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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729520/challenges-and-emerging-opportunities-for-the-hiv-prevention-treatment-and-care-cascade-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-asia-pacific
#1
REVIEW
Frits van Griensven, Thomas E Guadamuz, Jan Willem de Lind van Wijngaarden, Nittaya Phanuphak, Sunil Suhas Solomon, Ying-Ru Lo
In Asia Pacific, most countries have expanded HIV treatment guidelines to include all those with HIV infection and adopted antiretroviral treatment for prevention (TFP) as a blanket strategy for HIV control. Although the overall epidemic development associated with this focus is positive, the HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men (MSM) is continuing unperturbed without any signs of decline or reversal. This raises doubt about whether TFP as a blanket HIV prevention policy is the right approach. This paper reviews currently available biomedical HIV prevention strategies, national HIV prevention policies and guidelines from selected countries and published data on the HIV cascade in MSM...
August 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728523/structural-insights-into-the-binding-of-small-ligand-molecules-to-a-g-quadruplex-dna-located-in-the-hiv-1-promoter
#2
Petar M Mitrasinovic
Targeting guanine (G)-rich DNA sequences, folded into non-canonical G-quadruplex (G4) structures, by small ligand molecules is a promising strategy for gene therapy of various diseases. There is experimental proposal that, among eight studied ligands, nitidine chloride - NC and a benzo phenanthridine derivative - BPD have the highest binding affinities for such a sequence (5'-T(1)G(2)G(3)C(4)C(5)T(6)G(7)G(8)G(9)C(10)G(11)G(12)G(13)A(14)C(15)T(16)G(17)G(18)G(19)-3') in the HIV-1 promoter, indicating that an anti-HIV-1 prodrug may regulate the expression of the promoter...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722553/travelling-models-and-the-challenge-of-pragmatic-contexts-and-practical-norms-the-case-of-maternal-health
#3
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan, Aïssa Diarra, Mahaman Moha
As in other areas of international development, we are witnessing the proliferation of 'traveling models' developed by international experts and introduced in an almost identical format across numerous countries to improve some aspect of maternal health systems in low- and middle-income countries. These policies and protocols are based on 'miracle mechanisms' that have been taken out of their original context but are believed to be intrinsically effective in light of their operational devices.In reality, standardised interventions are, in Africa and elsewhere, confronted with pragmatic implementation contexts that are always varied and specific, and which lead to drifts, distortions, dismemberments and bypasses...
July 12, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719295/regional-differences-in-the-prevalence-of-major-opportunistic-infections-among-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-in-japan-northern-thailand-northern-vietnam-and-the-philippines
#4
Louie Mar A Gangcuangco, Ikumi Sawada, Naho Tsuchiya, Cuong D Do, Thanh Thuy T Pham, Archawin Rojanawiwat, Marissa Alejandria, Katerina Leyritana, Yoshiyuki Yokomaku, Panita Pathipvanich, Koya Ariyoshi
To identify regional differences in the distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Asia, the medical records of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients who attended the following tertiary hospitals from 2003 to 2011 were reviewed: Nagoya Medical Center (NMC, Nagoya, Japan), Lampang Hospital (LPH, Lampang, northern Thailand), Bach Mai Hospital (BMH, Hanoi, northern Vietnam), and Philippine General Hospital (PGH, Manila, Philippines). Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associations between country of origin and risk of major OIs...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712113/nutritional-status-is-the-major-factor-affecting-grip-strength-of-african-hiv-patients-before-and-during-antiretroviral-treatment
#5
Suzanne Filteau, G PrayGod, S L Woodd, Henrik Friis, D C Heimburger, J R Koethe, P Kelly, L Kasonka, Andrea M Rehman
OBJECTIVES: Low grip strength is a marker of frailty and a risk factor for mortality among HIV patients and other populations. We investigated factors associated with grip strength in malnourished HIV patients at referral to ART, and at 12 weeks and 2-3 years after starting ART. METHODS: The study involved HIV-infected Zambian and Tanzanian participants recruited to the NUSTART trial when malnourished (body mass index <18.5 kg/m(2) ) and requiring ART. The relationship of grip strength to nutritional, infectious and demographic factors was assessed by multivariable linear regression at referral for ART (n=1742) and after 12 weeks (n=778) and 2-3 years of ART (n=273)...
July 16, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709845/fifteen-years-of-nucleic-acid-testing-in-france-results-and-lessons
#6
S Laperche, P Tiberghien, C Roche-Longin, J Pillonel
Of the 40 million donations screened with Nucleic acid testing (NAT) between July 2001 and December 2015 in France, 20 HIV-positive, 13 HCV-positive and 17 HBV (HBV-NAT was initiated in 2005 and extended to the whole country in 2010) donations were discarded thanks to NAT. The main benefit in terms of discarded donations is related to HBV with a yield of 0.88 per million donations, which is 12.5 and 1.8 times higher than for HCV and HIV respectively. The main risk factor found in these donors during the post donation interview was having sex with men for males (n=11, all repeat blood donors), having a partner HCV positive (n=6) or at-risk partner (originated from endemic area or HBV positive) for HBV (n=8) for HIV, HCV and HBV, respectively...
July 11, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706855/a-rare-case-of-disseminated-sporothrix-schenckii-with-bone-marrow-involvement-in-a-patient-with-idiopathic-cd4-lymphocytopenia
#7
Kruti J Yagnik, William Paul Skelton, Angela Olson, Cesar A Trillo, Jorge Lascano
Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogen with a predilection for dissemination in immunocompromised individuals, often with HIV. We report a case of disseminated sporotrichosis in an unfortunate 25 year old male (without HIV) who was originally treated for presumed pneumonia. The patient continued to worsen clinically and further work-up eventually revealed Sporothrix schenckii species with involvement of multiple organs including the skin, heart, lungs and bone marrow. Despite treatment with multiple antibacterials and antifungals, he ultimately passed away...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700773/association-of-multiple-primary-skin-cancers-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-cd4-count-and-viral-load
#8
Maryam M Asgari, G Thomas Ray, Charles P Quesenberry, Kenneth A Katz, Michael J Silverberg
Importance: Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a 2.8-fold higher risk than HIV-uninfected persons of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), defined as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Individuals with a prior NMSC history are at increased risk for subsequent NMSC, but the magnitude of risk and its relation to HIV disease-related factors, including CD4 count and viral load (VL), are unknown. Objective: To better understand how laboratory markers currently used to evaluate HIV disease progression may be associated with subsequent NMSC risk...
July 12, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694552/semiparametric-modeling-and-estimation-of-the-terminal-behavior-of-recurrent-marker-processes-before-failure-events
#9
Kwun Chuen Gary Chan, Mei-Cheng Wang
Recurrent event processes with marker measurements are mostly and largely studied with forward time models starting from an initial event. Interestingly, the processes could exhibit important terminal behavior during a time period before occurrence of the failure event. A natural and direct way to study recurrent events prior to a failure event is to align the processes using the failure event as the time origin and to examine the terminal behavior by a backward time model. This paper studies regression models for backward recurrent marker processes by counting time backward from the failure event...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694350/prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-discrete-or-comorbid-diabetes-and-hypertension-in-sub-saharan-africa-among-people-living-with-hiv-versus-hiv-negative-populations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#10
Olamide O Todowede, Benn Sartorius
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic disorder and high blood pressure are common complications globally, and specifically among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and hypertension are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and their related complications. However, the burden of metabolic syndrome, discrete or comorbid diabetes and hypertension in PLHIV compared with HIV-negative population has not been quantified. This review and meta-analysis aims to compare and analyse the prevalence of these trio conditions between HIV-negative and HIV-positive populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...
July 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692659/lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-lgbt-health-services-in-the-united-states-origins-evolution-and-contemporary-landscape
#11
Alexander J Martos, Patrick A Wilson, Ilan H Meyer
BACKGROUND: LGBT community organizations in the United States have been providing health services since at least the 1970s. However, available explanations for the origins of LGBT health services do not sufficiently explain why health in particular has been so closely and consistently linked to LGBT activism. Little is also known regarding how LGBT health services may have evolved over time with the growing scientific understanding of LGBT health needs. METHODS: This study begins with a review of the early intersections of sexuality and health that led to an LGBT health movement in the United States, as well as the evolution of LGBT health services over time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682528/s-adenosylmethionine-same-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders-a-clinician-oriented-review-of-research
#12
REVIEW
Anup Sharma, Patricia Gerbarg, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Lila Massoumi, Linda L Carpenter, Helen Lavretsky, Philip R Muskin, Richard P Brown, David Mischoulon
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) for treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions and comorbid medical conditions. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Google Scholar databases between July 15, 2015, and September 28, 2016, by combining search terms for SAMe (s-adenosyl methionine or s-adenosyl-l-methionine) with terms for relevant disease states (major depressive disorder, MDD, depression, perinatal depression, human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, dementia, anxiety, schizophrenia, psychotic, 22q11...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680779/first-case-of-the-cervical-lymph-node-as-the-only-site-of-metastasis-from-anal-cancer
#13
Bo Wang, Sunny Jaiswal, Muhammad W Saif
Anal squamous cell carcinoma was a previously uncommon malignancy that has steadily increased in incidence with the increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Anal squamous cell carcinoma is typically characterized by local and regional involvement and distant metastases are far less common. Here, we report a case of a 36-year-old female initially diagnosed with anal squamous cell carcinoma manifesting as an anal mass along with an enlarged inguinal lymph node...
May 30, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679557/identification-and-characterization-of-daurichromenic-acid-synthase-active-in-anti-hiv-biosynthesis
#14
Miu Iijima, Ryosuke Munakata, Hironobu Takahashi, Hiromichi Kenmoku, Ryuichi Nakagawa, Takeshi Kodama, Yoshinori Asakawa, Ikuro Abe, Kazufumi Yazaki, Fumiya Kurosaki, Futoshi Taura
Daurichromenic acid (DCA) synthase catalyzes the oxidative cyclization of grifolic acid to produce DCA, an anti-HIV meroterpenoid isolated from Rhododendron dauricum. We identified a novel cDNA encoding DCA synthase by transcriptome-based screening from young leaves of R. dauricum. The gene coded for a 533-amino acid polypeptide with moderate homologies to FAD oxidases from other plants. The primary structure contained an N-terminal signal peptide, and conserved amino acid residues to form bicovalent linkage to FAD isoalloxazine ring at His112 and Cys175...
July 5, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672417/-infections-as-a-cause-of-unexplained-fever
#15
Bernd Salzberger, Gabriele Birkenfeld, Michael Iberer, Florian Hitzenbichler
Fever of unexplained (or unknown) origin (FUO) remains a relevant clinical problem even with modern diagnostic methods. In addition to the classical definition, new categories of FUO describe different clinical situations: nosocomial FUO, FUO in neutropenic/immundeficient patients and FUO in patients with HIV-infection. The new categories are defined by much shorter duration of fever, i. e. mostly three days. Each category of FUO shows a different spectrum of infectious diseases. Often, subacute bacterial endocarditis is very difficult to verify...
July 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672035/modern-day-siv-viral-diversity-generated-by-extensive-recombination-and-cross-species-transmission
#16
Sidney M Bell, Trevor Bedford
Cross-species transmission (CST) has led to many devastating epidemics, but is still a poorly understood phenomenon. HIV-1 and HIV-2 (human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2), which have collectively caused over 35 million deaths, are the result of multiple CSTs from chimpanzees, gorillas, and sooty mangabeys. While the immediate history of HIV is known, there are over 45 lentiviruses that infect specific species of primates, and patterns of host switching are not well characterized. We thus took a phylogenetic approach to better understand the natural history of SIV recombination and CST...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669856/topoisomerase-ii%C3%AE-and-its-role-in-different-biological-contexts
#17
REVIEW
V Satish Bollimpelli, Pankaj S Dholaniya, Anand K Kondapi
Topoisomerase IIβ is a type II DNA topoisomerase that was reported to be expressed in all mammalian cells but abundantly expressed in cells that have undergone terminal differentiation to attain a post mitotic state. Enzymatically it catalyzes ATP-dependent topological changes of double stranded DNA, while as a protein it was reported to be associated with several factors in promoting cell growth, migration, DNA repair and transcription regulation. The cellular roles of topoisomerase IIβ are very less understood compared to its counterpart topoisomerase IIα...
June 29, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664684/cross-cultural-assessment-of-hiv-associated-cognitive-impairment-using-the-kaufman-assessment-battery-for-children-a-systematic-review
#18
Kaylee S van Wyhe, Tanya van de Water, Michael J Boivin, Mark F Cotton, Kevin Gf Thomas
INTRODUCTION: Despite improved efficacy of, and access to, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated cognitive impairments remain prevalent in both children and adults. Neuropsychological tests that detect such impairment can help clinicians formulate effective treatment plans. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC), although developed and standardized in the United States, is used frequently in many different countries and cultural contexts to assess paediatric performance across various cognitive domains...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660234/isolation-of-exosomes-from-semen-for-in-vitro-uptake-and-hiv-1-infection-assays
#19
Marisa N Madison, Jennifer L Welch, Chioma M Okeoma
Exosomes are membranous extracellular nanovesicles of endocytic origin. Exosomes are known to carry host and pathogen-derived genomic, proteomic, lipidomic cargos and other extraneous molecules. Exosomes are secreted by diverse cell types into the extracellular milieu and are subsequently internalized by recipient neighboring or distal cells. Upon internalization, exosomes condition recipient cells by donating their cargos and/or activating various signal transduction pathways, consequently regulating physiological and pathophysiological processes...
April 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658070/a-simple-model-to-identify-risk-for-sarcopenia-and-physical-disability-in-hiv-infected-patients
#20
Paulo Farinatti, Lorena Paes, Elizabeth A Harris, Gabriella O Lopes, Juliana P Borges
Early detection of sarcopenia might help preventing muscle loss and disability in HIV-infected patients. This study proposed a model for estimating appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) in order to calculate indices to identify 'sarcopenia' (SA) and 'risk for disability due to sarcopenia' (RSA) in patients with HIV. An equation to estimate ASM was developed in 56 patients (47.2±6.9 yrs), with a cross-validation sample of 24 patients (48.1 ± 6.6 yrs). The model validity was determined by calculating, in both samples: a) Concordance between actual vs...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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