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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629887/-early-diagnosis-of-hiv-in-primary-care-in-spain-results-of-a-pilot-study-based-on-targeted-screening-based-on-indicator-conditions-behavioral-criteria-and-region-of-origin
#1
Cristina Agustí, María Martín-Rabadán, José Zarco, Cristina Aguado, Ricard Carrillo, Roger Codinachs, Jose Manuel Carmona, Jordi Casabona
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of HIV infection in patients diagnosed with an indicator condition (IC) for HIV and/or risk behavior for their acquisition and/or coming from high prevalence countries. To determine the acceptability and feasibility of offering HIV testing based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria in Primary Care (PC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in a convenience sample. LOCATION: Six PC centers in Spain. PARTICIPANTS: The inclusion criteria were: patients between 16 and 65years old who presented at least one of the proposed ICs and/or at least one of the proposed behavioral and/or origin criteria...
June 16, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628667/characterization-of-hiv-1-crf90_bf1-and-putative-novel-crfs_bf1-in-central-west-north-and-northeast-brazilian-regions
#2
Mônica Nogueira da Guarda Reis, Gonzalo Bello, Monick Lindenmeyer Guimarães, Mariane Martins Araújo Stefani
The Brazilian AIDS epidemic has been characterized by an increasing rate of BF1 recombinants and so far eight circulating recombinant forms/CRFs_BF1 have been described countrywide. In this study, pol sequences (protease/PR, reverse transcriptase/RT) of 87 BF1 mosaic isolates identified among 828 patients living in six Brazilian States from three geographic regions (Central West, North, Northeast) were analyzed. Phylogenetic and bootscan analyses were performed to investigate the evolutionary relationship and mosaic structure of BF1 isolates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621653/increased-mortality-among-indigenous-persons-in-a-multisite-cohort-of-people-living-with-hiv-in-canada
#3
Anita C Benoit, Jaime Younger, Kerrigan Beaver, Randy Jackson, Mona Loutfy, Renée Masching, Tony Nobis, Earl Nowgesic, Doe O'Brien-Teengs, Wanda Whitebird, Art Zoccole, Mark Hull, Denise Jaworsky, Elizabeth Benson, Anita Rachlis, Sean B Rourke, Ann N Burchell, Curtis Cooper, Robert S Hogg, Marina B Klein, Nima Machouf, Julio S G Montaner, Chris Tsoukas, Janet Raboud
OBJECTIVE: Compare all-cause mortality between Indigenous participants and participants of other ethnicities living with HIV initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in an interprovincial multi-site cohort. METHODS: The Canadian Observational Cohort is a collaboration of 8 cohorts of treatment-naïve persons with HIV initiating cART after January 1, 2000. Participants were followed from the cART initiation date until death or last viral load (VL) test date on or before December 31, 2012...
June 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621223/a-generation-at-risk-a-cross-sectional-study-on-hiv-aids-knowledge-exposure-to-mass-media-and-stigmatizing-behaviors-among-young-women-aged-15-24-years-in-ghana
#4
Charity Konadu Asamoah, Benedict Oppong Asamoah, Anette Agardh
HIV/AIDS stigmatizing behaviors are a huge barrier to early detection and treatment of individuals with the AIDS virus. HIV/AIDS stigma and related consequences are debilitating, especially for vulnerable populations. This study sought to assess whether young women's HIV/AIDS knowledge levels and exposure to mass media (television and radio) have an influence on their stigmatizing behaviors and role as agents of stigma towards individuals living with HIV and AIDS. The data used for this study originated from the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620380/human-immunodeficiency-virus-playing-hide-and-seek-understanding-the-tfh-cell-reservoir-and-proposing-strategies-to-overcome-the-follicle-sanctuary
#5
REVIEW
Yew Ann Leong, Anurag Atnerkar, Di Yu
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects millions of people worldwide, and new cases continue to emerge. Once infected, the virus cannot be cleared by the immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Combination antiretroviral therapeutic regimen effectively suppresses viral replication and halts disease progression. The treatment, however, does not eliminate the virus-infected cells, and interruption of treatment inevitably leads to viral rebound. The rebound virus originates from a group of virus-infected cells referred to as the cellular reservoir of HIV...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606284/-efficacy-of-clindamycin-primaquine-as-the-salvage-treatment-for-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-non-hiv-infected-patients
#6
X Wang, G F Wang, Z Jin, J J Huang, X D Mu, W Zhang
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of clindamycin-primaquine as the salvage treatment for pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV-infected patients. Methods: Clinical data of non-HIV-infected patients with PCP who were treated with clindamycin-primaquine as the salvage treatment in Peking University First Hospital from Jan 2010 to May 2016 were collected and reviewed in this retrospective study. Clinical outcomes were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of clindamycin-primaquine as a salvage treatment. Results: A total of 19 non-HIV-infected patients with PCP were included...
June 13, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603746/preclinical-evaluation-of-a-lentiviral-vector-for-huntingtin-silencing
#7
Karine Cambon, Virginie Zimmer, Sylvain Martineau, Marie-Claude Gaillard, Margot Jarrige, Aurore Bugi, Jana Miniarikova, Maria Rey, Raymonde Hassig, Noelle Dufour, Gwenaelle Auregan, Philippe Hantraye, Anselme L Perrier, Nicole Déglon
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder resulting from a polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) protein. There is currently no cure for this disease, but recent studies suggest that RNAi to downregulate the expression of both normal and mutant HTT is a promising therapeutic approach. We previously developed a small hairpin RNA (shRNA), vectorized in an HIV-1-derived lentiviral vector (LV), that reduced pathology in an HD rodent model. Here, we modified this vector for preclinical development by using a tat-independent third-generation LV (pCCL) backbone and removing the original reporter genes...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597093/-pediatric-salivary-gland-tumors-and-tumor-like-lesions
#8
REVIEW
A Agaimy, H Iro, J Zenk
Salivary gland tumors and tumor-like lesions in the pediatric population are uncommon. They comprise a heterogeneous group of infectious/inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. Pediatric salivary neoplasms include benign tumors of mesenchymal or epithelial origin as well as malignancies of epithelial (carcinomas), mesenchymal (sarcoma) or hematolymphoid (lymphoma) derivation. Infectious/inflammatory conditions and hematolymphoid malignancies may represent either genuine parenchymal pathology or conditions involving intraglandular lymph nodes of the parotid glands (intraglandular lymphadenopathy and intraglandular nodal lymphomas)...
June 9, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592757/hiv-negative-plasmablastic-lymphoma-attaining-sustained-remission-with-bortezomib-combined-dose-adjusted-epoch-therapy
#9
Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Norito Miyagi
A 61-year-old, HIV-negative, immunocompetent woman was admitted to our hospital for significant weight loss, painful swelling of her right cheek, and rapid growth of a tumor in the right hard palate. A CT scan revealed a neoplastic lesion in the right maxillary sinus, extending to the surrounding soft bone tissue and oral cavity, as well as multiple osteolytic lesions in the skull. A pathologic examination revealed that the neoplastic cells in the oral cavity were plasmablasts tending to appear as differentiated plasma cells...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581372/hospital-admissions-for-hiv-infected-prisoners-in-italy
#10
Emanuele Pontali, Roberto Ranieri, Elena Rastrelli, Maria Donata Iannece, Anna Maria Ialungo, Serena Dell'Isola, Alfonso Liberti, Pietro Rosario, Rodolfo Casati, Giulio Starnini, Sergio Babudieri
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to give a description of the clinical conditions and patient demographics of inpatient admissions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected inmates in three hospital wards that provide hospital care for inmates in Italy. Design/methodology/approach This is a retrospective review of hospital medical admissions of patients living with HIV from January 1 to December 31, 2014, in three Italian referral centers for hospitalization of inmates. Findings A total of 85 admissions for 85 different HIV-infected inmates occurred in 2014 in the three centers participating to the study...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578209/a-method-for-understanding-generic-procurement-of-hiv-medicines-by-developing-countries-with-patent-protection
#11
Reed F Beall, Amir Attaran
Patent protection on medicines may frustrate access by blocking generic competition. Nevertheless, circumstances may still allow for generic procurement to occur anyway, especially for humanitarian cause. But to what extent does this occur? And which legal flexibilities may facilitate such procurement? We attempted to design a replicable methodology that involved linking antiretroviral (ARV) patent data (1260 patents for 12 medicines) from a World Intellectual Property Organization patent study on the 2013 World Health Organization's (WHO) Model List of Essential Medicines to all available matching procurement records in the WHO's Global Price Reporting Mechanism...
May 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571570/immunological-and-virological-characterization-of-hiv-1-viremia-controllers-in-the-north-region-of-brazil
#12
Samara Tatielle M Gomes, Érica R Gomes, Mike B Dos Santos, Sandra S Lima, Maria Alice F Queiroz, Luiz Fernando A Machado, Izaura M V Cayres-Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos R Vallinoto, Marluísa de O Guimarães Ishak, Ricardo Ishak
BACKGROUND: A rare phenotype of clinical non-progressors to AIDS is not well understood and the new protocol for universal treatment, may block the understanding of viral control thus it is crucial to define this controversial group. METHODS: A cohort of 30 persons followed a criteria for viremia control groups 1 (VC1; n = 2) and 2 (VC2; n = 7) and non-viral controllers (NC; n = 21) including number of years of diagnosis, LTCD4(+), LTCD8(+) counts, plasma viral load and the absence of ART; 241 uninfected control persons were matched to age and sex...
June 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569291/misadventure-in-muirhouse-hiv-infection-a-modern-plague-and-persisting-public-health-problem
#13
R Robertson
This story is of particular interest and importance to Edinburgh and Scottish medicine. It describes the events in one general medical practice in Edinburgh, the Muirhouse Medical Group, and their impact and relationship to the AIDS pandemic. For many, the origin of HIV in the UK is now history. Since the introduction of HIV/AIDS into the intravenous illegal drug using community, much has changed but problems remain that should concern policy makers and clinicians. Reflections on the recent history of the HIV epidemic among drug users in the UK provide important insights into risks for current policy making and the potentially problematic direction that policy has taken...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567304/rising-prevalence-of-non-b-hiv-1-subtypes-in-north-carolina-and-evidence-for-local-onward-transmission
#14
Ann M Dennis, Stephane Hué, Emily Learner, Joseph Sebastian, William C Miller, Joseph J Eron
HIV-1 diversity is increasing in North American and European cohorts which may have public health implications. However, little is known about non-B subtype diversity in the southern United States, despite the region being the epicenter of the nation's epidemic. We characterized HIV-1 diversity and transmission clusters to identify the extent to which non-B strains are transmitted locally. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of HIV-1 partial pol sequences collected from 1997 to 2014 from adults accessing routine clinical care in North Carolina (NC)...
January 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551370/multiple-introductions-and-onward-transmission-of-hiv-1-subtype-b-strains-in-shanghai-china
#15
Xiaoshan Li, Kexin Zhu, Yile Xue, Feiran Wei, Rong Gao, Ralf Duerr, Kun Fang, Wei Li, Yue Song, Guoping Du, Wenjuan Yan, Taha Hussein Musa, You Ge, Yu Ji, Ping Zhong, Pingmin Wei
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the viral genetic evolution, spatial origins and patterns of transmission of HIV-1 subtype B in Shanghai, China. METHODS: A total of 242 Shanghai subtype B and 1519 reference pol sequences were subjected to phylogenetic inference and genetic transmission network analyses. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analyses revealed that subtype B strains circulating in Shanghai were genetically diverse and closely associated with viral sequence lineages in Beijing (76 of 242 [31...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544500/non-communicable-diseases-and-hiv-care-and-treatment-models-of-integrated-service-delivery
#16
REVIEW
Malia Duffy, Bisola Ojikutu, Soa Andrian, Elaine Sohng, Thomas Minior, Lisa R Hirschhorn
OBJECTIVES: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are a growing cause of morbidity in low-income countries including in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Integration of NCD and HIV services can build upon experience with chronic care models from HIV programmes. We describe models of NCD and HIV integration, challenges and lessons learned. METHODS: A literature review of published articles on integrated NCD and HIV programs in low-income countries and key informant interviews were conducted with leaders of identified integrated NCD and HIV programs...
May 24, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542309/predictors-of-loss-to-follow-up-among-patients-on-art-at-a-rural-hospital-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#17
Rachel Arnesen, Anthony P Moll, Sheela V Shenoi
INTRODUCTION: Improved HIV outcomes as a result of expanded antiretroviral therapy (ART) access is threatened by increasing rates of loss to follow up (LTFU) among those on ART, largely reported in urban populations. Some reports suggest that LTFU rates are overestimated due to patient movement to other facilities and inadequate medical records. STUDY OBJECTIVE: To define the proportion disengaging from HIV care as well as the characteristics of those LTFU in order to design and implement appropriate interventions to increase retention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542239/projected-savings-through-public-health-voluntary-licences-of-hiv-drugs-negotiated-by-the-medicines-patent-pool-mpp
#18
Sandeep Juneja, Aastha Gupta, Suerie Moon, Stephen Resch
The Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) was established in 2010 to ensure timely access to low-cost generic versions of patented antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) through the negotiation of voluntary licences with patent holders. While robust data on the savings generated by MPP and other major global public health initiatives is important, it is also difficult to quantify. In this study, we estimate the savings generated by licences negotiated by the MPP for ARV medicines to treat HIV/AIDS in LMICs for the period 2010-2028 and generate a cost-benefit ratio-based on people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in any new countries which gain access to an ARV due to MPP licences and the price differential between originator's tiered price and generics price, within the period where that ARV is patented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532283/the-feasibility-of-an-automated-eye-tracking-modified-fagan-test-of-memory-for-human-faces-in-younger-ugandan-hiv-exposed-children
#19
Ronak Chhaya, Jonathan Weiss, Victoria Seffren, Alla Sikorskii, Paula M Winke, Julius C Ojuka, Michael J Boivin
OBJECTIVE: The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) uses longer gaze length for unfamiliar versus familiar human faces to gauge visual-spatial encoding, attention, and working memory in infants. Our objective was to establish the feasibility of automated eye tracking with the FTII in HIV-exposed Ugandan infants. METHOD: The FTII was administered to 31 perinatally HIV-exposed noninfected (HEU) Ugandan children 6-12 months of age (11 boys; M = 0.69 years, SD = 0...
May 22, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530044/a-review-of-transition-experiences-in-perinatally-and-behaviourally-acquired-hiv-1-infection-same-same-but-different
#20
Phung Khanh Lam, Sarah Fidler, Caroline Foster
INTRODUCTION: Despite sharing common psychosocial and developmental experiences, adolescents living with perinatally and behaviourally acquired HIV-1 infection are different in terms of timing of HIV infection and developmental stage at infection. Therefore, it is of interest to identify similarities and differences between these two groups of adolescents living with HIV in their experiences, facilitators and barriers during the transition process. METHODS: A detailed literature search of peer-reviewed published papers was conducted on PubMed to identify relevant original research or viewpoints published up to September 2016...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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