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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869872/-towards-dsm-5-1-proposals-for-schizophrenia
#1
Cinzia Niolu, Emanuela Bianciardi, Michele Ribolsi, Alberto Siracusano
Schizophrenia is a debilitating illness, present in approximately 1% of the global population. It is manifested through positive symptoms including delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thoughts and negative symptoms such as avolition, alogia, and apathy. In 2013 the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) has been released and some changes were introduced to make diagnosis of schizophrenia more accurate and precise, but researchers are already studying how to improve again the diagnostic criteria of this disorder...
November 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799294/structure-activity-relationships-of-substituted-cathinones-with-transporter-binding-uptake-and-release
#2
Amy J Eshleman, Katherine M Wolfrum, John F Reed, Sunyoung O Kim, Tracy Swanson, Robert A Johnson, Aaron Janowsky
Synthetic cathinones are components of "bath salts" and have physical and psychologic side effects, including hypertension, paranoia, and hallucinations. Here, we report interactions of 20 "bath salt" components with human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters [human dopamine transporter (hDAT), human serotonin transporter (hSERT), and human norepinephrine transporter (hNET), respectively] heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Transporter inhibitors had nanomolar to micromolar affinities (Ki values) at radioligand binding sites, with relative affinities of hDAT>hNET>hSERT for α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP), α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone, α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone, 1-phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-heptanone, 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone, 4-methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, 4-methoxy-α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, α-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (alpha-PVT), and α-methylaminovalerophenone, and hDAT>hSERT>hNET for methylenedioxypentedrone...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757139/charles-bonnet-syndrome-following-trans-sphenoidal-adenomectomy-without-optic-nerve-atrophy
#3
Jang-Ho Park, Joon-Ho Ahn, Jun-Bum Park, Soohyun Joe
Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) can develop after trans-sphenoidal adenomectomy (TSA); however, the neural mechanisms remain unknown. Sensory deprivation and releasing phenomenon are both hypothetical explanations for this condition; however, there is no definite evidence that strongly supports either supposition. We report the first case of CBS after TSA without optic nerve atrophy. Postoperatively, the patient's vision seemed to be relatively well preserved, apart from the left-side hemianopsia in the right eye...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755991/risperidone-and-escitalopram-co-administration-a-potential-treatment-of-schizophrenia-symptoms-with-less-side-effects
#4
Katarzyna Kamińska, Karolina Noworyta-Sokołowska, Alexandra Jurczak, Anna Górska, Zofia Rogóż, Krystyna Gołembiowska
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by positive and negative symptoms often accompanied by depression and cognitive deficits. Positive symptoms, like delusions and hallucinations are caused by an excess of dopamine (DA) signaling and are treated with the second generation antipsychotic drugs. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are represented by social withdrawal, apathy and blunted emotional response. It was demonstrated that co-administration of risperidone and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors alleviated depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in animal models of schizophrenia...
September 11, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386324/schizophrenia-like-psychosis-and-gitelman-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Bing Pan, Lijun Mou, Huichun Li, Weibo Liu, Ying Hu
INTRODUCTION: Gitelman syndrome(GS) is a rare inherited tubular disorder which is characterized by hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalciuria. Here, we report a case of schizophrenia-like psychosis concomitant with GS and related literatures are reviewed. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 18-year-old male patient with 1-week history of auditory hallucinations, sense of insecurity, delusions of reference and feelings of being followed and controlled by others unknown, insomnia was admitted to Psychiatry department in December, 2013...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065889/functional-mri-evaluation-of-multiple-neural-networks-underlying-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#6
Robert J Thoma, Charlotte Chaze, Jeffrey David Lewine, Vince D Calhoun, Vincent P Clark, Juan Bustillo, Jon Houck, Judith Ford, Rose Bigelow, Corbin Wilhelmi, Julia M Stephen, Jessica A Turner
Functional MRI studies have identified a distributed set of brain activations to be associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, very little is known about how activated brain regions may be linked together into AVH-generating networks. Fifteen volunteers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder pressed buttons to indicate onset and offset of AVH during fMRI scanning. When a general linear model was used to compare blood oxygenation level dependence signals during periods in which subjects indicated that they were versus were not experiencing AVH ("AVH-on" versus "AVH-off"), it revealed AVH-related activity in bilateral inferior frontal and superior temporal regions; the right middle temporal gyrus; and the left insula, supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and extranuclear white matter...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937447/using-intermediate-cognitive-endpoints-to-facilitate-translational-research-in-psychosis
#7
Gary Gilmour, Francois Gastambide, Hugh M Marston, Mark E Walton
Recent advances in the understanding of psychosis have uncovered potential for a paradigm shift in related drug discovery efforts. The study of psychosis is evolving from its origins in serendipity and empiricism to more formal, hypothesis driven accounts of the cognitive substrates underlying hallucinations and delusions. Recent evidence suggests that misattribution of salience and abnormal prediction error might underlie some forms of psychosis. If substantiated, such intermediate constructs could significantly facilitate translational research for drug discovery...
August 1, 2015: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26359848/long-term-risk-factors-for-substance-induced-and-primary-psychosis-after-release-from-prison-a-longitudinal-study-of-substance-users
#8
Eline Borger Rognli, Jonas Berge, Anders Håkansson, Jørgen G Bramness
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine long-term risk factors for substance-induced and primary psychosis after release from prison. MATERIAL: We used a longitudinal register-based cohort study combining European version of Addiction Severity Index (Europ-ASI) interviews and the Swedish inpatient register. The study included 6217 individuals who were in the Swedish criminal justice system from 2001 to 2006. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were substance-induced and primary psychosis as defined by the International Classification of Disease - 10th version...
October 2015: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26255180/preclinical-characterization-of-toluene-as-a-non-classical-hallucinogen-drug-in-rats-participation-of-5-ht-dopamine-and-glutamate-systems
#9
María Teresa Rivera-García, Carolina López-Rubalcava, Silvia L Cruz
RATIONALE: Toluene is a misused inhalant with hallucinogenic properties and complex effects. Toluene blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, releases dopamine (DA), and modifies several neurotransmitter levels; nonetheless, the mechanism by which it produces hallucinations is not well characterized. OBJECTIVES: This study aims (a) to study toluene's effects on the 5-HT2A-mediated head-twitch response (HTR), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) tissue levels in discrete brain regions; (b) to compare the actions of toluene, ketamine, and 1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl]-2-aminopropane (DOI) on HTR; and (c) to study the pharmacological blockade of toluene's and ketamine's effects by selective drugs...
October 2015: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26232406/visual-priming-and-visual-hallucinations-in-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-for-normal-top-down-processes
#10
Sarah Straughan, Daniel Collerton, Vicki Bruce
BACKGROUND: Visual hallucinations (VH) are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Current explanations for VH in PD suggest combined impairments in top-down attentional and bottom-up perceptual processes, which allow the passive "release" of stored images. Alternative models in other disorders have suggested that top-down factors may actively encourage hallucinations. In order to explore the interaction between top-down and bottom-up visual processing in PDVH, we developed novel experimental priming tasks in which top-down verbal cues were used to prime the bottom-up recognition of partial or ambiguous pictures...
January 2016: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26222302/where-does-her-mood-come-from-an-organic-approach-to-a-once-functional-patient
#11
Pablo Eduardo Pereira Dutra, Wagner de Sousa Gurgel, Renato Alves Higa, Carolina Costa
OBJECTIVE: To report the rare development of manic symptoms in a patient with schizophrenia and discuss its differential diagnosis. CASE DESCRIPTION: Diagnostic criteria were based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10). A 63-year-old female (diagnosed with schizophrenia since she was 28) was brought to the emergency room with symptoms consistent with manic episode and physical examination suggestive of thyrotoxicosis. Graves' disease was confirmed by subsequent laboratory tests...
April 2015: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25786757/-dyskinesia-hyperpyrexia-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-case-report
#12
Soutarou Taguchi, Jun-ichi Niwa, Tohru Ibi, Manabu Doyu
Non-physiological, excessive dopaminergic stimulation can cause dyskinesia-hyperpyrexia syndrome (DHS), which was initially reported by Gil-Navarro and Grandas in 2010. A 70-years-old woman with a 13-years history of Parkinson's disease (PD) was hospitalized due to difficulty walking, despite being treated with levodopa/carbidopa (600 mg/day), immediate-release pramipexole (3 mg/day), and selegiline (5 mg/day). Immediate-release pramipexole was changed to extended-release pramipexole without changing the dose or levodopa equivalent dose (LED)...
2015: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25650051/amantadine-extended-release-for-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease-eased-study
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Rajesh Pahwa, Caroline M Tanner, Robert A Hauser, Kapil Sethi, Stuart Isaacson, Daniel Truong, Lynn Struck, April E Ruby, Natalie L McClure, Gregory T Went, Mary Jean Stempien
ADS-5102 is a long-acting, extended-release capsule formulation of amantadine HCl administered once daily at bedtime. This study investigated the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of ADS-5102 in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of 83 PD patients with troublesome dyskinesia assigned to placebo or one of three doses of ADS-5102 (260 mg, 340 mg, 420 mg) administered daily at bedtime for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy analysis compared change from baseline to week 8 in Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) total score for 340 mg ADS-5102 versus placebo...
May 2015: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25586298/an-open-label-extension-study-to-evaluate-the-safety-of-ropinirole-prolonged-release-in-chinese-patients-with-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Zhenxin Zhang, Jian Wang, Xiaoying Zhang, Shengdi Chen, Zhenfu Wang, Baorong Zhang, Chunfeng Liu, Qiumin Qu, Yan Cheng, Rongxuan Zhu, Jie Li, Jingqiu Hu, Meng Cai
OBJECTIVE: This open-label extension (OLE) study evaluated the safety profile of ropinirole prolonged release (PR) administered for 24 weeks as adjunctive to levodopa in Chinese patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: This was a 24 week, flexible-dose, OLE study in Chinese patients with advanced PD who received 24 week treatment with ropinirole PR in the preceding double-blind (DB), phase III study (NCT01154166) and had no break in receiving study treatment while switching from the DB study to the OLE study...
April 2015: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25501095/auditory-musical-hallucinations-associated-with-extended-release-pramipexole-in-an-elderly-patient-with-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Hiroshi Kataoka, Satoshi Ueno
Auditory musical hallucinations (AMHs) are rare complex auditory hallucinations in Parkinson's disease (PD) that have been limited previously. The characteristics of AMHs in PD remain uncertain. We describe a 72-year-old woman with PD who presented with AMHs. The AMHs occurred after immediate-release pramipexole was switched to extended-release pramipexole. The AMHs were a quiet piano or often songs on a loud radio or background music over other sounds. The music was unpleasant, but not objectionable, threatening, or ego-syntonic, and it did not interrupt her daily activities...
December 2014: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25495896/long-term-open-label-safety-study-of-once-daily-ropinirole-extended-prolonged-release-in-early-and-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Clare W Makumi, Afsaneh Asgharian, Jeffrey Ellis, Soraya Shaikh, Teri Jimenez, Susan VanMeter
Long-term safety of once-daily ropinirole extended/prolonged release (ropinirole XL/PR) was evaluated in subjects with early and advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) in this study, 101468/248. Subjects (n = 419) who completed one of three prior studies evaluating ropinirole XL/PR for the treatment of PD were enrolled in this open-label, multicenter, extension study, and were to be followed for up to 73 months. Ropinirole XL/PR was titrated/continued, and adjusted as appropriate during the maintenance phase (maximum 24 mg/d)...
2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25480808/auditory-hallucinations-associated-with-migraine-case-series-and-literature-review
#17
REVIEW
Eli E Miller, Brian M Grosberg, Sara C Crystal, Matthew S Robbins
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to describe auditory hallucinations (paracusias) associated with migraine attacks to yield insights into their clinical significance and pathogenesis. BACKGROUND: Isolated observations have documented rare associations of migraine with auditory hallucinations. Unlike visual, somatosensory, language, motor, and brainstem symptoms, paracusias with acute headache attacks are not a recognized aura symptom by the International Headache Society, and no systematic review has addressed this association...
September 2015: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25146382/does-the-pattern-of-amphetamine-use-prior-to-incarceration-predict-later-psychosis-a-longitudinal-study-of-amphetamine-users-in-the-swedish-criminal-justice-system
#18
Eline Borger Rognli, Anders Håkansson, Jonas Berge, Jørgen G Bramness
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the relationship between self-reported amphetamine use prior to inclusion in the criminal justice system and hospitalization due to psychosis in the years following release. METHOD: All the information was extracted from existing databases. Amphetamine-using clients in the criminal justice system in Sweden were identified using the European version of the addiction severity index (Europ-ASI) interview...
October 1, 2014: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25106638/potential-targets-for-the-development-of-novel-antidepressants-future-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Vishnu N Thakare, Bhoomika M Patel
Depression is an affective disorder characterized by hallucination, delusion and increased social risk and is estimated to affect approximately 20 % of the population at some point during the lifetime. As per World Health Organization (WHO) it is predicted to be the leading cause of burden of disease by 2030. Effects of currently available antidepressants have explained the monoamine hypothesis of depression, which proposes that impaired release of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine, are thought to be responsible for the development of depressive symptoms...
2015: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24966713/emerging-drugs-of-abuse-current-perspectives-on-substituted-cathinones
#20
REVIEW
Magalie Paillet-Loilier, Alexandre Cesbron, Reynald Le Boisselier, Joanna Bourgine, Danièle Debruyne
Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain. They appeared in the recreational drug market in the mid-2000s and now represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse. Initially considered as legal highs, their legal status is variable by country and is rapidly changing, with government institutions encouraging their control. Some cathinones (such as diethylpropion or pyrovalerone) have been used in a medical setting and bupropion is actually indicated for smoking cessation...
2014: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
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