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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700128/assessment-of-trans-scleral-iontophoresis-delivery-of-lutein-to-the-human-retina
#1
Marco Lombardo, Valentina Villari, Norberto Micali, Pierre Roy, Sara Homem Sousa, Giuseppe Lombardo
The efficacy of novel scleral iontophoresis device for in-situ delivery of lutein to the human retina was assessed by resonance Raman spectroscopy technique. Eight human donor eye globes were used for experiments, six of which underwent trans-scleral iontophoresis delivery of lutein and the others two were used as controls. The scleral iontophoresis applicator was filled with liposome-enriched 0.1% lutein solution and the generator's current was set at 2.5 mA and delivered for 4 minutes. A custom resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) set-up was used for detecting lutein in the inner sclera, choroid, retinal periphery and macula of treated samples and controls...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689749/iontophoresis-assisted-accelerated-riboflavin-ultraviolet-a-scleral-cross-linking-a-potential-treatment-for-pathologic-myopia
#2
Shuo Rong, Chaoying Wang, Baoyan Han, Pengfei Feng, Weiwei Lan, Zhipeng Gao, Xiaona Li, Weiyi Chen
Scleral collagen cross-linking is one of the most promising treatments to control the pathologic process of myopia. However, the exact procedure and its impact on animal models of myopia are still to be explored. We modified the scleral riboflavin/ultraviolet A (UVA) cross-linking procedure with an iontophoresis-assisted drug delivery system and an accelerated UVA irradiation (10 mW/cm(2), 9 min) and applied this treatment to an animal model of myopia. Ninety-six New Zealand White rabbits developed relatively stable myopia by visual deprivation and then underwent the modified scleral cross-linking surgery...
July 6, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671307/cutaneous-microvascular-perfusion-responses-to-insulin-iontophoresis-are-differentially-affected-by-insulin-resistance-after-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Michael F La Fountaine, Christopher M Cirnigliaro, Frank Azarello, Joshua C Hobson, Oriana Tascione, Kirsten N Swonger, Trevor Dyson-Hudson, William A Bauman
Endothelial-mediated mechanisms that regulate skin blood flow may play an integral role in optimizing skin perfusion in vascular beds with sympathetic nervous system vasomotor impairment, such as in spinal cord injury (SCI). Insulin is a vasoactive hormone and second messenger of nitric oxide that facilitates endothelial-mediated dilatation. The effects of insulin resistance (IR) on sublesional cutaneous perfusion responses to insulin provocation have yet to be described in persons with SCI. Persons with SCI and an able-bodied (AB) cohort were divided into subgroups based upon fasting plasma insulin (FPI) concentration cut-offs for IR (≥13...
July 3, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647443/dermal-and-transdermal-delivery-of-pharmaceutically-relevant-macromolecules
#4
REVIEW
S Münch, J Wohlrab, R H H Neubert
The skin offers an attractive way for dermal and transdermal drug delivery that is why the drug still needs certain qualities to transcend the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum. The requirements are: drugs with a maximum molecular weight of 1kDa, high lipophilicity and a certain polarity. This would restrict the use of a transdermal delivery of macromolecules, which would make the drug more effective in therapeutic administration. Various studies have shown that macromolecules without support do not penetrate the human skin...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641580/marked-regional-endothelial-dysfunction-in-mottled-skin-area-in-patients-with-severe-infections
#5
Simon Bourcier, Jérémie Joffre, Vincent Dubée, Gabriel Preda, Jean-Luc Baudel, Naïke Bigé, Guillaume Leblanc, Bernard I Levy, Bertrand Guidet, Eric Maury, Hafid Ait-Oufella
BACKGROUND: Mottling around the knee, reflecting a reduced skin blood flow, is predictive of mortality in patients with septic shock. However, the causative pathophysiology of mottling remains unknown. We hypothesized that the cutaneous hypoperfusion observed in the mottled area is related to regional endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study in a medical ICU in a tertiary teaching hospital. Consecutive adult patients with sepsis admitted to ICU were included...
June 23, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639462/onychomycosis-in-the-21st-century-an-update-on-diagnosis-epidemiology-and-treatment
#6
Aditya K Gupta, Sarah G Versteeg, Neil H Shear
Onychomycosis accounts for 50% of all nail disease cases and is commonly caused by dermatophytes. Diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus, immunosuppression, obesity, smoking, and advancing age are predisposing factors of this fungal infection. Potassium hydroxide and culture are considered the current standard for diagnosing onychomycosis, revealing both fungal viability and species identification. Other diagnostic tests currently available include periodic acid-Schiff staining, polymerase chain reaction techniques, and fluorescent staining...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633107/effects-of-chemical-and-physical-enhancement-techniques-on-transdermal-delivery-of-3-fluoroamphetamine-hydrochloride
#7
Ashana Puri, Kevin S Murnane, Bruce E Blough, Ajay K Banga
The present study investigated the passive transdermal delivery of 3-fluoroamphetamine hydrochloride (PAL-353) and evaluated the effects of chemical and physical enhancement techniques on its permeation through human skin. In vitro drug permeation studies through dermatomed human skin were performed using Franz diffusion cells. Passive permeation of PAL-353 from propylene glycol and phosphate buffered saline as vehicles was studied. Effect of oleic acid, maltose microneedles, ablative laser, and anodal iontophoresis on its transdermal permeation was investigated...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625890/acute-effects-of-coffee-on-skin-blood-flow-and-microvascular-function
#8
Erik Tesselaar, Dzeneta Nezirevic Dernroth, Simon Farnebo
OBJECTIVE: Studies on the acute effects of coffee on the microcirculation have shown contradicting results. This study aimed to investigate if intake of caffeine-containing coffee changes blood flow and microvascular reactivity in the skin. METHODS: We measured acute changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) in the forearm and the tip of the finger, the microvascular response to transdermal iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in the skin, after intake of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee...
June 15, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625748/comparison-of-liposomal-drug-formulations-for-transdermal-iontophoretic-drug-delivery
#9
K Malinovskaja-Gomez, S Espuelas, M J Garrido, J Hirvonen, T Laaksonen
This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro transdermal direct/pulsed current iontophoretic delivery of an amphiphilic model compound from various lipid vesicle-encapsulated formulations compared to free-drug formulation. Conventional, pegylated, ultradeformable liposomes (transfersomes) and ethosomes loaded with a negatively charged drug diclofenac sodium (DS) were prepared and characterized. All the liposomes possessed an average size of ≈100-150nm and negative zeta potential. No changes in colloidal stability were detected after 8h incubation of any vesicle formulation under constant or pulsed iontophoretic current...
August 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616421/cystic-fibrosis-prevalence-among-a-group-of-high-risk-children-in-the-main-referral-children-hospital-in-iran
#10
Mohammad Reza Modaresi, Jamal Faghinia, Mohsen Reisi, Majid Keivanfar, Shiva Navaie, Javad Seyyedi, Faride Baharzade
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about cystic fibrosis (CF) in Iran is very limited. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of CF among a group of high-risk children with suggestive clinical features in the main referral hospital in Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study children consisted of 505 patients who had presented with one or more of the following symptoms: chronic or recurrent respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms as rectal prolapse, steatorrhea, hepatobiliary disease as prolonged jaundice, failure to thrive, hyperglycemia and glycosuria, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hypoprothrombinemia, anemia or edema, and positive family history of CF...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603514/cutaneous-autonomic-pilomotor-testing-to-unveil-the-role-of-neuropathy-progression-in-early-parkinson-s-disease-capture-pd-protocol-for-a-multicenter-study
#11
Timo Siepmann, Alexandra Pintér, Sylvia J Buchmann, Leonie Stibal, Martin Arndt, Anne Sophie Kubasch, Marie Luise Kubasch, Ana Isabel Penzlin, Elka Frenz, Wagner Zago, Tamás Horváth, Szabolcs Szatmári, Dániel Bereczki, Annamária Takáts, Tjalf Ziemssen, Axel Lipp, Roy Freeman, Heinz Reichmann, Kristian Barlinn, Ben Min-Woo Illigens
BACKGROUND: In Parkinson's disease (PD), alpha-synuclein accumulation in cutaneous autonomic pilomotor and sudomotor nerve fibers has been linked to autonomic nervous system disturbances even in the early stages of the disease. This study aims to assess the association between alpha-synuclein-mediated structural autonomic nerve fiber damage and function in PD, elucidate the role of neuropathy progression during the early disease stages, and test reproducibility and external validity of pilomotor function assessment using quantitative pilomotor axon-reflex test and sudomotor function via quantitative direct and indirect test of sudomotor function...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576637/the-diagnosis-of-cystic-fibrosis
#12
Kris De Boeck, Francois Vermeulen, Lieven Dupont
Establishing the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) is straight forward in the majority of patients: they present with a clear clinical picture (most frequently chronic respiratory symptoms plus malabsorption), the sweat chloride value is>60mmol/L and two known disease causing CFTR mutations are identified. In less than 5% of subjects, mainly those with a milder or limited phenotype, the diagnostic process is more complex, because initial diagnostic test results are inconclusive: sweat chloride concentration in the intermediate range, less than 2 CF causing mutations identified or both...
May 30, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576549/computational-and-experimental-model-of-transdermal-iontophorethic-drug-delivery-system
#13
Nenad Filipovic, Igor Saveljic, Vladislav Rac, Beatriz Olalde Graells, Goran Bijelic
The concept of iontophoresis is often applied to increase the transdermal transport of drugs and other bioactive agents into the skin or other tissues. It is a non-invasive drug delivery method which involves electromigration and electroosmosis in addition to diffusion and is shown to be a viable alternative to conventional administration routs such as oral, hypodermic and intravenous injection. In this study we investigated, experimentally and numerically, in vitro drug delivery of dexamethasone sodium phosphate to porcine skin...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566638/prevention-of-uv-induced-melanin-production-by-accumulation-of-redox-nanoparticles-in-the-epidermal-layer-via-iontophoresis
#14
Kanako Shiota, Susumu Hama, Toru Yoshitomi, Yukio Nagasaki, Kentaro Kogure
UV rays induce melanin production in the skin, which, from a cosmetic point of view, is problematic. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in the skin upon UV irradiation are thought to be responsible for melanin production. Thus, effective antioxidants are recognized as useful tools for prevention of UV-induced melanin production. Redox nanoparticles (RNPs) containing nitroxide radicals as free radical scavengers were previously developed, and shown to be effective ROS scavengers in the body. RNPs are therefore expected to be useful for effective protection against UV-induced melanin production...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566465/the-stochastic-nature-of-action-potential-backpropagation-in-apical-tuft-dendrites
#15
Shaina M Short, Katerina D Oikonomou, Wen-Liang L Zhou, Corey D Acker, Marko A Popovic, Dejan Zecevic, Srdjan D Antic
In cortical pyramidal neurons, backpropagating action potentials (bAPs) supply Ca(2+) to synaptic contacts on dendrites. To determine whether the efficacy of AP backpropagation into apical tuft dendrites is stable over time, we performed dendritic Ca(2+) and voltage imaging in rat brain slices. We found that the amplitude of bAP-Ca(2+) in apical tuft branches was unstable, as it varied from trial to trial (termed "bAP-Ca(2+) flickering"). Small perturbations in dendritic physiology, such as spontaneous synaptic inputs, channel inactivation, or temperature-induced changes in channel kinetics, can cause bAP flickering...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546926/iontophoresis-assisted-corneal-crosslinking-using-0-1-riboflavin-for-progressive-keratoconus
#16
Hong-Zhen Jia, Xu Pang, Zheng-Jun Fan, Na Li, Gang Li, Xiu-Jun Peng
AIM: To report the clinical results of iontophoresis-assisted epithelium-on corneal crosslinking (I-CXL) using 0.1% riboflavin in distilled water for progressive keratoconus. METHODS: In this prospective clinical study, we examined 94 eyes of 75 patients with progressive keratoconus who were treated with I-CXL using 0.1% riboflavin in distilled water. Best correct visual acuity (BCVA), Scheimpflug tomography, corneal topography, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, and endothelial cell density were evaluated at baseline and 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24mo after I-CXL...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473612/evidence-for-%C3%AE-adrenergic-modulation-of-sweating-during-incremental-exercise-in-habitually-trained-males
#17
Tatsuro Amano, Yosuke Shitara, Naoto Fujii, Yoshimitsu Inoue, Narihiko Kondo
The aim of the present study was to determine β-adrenergic contribution to sweating during incremental exercise in habitually trained males. Nine habitually trained and 11 untrained males performed incremental cycling until exhaustion (20W min(-1)). Bilateral forearm sweat rates (ventilated capsule) were measured at two skin sites that were transdermally administered via iontophoresis with either 1% propranolol (Propranolol, non-selective β-adrenergic antagonist) or saline (Control). Sweat rate was evaluated as a function of both relative (percentage of maximum workload) and absolute exercise intensities...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467991/microvascular-function-and-endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-patients-with-severe-hypercholesterolemia-and-the-familial-hypercholesterolemia-phenotype
#18
Andrea De Lorenzo, Annie S B Moreira, Fabiana B Muccillo, Marcelo Assad, Eduardo V Tibirica
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and systemic microvascular function in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia, comparing patients with the definite familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) phenotype (DFH) or probable/possible FH phenotype (PFH). There is a large spectrum of atherosclerotic disease between these two clinical phenotypes of FH, and to acquire further knowledge of the pathophysiology of vascular disease in both is desirable. METHODS: Subjects with severe hypercholesterolemia, defined as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) >190 mg/dL, were classified as DFH or PFH and underwent measurement of the number of EPCs by flow cytometry and evaluation of cutaneous microvascular reactivity using a laser speckle contrast-imaging system with iontophoresis of acethylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside...
May 4, 2017: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457877/assessing-cutaneous-microvascular-function-with-iontophoresis-avoiding-non-specific-vasodilation
#19
Jordan Loader, Matthieu Roustit, Frances Taylor, Richard J MacIsaac, Simon Stewart, Christian Lorenzen, Guillaume Walther
AIM: Iontophoresis of vasoactive agents is commonly used to assess cutaneous microvascular reactivity. However, it is known that iontophoresis can be limited by confounding non-specific vasodilatory effects. Despite this, there is still no standardization of protocols or data expression. Therefore, this study evaluated commonly used protocols of iontophoresis by assessing each for evidence of non-specific vasodilatory effects and examined the reproducibility of those protocols that are free of non-specific responses...
April 28, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450546/nicotinic-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-cholinergic-receptor-influences-on-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortical-neuronal-firing-during-a-working-memory-task
#20
Yongan Sun, Yang Yang, Veronica C Galvin, Shengtao Yang, Amy F Arnsten, Min Wang
The primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) subserves top-down regulation of attention and working memory abilities. Depletion studies show that the neuromodulator acetylcholine (ACh) is essential to dlPFC working memory functions, but the receptor and cellular bases for cholinergic actions are just beginning to be understood. The current study found that nicotinic receptors comprised of α4 and β2 subunits (α4β2-nAChR) enhance the task-related firing of delay and fixation cells in the dlPFC of monkeys performing a working memory task...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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