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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315704/interleukin-6-and-prostate-cancer-current-developments-and-unsolved-questions
#1
Zoran Culig, Martin Puhr
Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is expressed in prostate tumors and in the stromal tumor micro-enviroment. It is known to regulate proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and differentiation. The signaling pathway of Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, which is activated by IL-6, is in the focus of scientific investigations for improved treatment approaches. Different effects of IL-6 and/or STAT3 on tumor cell growth have been observed in human and murine prostate cancer (PCa) models...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315446/targeted-delivery-of-morin-a-dietary-bioflavanol-encapsulated-mannosylated-liposomes-to-the-macrophages-of-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-rats-inhibits-inflammatory-immune-response-and-osteoclastogenesis
#2
Farhath Sultana, Manoj Kumar Neog, MahaboobKhan Rasool
The purpose of the study was to develop a liposomal drug delivery system for morin, a dietary polyphenol, in order to target the synovial macrophages and investigate the remission of disease severity in the adjuvant-induced arthritic (AIA) rats. To do so, mannose decorated liposomal morin (ML-Morin) was prepared using the thin film hydration method and the physicochemical properties were characterized. The particle size and zeta potential of liposomal morin (L-Morin) was found to be 127.9nm ± 2.6 and -24.5mV ± 0...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296539/high-salt-induced-activation-and-expression-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-cultured-astrocytes
#3
Zhezhi Deng, Yuge Wang, Li Zhou, Yilong Shan, Sha Tan, Wei Cai, Siyuan Liao, Lisheng Peng, Zhengqi Lu
Salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) accumulation in the brain is associated with various diseases of central nervous system (CNS). Activation of astrocytes is an important manifestation of pathophysiological processes in the CNS. However, the direct impact of high salt (HS) environment on astrocytes is unclear. In the current study, we found that high salt treatment can induce activation of astrocytes both in vivo and in vitro, manifested as morphological alteration coupled with increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
March 15, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282360/an-alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-gts-21-promotes-c2c12-myonuclear-accretion-in-association-with-release-of-interleukin-6-il-6-and-improves-survival-in-burned-mice
#4
Mohammed A S Khan, Mohammed F Khan, Shizuka Kashiwagi, William R Kem, Shingo Yasuhara, Masao Kaneki, Ronald G Tompkins, J A Jeevendra Martyn
The role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in physiological processes and disease is poorly understood. The hypothesis tested in this study was that selective alpha7 acetylcholine receptor (α7AChR) agonist, GTS-21, releases of IL-6 in association with myonuclear accretion and enhances insulin signaling in muscle cells, and improves survival of burn injured (BI) mice. The in vitro effects of GTS-21 were determined in C2C12 myoblasts and 7-day differentiated myotubes (myotubes). The in vivo effects of GTS-21 were tested in BI wild type (WT) and IL-6 knockout (IL6KO) mice...
March 9, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275390/dual-role-of-inflammatory-mediators-in-cancer
#5
REVIEW
T G Shrihari
Inflammation is the body's response to noxious stimuli such as infectious, physiological or chemical agents, it releases various inflammatory mediators via immune cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes. These inflammatory mediators are growth factors, chemokines, and cytokines. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) activate transcriptional factors (NF-KB, STAT-3) and bring about cellular proliferation, genomic instability, angiogenesis, resistance to apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257824/27-hydroxycholesterol-induces-invasion-and-migration-of-breast-cancer-cells-by-increasing-mmp9-and-generating-emt-through-activation-of-stat-3
#6
Zhaoxia Shen, Dongmei Zhu, Jiao Liu, Juan Chen, Yun Liu, Chunyan Hu, Zhong Li, Yuan Li
Breast carcinoma plays a vital role in the reasons of global women's death. ER-related invasion and migration play an important part in the development and prognosis of breast cancer. Here, we found that 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27HC) could induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increase the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) at mRNA level and the active form. Meanwhile, interestingly, we found 27HC activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) in ER positive cells except activation of ER signaling...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254482/lithospermum-erythrorhizon-extract-inhibits-der-p2-induced-inflammatory-response-through-alleviation-of-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-and-inflammasome-expression-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#7
Chung-Yang Yen, Wen-Dee Chiang, Shang-Yong Liu, Kun-Teng Wang, En-Chih Liao, Ching-Liang Hsieh
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LE) and Angelica sinensis (AS), widely used in several folk medicine for wound, pus discharge and dermatitis for the history of several hundred years in Asian countries. AIM OF STUDY: To investigate the therapeutic effect of LE and AS on Der p2-induced inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. METHODS: The effects of Der p2 stimulation on thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, the inflammasome (specifically, the apoptosis speck-like protein [ASC] and nod-like receptor 3 [NLRP3]), Caspase-1 and the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 pathway were evaluated in the human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228072/curcumin-and-endothelial-function-evidence-and-mechanisms-of-protective-effects
#8
Maryam Saberi Karimian, Matteo Pirro, Thomas P Johnston, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
BACKGROUND: The endothelium is a large paracrine organ regulating cell growth, vascular tone and thrombogenicity as well as platelet and leukocyte interactions. Endothelial function can be assessed by non-invasive techniques [e.g. flow-mediated vasodilation, nitroglycerin-mediated dilation and pulse wave velocity] and measuring specific circulating biomarkers [cell adhesion molecules, endothelial microparticles and endothelial progenitor cells]. Impaired endothelial function plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, heart failure, ischemia-reperfusion injury, Alzheimer's disease and other conditions...
February 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213977/mitochondria-targeted-esculetin-inhibits-pai-1-levels-by-modulating-stat3-activation-and-mir-19b-via-sirt3-role-in-acute-coronary-artery-syndrome
#9
Sujana Katta, Santosh Karnewar, Devayani Panuganti, Mahesh Kumar Jerald, Sastry B K, Srigiridhar Kotamraju
In this study, we explored the microRNAs responsible for the regulation of PAI-1 during LPS-stimulated inflammation in human aortic endothelial cells, subsequently studied the effect of a newly synthesized mitochondria-targeted esculetin (Mito-Esc) that was shown for its anti-atherosclerotic potential in modulating PAI-1 levels and its targeted miRs during angiotensin-II-induced atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. LPS-stimulated PAI-1 was accompanied with an upregulation of miR-19b and down-regulation of miR-30c...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132721/hepatic-interleukin-6-production-is-maintained-during-endotoxin-tolerance-and-facilitates-lipid-accumulation
#10
Anna Dembek, Stephan Laggai, Sonja M Kessler, Beate Czepukojc, Yvette Simon, Alexandra K Kiemer, Jessica Hoppstädter
Gut-derived bacterial endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), contribute to the pathogenesis of steatosis and steatohepatitis by activating Kupffer cells, the resident liver macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to low doses of LPS causes hyporesponsiveness upon subsequent endotoxin challenge, a phenomenon termed endotoxin or LPS tolerance. In the present study, we aimed to examine whether LPS-induced lipid accumulation is affected by endotoxin tolerance. LPS pretreatment reduced the expression of proinflammatory mediators upon subsequent high-dose LPS treatment in murine livers...
January 20, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115165/repression-of-smad3-by-stat3-and-c-ski-snon-induces-gefitinib-resistance-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#11
Yojiro Makino, Jeong-Hwan Yoon, Eunjin Bae, Mitsuyasu Kato, Keiji Miyazawa, Tatsuo Ohira, Norihiko Ikeda, Masahiko Kuroda, Mizuko Mamura
Cancer-associated inflammation develops resistance to the epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) harboring oncogenic EGFR mutations. Stat3-mediated interleukin (IL)-6 signaling and Smad-mediated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways play crucial regulatory roles in cancer-associated inflammation. However, mechanisms how these pathways regulate sensitivity and resistance to EGFR-TKI in NSCLCs remain largely undetermined...
January 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110210/il-12-and-il-23-modulate-plasticity-of-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-in-human-leprosy
#12
Mohd Tarique, Chaman Saini, Raza Ali Naqvi, Neena Khanna, Alpana Sharma, D N Rao
Leprosy is a bacterial disease caused by M. leprae. Its clinical spectrum reflects the host's immune response to the M. leprae and provide an ideal model to investigate the host pathogen interaction and immunological dysregulation. Tregs are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression of the host by producing IL-10 and TGF-β cytokines. In leprosy, plasticity of Tregs remain unstudied. This is the first study describing the conversion of Tregs into Th1-like and Th17-like cells using in vitro cytokine therapy in leprosy patients...
March 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103508/the-mechanism-of-alopolysaccharide-protecting-ulceralive-colitis
#13
Hu Lin, Li Honglang, Li Weifeng, Chen Junmin, Yang Jiantao, Gu Junjing
The aim of this study is to explain the mechanism of alopolysaccharide protecting ulceralive colitis in cells and animal models. We divided this study into two parts: cell and animal research parts. In the cell research, HT-29 cells were divided into normal group, model group, aloe polysacchride group and positive drug group, the cell model was used by tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) combine with LPS, detecting IL-6 concentration of difference groups by Elisa testing, Apoptosis of each group was detected by flow cytometry...
April 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101184/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-luteolin-on-experimental-autoimmune-thyroiditis-in-mice
#14
Nan Xia, Gang Chen, Min Liu, Xiaozhen Ye, Yahui Pan, Jiuyu Ge, Yanting Mao, Hongwei Wang, Jian Wang, Sijing Xie
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the most common organ-specific autoimmune disease and is believed to be a predominately T cell-mediated autoimmunity. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 is a crucial transcription factor of T cell-mediated immunity, with key roles in the proliferation and migration of T helper (Th) cells, differentiation of Th cells into Th17 cells, and the balance between Treg cells and Th17 cells. Flavonoid luteolin has been shown to markedly inhibit Tyr705 activation/phosphorylation of STAT3 and exert anti-inflammatory effects in multiple sclerosis...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096316/bay-11-7082-inhibits-the-nf-kb-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-pathways-and-protects-against-imq-induced-psoriasis
#15
Natasha Irrera, Mario Vaccaro, Alessandra Bitto, Giovanni Pallio, Gabriele Pizzino, Maria Lentini, Vincenzo Arcoraci, Letteria Minutoli, Michele Scuruchi, Giuseppina Cutroneo, Giuseppe Pio Anastasi, Roberta Ettari, Francesco Squadrito, Domenica Altavilla
BAY 11-7082 antagonizes I-κB kinase-β preventing nuclear translocation of NF-κB; it also inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation.NF-κB is involved in psoriasis, while the role of NLRP3 is controversial. We investigated BAY 11-7082 effects in an experimental model of psoriasis-like dermatitis. Psoriasis-like lesions were induced by a topical application of imiquimod cream (IMQ; 62.5 mg/day) on the shaved back skin of C57BL/6 and NLRP3 knock-out mice for 7 consecutive days. Sham psoriasis animals were challenged with vaseline cream...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086773/pleurotus-giganteus-berk-karun-hyde-the-giant-oyster-mushroom-inhibits-no-production-in-lps-h2o2-stimulated-raw-264-7-cells-via-stat-3-and-cox-2-pathways
#16
Asweni Baskaran, Kek Heng Chua, Vikineswary Sabaratnam, Mani Ravishankar Ram, Umah Rani Kuppusamy
BACKGROUND: Pleurotus giganteus (Berk. Karunarathna and K.D. Hyde), has been used as a culinary mushroom and is known to have medicinal properties but its potential as an anti-inflammatory agent to mitigate inflammation triggered diseases is untapped. In this study, the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effect of ethanol extract of P. giganteus (EPG) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and combination of LPS and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced inflammation on RAW 264.7 macrophages was investigated...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075470/combined-effects-of-atorvastatin-and-aspirin-on-growth-and-apoptosis-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#17
Yan He, Huarong Huang, Chelsea Farischon, Dongli Li, Zhiyun Du, Kun Zhang, Xi Zheng, Susan Goodin
Epidemiologic studies indicate the use of either statins or aspirin have beneficial effects in prostate cancer patients. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of atorvastatin and aspirin alone or in combination in human prostate cancer cells cultured in vitro and grown as xenograft tumors in severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice. The growth and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells were determined by the trypan blue exclusion and propidium iodide staining assays. Activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) was measured by luciferase reporter assay, and the levels of phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3 and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 were determined by western blot analysis...
February 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063793/interleukin-6-increases-the-expression-of-key-proteins-associated-with-steroidogenesis-in-human-nci-h295r-adrenocortical-cells
#18
Janae Strickland, Stephen McIlmoil, Brice J Williams, Dennis C Seager, James P Porter, Allan M Judd
Mechanisms of interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced cortisol release (CR) were investigated by exposing H295R cells to IL-6 and determining mRNA/protein expression (PCR/western blots) for steroidogenic enzymes (SE), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) (enhances SE/StAR expression), activator protein 1 (AP-1) (regulates SE/StAR expression) and adrenal hypoplasia congenita-like protein (DAX-1) (inhibits SE/StAR expression). Promoter activity of StAR (SPA) was measured by a luciferase-coupled promoter...
January 4, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054602/identification-of-guanosine-5-diphosphate-as-potential-iron-mobilizer-preventing-the-hepcidin-ferroportin-interaction-and-modulating-the-interleukin-6-stat-3-pathway
#19
Stanzin Angmo, Neha Tripathi, Sheenu Abbat, Shailesh Sharma, Shelley Sardul Singh, Avishek Halder, Kamalendra Yadav, Geeta Shukla, Rajat Sandhir, Vikas Rishi, Prasad V Bharatam, Hariom Yadav, Nitin Kumar Singhal
Hepcidin, a peptide hormone, is a key regulator in mammalian iron homeostasis. Increased level of hepcidin due to inflammatory conditions stimulates the ferroportin (FPN) transporter internalization, impairing the iron absorption; clinically manifested as anemia of inflammation (AI). Inhibiting hepcidin-mediated FPN degradation is proposed as an important strategy to combat AI. A systematic approach involving in silico, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies is employed to identify hepcidin-binding agents. The virtual screening of 68,752 natural compounds via molecular docking resulted into identification of guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP) as a promising hepcidin-binding agent...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035387/therapeutic-mechanisms-of-ibuprofen-prednisone-and-betamethasone-in-osteoarthritis
#20
Fenglong Sun, Yaohua Zhang, Qiang Li
The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic mechanisms of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and steroids in osteoarthritis (OA). The CHON‑002 human chondrocyte cell line was used in the study. The levels of the cytokines, interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6, IL‑8 and IL‑10, released by cells treated with tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) were determined by ELISA. Levels of collagen I, aggrecan, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑1, MMP‑13, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) subunit p65 and inhibitory subunit of NF‑κB (IκB) following treatment with IL‑1β, IL‑6, IL‑8 or IL‑10 were assessed by western blot...
February 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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