesis is controlled by enzymes derived from two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, GAD1 and GAD2, both of which produce transcript isoforms. While the full-length GAD1 transcript (GAD67) has been implicated in the neuropathology of schizophrenia, the transcript structure of GAD1 in the human brain has not been fully characterized...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394147/a-lower-ratio-of-omega-6-to-omega-3-fatty-acids-predicts-better-hippocampus-dependent-spatial-memory-and-cognitive-status-in-older-adults
#6
Nadia D Andruchow, Kyoko Konishi, Bryna Shatenstein, Véronique D Bohbot
OBJECTIVE: Evidence from several cross-sectional studies indicates that an increase in omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) may negatively affect cognition in old age. The hippocampus is among the first neural structures affected by age and atrophy in this brain region is associated with cognitive decline. Therefore, we hypothesized that a lower omega-6:3 FA ratio would predict better hippocampus-dependent spatial memory, and a higher general cognitive status. METHOD: Fifty-two healthy older adults completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MoCA; a test of global cognition) and virtual navigation tasks that assess navigational strategies and spatial memory...
April 10, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321961/aging-affects-spatial-reconstruction-more-than-spatial-pattern-separation-performance-even-after-extended-practice
#7
Rachel Clark, Asli C Tahan, Patrick D Watson, Joan Severson, Neal J Cohen, Michelle Voss
Although the hippocampus experiences age-related anatomical and functional deterioration, the effects of aging vary across hippocampal-dependent cognitive processes. In particular, whether or not the hippocampus is known to be required for a spatial memory process is not an accurate predictor on its own of whether aging will affect performance. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to compare the effects of healthy aging on a test of spatial pattern separation and a test of spatial relational processing, which are two aspects of spatial memory that uniquely emphasize the use of multiple hippocampal-dependent processes...
March 21, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260633/plasticity-of-hippocampal-memories-in-humans
#8
REVIEW
Aidan J Horner, Christian F Doeller
The human hippocampus is a brain region that supports episodic and spatial memory. Recent experiments have drawn on animal research and computational modelling to reveal how the unique computations and representations of the hippocampus support episodic and spatial memory. Invasive electrophysiological recordings and non-invasive functional brain imaging have provided evidence for the rapid formation of hippocampal representations, as well as the ability of the hippocampus to both pattern-separate and pattern-complete input from the neocortex...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256199/cross-cultural-differences-in-the-neural-correlates-of-specific-and-general-recognition
#9
Laura E Paige, John C Ksander, Hunter A Johndro, Angela H Gutchess
Research suggests that culture influences how people perceive the world, which extends to memory specificity, or how much perceptual detail is remembered. The present study investigated cross-cultural differences (Americans vs East Asians) at the time of encoding in the neural correlates of specific versus general memory formation. Participants encoded photos of everyday items in the scanner and 48 h later completed a surprise recognition test. The recognition test consisted of same (i.e., previously seen in scanner), similar (i...
February 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213155/high-frequency-stimulation-of-afferent-fibers-generates-asynchronous-firing-in-the-downstream-neurons-in-hippocampus-through-partial-block-of-axonal-conduction
#10
Zhouyan Feng, Zhaoxiang Wang, Zheshan Guo, Wenjie Zhou, Ziyan Cai, Dominique M Durand
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective for treating neurological disorders in clinic. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of DBS have not yet been elucidated. Previous studies have suggested that HFS-induced changes in axon conduction could have important contributions to the DBS effects and desiderate further studies. To investigate the effects of prolonged HFS of afferent axons on the firing of downstream neurons, HFS trains of 100 and 200Hz were applied on the Schaffer collaterals of the hippocampal CA1 region in anaesthetized rats...
April 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188304/-18-f-fdg-pet-patterns-of-surgical-success-and-failure-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Francine Chassoux, Eric Artiges, Franck Semah, Agathe Laurent, Elisabeth Landré, Baris Turak, Philippe Gervais, Badia-Ourkia Helal, Bertrand Devaux
OBJECTIVE: To search for [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET patterns predictive of long-term prognosis in surgery for drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS). METHODS: We analyzed metabolic data with [(18)F]-FDG-PET in 97 patients with MTLE (53 female participants; age range 15-56 years) with unilateral HS (50 left) and compared the metabolic patterns, electroclinical features, and structural atrophy on MRI in patients with the best outcome after anteromesial temporal resection (Engel class IA, completely seizure-free) to those with a non-IA outcome, including suboptimal outcome and failure...
March 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131561/-fragile-x-syndrome-and-white-matter-abnormalities-case-study-of-two-brothers
#12
E Wallach, E Bieth, A Sevely, C Cances
Fragile X syndrome is the most usual cause of hereditary intellectual deficiency. Typical symptoms combine intellectual deficiency, social anxiety, intense emotional vigilance, and a characteristic facial dysmorphy. This is subsequent to a complete mutation of the FMR1 gene, considering a semidominant transmission linked to the unstable X. The expansion of the CGG triplet greater than 200 units combined with a high methylation pattern lead to a transcriptional silence of the FMR1 gene, and the protein product, the FMRP, is not synthesized...
January 25, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109667/aberrant-alpha-and-gamma-oscillations-ex-vivo-after-single-application-of-the-nmda-receptor-antagonist-mk-801
#13
Clément E Lemercier, Constance Holman, Zoltan Gerevich
Clinical symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with altered cortical neuronal oscillations in multiple frequency bands such as alpha (7-13Hz) and gamma (30-90Hz) rhythms. NMDA receptor antagonists induce psychotic symptoms in humans and a schizophrenia-like phenotype in animals, suggesting NMDA receptor dysfunction is involved in the generation of many symptoms of the disorder. We investigated the effects of a single intraperitoneal injection of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in rats, a model of first-episode schizophrenia, on network oscillations recorded ex vivo in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex...
January 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072885/functional-role-of-intracellular-calcium-receptor-inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-type-1-in-rat-hippocampus-after-neonatal-anoxia
#14
Juliane Midori Ikebara, Silvia Honda Takada, Débora Sterzeck Cardoso, Natália Myuki Moralles Dias, Beatriz Crossiol Vicente de Campos, Talitha Amanda Sanches Bretherick, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar Higa, Mariana Sacrini Ayres Ferraz, Alexandre Hiroaki Kihara
Anoxia is one of the most prevalent causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, especially in preterm neonates, constituting an important public health problem due to permanent neurological sequelae observed in patients. Oxygen deprivation triggers a series of simultaneous cascades, culminating in cell death mainly located in more vulnerable metabolic brain regions, such as the hippocampus. In the process of cell death by oxygen deprivation, cytosolic calcium plays crucial roles. Intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are important regulators of cytosolic calcium levels, although the role of these receptors in neonatal anoxia is completely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059792/quantitative-comparison-of-dense-core-amyloid-plaque-accumulation-in-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-precursor-transgenic-mice
#15
Peng Liu, John H Reichl, Eshaan R Rao, Brittany M McNellis, Eric S Huang, Laura S Hemmy, Colleen L Forster, Michael A Kuskowski, David R Borchelt, Robert Vassar, Karen H Ashe, Kathleen R Zahs
There exist several dozen lines of transgenic mice that express human amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) with Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked mutations. AβPP transgenic mouse lines differ in the types and amounts of Aβ that they generate and in their spatiotemporal patterns of expression of Aβ assemblies, providing a toolkit to study Aβ amyloidosis and the influence of Aβ aggregation on brain function. More complete quantitative descriptions of the types of Aβ assemblies present in transgenic mice and in humans during disease progression should add to our understanding of how Aβ toxicity in mice relates to the pathogenesis of AD...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057726/reduced-hippocampal-functional-connectivity-during-episodic-memory-retrieval-in-autism
#16
Rose A Cooper, Franziska R Richter, Paul M Bays, Kate C Plaisted-Grant, Simon Baron-Cohen, Jon S Simons
Increasing recent research has sought to understand the recollection impairments experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we tested whether these memory deficits reflect a reduction in the probability of retrieval success or in the precision of memory representations. We also used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural mechanisms underlying memory encoding and retrieval in ASD, focusing particularly on the functional connectivity of core episodic memory networks...
February 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011437/childhood-poverty-is-associated-with-altered-hippocampal-function-and-visuospatial-memory-in-adulthood
#17
Elizabeth R Duval, Sarah N Garfinkel, James E Swain, Gary W Evans, Erika K Blackburn, Mike Angstadt, Chandra S Sripada, Israel Liberzon
Childhood poverty is a risk factor for poorer cognitive performance during childhood and adulthood. While evidence linking childhood poverty and memory deficits in adulthood has been accumulating, underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. To investigate neurobiological links between childhood poverty and adult memory performance, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a visuospatial memory task in healthy young adults with varying income levels during childhood. Participants were assessed at age 9 and followed through young adulthood to assess income and related factors...
February 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920723/sex-dependent-anti-stress-effect-of-an-%C3%AE-5-subunit-containing-gabaa-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator
#18
Sean C Piantadosi, Beverly J French, Michael M Poe, Tamara Timić, Bojan D Marković, Mohan Pabba, Marianne L Seney, Hyunjung Oh, Beverley A Orser, Miroslav M Savić, James M Cook, Etienne Sibille
Rationale: Current first-line treatments for stress-related disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) act on monoaminergic systems and take weeks to achieve a therapeutic effect with poor response and low remission rates. Recent research has implicated the GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of depression, including deficits in interneurons targeting the dendritic compartment of cortical pyramidal cells. Objectives: The present study evaluates whether SH-053-2'F-R-CH3 (denoted "α5-PAM"), a positive allosteric modulator selective for α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors found predominantly on cortical pyramidal cell dendrites, has anti-stress effects...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903335/patterns-of-cortical-and-subcortical-amyloid-burden-across-stages-of-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Emily C Edmonds, Katherine J Bangen, Lisa Delano-Wood, Daniel A Nation, Ansgar J Furst, David P Salmon, Mark W Bondi
OBJECTIVES: We examined florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid scans across stages of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) in cortical, allocortical, and subcortical regions. Stages were characterized using empirically defined methods. METHODS: A total of 312 cognitively normal Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants completed a neuropsychological assessment and florbetapir PET scan. Participants were classified into stages of preclinical AD using (1) a novel approach based on the number of abnormal biomarkers/cognitive markers each individual possessed, and (2) National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) criteria...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896314/graph-theoretic-and-motif-analyses-of-the-hippocampal-neuron-type-potential-connectome
#20
Christopher L Rees, Diek W Wheeler, David J Hamilton, Charise M White, Alexander O Komendantov, Giorgio A Ascoli
We computed the potential connectivity map of all known neuron types in the rodent hippocampal formation by supplementing scantly available synaptic data with spatial distributions of axons and dendrites from the open-access knowledge base Hippocampome.org. The network that results from this endeavor, the broadest and most complete for a mammalian cortical region at the neuron-type level to date, contains more than 3200 connections among 122 neuron types across six subregions. Analyses of these data using graph theory metrics unveil the fundamental architectural principles of the hippocampal circuit...
November 2016: ENeuro
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