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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159877/crystalline-structure-of-pulverized-dental-calculus-induces-cell-death-in-oral-epithelial-cells
#1
S M Ziauddin, A Yoshimura, J L Montenegro Raudales, Y Ozaki, K Higuchi, T Ukai, T Kaneko, T Miyazaki, E Latz, Y Hara
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dental calculus is a mineralized deposit attached to the tooth surface. We have shown that cellular uptake of dental calculus triggers nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation, leading to the processing of the interleukin-1β precursor into its mature form in mouse and human phagocytes. The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome also induced a lytic form of programmed cell death, pyroptosis, in these cells...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159790/vitamin-d-supplementation-in-pregnancy-a-survey-of-compliance-with-recommendations
#2
C M Windrim, D A Crosby, K Mitchell, C Brophy, R Mahony, M Higgins
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy has important maternal and fetal implications, with increased risk of developing gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, preterm birth and small for gestational age birthweight. It is recommended that every pregnant woman should take 5 μg (200 IU) of vitamin D per day during pregnancy and lactation. AIMS: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of women taking vitamin D supplementation and to identify the reasons for patients not taking supplementation within women attending an antenatal clinic in Dublin...
November 20, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159707/propionyl-coa-carboxylase-pcca-1-and-pccb-1-gene-deletions-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-globally-impair-mitochondrial-energy-metabolism
#3
Kimberly A Chapman, Julian Ostrovsky, Meera Rao, Stephen D Dingley, Erzsebet Polyak, Marc Yudkoff, Rui Xiao, Michael J Bennett, Marni J Falk
Propionic acidemia (PA) is a classical inborn error of metabolism with high morbidity that results from the inability of the propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) enzyme to convert propionyl-CoA to methylmalonyl-CoA. PA is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion due to functional loss of both alleles of either PCCA or PCCB. These genes are highly conserved across evolutionarily diverse species and share extensive similarity with pcca-1 and pccb-1 in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we report the global metabolic effects of deletion in a single PCC gene, either pcca-1 or pccb-1, in C...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158789/arecoline-increases-glycolysis-and-modulates-ph-regulator-expression-in-ha22t-vgh-hepatoma-cells-leading-to-increase-of-intracellular-ca-2-reactive-oxygen-species-and-anoikis
#4
Hsiao-Ling Cheng, Wen-Tsan Chang, Yu-Chen Hu, Bau-Shan Hsieh, Tzu-Ching Huang, Inn-Wen Chong, Li-Wen Huang, Kee-Lung Chang
Background: Cancer cells proliferate rapidly and are resistant to cell death, relying on aggravated glycolysis to satisfy their increased demand for energy and biosynthetic precursors. However, this process may create unfavorable microenvironments, such as increased acidity, leading to cytotoxicity. Our previous study demonstrated that arecoline induces anoikis of HA22T/VGH hepatoma cells. The present study aimed to examine if arecoline induced anoikis is related to the glycolytic pathway and explore the underlying mechanisms...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157904/anti-fatigue-activity-of-an-arabinan-rich-pectin-from-acerola-malpighia-emarginata
#5
Rafael Roberto Klosterhoff, Luiz K S Kanazawa, Ana L D M Furlanetto, Joao V C Peixoto, Claudia R Corso, Eliana R Adami, Marcello Iacomini, Rosalvo T H Fogaça, Alexandra Acco, Silvia M S C Cadena, Roberto Andreatini, Lucimara M C Cordeiro
A fraction composed of an arabinan-rich pectin was extracted from acerola fruit (Malpighia emarginata) and named ACWS. This fraction presented 93% of total carbohydrate, relative molecular weight of 7.5×10(4)g/mol, galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose in 52.1:32.4:7.2:4.8:3.5 molar ratio and had its structure confirmed by NMR analysis. The anti-fatigue activity of ACWS was evaluated using the weight load swim test on trained mice. ACWS was orally administered at doses of 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg for 28 days...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156760/microrna-29a-increased-the-intestinal-membrane-permeability-of-colonic-epithelial-cells-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-rats
#6
Guanqun Chao, Yingying Wang, Shuo Zhang, Weilin Yang, Zheying Ni, Xuliang Zheng
Background: The whole pathogenesis of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome(IBS-D) is poorly understood. Our goal was to evaluate the expression change of microRNA-29a(miR-29a) in colonic epithelial cells in IBS rats and clarify the mechanism of miR-29a increasing the intestinal membrane permeability through aquaporins(AQPs). Methods: The IBS-D rats models were induced by rectal distention pressure combining with extremities constraint. The colonic epithelial cells were divided into four groups...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155306/reverse-t3-interacts-with-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-receptor-and-restores-enzyme-activities-in-the-hippocampus-of-hypothyroid-developing-rats-insight-on-signaling-mechanisms
#7
Juliana Tonietto Domingues, Daiane Cattani, Patricia Acordi Cesconetto, Bianka Alzira Nascimento de Almeida, Paula Peirozan, Guilherme Razzera, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto Silva, Regina Pessoa-Pureur, Ariane Zamoner
In the present study we provide evidence that 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T3, rT3) restores neurochemical parameters induced by congenital hypothyroidism in rat hippocampus. Congenital hypothyroidism was induced by adding 0.05% propylthiouracil in the drinking water from gestation day 8 and continually up to lactation day 15. In the in vivo rT3 exposure, hypothyroid 12-day old pups were daily injected with rT3 (50 ng/kg body weight) or saline until day 14. In the ex vivo rT3 treatment, hippocampal slices from 15-day-old hypothyroid pups were incubated for 30 min with or without rT3 (1 nM)...
November 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154732/cd49f-mammary-epithelial-cells-decrease-in-milk-from-dairy-cows-stressed-by-overstocking-during-the-dry-period
#8
Mario Baratta, Silvia Miretti, Paolo Accornero, Giovanna Galeati, Andrea Formigoni, Gianfranco Gabai, Daniele Nucera, Eugenio Martignani
The work reported in this Research Communication describes the modification in epithelial cell populations during the first and the last month of milking in Holstein Friesian cows that have undergone different management during the dry period, and we report the differential expression of CD49f+ and cytokeratin18+ cell subpopulations. Twenty six cows were randomly divided into 2 balanced groups that were housed at stocking density of either 11 m2 (CTR) or 5 m2 from 21 ± 3 d before the expected calving until calving...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154730/effect-of-increased-milking-frequency-and-residual-milk-removal-on-milk-production-and-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-lactating-cows
#9
Sabine Ferneborg, Lucia Kovac, Kevin J Shingfield, Sigrid Agenäs
It has been well established that milk yield is affected both by milking frequency and due to the removal of residual milk, but the influence of a combination of these factors is unclear. In this study, four mid-lactation cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to test the hypothesis that the effects of more frequent milking and residual milk removal on milk yield and composition are additive and alter milk fatty acid composition. Treatments comprised two or four times daily milking in combination with (or without) residual milk removal over a 96 h interval preceded by a 2 d pretreatment period and followed by a 8 d washout in each 14 d experimental period...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154218/proteomics-of-dark-cutting-longissimus-thoracis-muscle-from-heifer-and-steer-carcasses
#10
Shahid Mahmood, Nancy Turchinsky, Francois Paradis, Walter T Dixon, Heather L Bruce
Studies have suggested that the phenomenon of dark cutting (Canada B4) beef may also be related to muscle glycolytic proteins. The objective of this study, therefore, was to analyze longissimus thoracis (LT; n=23), from Canada AA (n=8), atypical (AB4; pH<5.9, n=8) and typical (TB4; pH>5.9, n=7) B4 heifer and steer carcasses, for sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins using 2-D gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry. Results indicated that AB4 LT had intramuscular pH and lactate concentration similar to Canada AA but lower (P<0...
November 10, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153525/association-of-milking-interval-and-milk-production-rate-in-an-automatic-milking-system
#11
J F Penry, P M Crump, L L Hernandez, D J Reinemann
The primary aim of this research was to describe the association between milking interval (MI) and milk production rate (MPR) at the quarter level in a large commercial farm using an automatic milking system. A secondary aim was to determine whether a 2-h decrease in MI would increase MPR at the cow level in midlactation multiparous cows. Six months of data from 1,280 cows were used to assess the association between MI (h) and quarter MPR (kg/h). Increasing MI was associated with decreased MPR for early, mid, and late lactation, both primiparous and multiparous cows, and all 4 quarter positions and across time...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153520/retrospective-analysis-of-austrian-health-recording-data-of-antibiotic-or-nonantibiotic-dry-off-treatment-on-milk-yield-somatic-cell-count-and-frequency-of-mastitis-in-subsequent-lactation
#12
T Wittek, A Tichy, B Grassauer, C Egger-Danner
Typically, dairy cows are dried off at the end of lactation. During the dry period, intramammary infections may be cured or persist, and new infections may occur. Traditionally, antibiotics (AB) have been used at dry-off. However, blanket antibiotic dry-off treatment may no longer be justifiable and, recently, selective use of antibiotics at dry off has been proposed and different decision criteria suggested. The objective of the study was to evaluate cows receiving antibiotic treatment at dry off (AB group) compared with cows dried off without antibiotics (non-AB group) using a large data set...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153518/subacute-ruminal-acidosis-affects-fermentation-and-endotoxin-concentration-in-the-rumen-and-relative-expression-of-the-cd14-tlr4-md2-genes-involved-in-lipopolysaccharide-systemic-immune-response-in-dairy-cows
#13
B Stefanska, W Człapa, E Pruszynska-Oszmałek, D Szczepankiewicz, V Fievez, J Komisarek, K Stajek, W Nowak
The first objective of this study was to investigate the effects of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) on fermentation, ruminal free lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and expression of the cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2) complex in white blood cells involved in the systemic immune response in dairy cows. The second objective was a study of whether increased expression of the LPS receptor complex led to increases in the concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and serum Ca...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153515/daily-and-seasonal-trends-of-electricity-and-water-use-on-pasture-based-automatic-milking-dairy-farms
#14
J Shortall, B O'Brien, R D Sleator, J Upton
The objective of this study was to identify the major electricity and water-consuming components of a pasture-based automatic milking (AM) system and to establish the daily and seasonal consumption trends. Electricity and water meters were installed on 7 seasonal calving pasture-based AM farms across Ireland. Electricity-consuming processes and equipment that were metered for consumption included milk cooling components, air compressors, AM unit(s), auxiliary water heaters, water pumps, lights, sockets, automatic manure scrapers, and so on...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153169/a-100-year-review-regulation-of-nutrient-partitioning-to-support-lactation
#15
L H Baumgard, R J Collier, D E Bauman
We have seen remarkable advances in animal productivity in the last 75 years, with annual milk yield per cow increasing over 4-fold and no evidence of nearing a plateau. Because of these gains in productive efficiency, there have been dramatic reductions in resource inputs and the carbon footprint per unit of milk produced. The primary source for the historic gains relates to animal variation in nutrient partitioning. The regulation of nutrient use for productive functions has the overall goal of maintaining the cow's well-being regardless of the physiological or environmental challenges...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153160/a-100-year-review-calf-nutrition-and-management
#16
A F Kertz, T M Hill, J D Quigley, A J Heinrichs, J G Linn, J K Drackley
The first calf paper, published in the May 1919 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), described factors affecting birth body weight of different breeds of calves. Other studies were done on nonmilk ingredients, growth charts were developed, and early weaning was followed to conserve milk fed to calves. Calf papers did not report use of statistics to control or record variation or to determine whether treatment means were different. Many experiments were more observational than comparative. Typically fewer than 5 calves, and sometimes 1 or 2 calves, were used per treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152797/oxidative-stress-does-not-influence-local-sweat-rate-during-high-intensity-exercise
#17
Robert D Meade, Naoto Fujii, Martin P Poirier, Pierre Boulay, Ronald J Sigal, Glen P Kenny
Nitric oxide (NO)-dependent sweating is diminished during high but not moderate intensity exercise. We evaluated whether this impairment stems from increased oxidative stress during high intensity exercise. On two separate days, 11 young (24 ± 4 years) males cycled in the heat (35°C) at a moderate (500 W; 52 ± 6%VO2peak ) or high (700 W; 71 ± 5%VO2peak ) rate of metabolic heat production. Each session included two 30-min exercise bouts separated by a 20-min recovery. Local sweat rate was monitored at four forearm skin sites continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with: (1) lactated Ringer's solution (Control), (2) 10 mm ascorbate (Ascorbate; non-selective antioxidant), (3) 10 mm N(G) -nitro-L -arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; NO synthase inhibitor), or (4) 10 mm Ascorbate + 10 mm L-NAME (Ascorbate + L-NAME)...
November 19, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152247/effects-of-different-protein-sources-on-fermentation-metabolites-and-nutrient-digestibility-of-brachycephalic-dogs
#18
Maria Isabel Gonzalez Urrego, Laura Fantucci de O Matheus, Karine de Melo Santos, Mariane Ceschin Ernandes, Mariana Monti, Danilo Ferreira de Souza, Júlio Cesar de Carvalho Balieiro, Lúcio Francelino Araújo, Cristiana F Ferreira Pontieri, Márcio Antonio Brunetto
Benefits to microbial fermentation in the colon and as a consequence less flatulence can be promoted for the health of adult dogs according to the amount and protein source. The present study evaluated different protein sources in dry food for brachycephalic dogs regarding microbial fermentation and nutrient digestibility. Four dry dog foods with similar protein content were formulated for adult maintenance: poultry meal (PM) diet; wheat gluten (WG) diet; PM + WG diet; and PM + WG + hydrolysed protein (HP) diet...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152240/nutrient-digestibility-hindgut-metabolites-and-antioxidant-status-of-dogs-supplemented-with-pomegranate-peel-extract
#19
Tony Jose, Ashok K Pattanaik, Sunil E Jadhav, Narayan Dutta, Shalini Sharma
The present study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of pomegranate peel (methanolic) extract (PPE) on the nutrient digestibility, faecal fermentative metabolites and antioxidant status of dogs. Six medium-sized dogs of mixed breeds were allocated to two groups in a replicated cross-over design and fed a basal diet with and without supplementation of PPE at 50 mg/kg body weight. Each of the experimental periods consisted of 30 d, with a 21 d washout period in between. Results indicated that PPE supplementation led to no significant changes in nutrient digestibility except a trend of improvement (P = 0·070) in crude fibre digestibility...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151452/development-of-a-new-diet-induced-obesity-dio-model-using-wistar-lean-rats
#20
Yoriko Kimura, Atsushi Yamada, Yoko Takabayashi, Tsunehiko Tsubota, Hisao Kasuga
Obesity is an increasingly severe socioeconomic health issue worldwide. Rodents with diet-induced obesity (DIO) are widely used as models of obesity. The main aim of this study was to establish a DIO model using Wistar lean (+/+ or +/-) rats by feeding a high-fat diet (45 kcal% fat) to dams during the latter term of gestation and the lactation period. A second aim was to examine the effect of post-weaning nutrition independently of maternal nutrition. Some pups (group D) were fed the same high-fat diet after weaning, while others (group C) were fed a chow diet after weaning...
November 17, 2017: Experimental Animals
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