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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430629/recent-advances-and-development-in-epidermal-and-dermal-drug-deposition-enhancement-technology
#1
Babar Iqbal, Javed Ali, Sanjula Baboota
Skin is the largest and easily accessible organ of the body. Increases in incidences of dermatological disorders, demand for drug targeting, and patient compliance have increased the popularity of topical drug delivery amongst the people. However, drug delivery across the skin is still a challenge for researchers because permeation of maximum drugs is hindered by the upper layer of the epidermis (stratum corneum). Several approaches like use of chemical permeation enhancers and physical methods such as sonophoresis, iontophoresis, electroporation, microneedles, etc...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425769/combined-use-of-nanocarriers-and-physical-methods-for-percutaneous-penetration-enhancement
#2
Nina Dragicevic, Howard Maibach
Dermal and transdermal drug delivery (due to its non-invasiveness, avoidance of the first-pass metabolism, controlling the rate of drug input over a prolonged time, etc.) have gained significant acceptance. Several methods are employed to overcome the permeability barrier of the skin, improving drug penetration into/through skin. Among chemical penetration enhancement methods, nanocarriers have been extensively studied. When applied alone, nanocarriers mostly deliver drugs to skin and can be used to treat skin diseases...
February 6, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423944/impact-of-mon2-monocyte-platelet-aggregates-in-humancoronary-artery-disease
#3
Richard A Brown, Gregory Y H Lip, Chetan Varma, Eduard Shantsila
INTRODUCTION: Monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) form when Mon1, Mon2 or Mon3 monocyte subsets adhere to platelets. They are pathophysiologically linked to coronary artery disease (CAD). However, their individual roles in the occurrence of diffuse CAD remain unknown. METHODS: Peripheral blood from 50 patients with diffuse CAD, 40 patients with focal CAD and 50 age-matched patients with normal coronary arteries was analysed by flow cytometry to quantify MPAs associated with individual monocyte subsets...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378433/passive-delivery-of-protein-drugs-through-transdermal-route
#4
Bivek Chaulagain, Ankit Jain, Ankita Tiwari, Amit Verma, Sanjay K Jain
Skin is the largest external organ in the human body but its use for therapeutic purposes has been minimal. Stratum corneum residing on the uppermost layer of the skin provides a tough barrier to transport the drugs across the skin. Very small group of drugs sharing Lipinski properties, i.e. drugs having molecular weight not larger than 500 Da, having high lipophilicity and optimum polarity are fortunate enough to be used on skin therapeutics. But, at a time where modern therapeutics is slowly shifting from use of small molecular drugs towards the use of macromolecular therapeutic agents such as peptides, proteins and nucleotides in origin, skin therapeutics need to be evolved accordingly to cater the delivery of these agents...
January 29, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355580/sitting-time-is-negatively-related-to-microvascular-endothelium-dependent-function-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
Sally Fenton, Aamer Sandoo, George Metsios, Joan Duda, George Kitas, Jet Veldhuijzen van Zanten
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour is linked to increased cardiovascular disease risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), but the biological processes underlying this relationship are not understood. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cross-sectional associations of habitual sedentary behaviour, with endothelial function in RA. METHODS: Sixty-eight RA patients (Mage = 55 ± 12 years) underwent Laser Doppler Imaging with iontophoresis, to assess microvascular endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine, ACh) and endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) function...
January 17, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352759/regional-myocardial-function-abnormalities-are-associated-with-macro-and-microcirculation-dysfunction-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-the-resolve-study
#6
Philippe Obert, Guillaume Walther, Frédéric Dutheil, Bruno Lesourd, Robert Chapier, Daniel Courteix, Agnes Vinet
Abnormalities in myocardial and vascular function have been reported in the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but whether these alterations are related remains poorly documented. Our aim was accordingly to investigate interrelationships between macro- and microcirculatory vasoreactivity and left ventricular (LV) myocardial function in MetS patients. Eighty-eight MetS individuals and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) was measured using Vector Velocity Imaging...
January 19, 2018: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340522/penile-microvascular-endothelial-function-in-hypertensive-patients-effects-of-acute-type-5-phosphodiesterase-inhibition
#7
V Verri, A A Brandão, E Tibirica
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate penile endothelial microvascular function in patients with primary arterial hypertension and age-matched normotensive subjects using laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). Additionally, we analyzed the acute penile microvascular effects induced by oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (sildenafil; SIL) administration. Endothelium-dependent microvascular reactivity was evaluated in the penises and forearms of hypertensive patients (aged 58.8±6.6 years, n=34) and age-matched healthy volunteers (n=33) at rest and 60 min following oral SIL (100 mg) administration...
January 11, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338981/reproducibility-and-agreement-of-different-non-invasive-methods-of-endothelial-function-assessment
#8
Khatera Ibrahimi, Young De Graaf, Richard Draijer, A H Jan Danser, Antoinette Maassen VanDenBrink, Anton H van den Meiracker
Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) is an established, but investigator-demanding method, used to non-invasively determine nitric oxide (NO)-dependent endothelial function in humans. Local thermal hyperemia (LTH) or post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) of the skin measured with a laser Doppler flow imager may be a less demanding alternative of FMD. We investigated the reproducibility of the different measures of vascular function, their interrelationship and the NO-dependency of LTH. Measurements were performed twice in 27 healthy men (8 smokers), one week apart...
January 12, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323451/microvascular-involvement-in-systemic-sclerosis-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#9
Didem Saygin, Kristin Highland, Adriano R Tonelli
Microvascular changes play central roles in the pathophysiology of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and represent major causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Therefore, clinical tools that can assess the microvasculature are of great importance both at the time of diagnosis and follow up of these cases. These tools include capillaroscopy, laser imaging techniques, infrared thermography and iontophoresis. In this review, we examined the clinical manifestations and pathobiology of microvascular involvement in SSc and SLE as well as the methodologies used to evaluate the microvasculature...
January 11, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310428/modulation-of-electroosmotic-flow-through-skin-effect-of-poly-amidoamine-dendrimers
#10
Hye Ji Kim, Seaung Youl Oh
The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers on electroosmotic flow (EOF) through skin. The effect of size and concentration of dendrimer was studied, using generation 1, 4 and 7 dendrimer (G1, G4 and G7, respectively). As a marker molecule for the direction and magnitude of EOF, a neutral molecule, acetoaminophen (AAP) was used. The visualization of dendrimer permeation into the current conducting pore (CCP) of skin was made using G4-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugate and confocal microscopy...
January 9, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280281/the-impact-of-exercise-frequency-upon-microvascular-endothelium-function-and-oxidative-stress-among-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#11
Juliana P Borges, Alessandro R Nascimento, Gabriella O Lopes, Daniel J M Medeiros-Lima, Marina P Coelho, Pablo M C Nascimento, Daniel A Kopiler, Cristiane Matsuura, Mauro Felippe F Mediano, Eduardo Tibirica
PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of low and high weekly exercise frequencies on microvascular endothelium function and oxidative stress among patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS: Thirty-four male patients completed a 6-month cardiac rehabilitation programme, from which 23 performed exercise with a high frequency (HF) and 11 with a low frequency (LF). Systemic microvascular blood flow, maximal aerobic capacity, blood lipids, oxidative stress and anthropometric data were assessed prior to and after the cardiac rehabilitation programme...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259545/neuromodulation-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-non-human-primates-by-dopaminergic-receptors-during-rule-guided-flexible-behavior-and-cognitive-control
#12
REVIEW
Susheel Vijayraghavan, Alex J Major, Stefan Everling
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is indispensable for several higher-order cognitive and executive capacities of primates, including representation of salient stimuli in working memory (WM), maintenance of cognitive task set, inhibition of inappropriate responses and rule-guided flexible behavior. PFC networks are subject to robust neuromodulation from ascending catecholaminergic systems. Disruption of these systems in PFC has been implicated in cognitive deficits associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203235/sensibility-and-specificity-of-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging-according-to-endo-pat-index-in-type-1-diabetes
#13
Alessandra S de M Matheus, Maria de Fátima Bevilacqua da Matta, Eliete Leão Silva Clemente, Maria de Lourdes Guimarães Rodrigues, Débora Cristina Torres Valença, Marília B Gomes
OBJECTIVES: To find out an normality value for microvascular response (physiological and pharmacological) assessed through laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) based on Endo-PAT, which identifies the ones with Endothelial Dysfunction (ED) in patients with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Patients with T1D, aged ≥12years underwent a clinical-epidemiological questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were obtained (lipid profile, glycemic control and levels of C-reactive protein)...
December 1, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200761/treatment-of-palmar-hyperhidrosis-with-tap-water-iontophoresis-a-randomized-sham-controlled-single-blind-and-parallel-designed-clinical-trial
#14
Do Hun Kim, Tae Han Kim, Seung Ho Lee, Ai Young Lee
Background: Palmar hyperhidrosis is a common disorder of excessive sweating. A number of studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of iontophoresis in the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis. However, controlled clinical studies on iontophoresis for palmar hyperhidrosis have been limited. Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of iontophoresis in the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis with a randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, and parallel-designed study...
December 2017: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198810/short-duration-ocular-iontophoresis-of-ionizable-aciclovir-prodrugs-a-new-approach-to-treat-herpes-simplex-infections-in-the-anterior-and-posterior-segments-of-the-eye
#15
Yong Chen, Yogeshvar N Kalia
The objective was to investigate (trans)corneal and transscleral iontophoresis of biolabile amino acid ester prodrugs of aciclovir (ACV-X, X = Arg, Gly and Trp) as a means to increase ocular bioavailability of ACV. Prodrugs displayed tissue-dependent susceptibility to hydrolysis. Iontophoresis of ACV-Arg, ACV-Gly and ACV-Trp (5 mM, 0.5 mA/cm2) for 5 min followed by 55 min passive diffusion resulted in appreciable corneal deposition (21.5 ± 5.1, 14.1 ± 2.0 and 5.3 ± 0.6 nmol/cm2, respectively) and transcorneal permeation (13...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197931/effects-of-supervised-exercise-training-on-lower-limb-cutaneous-microvascular-reactivity-in-adults-with-venous-ulcers
#16
Garry A Tew, Anil Gumber, Emma McIntosh, Sue Kesterton, Brenda King, Jonathan A Michaels, Markos Klonizakis
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a 12-week supervised exercise programme on lower-limb cutaneous microvascular reactivity in adults with venous leg ulceration. METHODS: Thirty-eight adults with unilateral venous ulceration who were being treated with lower-limb compression therapy (58% male; mean age 65 years; median ulcer size 5 cm2) were randomly allocated to exercise or control groups. Exercise participants (n = 18) were invited to attend thrice weekly sessions of lower-limb aerobic and resistance exercise for 12 weeks...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185116/standard-transepithelial-and-iontophoresis-corneal-cross-linking-clinical-analysis-of-three-surgical-techniques
#17
Settimio Rossi, Carmine Santamaria, Rosa Boccia, Luigi De Rosa, Francesco Maria D'Alterio, Francesca Simonelli, Giuseppe De Rosa
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical results of standard, transepithelial (TE) and iontophoresis (I) corneal cross-linking (CXL), in patients with progressive keratoconus. METHODS: Thirty eyes of 30 patients with progressive keratoconus treated by CXL (10 by standard-CXL, 10 by TE-CXL and 10 by I-TE-CXL) with 12 months of follow-up. Pre- and postoperative ophthalmologic testing were: uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), refractive examination (spherical error, spherical equivalent), corneal topography (corneal astigmatism, simulated maximum, minimum and average keratometry), aberrometry (coma and spherical aberration), pachymetry and endothelial cell density...
November 28, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174530/increased-cortical-neuronal-responses-to-nmda-and-improved-attentional-set-shifting-performance-in-rats-following-prebiotic-b-gos%C3%A2-ingestion
#18
Benjamin Gronier, Helene M Savignac, Mathieu Di Miceli, Sherif M Idriss, George Tzortzis, Daniel Anthony, Philip W J Burnet
We have previously shown that prebiotics (dietary fibres that augment the growth of indigenous beneficial gut bacteria) such as Bimuno™ galacto-oligosaccharides (B-GOS®), increased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor levels in the rat brain. The current investigation examined the functional correlates of these changes in B-GOS®-fed rats by measuring cortical neuronal responses to NMDA using in vivo NMDA micro-iontophoresis electrophysiology, and performance in the attentional set-shifting task. Adult male rats were supplemented with B-GOS® in the drinking water 3 weeks prior to in vivo iontophoresis or behavioural testing...
November 21, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174315/workshop-report-nucleic-acid-delivery-devices-for-hiv-vaccines-workshop-proceedings-national-institute-of-allergy-and-infectious-diseases-bethesda-maryland-usa-may-21-2015
#19
Bruce G Weniger, Ian E Anglin, Tina Tong, Michael Pensiero, Jeffrey K Pullen
On May 21st, 2015, the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened a workshop on delivery devices for nucleic acid (NA) as vaccines in order to review the landscape of past and future technologies for administering NA (e.g., DNA, RNA, etc.) as antigen into target tissues of animal models and humans. Its focus was on current and future applications for preventing and treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease, among other infectious-disease priorities...
November 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150968/effects-of-blue-light-on-inflammation-and-skin-barrier-recovery-following-acute-perturbation-pilot-study-results-in-healthy-human-subjects
#20
Denise Falcone, Natallia E Uzunbajakava, Frank van Abeelen, Gerrit Oversluizen, Malou Peppelman, Piet E J van Erp, Peter C M van de Kerkhof
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: While growing evidence supports the therapeutic effect of 453 nm blue light in chronic inflammatory skin diseases, data on its effects on acutely perturbed human skin are scarce. In this study, we investigated the impact of 453 nm narrow-band LED light on healthy skin following acute perturbation. METHODS: Tape stripping and histamine iontophoresis were performed on the forearm of 22 healthy volunteers on 2 consecutive weeks. In 1 week, challenges were followed by irradiation for 30 minutes...
November 18, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
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