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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346700/vitamin-d-status-in-wild-toque-macaques-macaca-sinica-in-sri-lanka
#1
Michael L Power, Wolfgang P J Dittus
The vitamin D receptor is found on most cells, including active immune cells, implying that vitamin D has important biological functions beyond calcium metabolism and bone health. Although captive primates should be given a dietary source of vitamin D, under free-living conditions vitamin D is not a required nutrient, but rather is produced in skin when exposed to UV-B light. The circulating level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) considered adequate for humans is a topic of current controversy. Levels of circulating 25-OH-D sufficient for good health for macaques and other Old World anthropoids are assumed to be the same as human values, but data from free-living animals are scant...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346669/evaluation-of-a-point-of-care-electrochemical-meter-to-detect-subclinical-ketosis-and-hypoglycaemia-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#2
A Zakian, M Tehrani-Sharif, M R Mokhber-Dezfouli, M Nouri, P D Constable
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and validate a hand-held electrochemical meter (Precision Xtra®) as a screening test for subclinical ketosis and hypoglycaemia in lactating dairy cattle. DESIGN: Method comparison study using a convenience sample. PROCEDURE: Blood samples were collected into plain tubes from the coccygeal vessels of 181 Holstein cows at 2-4 weeks of lactation during summer in Iran. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration (BHB) and glucose concentration were immediately measured by the electrochemical meter after applying 20 μL of blood to the reagent strip...
April 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344456/caffeine-ingestion-improves-repeated-freestyle-sprints-in-elite-male-swimmers
#3
Paul S R Goods, Grant Landers, Sacha Fulton
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a moderate dose of caffeine to improve repeat-sprint performance in elite freestyle sprinters. Nine highly trained male swimmers performed 6 x 75 m freestyle sprints on two occasions 1-h after consuming either 3 mg·kg(-1) caffeine (CAF), or placebo, in a cross-over manner. Capillary blood samples for the analysis of blood lactate concentration and pH were collected after the 1(st), 3(rd), and 5(th) sprint, while heart rate and perceived exertion (RPE) were collected after every sprint...
March 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342973/effects-of-a-sustained-release-formulation-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-glycosides-for-milk-fever-prevention-on-serum-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-calcium-and-phosphorus-in-dairy-cows
#4
Heinrich Bachmann, Michael Lanz, Susanne Kehrle, Wolfgang Bittner, Annick Toggenburger, Georg A Mathis, Walter Rambeck
Milk fever (MF) is a metabolic disease in dairy cows around parturition. The clinical lead sign is muscular paresis leading in severe cases to paralysis of the affected animal. Multiparturient animals of high performing dairy breeds are most likely to be affected and have a high probability of recurrence. An acute drop in blood calcium levels causes the disease when the demand for calcium at the onset of lactation exceeds the ability to replete blood calcium levels through mobilization from bone and intestinal uptake...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342610/intentionally-induced-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-causes-inflammation-affects-metabolism-and-reduces-productivity-in-lactating-holstein-cows
#5
S K Kvidera, M J Dickson, M Abuajamieh, D B Snider, M V Sanz Fernandez, J S Johnson, A F Keating, P J Gorden, H B Green, K M Schoenberg, L H Baumgard
Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of intentionally reduced intestinal barrier function on productivity, metabolism, and inflammatory indices in otherwise healthy dairy cows. Fourteen lactating Holstein cows (parity 2.6 ± 0.3; 117 ± 18 d in milk) were enrolled in 2 experimental periods. Period 1 (5 d) served as the baseline for period 2 (7 d), during which cows received 1 of 2 i.v. treatments twice per day: sterile saline or a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI; 1.5 mg/kg of body weight). Gamma-secretase inhibitors reduce intestinal barrier function by inhibiting crypt cell differentiation into absorptive enterocytes...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342599/concentrate-supplementation-of-a-diet-based-on-medium-quality-grass-silage-for-4-weeks-prepartum-effects-on-cow-performance-health-metabolic-status-and-immune-function
#6
M W Little, N E O'Connell, M D Welsh, F J Mulligan, C P Ferris
Because negative energy balance (EB) contributes to transition-period immune dysfunction in dairy cows, dietary management strategies should aim to minimize negative EB during this time. Prepartum diets that oversupply energy may exacerbate negative EB in early lactation, with detrimental effects on immune function. However, with lower body condition score (BCS) cows, it has been shown that offering concentrates in addition to a grass silage-based diet when confined during an 8-wk dry period resulted in increased neutrophil function in early lactation...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342598/effect-of-undigested-neutral-detergent-fiber-content-of-alfalfa-hay-on-lactating-dairy-cows-feeding-behavior-fiber-digestibility-and-lactation-performance
#7
M Fustini, A Palmonari, G Canestrari, E Bonfante, L Mammi, M T Pacchioli, G C J Sniffen, R J Grant, K W Cotanch, A Formigoni
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 alfalfa hays differing in undigested neutral detergent fiber content and digestibility used as the main forage source in diets fed to high producing cows for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Diets were designed to have 2 different amounts of undigestible NDF [high (Hu) and low (Lu)], as determined by 240-h in vitro analysis (uNDF240). Alfalfa hay in vitro digestibility [% of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom)] at 24 and 240 h was 40...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341053/water-use-on-nonirrigated-pasture-based-dairy-farms-combining-detailed-monitoring-and-modeling-to-set-benchmarks
#8
C D Higham, D Horne, R Singh, B Kuhn-Sherlock, M R Scarsbrook
Water use in intensively managed, confinement dairy systems has been widely studied, but few reports exist regarding water use on pasture-based dairy farms. The objective of this study was to quantify the seasonal pattern of water use to develop a prediction model of water use for pasture-based dairy farms. Stock drinking, milking parlor, and total water use was measured on 35 pasture-based, seasonal calving dairy farms in New Zealand over 2 yr. Average stock drinking water was 60 L/cow per day, with peak use in summer...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341046/relationship-between-residual-feed-intake-and-digestibility-for-lactating-holstein-cows-fed-high-and-low-starch-diets
#9
S B Potts, J P Boerman, A L Lock, M S Allen, M J VandeHaar
We determined if differences in digestibility among cows explained variation in residual feed intake (RFI) in 4 crossover design experiments. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 120±30d in milk; mean ± SD) were fed diets high (HS) or low (LS) in starch. The HS diets were 30% (±1.8%) starch and 27% (±1.2%) neutral detergent fiber (NDF); LS diets were 14% (±2.2%) starch and 40% (±5.3%) NDF. Each experiment consisted of two 28-d treatment periods, with apparent total-tract digestibility measured using indigestible NDF as an internal marker during the last 5d of each period...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341045/exogenous-%C3%AE-mannanase-improves-feed-conversion-efficiency-and-reduces-somatic-cell-count-in-dairy-cattle
#10
T A Tewoldebrhan, J A D R N Appuhamy, J-J Lee, M Niu, S Seo, S Jeong, E Kebreab
Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes have been shown to be a promising way to improve feed conversion efficiency (FCE). β-Mannanase is an important enzyme digesting the polysaccharide β-mannan in hemicellulose. Supplementation of diets with β-mannanase to improve FCE has been more extensively studied in nonruminants than in ruminants. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of β-mannanase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, FCE, and nitrogen utilization in lactating Holstein dairy cows...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340622/anti-plasmodial-activity-of-norcaesalpin-d-and-extracts-of-four-medicinal-plants-used-traditionally-for-treatment-of-malaria
#11
Ramadhani Selemani Omari Nondo, Mainen Julius Moshi, Paul Erasto, Pax Jessey Masimba, Francis Machumi, Abdul Waziri Kidukuli, Matthias Heydenreich, Denis Zofou
BACKGROUND: Malaria is an old life-threatening parasitic disease that is still affecting many people, mainly children living in sub-Saharan Africa. Availability of effective antimalarial drugs played a significant role in the treatment and control of malaria. However, recent information on the emergence of P. falciparum parasites resistant to one of the artemisinin-based combination therapies suggests the need for discovery of new drug molecules. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of extracts, fractions and isolated compound from medicinal plants traditionally used in the treatment of malaria in Tanzania...
March 24, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340261/effect-of-a-high-concentrate-diet-on-milk-components-and-mammary-health-in-holstein-dairy-cows
#12
Z L Xie, J Zhang, D M Zhang, J F Li, Y H Lin
In order to evaluate the milk yield, milk quality, and health of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet, eight lactating Holstein dairy cattle were randomly assigned to HC or low-concentrate (LC) diet groups and fed for 50 days, and the auto-control studying before and after treatment with the two diets was used. During the experiment, plasma and milk samples were collected and measured. With regard to milk component, HC feeding led to higher milk production (P < 0.05), but significantly lower milk protein percentage (P < 0...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339929/dietary-resveratrol-supplementation-prevents-transport-stress-impaired-meat-quality-of-broilers-through-maintaining-muscle-energy-metabolism-and-antioxidant-status
#13
C Zhang, L Wang, X H Zhao, X Y Chen, L Yang, Z Y Geng
This experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary resveratrol (Res) supplementation (0, 400 mg/kg) on growth performance, meat quality, and muscle anaerobic glycolysis and antioxidant capacity of transported broilers. A total of 360 21-day-old male Cobb broilers was randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (Res-free group and Res group) with 12 replicates of 15 birds each. On the morning of d 42, after a 9-hour fast, 24 birds (2 birds of each replicate) were selected from the Res-free group and then equally placed into 2 crates, and the other 12 birds (one bird of each replicate) were selected from the Res group and then placed into the other crate...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337763/automatic-washing-of-thawed-haematopoietic-progenitor-cell-grafts-a-preclinical-evaluation
#14
M Abonnenc, B Pesse, J-D Tissot, S Barelli, N Lion
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Autologous haematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) is a prerequisite for high-dose chemotherapy in treatment of several haematologic and non-haematologic malignancies. HPCs are collected by apheresis and cryopreserved until infusion. Postinfusion adverse events have been in part related to the dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) used as cryoprotectant. The aim was to evaluate (i) an automated sequential washing procedure for DMSO removal in thawed HPC grafts and (ii) washing solutions in replacement of hydroxyethyl starch (HES)-based solutions...
March 23, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334009/vitamin-d-status-and-the-prevalence-of-deficiency-in-lactating-women-from-eight-provinces-and-municipalities-in-china
#15
Yao Zhao, Yingjie Yu, Hong Li, Zhirong Chang, Yongjin Li, Yifan Duan, Jie Wang, Shan Jiang, Zhenyu Yang, Shi-An Yin
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has become prevalent worldwide in recent years. However, less evidence was available for lactating women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to understand vitamin D status and prevalence of deficiency in lactating women and associated risk factors for vitamin D deficiency from eight provinces and municipalities in China. METHODS: Lactating women within 1-10 months postpartum were recruited in 2011-2013 from eight provinces and municipalities in China...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333759/the-absence-of-fever-is-associated-with-higher-mortality-and-decreased-antibiotic-and-iv-fluid-administration-in-emergency-department-patients-with-suspected-septic-shock
#16
Daniel J Henning, Jeremy R Carey, Kimie Oedorf, Danielle E Day, Colby S Redfield, Colin J Huguenel, Jonathan C Roberts, Leon D Sanchez, Richard E Wolfe, Nathan I Shapiro
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates whether emergency department septic shock patients without a fever (reported or measured) receive less IV fluids, have decreased antibiotic administration, and suffer increased in-hospital mortality. DESIGN: This was a secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study of patients with shock. SETTING: The study was conducted in an urban, academic emergency department. PATIENTS: The original study enrolled consecutive adult (aged 18 yr or older) emergency department patients from November 11, 2012, to September 23, 2013, who met one of the following shock criteria: 1) systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg after at least 1L IV fluids, 2) new vasopressor requirement, or 3) systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg and IV fluids held for concern of fluid overload...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332069/dairy-cows-change-locomotion-score-and-sensitivity-to-pain-with-trimming-and-infectious-or-non-infectious-lesions
#17
L T Passos, E A da Cruz, V Fischer, G C da Porciuncula, D Werncke, A G C Dalto, M T Stumpf, E F Vizzotto, I D B da Silveira
Lameness can negatively affect production, but there is still controversy about the perception of pain in dairy cows. This study aimed to verify the effects of hoof affections in dairy cows on locomotion score, physiological attributes, pressure nociceptive threshold, and thermographic variables, as well as assess improvement on these variables after corrective trimming and treatment. Thirty-four lame lactating cows were gait-scored, and all cows with locomotion score ≥4 were retained for this study 1 day before trimming...
March 22, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331053/acetate-dose-dependently-stimulates-milk-fat-synthesis-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#18
Natalie L Urrutia, Kevin J Harvatine
Background: Acetate is a short-chain fatty acid (FA) that is especially important to cows because it is the major substrate for de novo FA synthesis. However, the effect of acetate supply on mammary lipid synthesis is not clear.Objective: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increasing acetate supply on milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows.Methods: Six multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated design to investigate the effect of acetate supply on milk fat synthesis...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325791/individual-variations-in-nitric-oxide-synthase-dependent-sweating-in-young-and-older-males-during-exercise-in-the-heat-role-of-aerobic-power
#19
Tatsuro Amano, Naoto Fujii, Jeffrey C Louie, Robert D Meade, Glen P Kenny
We evaluated the association between aerobic power (defined by peak oxygen consumption; VO2peak) and the contribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to the sweating response in young and older individuals during exercise in the heat. Data from 44 young (24 ± 1 years) and 48 older (61 ± 2 years) males with mean VO2peak of 47.8 ± 2.4 (range, 28.0-62.3) and 39.1 ± 2.3 (range, 26.4-55.7) mLO2 kg(-1) min(-1), respectively, were compiled from our prior studies. Participants performed two 15- to 30-min bouts of exercise at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production of 400 or 500 W, each separated by 15-20 min recovery in the heat (35°C, relative humidity of 20%)...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325659/construction-of-a-novel-d-lactate-producing-pathway-from-dihydroxyacetone-phosphate-of-the-calvin-cycle-in-cyanobacterium-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc%C3%A2-7942
#20
Yasutaka Hirokawa, Ryota Goto, Yoshitaka Umetani, Taizo Hanai
Using engineered cyanobacteria to produce various chemicals from carbon dioxide is a promising technology for a sustainable future. Lactate is a valuable commodity that can be used for the biodegradable plastic, polylactic acid. Typically, lactate production using engineered cyanobacteria was via the conversion of pyruvate in glycolysis by lactate dehydrogenase. In cyanobacteria, the metabolic flux in the Calvin cycle is higher than that in glycolysis under photoautotrophic conditions. The construction of a novel lactate producing pathway that uses metabolites from the Calvin cycle could potentially increase lactate productivity in cyanobacteria...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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