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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898304/-use-of-cannabis-and-incidence-of-psychotic-symptoms-evidence-from-buenos-aires
#1
Ángeles Barrera, María P Rocha, Eduardo Leiderman
OBJECTIVES: Cannabis use has been frequently associated to the experience of psychotic symptoms in the research literature. The objective was to investigate the association between cannabis use and psychotic like experiences in the city of Buenos Aires. METHODS: A sample of 862 respondents of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, aged =18 years, was interviewed regarding their cannabis use, and presence of psychotic like experiences. RESULTS: Cannabis use was associated to psychotic like experiences, in particular to perceptual abnormalities (visual and auditory hallucinations)...
November 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874102/ertapenem-associated-neurotoxicity-in-the-spinal-cord-injury-sci-population-a-case-series
#2
Ursula C Patel, Mallory A Fowler
Context Ertapenem, a broad spectrum carbapenem antibiotic, is used often in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients due to increased risk factors for multi-drug resistant (MDR) infections in this population. Neurotoxicity, specifically seizures, due to ertapenem is a known adverse effect and has been described previously. Other manifestations such as delirium and visual hallucinations have rarely been reported, and no literature, to the best of our knowledge, specifically describes these effects solely in the SCI population...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860465/damaged-fiber-tracts-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-visual-hallucinations
#3
Dagmar H Hepp, Elisabeth M J Foncke, Henk W Berendse, Thomas M Wassenaar, Kim T E Olde Dubbelink, Henk J Groenewegen, Wilma D J van de Berg, Menno M Schoonheim
Damage to fiber tracts connecting the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) to the cerebral cortex may underlie the development of visual hallucinations (VH) in Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly due to a loss of cholinergic innervation. This was investigated by comparing structural connectivity of the NBM using diffusion tensor imaging in 15 PD patients with VH (PD + VH), 40 PD patients without VH (PD - VH), and 15 age- and gender-matched controls. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of pathways connecting the NBM to the whole cerebral cortex and of regional NBM fiber tracts were compared between groups...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844297/measures-of-visual-hallucinations-review-and-recommendations
#4
REVIEW
Charlotte Aynsworth, Daniel Collerton, Robert Dudley
BACKGROUND: Studies designed to investigate visual hallucinations (VH) require reliable and valid measures that can appropriately capture peoples' experiences. This review aimed to assess the psychometric rigour and usefulness of VH measures. METHOD: A systematic literature search was carried out against inclusion criteria (e.g. more than one specific question on VH, measures for adults in clinical and non-clinical populations). Eighteen measures were identified and rated against an adapted evaluation grid, which included essential criteria such as clear purpose and definition, psychometric properties including reliability and validity, and appropriate exploration of visual hallucinations...
May 11, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836813/the-trip-of-a-lifetime-hallucinogen-persisting-perceptual-disorder
#5
Lauren Anderson, Hannah Lake, Mark Walterfang
OBJECTIVES: The differential diagnosis of psychotic symptoms is broad and extends beyond primary psychotic and affective disorders. We aim to illustrate that the chronology and phenomenological nature of hallucinatory symptoms may provide clues towards alternative diagnoses, such as hallucinogen persisting perceptual disorder (HPPD). We describe the resurgence of visual pseudo-hallucinations in a young woman in the context of previous substance-induced hallucinatory symptoms and a prior diagnosis of occipital lobe epilepsy...
August 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834867/cortical-blindness-and-not-optic-neuritis-as-a-cause-of-vision-loss-in-a-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-ss-patient-with-the-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd-challenges-of-ascribing-demyelinating-syndromes-to-ss-a-case-report
#6
Aliya Lalji, Izlem Izbudak, Julius Birnbaum
RATIONALE: The conception that multiple sclerosis may be challenging to distinguish from demyelinating manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) was introduced more than 30 years ago. However, it is now recognized that the neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) may occur more frequently in SS as opposed to multiple sclerosis. Characteristic NMOSD features can include severe attacks of optic neuritis, myelitis which is frequently longitudinally-extensive (spanning at least three vertebral segments on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), and an association with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834102/ventral-striatal-dopaminergic-defect-is-associated-with-hallucinations-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
E Jaakkola, J Joutsa, E Mäkinen, J Johansson, V Kaasinen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Visual hallucinations (VHs) are a common complication of Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathogenesis of VHs in PD is still largely unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the dopaminergic mechanisms of VHs and specifically whether the degree of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) function or extrastriatal serotonin transporter (SERT) function can predict the appearance of VHs in patients with PD. METHODS: Twenty-two PD patients scanned with [(123) I]FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography at an early stage of their disease who later developed VHs were identified and compared with 48 non-hallucinating PD patients...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833562/randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-ads-5102-amantadine-extended-release-capsules-for-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease-ease-lid-3
#8
Wolfgang Oertel, Karla Eggert, Rajesh Pahwa, Caroline M Tanner, Robert A Hauser, Claudia Trenkwalder, Reinhard Ehret, Jean Philippe Azulay, Stuart Isaacson, Larissa Felt, Mary Jean Stempien
BACKGROUND: The treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD) is an unmet need with no approved drug therapy. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of 274 mg ADS-5102 (amantadine) extended-release capsules (equivalent to 340-mg amantadine HCl) for levodopa-induced dyskinesia in a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: PD patients with ≥1 hour of troublesome dyskinesia and at least mild functional impact were randomized to placebo or ADS-5102 once daily at bedtime for 13 weeks...
August 21, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829845/the-charles-bonnet-syndrome-in-patients-with-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration-association-with-proton-pump-inhibitors
#9
João Esteves Leandro, João Beato, Ana Catarina Pedrosa, João Pinheiro-Costa, Manuel Falcão, Fernando Falcão-Reis, Ângela M Carneiro
Purpose: We investigate the prevalence of the Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and analyze the role of oral proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and other potential risk factors. Methods: A total of 510 consecutive patients with neovascular-AMD followed at a single tertiary center in Portugal were screened for CBS. Using a structured questionnaire, psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed systematically and divided into a CBS group and a non-CBS group...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826921/visual-and-somatosensory-phenomena-following-cerebral-venous-infarction
#10
Aleksandra Loster-Niewińska, Edyta Dziadkowiak, Justyna Chojdak-Łukasiewicz, Anna Zimny, Bogusław Paradowski
BACKGROUND: The most frequent clinical presentation of occipital or visual tract lesion is hemianopsia or quadrantanopsia. However, damage to the primary or secondary visual cortex can also manifest as visual hallucinations (photopsiae or complex phenomena). We report visual and somatosensory phenomena following cerebral venous infarction based on a study of a patient with a history of recent head injury. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 61-year-old man with a history of recent head injury presented with a headache of two weeks duration...
July 14, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805589/visual-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Richard A Armstrong
This chapter describes the visual problems likely to be encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether such signs are useful in differentiating the parkinsonian syndromes. Visual dysfunction in PD may involve visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, pupil reactivity, saccadic and pursuit eye movements, motion perception, visual fields, and visual processing speeds. In addition, disturbance of visuospatial orientation, facial recognition problems, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, and chronic visual hallucinations may be present...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803382/cortical-afferent-inhibition-abnormalities-reveal-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-reappraisal
#12
REVIEW
Raffaele Nardone, Francesco Brigo, Viviana Versace, Yvonne Höller, Frediano Tezzon, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Luca Sebastianelli
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder affecting, besides the dopaminergic function, multiple neurotransmission systems, including the cholinergic system. Central cholinergic circuits of human brain can be tested non-invasively by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex; this test is named short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). SAI abnormalities have been reported in PD patients with gait disturbances and many non-motor symptoms, such as visual hallucinations (VHs), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), dysphagia, and olfactory impairment...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802934/psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Dominic H Ffytche, Dag Aarsland
Although illusions, hallucinations and delusions did not play a prominent role in James Parkinson's original clinical descriptions, the longitudinal view of disease progression he advocated has important lessons for the study of such symptoms today. A focus on longitudinal progression rather than individual symptoms led to the concept of PD psychosis-a spectrum of positive symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The publication of criteria for PD psychosis in 2007 helped unify the disparate set of symptoms, raising their profile and resulting in a rapid expansion of literature focussing on clinical aspects, mechanisms, and treatment...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795386/dementia-caregiver-burden-a-research-update-and-critical-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Sheung-Tak Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an updated review of the determinants of caregiver burden and depression, with a focus on care demands and especially the differential effects of various neuropsychiatric symptoms or symptom clusters. Moreover, studies on caregivers for frontotemporal and Lewy body dementias were referred to in order to identify differences and similarities with the mainstream literature based largely on Alzheimer caregivers. RECENT FINDINGS: As a group, neuropsychiatric symptoms are most predictive of caregiver burden and depression regardless of dementia diagnosis, but the effects appear to be driven primarily by disruptive behaviors (e...
August 10, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777755/ads-5102-amantadine-extended-release-capsules-for-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease-ease-lid-2-study-interim-results-of-an-open-label-safety-study
#15
Robert A Hauser, Rajesh Pahwa, Caroline M Tanner, Wolfgang Oertel, Stuart H Isaacson, Reed Johnson, Larissa Felt, Mary Jean Stempien
BACKGROUND: Medical treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is an unmet need. ADS-5102 (amantadine) extended-release capsules is being developed for the treatment of LID in patients with PD. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of 274 mg ADS-5102 for LID in PD. METHODS: In an ongoing, open-label safety study (NCT02202551), PD patients with LID received 274 mg of ADS-5102 once daily at bedtime...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774226/pseudo-charles-bonnet-syndrome-with-a-frontal-tumor-visual-hallucinations-the-brain-and-the-two-hit-hypothesis
#16
Katherine A Kosman, David A Silbersweig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756934/postoperative-anticholinergic-poisoning-concealed-complications-of-a-commonly-used-medication
#17
Xiao Chi Zhang, Natalija Farrell, Thomas Haronian, Jason Hack
BACKGROUND: Scopolamine is a potent anticholinergic compound used commonly for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Scopolamine can cause atypical anticholinergic syndromes due to its prominent central antimuscarinic effects. CASE REPORT: A 47-year-old female presented to the emergency department (ED) 20 h after hospital discharge for a right-knee meniscectomy, with altered mental status (AMS) and dystonic extremity movements that began 12 h after her procedure...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755572/reality-monitoring-performance-and-the-role-of-visual-imagery-in-visual-hallucinations
#18
Charlotte Aynsworth, Nazik Nemat, Daniel Collerton, David Smailes, Robert Dudley
BACKGROUND: Auditory Hallucinations may arise from people confusing their own inner speech with external spoken speech. People with visual hallucinations (VH) may similarly confuse vivid mental imagery with external events. This paper reports two experiments exploring confusion between internal and external visual material. METHOD: Experiment 1 examined reality monitoring in people with psychosis; those with visual hallucinations (n = 16) and those without (n = 15)...
July 20, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746902/remembering-verbally-presented-items-as-pictures-brain-activity-underlying-visual-mental-images-in-schizophrenia-patients-with-visual-hallucinations
#19
Christian Stephan-Otto, Sara Siddi, Carl Senior, Jorge Cuevas-Esteban, Maria Rosa Cambra-Martí, Susana Ochoa, Gildas Brébion
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that visual hallucinations in schizophrenia consist of mental images mistaken for percepts due to failure of the reality-monitoring processes. However, the neural substrates that underpin such dysfunction are currently unknown. We conducted a brain imaging study to investigate the role of visual mental imagery in visual hallucinations. METHOD: Twenty-three patients with schizophrenia and 26 healthy participants were administered a reality-monitoring task whilst undergoing an fMRI protocol...
September 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741694/reduced-parahippocampal-volume-and-psychosis-symptoms-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Emma McLachlan, Jennifer Bousfield, Robert Howard, Suzanne Reeves
OBJECTIVE: Establishing structural imaging correlates of psychosis symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) could localise pathology and target symptomatic treatment. This study investigated whether psychosis symptoms are associated with visuoperceptual or frontal networks, and whether regional brain volume differences could be linked with the paranoid (persecutory delusions) or misidentification (misidentification phenomena and/or hallucinations) subtypes. METHODS: A total of 104 patients with probable AD (AddNeuroMed; 47 psychotic, 57 non-psychotic), followed up for at least one year with structural MRI at baseline...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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