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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647528/the-linkage-between-nutrient-supply-intracellular-enzyme-abundances-and-bacterial-growth-new-evidences-from-the-central-carbon-metabolism-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#1
Stephan Noack, Raphael Voges, Jochem Gätgens, Wolfgang Wiechert
Corynebacterium glutamicum serves as important production host for small molecular compounds that are derived from precursor molecules of the central carbon metabolism. It is therefore a well-studied model organism of industrial biotechnology. However, a deeper understanding of the regulatory principles underlying the synthesis of central metabolic enzymes under different environmental conditions as well as its impact on cell growth is still missing. We studied enzyme abundances in C. glutamicum in response to growth on: i) one limiting carbon source by sampling chemostat and fed-batch cultivations and ii) changing carbon sources provided in excess by sampling batch cultivations...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647333/effects-of-bedding-with-recycled-sand-on-lying-behaviors-udder-hygiene-and-preference-of-lactating-holstein-dairy-cows
#2
J A Kull, H D Ingle, R A Black, N L Eberhart, P D Krawczel
Effects of bedding with recycled sand and season on lying behaviors, hygiene, and preferences of late-lactation Holstein cows were studied. It was hypothesized that recycled sand will decrease lying time and increase hygiene scores due to increased moisture content and organic matter, and thus a preference for the control sand will be evident. Cows (n = 64) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8 per group) per season. In summer (August to September), cows were balanced by days in milk (268.1 ± 11.9 d) and parity (2...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646721/biochemical-immunological-hybrid-biosensor-based-on-two-dimensional-chromatography-for-on-site-sepsis-diagnosis
#3
Seung-Wan Kim, Il-Hoon Cho, Guei-Sam Lim, Gi-Na Park, Se-Hwan Paek
A hybrid-biosensor system that can simultaneously fulfill the immunoassay for protein markers (e.g., C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT)) and the enzyme assay for metabolic substances (e.g., lactate) in the same sepsis-based sample has been devised. Such a challenge was pursued through the installation of an enzyme-reaction zone on the signal pad of the typical immuno-strip for the rapid two-dimensional (2-D)-chromatography test. To minimize the mutual interference in the hybrid assays, a pre-determined membrane site was etched in a pattern and mounted with a biochemical-reaction pad, thereby allowing a loaded sample to enter and then stay in the pad for a colored-signal production over the course of an immunoassay...
June 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646020/mcam-mediates-chemoresistance-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-via-the-pi3k-akt-sox2-signaling-pathway
#4
Satyendra C Tripathi, Johannes F Fahrmann, Muge Celiktas, Mitzi Aguilar, Kieren D Marini, Mohit Kumar Jolly, Hiroyuki Katayama, Hong Wang, Eunice N Murage, Jennifer B Dennison, D Neil Watkins, Herbert Levine, Edwin J Ostrin, Ayumu Taguchi, Samir M Hanash
Despite favorable responses to initial therapy, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) relapse occurs within a year and exhibits resistance to multiple drugs. Due to limited accessibility of patient tissues for research purposes, SCLC-patient derived xenografts (PDX) have provided the best opportunity to address this limitation. Here we sought to identify novel mechanisms involved in SCLC chemoresistance. Through in-depth proteomic profiling, we identified MCAM as a markedly upregulated surface receptor in chemoresistant SCLC cell lines and in chemoresistant PDX compared to matched treatment-naïve tumors...
June 23, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645283/oocyte-polarized-light-microscopy-assay-of-specific-follicular-fluid-metabolites-and-gene-expression-in-cumulus-cells-as-different-approaches-to-predict-fertilization-efficiency-after-icsi
#5
Alberto Revelli, Stefano Canosa, Loredana Bergandi, Oleksii A Skorokhod, Valentina Biasoni, Andrea Carosso, Angela Bertagna, Milena Maule, Elisabetta Aldieri, Maria Diletta D'Eufemia, Francesca Evangelista, Nicola Colacurci, Chiara Benedetto
BACKGROUND: The complex relationship between oocyte morphology, specific follicular fluid metabolites, gene expression in cumulus granulosa cells, and oocyte competence toward fertilization and embryo development still needs further clarification. METHODS: Forty-six oocytes retrieved from the largest pre-ovulatory follicle of patients undergoing intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were considered assessing: (a) oocyte morphological characteristics at polarized light microscopy (PLM), (b) specific follicular fluid (FF) metabolites previously suggested to influence oocyte competence (AMH, markers of redox status and of cytotoxicity), (c) transcription of AMH and AMH type II receptor genes in cumulus cells...
June 23, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644700/intermittent-ischemic-preconditioning-protects-against-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-extensive-hepatectomy-in-steatotic-rat-liver
#6
Nikolaos Sikalias, Theodore Karatzas, Konstantinos Alexiou, Lamprini Mountzalia, Maria Demonakou, Ioannis D Kostakis, Argyro Zacharioudaki, Apostolos Papalois, Gregory Kouraklis
BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis causes severe liver damage and has deleterious effects when associated with ischemia-reperfusion mechanisms. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) protects lean liver against prolonged ischemia by improving micro-circulation and reducing lipid peroxidation. We investigated the effect of intermittent IPC on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and extensive hepatectomy in severe hepatic steatosis. METHODS: Severe hepatic steatosis was performed by 12-14 weeks of choline-free diet in 108 Wistar rats...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642717/the-lactate-minimum-test-concept-methodological-aspects-and-insights-for-future-investigations-in-human-and-animal-models
#7
REVIEW
Leonardo H D Messias, Claudio A Gobatto, Wladimir R Beck, Fúlvia B Manchado-Gobatto
In 1993, Uwe Tegtbur proposed a useful physiological protocol named the lactate minimum test (LMT). This test consists of three distinct phases. Firstly, subjects must perform high intensity efforts to induce hyperlactatemia (phase 1). Subsequently, 8 min of recovery are allowed for transposition of lactate from myocytes (for instance) to the bloodstream (phase 2). Right after the recovery, subjects are submitted to an incremental test until exhaustion (phase 3). The blood lactate concentration is expected to fall during the first stages of the incremental test and as the intensity increases in subsequent stages, to rise again forming a "U" shaped blood lactate kinetic...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639665/isolation-and-identification-of-l-d-lactate-conjugated-bufadienolides-from-toad-eggs-revealing-lactate-racemization-in-amphibians
#8
Shiwen Zhou, Qingfei Zheng, Xiuyong Huang, Yong Wang, Sifan Luo, Renwang Jiang, Lei Wang, Wencai Ye, Haiyan Tian
Three pairs of bufadienolide l/d-lactate epimers (1-6) were isolated from the eggs of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans. The structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods, X-ray diffraction analysis and a modified Mosher's method. Compounds 1-6 represent the first occurrence of lactate-conjugated bufadienolides in nature, and illustrate the existence of an enzyme-controlled epimerization from l- to d-lactate in amphibians. The biosynthetic pathways, in which two key enzymes might be involved (i.e., lactate racemase and acyltransferase), were proposed...
June 22, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635573/-colonic-ischaemia-a-condition-with-an-atypical-clinical-presentation-timely-recognition-and-treatment-improve-prognosis
#9
E J A Rondagh, S A Oei, D Goudkade, A A M Masclee, J W Kruimel
The incidence of colonic ischaemia has risen in recent decades because of the ageing population. Patients with colonic ischaemia present with mild abdominal pain, rectal blood loss and/or diarrhoea. However, no pathognomonic signs have been described. Signs of peritonitis are often absent and serum lactate may be normal. This makes prompt recognition and diagnosis difficult, while early treatment with close monitoring is important to optimise prognosis. Computed tomography may have suggestive findings and exclude other causes of abdominal pain, but endoscopy remains the gold standard for confirming the diagnosis...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633471/development-of-a-chicken-ileal-explant-culture-model-for-measurement-of-gut-inflammation-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide
#10
Qian Zhang, Susan D Eicher, Kolapo M Ajuwon, Todd J Applegate
Gut mucosa holds a single layer of epithelial cells and the largest mass of lymphoid tissue in the body. Although the epithelial cell culture model is widely used to assess intestinal barrier function, it has limitations for studying cellular interactions, in particular those of the immune system. In this study, a chicken ileal explant culture model was developed for investigating short-term gut inflammatory and secretory responses in an ex vivo environment. Initially, ileal explants from broilers at 21 d of age were cultured ex vivo up to 6 h...
June 16, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632906/improving-the-histologic-characterization-of-burn-depth
#11
Angela L F Gibson, Daniel D Bennett, Lauren J Taylor
BACKGROUND: Visual assessment of burn wound appearance is the standard of care to determine the depth of thermal injury but often incorrectly predicts wound healing potential. Histologic evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained burn tissue is prone to subjectivity and is challenging for the novice. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) staining may offer a simplified and consistent technique to identify burn tissue viability. METHODS: Thirty tissue samples were obtained from six patients undergoing surgical excision for clinically determined deep partial thickness or full thickness burns...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632474/evaluation-of-the-concurrent-use-of-dolutegravir-and-metformin-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients
#12
Anne Masich, Melissa E Badowski, Michelle D Liedtke, Patricia P Fulco
An analysis of the interaction between dolutegravir and metformin was conducted in the HIV ambulatory clinic setting. This was a multicenter, retrospective case series evaluating adult, HIV-infected patients concurrently prescribed dolutegravir and metformin. Historical electronic medical records were utilized to collect case-specific data. Laboratory parameters including serum creatinine (SCr), hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c), plasma HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, and lactate were reviewed. Adverse drug reactions were assessed using patient-reported gastrointestinal intolerance and hypoglycemic symptoms...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631902/-comparative-estimation-of-antilithogenic-activity-of-porcine-kidney-derived-biomedical-substance-and-sodium-citrate-in-experimental-urolithiasis
#13
G V Pavlyashik, A Yu Zharikov, V I Kiselev
AIM: to compare the anti-lithogenic activity of biomedical substance derived from freeze-dried porcine kidney and sodium citrate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experiments were conducted on Wistar rats divided into three groups of 15 animals each: control group (disease control), comparison group (sodium citrate treatment) and experimental group (treatment with biomedical substance from porcine kidneys). Experimental urolithiasis was modeled using the ethylene glycol model...
June 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627137/effect-of-sympathetic-nerve-blockade-on-low-frequency-oscillations-of-forearm-and-leg-skin-blood-flow-in-healthy-humans
#14
Gary J Hodges, Matthew M Mallette, Zachary T Martin, Andrew T Del Pozzi
Examine the effect of inhibiting sympathetic function on cutaneous vasomotion in the forearm and leg METHODS: Intradermal microdialysis fibres were placed in the forearm and leg, one as an untreated control (lactated Ringer's) the other perfused with bretylium tosylate to block sympathetic nerves. Skin blood flow was monitored using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Baseline was collected for 10 min before local skin temperature was increased to 42°C. Spectral analysis was performed using a Morlet wavelet RESULTS: Bretylium tosylate increased skin blood flow during baseline in the forearm (d=1...
June 19, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626097/-visceral-sensitivity-gut-barrier-function-and-autonomic-nerve-function-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#15
Xiaojuan Xu, Liang Liu, Shukun Yao, Yanli Zhang
To evaluate visceral sensitivity, gut barrier function and autonomic nerve function (ANF) in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), and to explore their roles in IBS-D pathophysiology.
 Methods: A total of 46 IBS-D patients (IBS-D group) were selected from the Department of Gastroenterology of China-Japan Friendship Hospital from October 2015 to March 2016, and 20 healthy volunteer were served as a control group (HC group). Clinical and psychological symptoms were evaluated by questionnaire, and visceral sensitivity to rectal balloon distention, gut barrier function and autonomic nerve function (ANF) were examined...
May 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625182/bovine-intra-mammary-challenge-with-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-spp-dysgalactiae-to-explore-the-effect-on-the-response-of-complement-activity
#16
Susan Maye, James Flynn, Catherine Stanton, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Philip M Kelly
Recently published work as described by the authors highlighted the extent of Complement activity in bovine milk. Localised mastitis infection occurring in the mammary glands of dairy cows is readily detectable by the levels of somatic cells in milk. Thus, it is opportune to monitor Complement activity in milks in association with the animal's innate immune response to mammary infection. Preliminary screening of milk samples taken randomly showed that milk with a high somatic cell count (SCC) reduced growth of the Complement-sensitive strain E...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624288/short-communication-behavioral-evaluation-of-the-analgesic-effect-of-flunixin-meglumine-in-lame-dairy-cows
#17
S A Wagner, J M Young, J K Tena, B H Manning
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of flunixin meglumine treatment on lameness pain in dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows were enrolled in the study based on visual observation of abnormal locomotion. The primary measurement endpoint was weight-shifting between the rear limbs. Weight-shifting was calculated as the standard deviation of the weight borne on the rear limbs over a 15 min period; this value correlates directly with lameness pain in dairy cows. After collecting baseline weight-bearing data, we randomly assigned cows to 1 of 2 treatment groups: 2...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624287/variants-in-the-3-untranslated-region-of-the-ovine-acetyl-coenzyme-a-acyltransferase-2-gene-are-associated-with-dairy-traits-and-exhibit-differential-allelic-expression
#18
D Miltiadou, A L Hager-Theodorides, S Symeou, C Constantinou, A Psifidi, G Banos, O Tzamaloukas
The acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 2 (ACAA2) gene encodes an enzyme of the thiolase family that is involved in mitochondrial fatty acid elongation and degradation by catalyzing the last step of the respective β-oxidation pathway. The increased energy needs for gluconeogenesis and triglyceride synthesis during lactation are met primarily by increased fatty acid oxidation. Therefore, the ACAA2 enzyme plays an important role in the supply of energy and carbon substrates for lactation and may thus affect milk production traits...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624286/genomic-evaluation-of-age-at-first-calving
#19
J L Hutchison, P M VanRaden, D J Null, J B Cole, D M Bickhart
From their time of birth until their first lactation, dairy heifers incur management, health, and feed expenses while not producing milk. Much effort has been made to estimate optimal ages of first calving (AFC) for cows to reduce these costs, which can be as high as $2.50 per day, and ensure that animals are productive earlier in life. To identify AFC for 3 dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Jersey, and Brown Swiss) that maximizes production, we retrieved phenotypic records for more than 14 million cows calving between 1997 and 2015 from the US national dairy database...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624283/effect-of-pasture-versus-indoor-feeding-systems-on-quality-characteristics-nutritional-composition-and-sensory-and-volatile-properties-of-full-fat-cheddar-cheese
#20
Tom F O'Callaghan, David T Mannion, Deirdre Hennessy, Stephen McAuliffe, Maurice G O'Sullivan, Natasha Leeuwendaal, Tom P Beresford, Pat Dillon, Kieran N Kilcawley, Jeremiah J Sheehan, R Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pasture-based versus indoor total mixed ration (TMR) feeding systems on the chemical composition, quality characteristics, and sensory properties of full fat Cheddar cheeses. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian cows were divided into 3 groups (n = 18) for an entire lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and fed a TMR diet of grass silage, maize silage, and concentrates; group 2 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass only pasture (GRS); and group 3 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (CLV)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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