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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449096/two-ribosome-recruitment-sites-direct-multiple-translation-events-within-hiv1-gag-open-reading-frame
#1
Jules Deforges, Sylvain de Breyne, Melissa Ameur, Nathalie Ulryck, Nathalie Chamond, Afaf Saadi, Yann Ponty, Theophile Ohlmann, Bruno Sargueil
In the late phase of the HIV virus cycle, the unspliced genomic RNA is exported to the cytoplasm for the necessary translation of the Gag and Gag-pol polyproteins. Three distinct translation initiation mechanisms ensuring Gag production have been described with little rationale for their multiplicity. The Gag-IRES has the singularity to be located within Gag ORF and to directly interact with ribosomal 40S. Aiming at elucidating the specificity and the relevance of this interaction, we probed HIV-1 Gag-IRES structure and developed an innovative integrative modelling strategy to take into account all the gathered information...
April 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441147/can-the-generic-antiretroviral-industry-support-access-to-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen
#2
Carolyn D Amole, Caroline Middlecote, Vineet R Prabhu, N Kumarasamy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The generic antiretroviral (ARV) industry played a critical role in the massive scale-up of HIV treatment in low-income and middle-income countries since 2000. As the global community looks ahead to a universal antiretroviral regimen, this article considers the industry's role in supporting universal access to affordable, simpler, more durable, and tolerable HIV treatment regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Generic manufacturers made treatment scale-up in low-income and middle-income countries possible through reducing prices, combining molecules from different originator companies to develop optimal fixed-dose combinations, and investing in production capacity to meet escalating demand...
April 24, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438256/clinical-profile-and-outcome-of-patients-with-biopsy-proven-acute-interstitial-nephritis-in-cape-town-a-10-year-review%C3%A2
#3
Emmanuel E Effa, Udeme E Ekrikpo, Megan Borkum, Brian L Rayner, Peter Heering, Ikechi G Okpechi
BACKGROUND: Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury that has not been adequately characterized in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) despite an increasing use of potentially inciting agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis in the region. METHODS: A retrospective audit of records of patients with biopsy-proven AIN diagnosed at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town from the 1st of January, 2006, to the 31st of December, 2015...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437766/cyanobacterial-lectins-characteristics-and-their-role-as-antiviral-agents
#4
REVIEW
Ram Sarup Singh, Amandeep Kaur Walia, Jasvirinder Singh Khattar, Davinder Pal Singh, John F Kennedy
Lectins are ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins of non-immune origin that bind reversibly to carbohydrates in non-covalent and highly specific manner. These lectin-glycan interactions could be exploited for establishment of novel therapeutics, targeting the adherence stage of viruses and thus helpful in eliminating wide spread viral infections. Here the review focuses on the haemagglutination activity, carbohydrate specificity and characteristics of cyanobacterial lectins. Cyanobacterial lectins exhibiting high specificity towards mannose or complex glycans have potential role as anti-viral agents...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429157/scenes-as-micro-cultures-examining-heterogeneity-of-hiv-risk-behavior-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-toronto-canada
#5
Syed W Noor, Barry D Adam, David J Brennan, David A Moskowitz, Sandra Gardner, Trevor A Hart
Using latent class analysis (LCA), we examined patterns of participation in multiple scenes, how sexual risk practices vary by scene, and psychosocial factors associated with these patterns among 470 gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM) recruited from Toronto. We calculated posterior probability of being in a class from participation in nine separate scenes. We used Entropy, the Bayesian information criterion and the Lo-Mendel-Rubin likelihood ratio test to identify the best fit model. Fit indices suggested a four-class solution...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427935/the-manifolded-dynamics-of-hiv-1-transmission-in-northern-alberta-a-combined-analysis-of-virus-genetic-and-public-health-data
#6
B Vrancken, D Adachi, M Benedet, A Singh, R Read, S Shafran, G D Taylor, S Houston, K Simmonds, S Plitt, C Sikora, P Lemey, C L Charlton, J W Tang
Molecular epidemiology has become a key tool for tracking infectious disease epidemics. Here, the spread of the most prevalent HIV-1 subtypes in Northern Alberta, Canada, was characterized with a Bayesian phylogenetic approach using 1146 HIV-1 pol sequences collected between 2007 and 2013 for routine clinical management purposes. Available patient metadata were qualitatively interpreted and correlated with onwards transmission using Fisher exact tests and logistic regression. Most infections were from subtypes A (n=36), B (n=815) and C (n=211)...
April 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426534/age-disparate-relationships-and-hiv-incidence-in-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-evidence-from-a-general-population-cohort-in-zimbabwe
#7
Robin Schaefer, Simon Gregson, Jeffrey W Eaton, Owen Mugurungi, Rebecca Rhead, Albert Takaruza, Rufurwokuda Maswera, Constance Nyamukapa
OBJECTIVE: Age-disparate sexual relationships with older men may drive high rates of HIV acquisition in young women in sub-Saharan Africa but evidence is limited. We investigate the association between age-disparate relationships and HIV incidence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe. DESIGN: A general-population open-cohort study (six surveys) (1998-2013). METHODS: 3746 young women aged 15-24 years participated in consecutive surveys and were HIV-negative at the beginning of inter-survey periods...
April 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420266/lessons-learned-from-the-field-testing-of-healthy-love-an-hiv-prevention-intervention-for-black-women
#8
Carla A Galindo, Tai E Few, Brandy Daniels, Carolyn P Parks, Dázon D Diallo, L Nyrobi N Moss, Aisha L Wilkes, G Chezia Carraway
BACKGROUND: Healthy Love is a brief, highly interactive, single-session, group-level HIV prevention intervention designed for African American women that is effective at reducing sex risk behaviors and increasing condom use and HIV testing among participants. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, through a contract, developed a user-friendly intervention package that would allow organizations to adopt and implement Healthy Love with fidelity. METHOD: Training and implementation materials were developed to support original research protocols, and piloted and revised to conduct field-testing with case study agencies (CSAs)...
May 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418991/effect-of-legal-status-on-the-early-treatment-outcomes-of-migrants-beginning-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-at-an-outpatient-clinic-in-milan-italy
#9
Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Letizia Oreni, Paolo Vassalini, Chiara Resnati, Giorgio Bozzi, Laura Milazzo, Spinello Antinori, Stefano Rusconi, Massimo Galli
OBJECTIVE: In a setting of free access to HIV care, we compared the early treatment outcomes of HIV-infected undocumented migrants (UMs), documented migrants (DMs) and Italian subjects. METHODS: The clinical data of 640 Italians and 245 migrants who started combined ART (cART) at an HIV clinic in Milan, Italy, were reviewed. The migrants were mainly Latin Americans (83 DMs and 56 UMs) or sub-Saharan Africans (52 DMs and 11 UMs), but a minority were of other origin (33 DMs and 10 UMs)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417245/elbasvir-grazoprevir-a-review-in-chronic-hcv-genotypes-1-and-4
#10
Zaina T Al-Salama, Emma D Deeks
A fixed-dose combination tablet comprising the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor elbasvir and the HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor grazoprevir (elbasvir/grazoprevir; Zepatier™) was recently approved for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 and 4 infection in the EU and the USA. In phase III trials, 12 or 16 weeks of treatment with once-daily elbasvir/grazoprevir (fixed-dose tablet or as individual agents), taken with or without ribavirin, generally provided high rates of sustained virological response at 12 weeks (SVR12) in treatment-naive and -experienced adult patients with chronic HCV genotype 1a, 1b or 4 infection, including those with or without compensated cirrhosis, HIV co-infection, inherited blood disorders or chronic kidney disease or patients receiving opioid agonist therapy or of Japanese origin...
April 17, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416550/identification-and-optimization-of-thienopyridine-carboxamides-as-inhibitors-of-hiv-regulatory-complexes
#11
Robert L Nakamura, Mark A Burlingame, Shumin Yang, David C Crosby, Dale J Talbot, Kitty Chui, Alan D Frankel, Adam R Renslo
Viral regulatory complexes perform critical functions during virus replication and are important targets for therapeutic intervention. In HIV, the Tat and Rev proteins form complexes with multiple viral and cellular factors to direct transcription and export of the viral RNA. These complexes are composed of many proteins and are dynamic, making them difficult to fully recapitulate in vitro Therefore we developed a cell-based reporter assay to monitor the assembly of viral complexes for inhibitor screening. We screened a small molecule library and identified multiple hits that inhibit the activity of the viral complexes...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413399/hsv-1-hsv-2-infection-related-cancers-in-bantu-populations-driving-hiv-1-prevalence-in-africa-tracking-the-origin-of-aids-at-the-onset-of-the-20th-century
#12
Jacqueline Le Goaster, Patrice Bouree, Franck N El Sissy, Florence Phuong Bui, Johanna Pokossy Epee, Paul Rollin, Frédéric Tangy, Anne-Lise Haenni
INTRODUCTION: At the onset of the 20th century, ancient clinical observations of cancer epidemics in Bantu populations of Sub-Saharan Africa were discovered. They were reported from 1914 to 1960, but remained unexplained. In 1983, in San Francisco, Calif., USA, cancer epidemics were related to infections by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) known as AIDS disease. Yet since 1996, it is known that HIV-1 strains are not the only ones involved. In Sub-Saharan Africa, recurrent orobuccal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and genital recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) appeared many times prior to infection by HIV-1...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413361/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-the-national-decentralization-policy-of-antiretroviral-treatment-programme-in-zambia
#13
Shinsuke Miyano, Gardner Syakantu, Kenichi Komada, Hiroyoshi Endo, Tomohiko Sugishita
BACKGROUND: In resource-limited settings with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection such as Zambia, decentralization of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) treatment and care with effective use of resources is a cornerstone of universal treatment and care. OBJECTIVES: This research aims to analyse the cost effectiveness of the National Mobile Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Services Programme in Zambia as a means of decentralizing ART services...
2017: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411873/-survey-adaptation-for-bio-behavioural-surveillance-of-hiv-in-chilean-female-sex-workers
#14
Bielka Carvajal, Valeria Stuardo, José Manuel Manríquez, Julieta Belmar, Cinta Folch
OBJECTIVE: To adapt a behavioural questionnaire for second-generation HIV/AIDS surveillance in female sex workers (FSWs) in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. METHODS: Qualitative study of instruments validation. A Spanish instrument adapted in Catalonia was validated through a translation and back-translation of the original version. The content validity was determined through a modified Delphi method, via FSW and HIV experts representing community, political and institutional levels...
April 12, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407810/does-task-shifting-yield-cost-savings-and-improve-efficiency-for-health-systems-a-systematic-review-of-evidence-from-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#15
Gabriel Seidman, Rifat Atun
BACKGROUND: Task shifting has become an increasingly popular way to increase access to health services, especially in low-resource settings. Research has demonstrated that task shifting, including the use of community health workers (CHWs) to deliver care, can improve population health. This systematic review investigates whether task shifting in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) results in efficiency improvements by achieving cost savings. METHODS: Using the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews, we searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and the Health Economic Evaluation Database on March 22, 2016...
April 13, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403667/a-computational-model-for-predicting-transmembrane-regions-of-retroviruses
#16
Ze Liu, Hongqiang Lv, Jiuqiang Han, Ruiling Liu
Transmembrane region (TR) is a conserved region of transmembrane (TM) subunit in envelope (env) glycoprotein of retrovirus. Evidences have shown that TR is responsible for anchoring the env glycoprotein on the lipid bilayer and substitution of the TR for a covalently linked lipid anchor abrogates fusion. However, universal software could not achieve sufficient accuracy as TM in env also has several motifs such as signal peptide, fusion peptide and immunosuppressive domain composed largely of hydrophobic residues...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401415/monitoring-hiv-treatment-and-the-health-sector-cascade-from-treatment-numbers-to-impact
#17
Daniel Low-Beer, Michel Beusenberg, Chika Hayashi, Txema Calleja, Kimberly Marsh, Awandha Mamahit, Theresa Babovic, Gottfried Hirnschall
Although not originally part of the MDGs, HIV treatment has been at the center of global HIV reporting since 2003, marked by achievement of the target of 15 million people receiving treatment before 2015 and 18.2 million (16.1-19.0 million) by mid 2016. Monitoring of treatment has been strengthened with harmonized partner reporting and accountability with regular, annual reports. Beyond treatment numbers, increasingly measures of treatment adherence, retention and outcomes have been reported though with varying quality and completeness...
April 11, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398773/genetic-characterization-of-a-unique-recombinant-strain-identified-in-yunnan-with-genome-comprised-of-b-and-c
#18
Xiaolin Wang, Min Zhang, Jianjian Li, Tianyi Li, Changrong Sun, Hanping Li, Yongjian Liu, Siyang Liu, Daomin Zhuang, Zuoyi Bao, Jingwan Han, Jingyun Li, Lin Li
Since the first identification of HIV-1 outbreak in Dehong, Yunnan province has been the epidemic center of HIV in China. Due to the special geographic location and the frequent population mobility, Yunnan province contained complex HIV subtype distribution. Many new CRFs and URFs have been found in recently years. In this study, a unique HIV-1 recombinant strain (URF) genome (YN10134) was characterized from an HIV-positive female in Yunnan, China. This virus genome had a complex intersubtype recombinant structure with 8 breakpoints, composed of subtype B and subtype C...
February 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394721/hiv-related-syndemic-pathways-and-risk-subjectivities-among-gay-and-bisexual-men-a-qualitative-investigation
#19
Barry D Adam, Trevor A Hart, Jack Mohr, Todd Coleman, Julia Vernon
Life history interviews were conducted with 40 gay and bisexual men to identify modes of syndemic experience and risk practice. Out of the interview narratives emerged one major and two minor modes of developmental pathway whereby syndemic conditions are navigated and expressed: (1) a combination of adverse childhood events with later episodes of depression and/or substantial substance use; (2) personal disruption that led to periods of depression and anxiety associated with the stresses of migration; and (3) a disorientation and an unravelling of life trajectory in the transition from family of origin to college or work...
April 10, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393613/original-title-hiv-infection-and-unawareness-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-puerto-rico-data-from-the-national-hiv-behavioral-surveillance-system-2011-2014
#20
Sandra Miranda de León, Carola T Sánchez-Díaz, Mark Machin-Rivera, Ileska M Valencia-Torres, Yadira Rolón, Vivian Colón-López
BACKGROUND: Unawareness of HIV infection is a public health challenge that needs to be addressed, particularly in the case of men who have sex with men (MSM), since recent data are reporting increasing rates of HIV in this population in Puerto Rico. OBJECTIVES: We examined differences in the prevalence of HIV infection and unawareness among MSM in 2011 and 2014 using data from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 2011 and 2014. METHODS: Bivariate analyses was used to compare demographical and behavioral characteristics in both cycles (2011 and 2014)...
April 10, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
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