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Hiv origins

Nikolaus Ackermann, Durdica Marosevic, Stefan Hörmansdorfer, Ute Eberle, Gabriele Rieder, Bianca Treis, Anja Berger, Heribert Bischoff, Katja Bengs, Regina Konrad, Wolfgang Hautmann, Katharina Schönberger, Anne Belting, Gisela Schlenk, Gabriele Margos, Martin Hoch, Friedrich Pürner, Volker Fingerle, Bernhard Liebl, Andreas Sing
Background and aimAs a consequence of socioeconomic and political crises in many parts of the world, many European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries have faced an increasing number of migrants. In the German federal state of Bavaria, a mandatory health screening approach is implemented, where individuals applying for asylum have to undergo a medical examination that includes serological testing for HIV and hepatitis B, screening for tuberculosis, and until September 2015, stool examination for Salmonella spp...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Sean N Halpin, Edwin Clayton Carruth, Ramona P Rai, E Jennifer Edelman, David A Fiellin, Cynthia Gibert, Kirsha S Gordon, Wei Huang, Amy Justice, Vincent C Marconi, David Rimland, Molly M Perkins
In the original publication of the article, the given and family name of the fourth author was not correct. The name has been corrected with this erratum.
March 9, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Chris Verhofstede, Kenny Dauwe, Katrien Fransen, Kristel Van Laethem, Sigi Van den Wijngaert, Jean Ruelle, Marie-Luce Delforge, Ellen Vancutsem, Dolores Vaira, Karolien Stoffels, Sergio Garcia Ribas, Géraldine Dessilly, Laurent Debaisieux, Denis Pierard, Marc Van Ranst, Marie-Pierre Hayette, Jessica Deblonde, Andre Sasse, Dominique Van Beckhoven, Virginie Mortier
To improve insight in the drivers of local HIV-1 transmission in Belgium, phylogenetic, demographic, epidemiological and laboratory data from patients newly diagnosed between 2013 and 2015 were combined and analyzed. Characteristics of clustered patients, paired patients and patients on isolated branches in the phylogenetic tree were compared. The results revealed an overall high level of clustering despite the short time frame of sampling, with 47.6% of all patients having at least one close genetic counterpart and 36...
March 6, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Joëlla W Adams, Kendall J Bryant, E Jennifer Edelman, David A Fiellin, Julie R Gaither, Adam J Gordon, Kirsha S Gordon, Kevin L Kraemer, Matthew J Mimiaga, Don Operario, Janet P Tate, Jacob J van den Berg, Amy C Justice, Brandon D L Marshall
In the original publication of the article, the given and family name of the third author was not correct. The name has been corrected with this erratum.
March 8, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
N Fakhfakh, R Abdelmlak, S Aissa, A Kallel, Y Boudawara, S Bel Hadj, N Ben Romdhane, H Touiri Ben Aissa, K Kallel
Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by a dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. We report a first case of disseminated histoplasmosis in a 34-year-old woman, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), originating from Ivory Coast and living in Tunisia for 4 years. She was complaining from fever, chronic diarrhoea and pancytopenia. The Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum was identified by direct microscopic examination of the bone marrow. She was treated by Amphotericin B, relayed by itraconazole...
March 5, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Derek J Chan, Virginia Furner, Don E Smith, Mithilesh Dronavalli, Rohan I Bopage, Jeffrey J Post, Anjali K Bhardwaj
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of non-AIDS co-morbidities (NACs) and predictors of adverse health outcomes amongst people living with HIV in order to identify health needs and potential gaps in patient management. DESIGN: Retrospective, non-consecutive medical record audit of patients attending a publicly funded HIV clinic in metropolitan Sydney analysed for predictors of adverse health outcomes. We developed a scoring system based on the validated Charlson score method for NACs, mental health and social issues and confounders were selected using directed acyclic graph theory under the principles of causal inference...
March 8, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Mathieu Bastard, Elisabeth Sanchez-Padilla, Philipp du Cros, Atadjan Karimovich Khamraev, Nargiza Parpieva, Mirzagaleg Tillyashaykov, Armen Hayrapetyan, Kamene Kimenye, Shazina Khurkhumal, Themba Dlamini, Santiago Fadul Perez, Alex Telnov, Cathy Hewison, Francis Varaine, Maryline Bonnet
BACKGROUND: The emergence of resistance to anti-tuberculosis (DR-TB) drugs and the HIV epidemic represent a serious threat for reducing the global burden of TB. Although data on HIV-negative DR-TB treatment outcomes are well published, few data on DR-TB outcomes among HIV co-infected people is available despite the great public health importance. METHODS: We retrospectively reported and compared the DR-TB treatment outcomes of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients treated with an individualized regimen based on WHO guidelines in seven countries: Abkhazia, Armenia, Colombia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Swaziland and Uzbekistan...
2018: PloS One
Fabio Marino
Mass spectrometry (MS)-based immunopeptidomics has developed as one of the leading methodologies for comprehensive characterization of in vivo presented Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-bound peptides. Unveiling the identity of HLA-bound peptides derived from diseased cells is crucial to gain knowledge on the constitution of efficient disease-specific T cell responses. The HLA-presented peptidome reflects the status of the cellular proteome, hence disease-related aberrations of post-translational modifications (PTMs) might lead to presentation of peptides harboring PTMs...
March 7, 2018: Proteomics
Mustafa Gürkan Yenice, Esra Varnalı, Kamil Gökhan Şeker, Ayşe Kavak, Volkan Tuğcu
Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) is a malignancy that generally effects the skin, and can be systemic with internal organ involvement. It originates from the vascular endothelium. KS's relationship with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is well known. Isolated scrotal KS in the urogenital system is quite rare and scrotal KS in an HIV-negative patient is limited to a few cases. In this case report, the biopsy result from the violescent nodular lesions on the scrotum of the HIV-negative 81-year-old patient was found compatible with KS and a pathology was not detected in the systemic screening...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
Bo Min Kim, H C Therese Lotter-Stark, Edward P Rybicki, Rachel K Chikwamba, Kenneth E Palmer
Griffithsin (GRFT) is an antiviral lectin, originally derived from a red alga, which is currently being investigated as a topical microbicide to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Targeting GRFT to the apoplast for production in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in necrotic symptoms associated with a hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death, accompanied by H2 O2 generation and increased PR1 expression. Mannose-binding lectins Surfactant protein D (SP-D), cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and human mannose-binding lectin (hMBL) also induce salicylic acid (SA) dependent HR-like cell death in N...
March 6, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Abbas Agaimy, Sarina K Mueller, Thomas Harrer, Sebastian Bauer, Lester D R Thompson
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) of the head and neck area is uncommon with limited published case series. Our routine and consultation files were reviewed for histologically and immunohistochemically proven KS affecting any cutaneous or mucosal head and neck site. Ten males and one female aged 42-78 years (median, 51 years; mean, 52 years) were retrieved. Eight patients were HIV-positive and three were HIV-negative. The affected sites were skin (n = 5), oral/oropharyngeal mucosa (n = 5), and lymph nodes (n = 3) in variable combination...
March 5, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
Damien Bonnard, Erwann Le Rouzic, Sylvia Eiler, Céline Amadori, Igor Orlov, Jean-Michel Bruneau, Julie Brias, Julien Barbion, Francis Chevreuil, Danièle Spehner, Sophie Chasset, Benoit Ledoussal, François Moreau, Ali Saïb, Bruno P Klaholz, Stéphane Emiliani, Marc Ruff, Alessia Zamborlini, Richard Benarous
Recently, a new class of HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors with a dual mode of action, called IN-LEDGF/p75 allosteric inhibitors (INLAIs), was described. Designed to interfere with the INLEDGF/p75 interaction during viral integration, unexpectedly, their major impact was on virus maturation. This activity has been linked to induction of aberrant IN multimerization, while inhibition of the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction accounts for weaker antiretroviral effect at integration. Since these dual activities result from INLAI binding to IN at a single binding site, we expected that these activities co-evolved together, driven by the affinity for IN...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
A Jiamsakul, M-P Lee, K V Nguyen, T P Merati, D D Cuong, R Ditangco, E Yunihastuti, S Ponnampalavanar, F Zhang, S Kiertiburanakul, A Avihingasanon, O T Ng, B L H Sim, W-W Wong, J Ross, M Law
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related opportunistic infection and cause of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome related death. TB often affects those from a low socio-economic background. OBJECTIVE: To assess the socio-economic determinants of TB in HIV-infected patients in Asia. DESIGN: This was a matched case-control study. HIV-positive, TB-positive cases were matched to HIV-positive, TB-negative controls according to age, sex and CD4 cell count...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Jessica Mao, Weiming Tang, Chuncheng Liu, Ngai Sze Wong, Songyuan Tang, Chongyi Wei, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Sex tourism among men who have sex with men (MSM) may exacerbate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sex tourism is defined as purchasing sex with gifts or money outside of one's hometown. Our objective was to characterize the frequency, socio-demographic characteristics, and sexual risk behaviors among Chinese MSM sex tourists. METHODS: An online, cross-sectional survey for high-risk MSM throughout China was conducted in November 2015 covering sociodemographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, and sex tourism...
March 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Karen Nieves-Lugo, Andrew Barnett, Veronica Pinho, Carol Reisen, Paul Poppen, Maria Cecilia Zea
We examined motivations for migration to the United States (US) among 482 Brazilian, Colombian, and Dominican men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants' most common reason for migration was to improve their financial situation (49%), followed by sexual migration in order to affirm their sexual orientation (40%). Fewer endorsed sexual migration motivated by avoiding persecution due to being gay (13%). We conducted further analyses among 276 participants who migrated after age 15 and were HIV-negative at the time of migration...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Yanyan Liu, Okechukwu C Ndumnego, Tingting Chen, Ryung S Kim, Elizabeth R Jenny-Avital, Thumbi Ndung'u, Douglas Wilson, Jacqueline M Achkar
Sputum smear-negative HIV-associated active tuberculosis (TB) is challenging to diagnose. CD14 is a pattern recognition receptor that is known to mediate monocyte activation. Prior studies have shown increased levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14) as a potential biomarker for TB, but little is known about its value in detecting smear-negative HIV-associated TB. We optimized a sandwich ELISA for the detection of sCD14, and tested sera from 56 smear-negative South African (39 culture-positive and 17 culture-negative) HIV-infected pulmonary TB patients and 24 South African and 43 US (21 positive and 22 negative for tuberculin skin test, respectively) HIV-infected controls...
February 27, 2018: Pathogens
Diane G Carnathan, Joseph J Mackel, Shelby L Sweat, Chiamaka A Enemuo, Etse H Gebru, Pallavi Dhadvai, Sailaja Gangadhara, Sakeenah Hicks, Thomas H Vanderford, Rama R Amara, José Esparza, Wei Lu, Jean-Marie Andrieu, Guido Silvestri
A major obstacle to development of an effective AIDS vaccine is that along with intended beneficial responses, immunization regimen may activate CD4+ T cells that can facilitate acquisition of HIV by serving as target cells for the virus. Lu et al. reported that intra-gastric administration of chemically inactivated SIVmac239 (iSIV) and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) (iSIV+LP) protected 15/16 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (RMs) from high-dose intra-rectal SIVmac239 challenge at three months post-immunization...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Nicolas Dauby, Mariana Figueiredo Ferreira, Deborah Konopnicki, Vo Thanh Phuong Nguyen, Brigitte Cantinieaux, Charlotte Martin
Emerging evidence indicates that migrants from Plasmodium falciparum endemic regions are at risk of delayed presentation of P. falciparum malaria. We report three cases of P. falciparum malaria occurring years after arrival in Europe. All patients were originally from Sub-Saharan Africa. Two subjects had controlled HIV infection and one was a pregnant woman. We performed a literature review of all published cases of delayed presentation of P. falciparum in migrants and identified 32 additional cases. All cases but one originate from sub-Saharan Africa...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
J Jaiswal, S N Singer, M Griffin Tomas, H-M Lekas
BACKGROUND: HIV-related "conspiracy beliefs" include ideas about the genocidal origin of HIV to target minority people, and the notion that a cure for HIV is being deliberately withheld. Previous literature suggests that these beliefs may negatively affect engagement in HIV care and ART adherence, but little is known about how people who are disengaged from care may think about these ideas. METHODS: Twenty-seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with low-income Black and Latinx people living with HIV in NYC who were currently disengaged from, or recently re-engaged in, HIV care...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Roberta Prinapori, Barbara Giannini, Niccolò Riccardi, Francesca Bovis, Mauro Giacomini, Maurizio Setti, Claudio Viscoli, Stefania Artioli, Antonio Di Biagio
Retention in care is a key feature of the cascade of continuum of care, playing an important role in achieving therapeutic success and being crucial for reduction of HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of retention in care in a large referral centre in the North of Italy and to identify predictors associated with failed retention. All new HIV-infected subjects were consecutive enrolled from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2014. Demographics, immune-virological status, hepatitis co-infection and timing of initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) data were collected at baseline and at the time of last observation...
February 28, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
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