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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088038/evidence-of-functional-duplicity-of-nestin-expression-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain
#1
Parisa Farzanehfar, Shi Sheng Lu, Anupa Dey, Dharshani Musiienko, Hamzah Baagil, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Whether or not neurogenesis occurs in the adult substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is an important question relevant for developing better treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although controversial, it is generally believed that dividing cells here remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia, not neurons. However, there is a suggestion that Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the adult SNc have a propensity to differentiate into neurons, which we sought to confirm in the present study...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086964/anti-%C3%AE-synuclein-immunotherapy-reduces-%C3%AE-synuclein-propagation-in-the-axon-and-degeneration-in-a-combined-viral-vector-and-transgenic-model-of-synucleinopathy
#2
Brian Spencer, Elvira Valera, Edward Rockenstein, Cassia Overk, Michael Mante, Anthony Adame, Wagner Zago, Peter Seubert, Robin Barbour, Dale Schenk, Dora Games, Robert A Rissman, Eliezer Masliah
Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's Disease (PD), PD dementia (PDD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterized by progressive accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in neurons. Recent studies have proposed that neuron-to-neuron propagation of α-syn plays a role in the pathogenesis of these disorders. We have previously shown that antibodies against the C-terminus of α-syn reduce the intra-neuronal accumulation of α-syn and related deficits in transgenic models of synucleinopathy, probably by abrogating the axonal transport and accumulation of α-syn in in vivo models...
January 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086829/genomic-pathways-modulated-by-twist-in-breast-cancer
#3
Farhad Vesuna, Yehudit Bergman, Venu Raman
BACKGROUND: The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TWIST1 (Twist) is involved in embryonic cell lineage determination and mesodermal differentiation. There is evidence to indicate that Twist expression plays a role in breast tumor formation and metastasis, but the role of Twist in dysregulating pathways that drive the metastatic cascade is unclear. Moreover, many of the genes and pathways dysregulated by Twist in cell lines and mouse models have not been validated against data obtained from larger, independant datasets of breast cancer patients...
January 13, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081372/role-of-hyperplasia-of-gingival-lymphatics-in-periodontal-inflammation
#4
P Papadakou, A Bletsa, M A Yassin, T V Karlsen, H Wiig, E Berggreen
Lymphatic vessels are important for maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis and afferent antigen transport. In chronic inflammation, lymphangiogenesis takes place and is characterized by lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and lymphatic hyperplasia. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) is the main known lymphangiogenic growth factor, and its expression is increased in periodontitis, a common chronic infectious disease that results in tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. The role of lymphangiogenesis during development of periodontitis is unknown...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081254/maternal-supply-of-cas9-to-zygotes-facilitates-the-efficient-generation-of-site-specific-mutant-mouse-models
#5
Alberto Cebrian-Serrano, Shijun Zha, Lars Hanssen, Daniel Biggs, Christopher Preece, Benjamin Davies
Genome manipulation in the mouse via microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 site-specific nucleases has allowed the production time for genetically modified mouse models to be significantly reduced. Successful genome manipulation in the mouse has already been reported using Cas9 supplied by microinjection of a DNA construct, in vitro transcribed mRNA and recombinant protein. Recently the use of transgenic strains of mice overexpressing Cas9 has been shown to facilitate site-specific mutagenesis via maternal supply to zygotes and this route may provide an alternative to exogenous supply...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081202/characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-five-mads-box-b-class-genes-related-to-floral-organ-identification-in-tagetes-erecta
#6
Ye Ai, Chunling Zhang, Yalin Sun, Weining Wang, Yanhong He, Manzhu Bao
According to the floral organ development ABC model, B class genes specify petal and stamen identification. In order to study the function of B class genes in flower development of Tagetes erecta, five MADS-box B class genes were identified and their expression and putative functions were studied. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that there were one PI-like gene-TePI, two euAP3-like genes-TeAP3-1 and TeAP3-2, and two TM6-like genes-TeTM6-1 and TeTM6-2 in T. erecta. Strong expression levels of these genes were detected in stamens of the disk florets, but little or no expression was detected in bracts, receptacles or vegetative organs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081156/generation-of-a-stable-transgenic-swine-model-expressing-a-porcine-histone-2b-egfp-fusion-protein-for-cell-tracking-and-chromosome-dynamics-studies
#7
Renan B Sper, Sehwon Koh, Xia Zhang, Sean Simpson, Bruce Collins, Jeff Sommer, Robert M Petters, Ignacio Caballero, Jeff L Platt, Jorge A Piedrahita
Transgenic pigs have become an attractive research model in the field of translational research, regenerative medicine, and stem cell therapy due to their anatomic, genetic and physiological similarities with humans. The development of fluorescent proteins as molecular tags has allowed investigators to track cell migration and engraftment levels after transplantation. Here we describe the development of two transgenic pig models via SCNT expressing a fusion protein composed of eGFP and porcine Histone 2B (pH2B)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080960/myogenic-regulatory-transcription-factors-regulate-growth-in-rhabdomyosarcoma
#8
Inês M Tenente, Madeline N Hayes, Myron S Ignatius, Karin McCarthy, Marielle Yohe, Sivasish Sindiri, Berkley Gryder, Mariana L Oliveira, Ashwin Ramakrishnan, Qin Tang, Eleanor Y Chen, G Petur Nielsen, Javed Khan, David M Langenau
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric malignacy of muscle with myogenic regulatory transcription factors MYOD and MYF5 being expressed in this disease. Consensus in the field has been that expression of these factors likely reflects the target cell of transformation rather than being required for continued tumor growth. Here, we used a transgenic zebrafish model to show that Myf5 is sufficient to confer tumor-propagating potential to RMS cells and caused tumors to initiate earlier and have higher penetrance...
January 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080219/adipose-tissue-insulin-resistance-in-gestational-diabetes
#9
Batbayar Tumurbaatar, Aaron T Poole, Gayle Olson, Michel Makhlouf, Hanaa S Sallam, Shwetha Thukuntla, Sucharitha Kankanala, Obos Ekhaese, Guillermo Gomez, Manisha Chandalia, Nicola Abate
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance (IR) and altered glucose-lipid metabolism. We propose that ectonucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1), a protein known to induce adipocyte IR, is a determinant of GDM. Our objective was to study ENPP1 expression in adipose tissue (AT) of obese pregnant women with or without GDM, as well as glucose tolerance in pregnant transgenic (Tg) mice with AT-specific overexpression of human ENPP1...
January 12, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079060/intranasal-lactoferrin-enhances-%C3%AE-secretase-dependent-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-via-the-erk1-2-creb-and-hif-1%C3%AE-pathways-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#10
Chuang Guo, Zhao-Hui Yang, Shuai Zhang, Rui Chai, Han Xue, Yan-Hui Zhang, Jia-Yi Li, Zhan-You Wang
Growing evidence suggests that lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-binding glycoprotein, is a pleiotropic functional nutrient. Additionally, Lf was recently implicated as a neuroprotective agent. These properties make Lf a valuable therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms regulating the physiological roles of Lf in the pathologic condition of AD remain unknown. In the present study, an APPswe/PS1DE9 transgenic mouse model of AD was used. We explored whether intranasal human Lf (hLf) administration could reduce β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and ameliorate cognitive decline in this AD model...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078083/over-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-2-up-regulates-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-and-decreases-oxidative-injury-in-dairy-goats
#11
Shoulong Deng, Kun Yu, Wuqi Jiang, Yan Li, Shuotian Wang, Zhuo Deng, Yuchang Yao, Baolu Zhang, Guoshi Liu, Yixun Liu, Zhengxing Lian
BACKGROUND: Mastitis, an infection caused by Gram-positive bacteria, produces udder inflammation and oxidative injury in milk-producing mammals. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is important for host recognition of invading Gram-positive microbes. Over-expression of TLR2 in transgenic dairy goats is a useful model for studying various aspects of infection with Gram-positive bacteria, in vivo. METHODS: We over-expressed TLR2 in transgenic dairy goats. Pam3CSK4, a component of Gram-positive bacteria, triggered the TLR2 signal pathway by stimulating the monocytes-macrophages from the TLR2-positive transgenic goats, and induced over-expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and inflammation factors downstream of the signal pathway...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077779/embryonic-exposure-to-tcdd-impacts-osteogenesis-of-the-axial-skeleton-in-japanese-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#12
AtLee T D Watson, Antonio Planchart, Carolyn J Mattingly, Christoph Winkler, David M Reif, Seth W Kullman
Recent studies from mammalian, fish, and in vitro models have identified bone and cartilage development as sensitive targets for dioxins and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. In this study, we assess how embryonic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorochlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure impacts axial osteogenesis in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), a vertebrate model of human bone development. Embryos from inbred wild-type Orange-red Hd-dR and 3 transgenic medaka lines (twist:EGFP, osx/sp7:mCherry, col10a1:nlGFP) were exposed to 0...
November 15, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077713/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#13
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under pathological conditions, such as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries, ranging from severe to mild...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077171/prostate-specific-il-6-transgene-autonomously-induce-prostate-neoplasm-through-amplifying-inflammation-in-the-prostate-and-peri-prostatic-adipose-tissue
#14
Gang Liu, Jinyu Zhang, Lewis Frey, Xiao Gang, Kongming Wu, Qian Liu, Michael Lilly, Jennifer Wu
BACKGROUND: The causative role of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in prostate cancer progression has been well established at molecular level. However, whether and how IL-6 may play a role in prostate cancer risk and development is not well defined. One limitation factor to acquiring this knowledge is the lack of appropriate animal models. METHODS: We generated a novel line of prostate-specific IL-6 transgenic mouse model. We compared the prostate pathology, tumorigenic signaling components, and prostate tumor microenvironment of the IL-6 transgenic mice with wild type littermates...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077158/ccl2-driven-inflammation-increases-mammary-gland-stromal-density-and-cancer-susceptibility-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model
#15
Xuan Sun, Danielle J Glynn, Leigh J Hodson, Cecilia Huo, Kara Britt, Erik W Thompson, Lucy Woolford, Andreas Evdokiou, Jeffrey W Pollard, Sarah A Robertson, Wendy V Ingman
BACKGROUND: Macrophages play diverse roles in mammary gland development and breast cancer. CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is an inflammatory cytokine that recruits macrophages to sites of injury. Although CCL2 has been detected in human and mouse mammary epithelium, its role in regulating mammary gland development and cancer risk has not been explored. METHODS: Transgenic mice were generated wherein CCL2 is driven by the mammary epithelial cell-specific mouse mammary tumour virus 206 (MMTV) promoter...
January 11, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076758/polysaccharides-from-ganoderma-lucidum-promote-cognitive-function-and%C3%A2-neural-progenitor-proliferation-in-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Shichao Huang, Jianxin Mao, Kan Ding, Yue Zhou, Xianglu Zeng, Wenjuan Yang, Peipei Wang, Cun Zhao, Jian Yao, Peng Xia, Gang Pei
Promoting neurogenesis is a promising strategy for the treatment of cognition impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ganoderma lucidum is a revered medicinal mushroom for health-promoting benefits in the Orient. Here, we found that oral administration of the polysaccharides and water extract from G. lucidum promoted neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation to enhance neurogenesis and alleviated cognitive deficits in transgenic AD mice. G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) also promoted self-renewal of NPC in cell culture...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074441/activation-of-parvalbumin-positive-neurons-in-both-retina-and-primary-visual-cortex-improves-the-feature-selectivity-of-primary-visual-cortex-neurons
#17
Jinggang Duan, Hang Fu, Jiayi Zhang
Several recent studies using either viral or transgenic mouse models have shown different results on whether the activation of parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) neurons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in the primary visual cortex (V1) improves the orientation- and direction-selectivity of V1 neurons. Although this discrepancy was thoroughly discussed in a follow-up communication, the issue of using different models to express ChR2 in V1 was not mentioned. We found that ChR2 was expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and V1 neurons in ChR2(fl/+); PV-Cre mice...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073926/mutations-of-pqbp1-in-renpenning-syndrome-promote-ubiquitin-mediated-degradation-of-fmrp-and-cause-synaptic-dysfunction
#18
Xiao-Yan Zhang, Junxia Qi, Yu-Qian Shen, Xian Liu, An Liu, Zikai Zhou, Junhai Han, Zi Chao Zhang
Renpenning syndrome is a group of X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndromes caused by mutations in human polyglutamine-binding protein 1 (PQBP1) gene. Little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of the various mutations that cause the notable variability in patients. In this study, we examine the cellular and synaptic functions of the most common mutations found in the patients: c.461_462delAG, c.459_462delAGAG, and c.463_464dupAG in an AG hexamer in PQBP1 exon 4. We discovered that PQBP1 c.459_462delAGAG and c...
January 10, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073379/tau-passive-immunization-inhibits-not-only-tau-but-also-a%C3%AE-pathology
#19
Chun-Ling Dai, Yunn Chyn Tung, Fei Liu, Cheng-Xin Gong, Khalid Iqbal
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein is a histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related tauopathies. Currently, there is no effective treatment available for these progressive neurodegenerative diseases. In recent years, tau immunotherapy has shown great potential in animal models. We report the effect of immunization with tau antibodies 43D against tau 6-18 and 77E9 against tau 184-195 on tau and amyloid-β (Aβ) pathologies and cognition in triple-transgenic (3×Tg)-AD mice at mild to moderate stages of the disease...
January 10, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072389/suppression-of-c9orf72-rna-repeat-induced-neurotoxicity-by-the-als-associated-rna-binding-protein-zfp106
#20
Barbara Celona, John von Dollen, Sarat C Vatsavayai, Risa Kashima, Jeffrey R Johnson, Amy A Tang, Akiko Hata, Bruce L Miller, Eric J Huang, Nevan J Krogan, William W Seeley, Brian L Black
Expanded GGGGCC repeats in the first intron of the C9orf72 gene represent the most common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the mechanisms underlying repeat-induced disease remain incompletely resolved. One proposed gain-of-function mechanism is that repeat-containing RNA forms aggregates that sequester RNA binding proteins, leading to altered RNA metabolism in motor neurons. Here, we identify the zinc finger protein Zfp106 as a specific GGGGCC RNA repeat-binding protein, and using affinity purification-mass spectrometry, we show that Zfp106 interacts with multiple other RNA binding proteins, including the ALS-associated factors TDP-43 and FUS...
January 10, 2017: ELife
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