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Iontophoresis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429515/a-device-to-measure-secretion-of-individual-sweat-glands-for-diagnosis-of-peripheral-neuropathy
#1
Adam J Loavenbruck, James S Hodges, Vincenzo Provitera, Maria Nolano, Gwen Wendelshafer-Crabb, William R Kennedy
INTRODUCTION: There is a need for quantitative, precise assessment of small fiber peripheral nerve function. We tested a customized camera device and protocol designed to quantify secretions of individual sweat glands (SGs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Testing was performed on 178 healthy controls and 20 neuropathy subjects. Sweating was stimulated on a 2.25 cm(2) skin area by iontophoresis of pilocarpine. The camera imaged sweat from 50-400 sweat ducts. We calculated secretion rate of individual SGs, total sweat volume, and number of secreting SGs at four body sites...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426265/transdermal-iontophoresis-patch-with-reverse-electrodialysis
#2
Joon Lee, Kilsung Kwon, Minyoung Kim, Joonhong Min, Nathaniel S Hwang, Won-Serk Kim
Reverse electrodialysis (RED) technology generates energy from the salinity gradient by contacting waters with different salinity. Herein, we develop the disposable skin patch using this eco-friendly energy. The current density, which can be controlled easily without special circuit, is enough to iontophoretic drug delivery. In vitro study, this iontophoretic system enhanced the transdermal delivery of peptide, which is difficult to penetrate the skin barrier by simple diffusion. We design the disposable iontophoretic skin patch using RED system and suggest this patch can be apply on new cosmetic patch or disposable drug patch...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425701/the-effects-of-glutamate-receptor-activation-on-local-oxygen-changes
#3
Lindsay Walton, Nick G Boustead, Susan Carroll, R Mark Wightman
Glutamate is ubiquitous throughout the brain and serves as the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. Neurons require energy to fire, and energetic substrates (i.e., O2, glucose) are renewed via cerebral blood flow (CBF) to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Magnetic resonance brain functionality studies rely on the assumption that CBF and neuronal activity are coupled consistently throughout the brain; however, the origin of neuronal activity does not always coincide with signals indicative of energy consumption (e...
April 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419120/structural-and-functional-changes-in-the-microcirculation-of-lepromatous-leprosy-patients-observation-using-orthogonal-polarization-spectral-imaging-and-laser-doppler-flowmetry-iontophoresis
#4
Curt Treu, Maria das Graças Coelho de Souza, Omar Lupi, Fernando Lencastre Sicuro, Priscila Alves Maranhão, Luiz Guilherme Kraemer-Aguiar, Eliete Bouskela
Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection of skin and peripheral nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae and is considered the main infectious cause of disability worldwide. Despite the several studies regarding leprosy, little is known about its effects on microvascular structure and function in vivo. Thus, we have aimed to compare skin capillary structure and functional density, cutaneous vasomotion (spontaneous oscillations of arteriolar diameter), which ensures optimal blood flow distribution to skin capillaries) and cutaneous microvascular blood flow and reactivity between ten men with lepromatous leprosy (without any other comorbidity) and ten age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416667/autonomous-sweat-extraction-and-analysis-applied-to-cystic-fibrosis-and-glucose-monitoring-using-a-fully-integrated-wearable-platform
#5
Sam Emaminejad, Wei Gao, Eric Wu, Zoe A Davies, Hnin Yin Yin Nyein, Samyuktha Challa, Sean P Ryan, Hossain M Fahad, Kevin Chen, Ziba Shahpar, Salmonn Talebi, Carlos Milla, Ali Javey, Ronald W Davis
Perspiration-based wearable biosensors facilitate continuous monitoring of individuals' health states with real-time and molecular-level insight. The inherent inaccessibility of sweat in sedentary individuals in large volume (≥10 µL) for on-demand and in situ analysis has limited our ability to capitalize on this noninvasive and rich source of information. A wearable and miniaturized iontophoresis interface is an excellent solution to overcome this barrier. The iontophoresis process involves delivery of stimulating agonists to the sweat glands with the aid of an electrical current...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414134/targeted-intracorneal-delivery-biodistribution-of-triamcinolone-acetonide-following-topical-iontophoresis-of-cationic-amino-acid-ester-prodrugs
#6
Verena Santer, Sergio Del Río Sancho, Maria Lapteva, Yogeshvar N Kalia
The aim was to investigate intracorneal iontophoresis of biolabile triamcinolone acetonide (TA) amino acid ester prodrugs (TA-AA). Arginine and lysine esters of TA (TA-Arg and TA-Lys, respectively) were synthesized and characterized; quantification was performed by HPLC-UV and UHPLC-MS/MS. The aqueous solubility of the prodrugs (at pH 5.5) was ∼1000-fold greater than TA. Anodal iontophoresis (10min at 3mA/cm(2)) of TA-AA was investigated using isolated porcine cornea. Although no statistically significant difference was observed in total intracorneal delivery of TA (468...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412042/targeting-the-prostacyclin-pathway-beyond-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#7
REVIEW
Hélène Pluchart, Charles Khouri, Sophie Blaise, Matthieu Roustit, Jean-Luc Cracowski
Pioneering work demonstrated that an unstable substance isolated from rabbit and pig aortas could relax arterial smooth muscle and inhibit platelet aggregation. Since then, prostacyclin (prostaglandin I2, PGI2) and its analogs have raised much pharmacological interest. In this review we detail how the PGI2 signaling pathway is much more complex than was initially anticipated, involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), prostaglandin transporters (PGTs), and PGI2-thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor (IP TP) heterodimerization...
April 12, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408372/effects-of-sugar-sweetened-beverage-consumption-on-microvascular-and-macrovascular-function-in-a-healthy-population
#8
Jordan Loader, Cindy Meziat, Rani Watts, Christian Lorenzen, Dominique Sigaudo-Roussel, Simon Stewart, Cyril Reboul, Gregory Meyer, Guillaume Walther
OBJECTIVE: To assess vascular function during acute hyperglycemia induced by commercial sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and its effect on underlying mechanisms of the nitric oxide pathway. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In a randomized, single-blind, crossover trial, 12 healthy male participants consumed 600 mL (20 oz.) of water or a commercial SSB across 2 visits. Endothelial and vascular smooth muscle functions were assessed in the microcirculation using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with iontophoresis and in the macrocirculation using brachial artery ultrasound with flow- and nitrate-mediated dilation...
April 13, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406442/liposomal-encapsulation-for-systemic-delivery-of-propranolol-via-transdermal-iontophoresis-improves-bone-microarchitecture-in-ovariectomized-rats
#9
Benjamin Teong, Shyh Ming Kuo, Wei-Hsin Tsai, Mei-Ling Ho, Chung-Hwan Chen, Han Hsiang Huang
The stimulatory effects of liposomal propranolol (PRP) on proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblastic cells suggested that the prepared liposomes-encapsulated PRP exerts anabolic effects on bone in vivo. Iontophoresis provides merits such as sustained release of drugs and circumvention of first pass metabolism. This study further investigated and evaluated the anti-osteoporotic effects of liposomal PRP in ovariectomized (OVX) rats via iontophoresis. Rats subjected to OVX were administered with pure or liposomal PRP via iontophoresis or subcutaneous injection twice a week for 12 weeks...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397320/pregnancy-associated-plasma-protein-a-is-positively-correlated-to-first-trimester-skin-microvascular-reactivity
#10
C Iacobaeus, T Kahan, G Jörneskog, K Bremme, E Andolf, M Thorsell
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if there is a correlation between levels of circulating maternal pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and first trimester maternal vascular function. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 53 healthy non-smoking, pregnant, nulliparous women in Stockholm, Sweden. PAPP-A and vascular function were assessed during gestational week 11-14. Forearm skin microcirculation was investigated by laser Doppler perfusion imaging during iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to assess endothelium dependent and endothelium independent microvascular vasodilatation, respectively...
April 11, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391082/estradiol-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-for-improving-low-bone-mineral-density-of-cancellous-bone-caused-by-osteoporosis-application-of-enhanced-charged-nanoparticles-with-iontophoresis
#11
Issei Takeuchi, Shiori Kobayashi, Yukari Hida, Kimiko Makino
Postmenopausal osteoporosis among older women, which occurs by an ovarian hormone deficiency, is one of the major public health problems. 17 β-estradiol (E2) is used to prevent and treat this disease as a drug of hormone replacement therapy. In oral administration, E2 is significantly affected by first-pass hepatic metabolism, and high dose administration must be needed to obtain drug efficacy. Therefore, alternative administration route is needed, and we have focused on the transdermal drug delivery system...
March 24, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387950/vascular-effects-of-treprostinil-cutaneous-iontophoresis-on-the-leg-finger-and-foot
#12
Florence Gaillard-Bigot, Matthieu Roustit, Jean-François Jourdil, Françoise Stanke-Labesque, Jean-Luc Cracowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375679/dual-phase-iontophoresis-for-the-delivery-of-antisense-oligonucleotides
#13
Daniel J Gibson, Sonal S Tuli, Gregory S Schultz
In support of ongoing research in the study of corneal and skin wound healing, we sought to improve on previously published results by using iontophoresis to deliver RNA interference-based oligonucleotides. By using a electromechanics-based approach, we were able to devise a two-phase solution that separated the buffering solution from the antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) solution. The separation was obtained by making the drug solution a higher density than the buffer, leading it to sink directly onto the tissue surface...
April 4, 2017: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361417/participation-of-purinergic-p2x-receptors-in-the-thermoregulatory-response-to-cooling
#14
T V Kozyreva, E S Meyta, V P Kozaruk
We studied the role of purinergic P2X receptors in the body response to cooling. In experiments on rats, P2X receptor antagonist PPADS was administered in different modes, which resulted in changes of different characteristics of the thermoregulatory response to cold. Iontophoresis of P2X antagonist into the skin decreased the thermal thresholds of all thermoregulatory responses to cooling, which can attest to a modulating effect of P2X receptors on peripheral thermosensitive afferents. Intraperitoneal administration of P2X antagonist suppressed thermoregulatory activity of skeletal muscles (shivering) developing during cooling without changing the thresholds of thermoregulatory responses...
March 30, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346390/the-effect-and-mechanism-of-transdermal-penetration-enhancement-of-fu-s-cupping-therapy-new-physical-penetration-technology-for-transdermal-administration-with-traditional-chinese-medicine-tcm-characteristics
#15
Wei-Jie Xie, Yong-Ping Zhang, Jian Xu, Xiao-Bo Sun, Fang-Fang Yang
BACKGROUND: In this paper, a new type of physical penetration technology for transdermal administration with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) characteristics is presented. Fu's cupping therapy (FCT), was established and studied using in vitro and in vivo experiments and the penetration effect and mechanism of FCT physical penetration technology was preliminarily discussed. METHODS: With 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methylindole-3-ylacetic acid (indomethacin, IM) as a model drug, the establishment of high, medium, and low references was completed for the chemical permeation system via in vitro transdermal tests...
March 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343991/ftransdermal-iontophoretic-delivery-of-lysine-proline-valine-kpv-peptide-across-microporated-human-skin
#16
Kasturi Pawar, Chandra S Kolli, Vijaya K Rangari, R Jayachandra Babu
Lysine-Proline-Valine (KPV) is a C-terminal peptide fragment of α-MSH with potent anti-inflammatory properties. Current study investigates various transdermal enhancement strategies such as iontophoresis (ITP), microneedles (MN) and their combination (ITP+MN) on KPV delivery across dermatomed human skin. KPV attains a positive charge at pH below 7.0, thus anodal ITP was employed. The influence of current strength, KPV concentration, and duration of current application on the KPV delivery was investigated. At defined ITP parameters, the influence of MN on KPV delivery (ITP+MN) across skin was also determined...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338008/noninvasive-measurement-of-transdermal-drug-delivery-by-impedance-spectroscopy
#17
Pasquale Arpaia, Umberto Cesaro, Nicola Moccaldi
The effectiveness in transdermal delivery of skin permeation strategies (e.g., chemical enhancers, vesicular carrier systems, sonophoresis, iontophoresis, and electroporation) is poorly investigated outside of laboratory. In therapeutic application, the lack of recognized techniques for measuring the actually-released drug affects the scientific concept itself of dosage for topically- and transdermally-delivered drugs. Here we prove the suitability of impedance measurement for assessing the amount of drug penetrated into the skin after transdermal delivery...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285173/peptide-dendrimer-conjugates-of-ketoprofen-synthesis-and-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-evaluations-of-passive-diffusion-sonophoresis-and-iontophoresis-for-skin-delivery
#18
Aswathi R Hegde, Prarthana V Rewatkar, Jyothsna Manikkath, Karnaker Tupally, Harendra S Parekh, Srinivas Mutalik
The aim of this study was to evaluate skin delivery of ketoprofen when covalently tethered to mildly cationic (2(+) or 4(+)) peptide dendrimers prepared wholly by solid phase peptide synthesis. The amino acids glycine, arginine and lysine formed the dendrimer with ketoprofen tethered either to the lysine side-arm (Nε) or periphery of dendrimeric branches. Passive diffusion, sonophoresis- and iontophoresis-assisted permeation of each peptide dendrimer-drug conjugate (D1-D4) was studied across mouse skin, both in vitro and in vivo...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283279/randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-transepithelial-corneal-cross-linking-using-iontophoresis-with-the-dresden-protocol-in-progressive-keratoconus
#19
Marco Lombardo, Daniela Giannini, Giuseppe Lombardo, Sebastiano Serrao
PURPOSE: To compare clinical outcomes of transepithelial corneal cross-linking using iontophoresis (T-ionto CL) and standard corneal cross-linking (standard CL) for the treatment of progressive keratoconus 12 months after the operation. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-four eyes of 25 participants with progressive keratoconus were randomized into T-ionto CL (22 eyes) or standard CL (12 eyes). METHODS: T-ionto CL was performed using an iontophoresis device with dextran-free 0...
March 7, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243741/biological-variation-of-chloride-and-sodium-in-sweat-obtained-by-pilocarpine-iontophoresis-in-adults-how-sure-are-you-about-sweat-test-results
#20
Philippe Willems, Steven Weekx, Anissa Meskal, Sofie Schouwers
INTRODUCTION: The measurement of chloride and sodium concentrations in sweat is an important test for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this study was to assess the analytical variation (CVA) and within-subject (CVI) and between-subject (CVG) biological variation of chloride and sodium concentrations in sweat, collected by pilocarpine iontophoresis and to determine their effect on the clinical interpretation of sweat test results. METHODS: Twelve Caucasian adults (six male and six female) without symptoms suggestive for CF and with a mean age of 41 years (range 28-59) were included in the study...
February 27, 2017: Lung
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