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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334018/development-of-an-evidence-evaluation-and-synthesis-system-for-drug-drug-interactions-and-its-application-to-a-systematic-review-of-hiv-and-malaria-co-infection
#1
Kay Seden, Sara Gibbons, Catia Marzolini, Jonathan M Schapiro, David M Burger, David J Back, Saye H Khoo
BACKGROUND: In all settings, there are challenges associated with safely treating patients with multimorbidity and polypharmacy. The need to characterise, understand and limit harms resulting from medication use is therefore increasingly important. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are prevalent in patients taking antiretrovirals (ARVs) and if unmanaged, may pose considerable risk to treatment outcome. One of the biggest challenges in preventing DDIs is the substantial gap between theory and clinical practice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329475/classic-kaposi-sarcoma-in-an-hiv-negative-han-chinese-man-a-case-report
#2
Victoria Mitre, Danielle S Applebaum, Silvia Potenziani, Sylvia Hsu
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal angioproliferativetumor of endothelial origin. Despite nearly identicalclinical and histopathologic presentations, KS isclassified into four distinct varieties: classic/sporadic,AIDS-associated, African/endemic, and iatrogenic. Allsubtypes are invariably linked to human herpesvirus-8(HHV-8) and show a male predilection. Classic Kaposisarcoma is exceedingly rare in the Asian populationand its incidence varies by region and ethnic grouppredominance. A study in the Xinjiang region of Chinafound that only 1% of classic KS cases occurred inpatients belonging to the Han Chinese ethnic group,which formulates 84% of the Taiwanese population...
January 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328966/integration-of-family-planning-services-into-hiv-care-clinics-results-one-year-after-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-in-kenya
#3
Craig R Cohen, Daniel Grossman, Maricianah Onono, Cinthia Blat, Sara J Newmann, Rachel L Burger, Starley B Shade, Norah Bett, Elizabeth A Bukusi
OBJECTIVES: To determine if integration of family planning (FP) and HIV services led to increased use of more effective contraception (i.e. hormonal and permanent methods, and intrauterine devices) and decreased pregnancy rates. DESIGN: Cohort analysis following cluster randomized trial, when the Kenya Ministry of Health led integration of the remaining control (delayed integration) sites and oversaw integrated services at the original intervention (early integration) sites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325060/hiv-1-genetic-diversity-in-northeastern-brazil-high-prevalence-of-non-b-subtypes
#4
Edson Delatorre, José C Couto-Fernandez, Gonzalo Bello
The Northeastern Brazilian region has experienced a constant increase in the number of newly reported AIDS cases over the last decade, but the genetic diversity of HIV-1 strains currently disseminated in this region remains poorly explored. HIV-1 pol sequences were obtained from 140 patients followed at outpatient clinics from four Northeastern Brazilian states (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará and Piauí) between 2014 and 2015. Subtype B was the most prevalent HIV-1 clade (72%) detected in the Northeastern region, followed by subtypes F1 (6%), C (5%) and D (1%)...
March 22, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320142/ventriculo-peritoneal-shunt-surgery-for-tuberculous-meningitis-a-systematic-review
#5
Imran Rizvi, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar, Eesha Sharma, Chhitij Srivastava, Ravi Uniyal
BACKGROUND: Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgery for the management of tuberculous hydrocephalus. There is decreased clarity on issues regarding the indication as well as timing of cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedures in tuberculous meningitis. We systematically analysed published literature on this subject with an objective to assess the value of cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedures in tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: A systematic search of literature was performed using PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for articles published till August 2016...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316253/predominance-of-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-a-among-treated-hiv-infected-patients-experiencing-high-hbv-drug-resistance-in-nairobi-kenya
#6
Sepha Nyatichi Mabeya, Caroline Wangari Ngugi, Raphael W Lihana, Samoel Ashimosi Khamadi, Anthony Kebira Nyamache
HBV/HIV coinfections are becoming common with information on HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance still remaining elusive. To evaluate the HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance associated mutations among drug experienced HIV patients, the genetic analysis of the partial HBV-pol-reverse trancriptase gene was successfully sequenced from 13 samples. Analysis of the sequences showed that all (13) the sequences belonged to genotype A. Nucleos(t)ide drug resistance mutations were found in six (6) patients...
March 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302512/seroepidemiology-of-hepatitis-a-hepatitis-b-and-varicella-virus-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-ireland
#7
Corinna Sadlier, Anna O'Rourke, Alison Carr, Colm Bergin
Epidemiological studies investigating seroprevalence of vaccine preventable infections at both individual and population level are important in guiding screening and vaccination practices. Data on seroprevalence of common vaccine preventable infections in HIV-infected individuals is lacking. We carried out a retrospective cohort study to investigate serological immunity and factors associated with immunity to hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and varicalla virus (VZV) in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals attending a large ambulatory HIV specialist centre in Ireland...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300642/distribution-and-phylogeny-of-brachyspira-spp-in-human-intestinal-spirochetosis-revealed-by-fish-and-16s-rrna-gene-analysis
#8
Pablo Rojas, Annett Petrich, Julia Schulze, Alexandra Wiessner, Christoph Loddenkemper, Hans-Jörg Epple, William Sterlacci, Michael Vieth, Judith Kikhney, Annette Moter
During six years as National Reference Laboratory for Spirochetes we investigated 149 intestinal biopsies from 91 patients, which were histopathologically diagnosed with human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS), using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing. Aim of this study was to complement histopathological findings with FISH and PCR for definite diagnosis and species identification of the causative pathogens. HIS is characterized by colonization of the colonic mucosa of the human distal intestinal tract by Brachyspira spp...
March 11, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300406/enzymatic-synthesis-of-a-novel-kaempferol-3-o-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranosyl-1%C3%A2-4-o-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranoside-using-cyclodextrin-glucanotransferase-and-its-inhibitory-effects-on-aldose-reductase-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#9
Woo-Jae Choung, Seung Hwan Hwang, Dam-Seul Ko, Set Byeol Kim, Seo Hyun Kim, Sung Ho Jeon, Hee-Don Choi, Soon Sung Lim, Jae-Hoon Shim
Kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (astragalin, AS), a major flavonoid that exists in various plants, exerts anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the low water solubility of AS limits its use. In this study, we used cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) with maltose (G2) as a donor molecule to enzymatically modify AS to improve its water solubility and physiochemical properties. We isolated the glycosylated astragalin (G1-AS) and identified the structure of G1-AS as kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-α-D-glucopyranoside, where one glucose residue was transferred to AS...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299369/socioeconomic-status-and-treatment-outcomes-for-individuals-with-hiv-on-antiretroviral-treatment-in-the-uk-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-analyses
#10
Lisa S Burch, Colette J Smith, Jane Anderson, Lorraine Sherr, Alison J Rodger, Rebecca O'Connell, Anna-Maria Geretti, Richard Gilson, Martin Fisher, Jonathan Elford, Martin Jones, Simon Collins, Yusef Azad, Andrew N Phillips, Andrew Speakman, Margaret A Johnson, Fiona C Lampe
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the effect of socioeconomic status on HIV treatment outcomes in settings with universal access to health care. Here we aimed to investigate the association of socioeconomic factors with antiretroviral therapy (ART) non-adherence, virological non-suppression, and virological rebound, in HIV-positive people on ART in the UK. METHODS: We used data from the Antiretrovirals, Sexual Transmission Risk and Attitudes (ASTRA) questionnaire study, which recruited participants aged 18 years or older with HIV from eight HIV outpatient clinics in the UK between Feb 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2012...
November 2016: Lancet Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288695/expanding-the-knowledge-translation-metaphor
#11
Eivind Engebretsen, Tony Joakim Sandset, John Ødemark
BACKGROUND: Knowledge translation (KT) is a buzzword in modern medical science. However, there has been little theoretical reflection on translation as a process of meaning production in KT. In this paper, we argue that KT will benefit from the incorporation of a more theoretical notion of translation as an entangled material, textual and cultural process. DISCUSSION: We discuss and challenge fundamental assumptions in KT, drawing on theories of translation from the human sciences...
March 13, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287833/identification-of-a-novel-hiv-type-1-crf01_ae-b-c-recombinant-isolate-in-sichuan-china
#12
Yan Wang, Desheng Kong, Weisi Xu, Fan Li, Shu Liang, Yi Feng, Fujie Zhang, Yiming Shao, Liying Ma
We report in this study a novel HIV-1 unique recombinant virus (XC2014EU01) isolated from an HIV-positive man who infected through heterosexual sex in Sichuan, China. The near full-length genome analyses showed that XC2014EU01 harbored one subtype B segment in pol region and two subtype C segments in gag-pol region in a CRF01_AE backbone. The unique mosaic structure was distinctly different from the other CRF01_AE/B'/C recombinant forms reported. Phylogenetic tree analyses revealed that the subtype B region originated from a Thailand subtype B' lineage, the subtype C regions were from an India C lineage, and the backbone was from CRF01_AE...
March 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282947/disparity-in-retention-in-care-and-viral-suppression-for-black-caribbean-born-immigrants-living-with-hiv-in-florida
#13
Elena Cyrus, Christyl Dawson, Kristopher P Fennie, Diana M Sheehan, Daniel E Mauck, Mariana Sanchez, Lorene M Maddox, Mary Jo Trepka
(1) The study aim was to assess disparities in non-retention in HIV care and non-viral suppression among non-Hispanic Black Caribbean immigrants living with HIV in Florida. (2) We analyzed cases involving individuals, aged ≥13, who met CDC HIV case definition during 2000-2014. Chi square test was used to evaluate differences in non-retention and non-viral suppression by country of origin/race/ethnicity. Multilevel logistic regressions with three referent groups [US-born Blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs)] were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR)...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282653/comparison-of-in-person-versus-telephone-interviews-for-early-syphilis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-partner-services-in-king-county-washington-2010-2014
#14
Christine L Heumann, David A Katz, Julia C Dombrowski, Amy B Bennett, Lisa E Manhart, Matthew R Golden
BACKGROUND: The relative effectiveness of in-person versus telephone interviews for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease partner services (PS) is uncertain. METHODS: We compared outcomes of in-person versus telephone PS interviews for early syphilis (ES) and newly diagnosed HIV in King County, Washington from 2010 to 2014. We used multivariable Poisson regression to evaluate indices (number of partners per original patient [OP]) for partners named, notified, tested, diagnosed, and treated (ES only)...
April 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278570/population-movements-and-the-hiv-cascade-in-recently-diagnosed-patients-at-the-french-guiana-suriname-border
#15
Raphael Jaries, Vincent Vantilcke, Philippe Clevenbergh, Jocelyne Adoissi, Rachida Boukhari, Caroline Misslin, Mathieu Nacher, Stephen Vreden, Anne Jolivet
Border areas are particular "hot spots" generating high levels of HIV vulnerability and facing great challenges to control epidemics. The objective of this study is to describe the sociodemographic, clinical and biological profiles of newly HIV diagnosed people at the French Guiana - Suriname border, to construct an HIV care cascade and compare it with the Surinamese one. HIV-patients aged over 15 years newly diagnosed in western French Guiana in 2011 and 2012 were included in a retrospective cohort study. Patients were identified using different sources (n = 121)...
February 13, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278566/posttraumatic-growth-inventory-factor-structure-in-spanish-speaking-people-living-with-hiv
#16
Helena Garrido-Hernansaiz, Rocío Rodríguez-Rey, Jesús Alonso-Tapia
This cross-sectional study analyzed the factorial structure of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) in a sample of 304 Spanish-speaking HIV-positive adults. Participants completed the PTGI and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out through structural equations modeling, with a Varimax rotation. Factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 were extracted, and items with loadings higher than .5 on a factor and lower than .4 on the rest were retained. Two confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed to test a hierarchical model and a bifactor model...
February 14, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275453/insight-into-hiv-2-latency-may-disclose-strategies-for-a-cure-for-hiv-1-infection
#17
EDITORIAL
Suha Saleh, Lenard Vranckx, Rik Gijsbers, Frauke Christ, Zeger Debyser
HIV-1 and HIV-2 originate from two distinct zoonotic transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from primate to human. Although both share similar modes of transmission and can result in the development of AIDS with similar clinical manifestations, HIV-2 infection is generally milder and less likely to progress to AIDS. HIV is currently incurable due to the presence of HIV provirus integrated into the host DNA of long-lived memory cells of the immune system without active replication. As such, the latent virus is immunologically inert and remains insensitive to the administered antiviral drugs targeting active viral replication steps...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272136/timing-of-combined-antiretroviral-treatment-initiation-in-male-and-female-migrants-living-with-hiv-in-western-europe
#18
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: We evaluate differences in timing of cART (combined antiretroviral treatment) initiation by geographical origin in male and female HIV-positive patients in the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe, a large European Collaboration of HIV Cohorts. METHODS: We included individuals recruited in Western Europe between January 1997 and March 2013, with known geographical origin and at least 1 CD4 cell count measurement while cART-naive...
March 27, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272134/romidepsin-induced-hiv-1-viremia-during-effective-antiretroviral-therapy-contains-identical-viral-sequences-with-few-deleterious-mutations
#19
Anni Winckelmann, Kirston Barton, Bonnie Hiener, Timothy E Schlub, Wei Shao, Thomas A Rasmussen, Lars Østergaard, Ole S Søgaard, Martin Tolstrup, Sarah Palmer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the origin of the HIV-1 viremia induced by the latency-reversing agent romidepsin. DESIGN: Six individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy received romidepsin administered intravenously once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. CD4 T cells were obtained at baseline, following the second and third romidepsin infusion, and 10 weeks after the final romidepsin treatment. Plasma samples were collected 24 and 72 h after romidepsin infusions...
March 27, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270252/differences-between-migrants-and-spanish-born-population-through-the-hiv-care-cascade-catalonia-an-analysis-using-multiple-data-sources
#20
J Reyes-Urueña, C Campbell, C Hernando, N Vives, C Folch, L Ferrer, L Fernández-López, A Esteve, J Casabona
Migrants are considered a key group at risk for HIV infection. This study describes differences between migrants and the Spanish-born population as they progress through the HIV care cascade in Catalonia, Spain. This study found that among people reached by prevention activities, migrants had a higher number of barriers to access HIV testing services than Spanish-born people, driven primarily by shared risk factors. Between 2001 and 2013, 9829 new HIV diagnoses were reported in Catalonia, the proportion of migrants increasing from 24% in 2001 to 41% in 2013...
March 8, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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