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Pattern completion

Caterina Gratton, Timothy O Laumann, Evan M Gordon, Babatunde Adeyemo, Steven E Petersen
Humans easily and flexibly complete a wide variety of tasks. To accomplish this feat, the brain appears to subtly adjust stable brain networks. Here, we investigate what regional factors underlie these modifications, asking whether networks are either altered at (1) regions activated by a given task or (2) hubs that interconnect different networks. We used fMRI "functional connectivity" (FC) to compare networks during rest and three distinct tasks requiring semantic judgments, mental rotation, and visual coherence...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
A T Oliveira, M L G Araújo, J R G Lemos, M Q C Santos, J Pantoja-Lima, P H R Aride, M Tavares-Dias, J L Marcon
The objective of this study was to compare and correlate the ecology of neonates and young individuals of Potamotrygon wallacei, Potamotrygon motoro and Paratrygon aiereba with regard to their hematological profile and the physicochemical parameters of the water that they inhabit. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the complete blood count revealed total variation of 72.92%, thus demonstrating a differentiation system for oxygen demand. On the other hand, P. motoro was considered to be an intermediate species, given that its complete blood count characteristics interacted with both P...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Michael R Sladek, Leah D Doane, Catherine B Stroud
Prior work has identified alterations in activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as a potential mechanism underlying stress-induced emotional health problems, which disproportionately impact girls beginning in mid-adolescence. How adolescent girls differ from one another in dispositional coping tendencies and shift specific coping strategies in response to varying stressors have been theorized as important predictors of their adaptation, health, and well-being during this dynamic period of development...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Ryan A Whitehead, Nicholas L Lam, Melody S Sun, Joshua Sanchez, Shahani Noor, Arden G Vanderwall, Timothy R Petersen, Hugh B Martin, Erin D Milligan
BACKGROUND: Animal models of peripheral neuropathy produced by a number of manipulations are assessed for the presence of pathologic pain states such as allodynia. Although stimulus-induced behavioral assays are frequently used and important to examine allodynia (ie, sensitivity to light mechanical touch; von Frey fiber test), other measures of behavior that reflect overall function are not only complementary to stimulus-induced responsive measures, but are also critical to gain a complete understanding of the effects of the pain model on quality of life, a clinically relevant aspect of pain on general function...
October 24, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Y-F Ma, C Yuan, W-C Jiang, X-L Wang, P Humbert
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the diagnosis for sensitive skin relies on subjective assessment or on the combination of subjective and objective evaluation. No quantitative evaluation is available. It could be expected that confocal microscopy imaging could be of interest to better define the condition. METHODS: Total 166 healthy female subjects were recruited in this study. Firstly, all subjects completed the sensitive questionnaire. Then, the cutaneous structures were measured by the reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) on the face and fossa cubitalia...
October 26, 2016: Skin Research and Technology
G M E E Geeske Peeters, Sophia Rainbird, Michelle Lorimer, Annette J Dobson, Gita D Mishra, Stephen E Graves
Background and purpose - There are concerns that mental health (MH) may influence outcomes of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA). We examined effects of poor MH before surgery on long-term outcomes of osteoarthritis-related TKA or THA in women. Patients and methods - The data were from 9,737 middle-aged participants (47-52 years) and 9,292 older participants (73-78 years) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health who completed surveys between 1998 and 2013. Dates of arthroplasties were obtained from the Australian Orthopaedics Association National Joint Replacement Registry...
October 26, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica
Patrick D Slaine, James G Ackford, Andrew M Kropinski, Robert A Kozak, Peter J Krell, Éva Nagy
Fowl aviadenoviruses, many of which are of importance in veterinary medicine, are classified into 5 species. In this study, a pathogenic isolate and a nonpathogenic isolate of fowl aviadenovirus serotype 11 (FAdV-11) of species Fowl aviadenovirus D were characterized. Growth rates were analyzed for the 2 isolates, showing notable differences. The complete genomic sequences of the viruses were fully determined and were analyzed. The genomes of the 2 isolates showed 98.1% sequence identity and revealed 6 nonsynonymous mutations between the Ontario isolates...
July 12, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Ross D Feldman, Lisheng Liu, Zhaosu Wu, Yuqing Zhang, Xueqing Yu, Xin-Hua Zhang
The Hypertension Attitude PersPEctives and Needs (HAPPEN) survey was a real-world survey of cardiologists, nephrologists, and patients with treated hypertension at level 3 hospitals in China. It aimed to characterize the attitudes and behavior of physicians and patients and to identify possible causes of poor blood pressure (BP) control. Randomly selected participants (100 cardiologists, 30 nephrologists, 400 patients) completed face-to-face interviews investigating BP control rates, consulting behavior, prescribing patterns, and attitudes toward hypertension management...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Srinivas M Naren Satya, Kamala Retnam Mayilvaganan, V N Amogh, B V Balakrishna, Munnangi Satya Gautam, Ivvala Sai Prathyusha
BACKGROUND: Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stages of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. The subcutaneous form of the disease is a relatively rare clinical entity. Despite its rarity, it is imperative for a radiologist to be aware of this subcutaneous form of the disease and its various radiological patterns while evaluating any subcutaneous swelling. In this paper, we aimed to describe a typical case of 'subcutaneous cysticercosis involving the left anterior chest wall' with high resolution ultrasound findings...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
Jessica Henriksson, Emma Wasara, Michael Rönnlund
This study examined the effects of an eight-week-web-based mindfulness program designed for individuals with chronic pain. A sample of 107 participants with chronic pain (M = 51.0 years, SD = 9.3) were randomly assigned to a treatment group and a control group. The mindfulness program involved 20 minutes of training per day, six days a week, for eight weeks. During this period, the control group was invited to an online discussion forum involving pain-related topics. A total of 77 participants completed the postintervention assessment (n = 36 in the treatment group, n = 41 in the control group)...
December 2016: Psychological Reports
Julia M A Sinclair, Sophia E Chambers, Christopher C Manson
AIMS: Advances in technology have led to an increased range of possibilities for forms of mutual aid in addictions, and patient empowerment in the management of long-term conditions. However, the effective processes involved may be different online than for those that meet in person. Soberistas is a 'social network site for people who are trying to resolve their problematic drinking patterns'. We aim to describe the population, component parts and processes that define this online community, and consider potential mechanisms of action for future research...
October 25, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Ramnath Subbaraman, Ruvandhi R Nathavitharana, Srinath Satyanarayana, Madhukar Pai, Beena E Thomas, Vineet K Chadha, Kiran Rade, Soumya Swaminathan, Kenneth H Mayer
BACKGROUND: India has 23% of the global burden of active tuberculosis (TB) patients and 27% of the world's "missing" patients, which includes those who may not have received effective TB care and could potentially spread TB to others. The "cascade of care" is a useful model for visualizing deficiencies in case detection and retention in care, in order to prioritize interventions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The care cascade constructed in this paper focuses on the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP), which treats about half of India's TB patients...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Emma Dargie, Ronald R Holden, Caroline F Pukall
Millions suffer from chronic vulvar pain (ie, vulvodynia). Vulvodynia represents the intersection of 2 difficult subjects for health care professionals to tackle: sexuality and chronic pain. Those with chronic vulvar pain are often uncomfortable seeking help, and many who do so fail to receive proper diagnoses. The current research developed a multidimensional assessment questionnaire, the Vulvar Pain Assessment Questionnaire (VPAQ) inventory, to assist in the assessment and diagnosis of those with vulvar pain...
August 1, 2016: Pain
Hyun-Sung An, Youngwon Kim, Jung-Min Lee
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine the accuracy of inclinometer functions of the ActiGraph GT3X+ (AG) (worn on the waist and wrist) and the activPAL (AP) in assessing time spent sitting, standing, and stepping. METHODS: A total of 62 adults (age: 18-40 yrs; male:37; female:25) wore three activity monitors (AG waist, and AG wrist, and AP) while completing 15 different types of activities. The 15 activities were classified into 3 different postures (sitting, standing, and stepping) based on the directly observed behaviors...
October 18, 2016: Gait & Posture
Bradley Genovese, Steven Yin, Sohail Sareh, Michael DeVirgilio, Laith Mukdad, Jessica Davis, Veronica J Santos, Peyman Benharash
With changes in work hour limitations, there is an increasing need for objective determination of technical proficiency. Electromagnetic hand-motion analysis has previously shown only time to completion and number of movements to correlation with expertise. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of hand-motion-tracking analysis in determining surgical skill proficiency. A nine-degree-of-freedom sensor was used and mounted on the superior aspect of a needle driver. A one-way analysis of variance and Welch's t test were performed to evaluate significance between subjects...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Hayford M Avedzi, Nonsikelelo Mathe, Stephanie Bearman, Kate Storey, Jeffrey A Johnson, Steven T Johnson
We examined self-care dietary practices and usual intakes among adults with Type 2 diabetes in Alberta, Canada, using data from the Healthy Eating and Active Living for Diabetes study. Participants completed a modified Fat/Sugar/Fruit/Vegetable Screener and answered questions about the number of days per week they followed specific diabetes self-care dietary recommendations. Capillary blood samples were collected to assess glycemic control measured by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). ANOVA was used to examine differences in dietary self-care, intakes, and glycemic control across categories of days/week of practicing recommended dietary behaviour...
October 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Clay Cothren Burlew, Kimberly A Davis, John J Fildes, Thomas J Esposito, Christopher J Dente, Gregory J Jurkovich
Over the past decade, the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) Acute Care Surgery (ACS) fellowship program has matured to 20 verified programs. As part of an ongoing curricular evaluation, we queried the current practice patterns of the graduates of ACS fellowship programs regarding their view on their ACS training. Surveys were submitted by 56 of 77 graduates for a completion rate of 73%. While 93% of graduates practice in urban/suburban areas, there was a mixture of University, University-affiliated, and community institutions and an almost even division of level I and II designation...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
H Li, C L Lv, C S Yang, D F Wei, K W Chen, S W Li, Z J Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SORL1 rs1699102 is associated with the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. However, the effects of this single nucleotide polymorphism on cognition and brain structure during normal aging are unclear. This study aimed to examine the effects of the rs1699102 polymorphism on age-related cognitive decline and cortical gray matter reduction in the Chinese Han population. METHODS: A total of 780 non-demented adults completed a battery of neuropsychological tests...
October 25, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
C Emily Hendrick, Joseph E Potter
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is associated with numerous health benefits for the infant and mother. Latina women in the United States have historically had high overall rates of initiation and duration of breastfeeding. However, these rates vary by nativity and time lived in the United States. Exclusive breastfeeding patterns among Latina women are unclear. In this study, we investigate the current and exclusive breastfeeding patterns of Mexican-origin women at four time points from delivery to 10 months postpartum to determine the combined association of nativity and country of education with breastfeeding duration and supplementation...
October 25, 2016: Birth
Max E Winston, Daniel J C Kronauer, Corrie S Moreau
The emergence of the Isthmus of Panama is one of the most important events in recent geological history, yet its timing and role in fundamental evolutionary processes remain controversial. While the formation of the isthmus was complete around 3 million years ago (Ma), recent studies have suggested prior intercontinental biotic exchange. In particular, the possibility of early intermittent land bridges facilitating colonization constitutes a potential mechanism for speciation and colonization before full closure of the isthmus...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Ecology
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