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Hiv origins

Fei Ling, Dan-Dan He, Wei Wang, Ya-Bin Jin, Hui-Ling Zhang
Background-Sterile alpha motif and histidine aspartate domain containing deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase 1 (SAMHD1) is one of the novel restriction factors that potently supresses HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells at an early stage in the viral replication cycle. SAMHD1 activity is blocked by the action of viral accessory protein x (Vpx), which targets and recruits SAMHD1 for proteasomal degradation, in the SIVsm/HIV-2 lineage. Objective-The impact of SAMHD1 polymorphisms on viral replication in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (CR) and cynomolgus macaques of Vietnamese origin (CM) have not been reported until now...
October 18, 2016: Current HIV Research
Zhonglan Wu, Lijia Cui, Weiming Zhao, Dongzhi Yang, Hui Chen, Ruiqing Wang, Xuemin Wang, Linqi Zhang, Tianhua He
BACKGROUND: Current prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remain unknown in Ningxia, northwest China. METHODS: From June to December 2013, 13,022 individuals were screened in Ningxia HIV/AIDS Sentinel Surveillance System, with their demographic features collected and serum samples tested for HCV antibody. Sero-positive drug users were further subjected to sequencing of NS5B and Core regions of HCV. RESULTS: The anti-HCV prevalence was 0...
October 18, 2016: Virology Journal
Marieke J Van Der Werf, Csaba Ködmön, Phillip Zucs, Vahur Hollo, Andrew J Amato-Gauci, Anastasia Pharris
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB)/HIV co-infection in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) for planning of prevention and control measures. DESIGN: Analysis of surveillance data. METHODS: We performed an analysis of the 2014 TB and AIDS data to assess the burden of TB/HIV co-infection and we applied multivariable logistic regression to evaluate predictors for co-infection. RESULTS: Twenty-one of 31 EU/EEA countries reported HIV testing results for 64...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Tasneem Kaleem, Jennifer A Crozier, David M Menke, Taimur Sher
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a serious complication of transplantation with a high mortality. Most PTLD present within the first year of transplantation and are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare but aggressive disease originally described in patients with HIV, presenting most commonly in the jaw and oral mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first case of PBL presenting as PTLD of the lung in a HIV and EBV negative patient...
September 5, 2016: Rare Tumors
Emma Cunningham, Yuen-Ting Chan, Adamma Aghaizu, David F Bibby, Gary Murphy, Jennifer Tosswill, Ross J Harris, Richard Myers, Nigel Field, Valerie Delpech, Patricia A Cane, O Noel Gill, Jean L Mbisa
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of inferred low-frequency HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in MSM in the UK and its predicted effect on first-line therapy. METHODS: The HIV-1 pol gene was amplified from 442 newly diagnosed MSM identified as likely recently infected by serological avidity testing in 2011-13. The PCR products were sequenced by next-generation sequencing with a mutation frequency threshold of >2% and TDR mutations defined according to the 2009 WHO surveillance drug resistance mutations list...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection.In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogenous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Maarten Danial, Angela Stauffer, Frederik R Wurm, Michael J Root, Harm-Anton Klok
A popular strategy to overcome the limited plasma half-life of peptide heptad repeat 2 (HR2) fusion inhibitors against HIV-1 is through conjugation with biocompatible polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). However, despite improved resistance to proteolysis and reduced renal elimination, covalent attachment of polymers often causes a loss in therapeutic potency. In this study, we investigated the molecular origins of the loss in potency upon conjugation of linear, mid-functional and hyperbranched PEG-like polymers to peptides that inhibit HIV-1 - host cell membrane fusion...
October 13, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Liang Sun, Shu-Min Yang, Hui Wu, Bing Chen, Chong-Jian Wang, Xiao-Fang Li
The aim of this study was to translate the HIV Treatment Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (HIV-ASES) and evaluate its reliability and validity in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in mainland China. The original HIV-ASES was translated from English into Chinese and adapted for cultural context according to cross-cultural adaptation guidelines. A cross-sectional survey investigating 1742 PLWHIV receiving antiretroviral treatment was conducted. Exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation confirmed the presence of two factors with an accumulated contribution rate of 58...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Tasleem J Padamsee
The history of government action on HIV/AIDS has much to teach us about the dynamics and possibilities of US public health policy, but it has been insufficiently studied by social scientists of the epidemic. This article draws on a large set of original interviews with policy makers, thousands of news articles, and extensive documentation to reconstruct the history of three areas of debate and decision making about HIV prevention since 1990: needle exchange, HIV testing, and sex education for at-risk groups...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection.In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogenous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Eva Åkerman, Per-Olof Östergren, Birgitta Essén, Cecilia Fernbrant, Ragnar Westerling
BACKGROUND: Migration from Thailand to Sweden has increased threefold over the last 10 years. Today Thailand is one of the most common countries of origin among immigrants in Sweden. Since the year 2000, new HIV cases are also more prevalent among Thai immigrants compared to other immigrant nationalities in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and utilization of sexual and reproductive healthcare services, contraceptive knowledge and socio-demographic characteristics and social capital among Thai immigrant women in Sweden...
October 10, 2016: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Yu Liu, Yuhua Ruan, Shiela M Strauss, Lu Yin, Hongjie Liu, K Rivet Amico, Chen Zhang, Yiming Shao, Han-Zhu Qian, Sten H Vermund
BACKGROUND: Few studies have employed standardized alcohol misuse measures to assess relationships with sexual risk and HIV/syphilis infections among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among MSM in Beijing during 2013-2014. An interviewer-administered survey was conducted to collect data on sociodemographics, high-risk behaviors, and alcohol use/misuse patterns (hazardous/binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence) in the past 3 months using Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C)...
September 30, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Carole Ian McAteer, Nhan-Ai Thi Truong, Josephine Aluoch, Andrew Roland Deathe, Winstone M Nyandiko, Irene Marete, Rachel Christine Vreeman
INTRODUCTION: HIV-related stigma impacts the quality of life and care management of HIV-infected and HIV-affected individuals, but how we measure stigma and its impact on children and adolescents has less often been described. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies that measured HIV-related stigma with a quantitative tool in paediatric HIV-infected and HIV-affected populations. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Varying measures have been used to assess stigma in paediatric populations, with most studies utilizing the full or variant form of the HIV Stigma Scale that has been validated in adult populations and utilized with paediatric populations in Africa, Asia and the United States...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Shuguo Yang, Danmei Jiao, Changjun Liu, Ming Lv, Shan Li, Zongyun Chen, Yao Deng, Yanqing Zhao, Jian Li
BACKGROUND: Ordinary screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) among blood donors is essential for blood transfusion. Although there is several TTIs studies focus on human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, and Treponema pallidum infections in China, it is no data to illustrate any firm conclusion from Shiyan City, Central China. It aims to verify the seroprevalence of TTIs among blood donors at Shiyan. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of blood donors' information was conducted for the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T...
October 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Erik Stempel, Tanja Gaich
Seven-membered rings fused with an indole are termed cyclohepta[b]indoles. Compounds exhibiting this structure motif display a broad spectrum of biological activities, ranging from inhibition of adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein (A-FABP), deacetylation of histones, inhibition of leukotriene production p53, antituberculosis activities, and anti-HIV activities. These biological profiles are found in natural products containing the cyclohepta[b]indole motif, as well as in pharmaceuticals that contain this structure motif...
October 6, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Jinbiao Liu, Qianhao Xiao, Runhong Zhou, Yong Wang, Qiaoyang Xian, Tongcui Ma, Ke Zhuang, Li Zhou, Deyin Guo, Xu Wang, Wen-Zhe Ho, Jieliang Li
Altered T-cell homeostasis, such as expansion of CD8(+) T cells to the secondary lymphatic compartments, has been suggested as a mechanism of HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-pathogenesis. However, the role of immune activation of CD8(+) T cells in the CD4/CD8 turnover and viral replication in these tissues is not completely understood. In this study, we compared the expression of immune activation markers (CD69 and HLA-DR) on CD8(+) T cells in the peripheral blood and lymph nodes (LNs) of SIV-infected/uninfected Chinese rhesus macaques...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Thomas G Simnadis, Linda C Tapsell, Eleanor J Beck
CONTEXT: Sorghum, an ancient grain originating in Africa, may have health-protective properties that could encourage its consumption among those who do not traditionally consume it. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the health effects associated with the consumption of sorghum among humans. DATA SOURCES: Academic databases were searched for relevant studies published between 1985 and November 2015. STUDY SELECTION: Nineteen studies -13 interventional and 6 observational - were identified for inclusion...
September 30, 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Susan C Potter, Karin K Coyle, Jill R Glassman, Sarah Kershner, Mary S Prince
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of an evidence-based HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI)/pregnancy prevention program for middle schools implemented by school staff in South Carolina. METHODS: Twenty-four schools, representing 3143 youths, participated in a randomized trial from 2011 to 2014. Students completed surveys before programming (fall of seventh grade), after completing the 2-year It's Your Game…Keep It Real program (spring of eighth grade), and 1-year postprogram (spring of ninth grade)...
September 2016: American Journal of Public Health
H J He, P Lyu, R S Luan, Q H Liao, Z J Chang, Y Li, L Ouyang, J Yang
Objective: To understand how social and cultural factors influence sexual perceptions, sexual practices, and HIV transmission among men who have sex with men at selected sites in China. Methods: Qualitative methodology was used and face to face, semi-structured, in-depth interviews conducted from April 2013 to October 2015 in Sichuan, Jiangxi, Henan, Heilongjiang provinces and Chongqing municipality of China. Results: A total of 184 men who have sex with men participated in the interviews. Forty-eight originated from Henan Province, and 12, 50, 47, and 27 from Jiangxi, Heilongjiang, Sichuan provinces and Chongqing municipality, respectively...
October 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
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