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Iontophoresis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042433/serotonin-decreases-the-gain-of-visual-responses-in-awake-macaque-v1
#1
Lenka Seillier, Corinna Lorenz, Katsuhisa Kawaguchi, Torben Ott, Andreas Nieder, Paria Pourriahi, Hendrikje Nienborg
Serotonin (5HT) is an important neuromodulator in the brain implicated in affective and cognitive functions but its role even for basic cortical processes is controversial. For example, in the mammalian primary visual cortex heterogenous serotonergic modulation has been observed in anesthetized animals. Here, we combined extracellular single unit recordings with iontophoresis in awake animals. We examined the role of serotonin on well-defined tuning properties (orientation, spatial frequency, contrast and size) in the primary visual cortex (V1) of two male macaque monkeys...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017147/iontophoretic-transdermal-delivery-using-chitosan-coated-plga-nanoparticles-for-positively-charged-drugs
#2
Issei Takeuchi, Tomoyoshi Takeshita, Takaaki Suzuki, Kimiko Makino
Recently, poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles prepared using a combination of an antisolvent diffusion method with preferential solvation was shown to be beneficial for the iontophoretic transdermal delivery of therapeutic agents. Also, this preparation method can contain a hydrophilic drug. However, since PLGA nanoparticles were negatively charged, it was difficult to apply iontophoresis for positively charged hydrophilic drugs. In this study, we prepared positively charged PLGA nanoparticles containing donepezil hydrochloride (DP)...
October 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969290/comparative-evaluation-of-efficacy-of-iontophoresis-with-0-33-sodium-fluoride-gel-and-diode-laser-alone-on-occlusion-of-dentinal-tubules
#3
Anup Raghunath Patil, Siddhartha Varma, Girish Suragimath, Keshava Abbayya, Sameer Anil Zope, Vishwajeet Kale
INTRODUCTION: Dentinal Hypersensitivity (DH) is one of the most commonly encountered clinical problems. Literature reveals no specific therapy to satisfactorily eliminate dentinal hypersensitivity. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the efficacy of iontophoresis with 0.33% Sodium Fluoride (NaF) gel and diode laser alone in dentinal tubule occlusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This in vitro study included 20 teeth with intact root surfaces unaltered by extraction procedure for specimen preparation...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956468/non-ionic-surfactant-based-vesicular-drug-delivery-system-for-topical-delivery-of-caffeine-for-treatment-of-cellulite-design-formulation-characterization-histological-anti-cellulite-activity-and-pharmacokinetic-evaluation
#4
Mahmoud H Teaima, Sally A Abdelhalim, Mohamed A El-Nabarawi, Dalia A Attia, Doaa A Helal
Cellulite is a common topographical alteration where skin acquires an orange peel or mattress appearance with alterations in adipose tissue and microcirculation. This work aims to develop and evaluate a topical niosomal gel formulae with good permeation to reach the subcutaneous fat layer. Several caffeine niosomal dispersions were prepared and incorporated into gel formulae using Carbopol 940 polymer, chemical penetration enhancers and iontophoresis, then the prepared gels were applied onto the skin of rats and anticellulite activity of caffeine from the prepared gels compared to that of the commercial product Cellu Destock® was evaluated by histological study of the skin and measurement of plasma level of caffeine passing through the skin using liquid chromatography (LC/MS-MS)...
September 28, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954218/effects-of-insulin-analogs-as-an-add-on-to-metformin-on-cutaneous-microcirculation-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#5
Marinos Fysekidis, Emmanuel Cosson, Karim Takbou, Angela Sutton, Nathalie Charnaux, Isabella Banu, Eric Vicaut, Paul Valensi
BACKGROUND: A single insulin injection was shown to improve microcirculatory blood flow. Our aim was to examine the effects of 4weeks of insulin therapy by three randomly assigned insulin analog regimens (Detemir, Aspart, and their combination) on cutaneous blood flow (CBF) and microcirculatory endothelial function as an add-on to metformin in type 2 diabetic patients poorly controlled on oral antidiabetic treatment. METHODS: Fourty-two type 2 diabetic patients with no history of cardiovascular disease in secondary failure to oral antidiabetic agents had CBF measurements before and after acetylcholine (Ach) iontophoretic administration...
September 24, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942325/effects-of-stimulation-technique-anatomical-region-and-time-on-human-sweat-lipid-mediator-profiles
#6
Karan Agrawal, Justin D Waller, Theresa L Pedersen, John W Newman
Few studies compare sampling protocol effect on sweat composition. Here we evaluate the impact of sweat stimulation mode and site of collection on lipid mediator composition. Sweat from healthy males (n=7) was collected weekly for three weeks from the volar forearm following either pilocarpine iontophoresis or exercise, and from the forearm, back and thigh following pilocarpine iontophoresis only. Sweat content of over 150 lipid mediators were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Seventy lipid mediators were routinely detected, including prostanoids, alcohols, diols, epoxides, ketones, nitrolipids, N-acylethanolamides, monoacylglycerols, and ceramides...
September 21, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942118/carpal-tunnel-syndrome-effectiveness-of-physical-therapy-and-electrophysical-modalities-an-updated-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#7
REVIEW
Bionka M A Huisstede, Peter Hoogvliet, Thierry P C Franke, Manon S Randsdorp, Bart W Koes
OBJECTIVE: To review scientific literature studying the effectiveness of physical therapy and electrophysical modalities for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro. STUDY SELECTION: Two reviewers independently applied the inclusion criteria to select potential eligible studies. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool...
September 20, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941934/effects-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-the-response-to-extremity-cooling-and-endothelial-function-in-individuals-with-cold-sensitivity-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-randomised-control-trial
#8
Clare M Eglin, Joseph T Costello, Stephen J Bailey, Mark Gilchrist, Heather Massey, Anthony I Shepherd
Individuals with cold sensitivity have low peripheral skin blood flow and skin temperature possibly due to reduced nitric oxide (NO•) bioavailability. Beetroot has a high concentration of inorganic nitrate and may increase NO-mediated vasodilation. Using a placebo-controlled, double blind, randomised, crossover design, this study tested the hypotheses that acute beetroot supplementation would increase the rate of cutaneous rewarming following a local cold challenge and augment endothelium-dependent vasodilation in cold sensitive individuals...
September 20, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924220/towards-addressing-the-body-electrolyte-environment-via-sweat-analysis-pilocarpine-iontophoresis-supports-assessment-of-plasma-potassium-concentration
#9
Donato Vairo, Laurie Bruzzese, Marion Marlinge, Lea Fuster, Nabil Adjriou, Nathalie Kipson, Philippe Brunet, Jennifer Cautela, Yves Jammes, Giovanna Mottola, Stephane Burtey, Jean Ruf, Regis Guieu, Emmanuel Fenouillet
Electrolyte concentration in sweat depends on environmental context and physical condition but also on the pathophysiological status. Sweat analyzers may be therefore the future way for biological survey although how sweat electrolyte composition can reflect plasma composition remains unclear. We recruited 10 healthy subjects and 6 patients to have a broad range of plasma electrolyte concentrations (chloride, potassium and sodium) and pH. These variables were compared to those found in sweat produced following cycling exercise or pilocarpine iontophoresis, a condition compatible with operating a wearable device...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922329/conventional-corneal-collagen-cross-linking-versus-transepithelial-diluted-alcohol-and-iontophoresis-assisted-corneal-cross-linking-in-progressive-keratoconus
#10
Kamil Bilgihan, Nilufer Yesilirmak, Yesim Altay, Armagan Yuvarlak, Huseyin Baran Ozdemir
PURPOSE: To compare clinical outcomes of conventional corneal cross-linking (C-CXL) and diluted alcohol and iontophoresis-assisted corneal cross-linking (DAI-CXL) for the treatment of progressive keratoconus (KC). METHODS: Ninety-three eyes of 80 patients with KC were treated by C-CXL (n = 47) or DAI-CXL (n = 46). Visual acuity, keratometry, KC indexes, pachymetry, and aberrations were recorded before treatment and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. The demarcation line was assessed 1 month after treatment...
September 14, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919324/pretreatment-of-skin-using-an-abrasive-skin-preparation-pad-a-microneedling-device-or-iontophoresis-improves-absorption-of-methyl-aminolevulinate-in-ex-vivo-human-skin
#11
Hanan Osman-Ponchet, Alexandre Gaborit, Karine Sevin, Christophe Bianchi, Jean-Michel Linget, Claire E Wilson, Guy Bouvier
BACKGROUND: Pretreatment of skin to remove scales/crusts and roughen the surface is essential to enhance the penetration of topically applied methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) prior to photodynamic therapy and to permit daylight to access all parts of the skin lesions. Numerous procedures of skin preparation are currently available. This study compared the in vitro penetration of MAL into ex vivo human skin pretreated with skin preparation pad abrasion or a microneedling device, and evaluated the effectiveness of an iontophoretic device in delivering MAL into ex vivo human skin...
September 12, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887386/fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-restricts-small-dye-iontophoresis-entry-into-central-neurons
#12
Tyler Kennedy, Kendal Broadie
Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) loss causes Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a major disorder characterized by autism, intellectual disability, hyperactivity and seizures. FMRP is both an RNA- and channel-binding regulator, with critical roles in neural circuit formation and function. However, it remains unclear how these FMRP activities relate to each other and how dysfunction in their absence underlies FXS neurological symptoms. In testing circuit level defects in the Drosophila FXS model, we discovered a completely unexpected and highly robust neuronal dye iontophoresis phenotype in the well-mapped Giant Fiber (GF) circuit...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858661/skin-permeability-and-transdermal-delivery-route-of-50-nm-indomethacin-loaded-plga-nanoparticles
#13
Issei Takeuchi, Takaaki Suzuki, Kimiko Makino
Recently, nano-seized systems for transdermal delivery have attracted attention. To efficiently deliver drugs to hair follicles, we focused on poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles prepared using a combination of an antisolvent diffusion method with preferential solvation. The PLGA nanoparticles prepared using this method are suitable for iontophoresis because of their high surface charge number density. It has been reported that PLGA nanoparticles were delivered to hair follicles by applying iontophoresis, however research on PLGA nanoparticles with a size of less than 100nm was lacking...
August 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855885/laser-doppler-assessment-of-vasomotor-axon-reflex-responsiveness-to-evaluate-neurovascular-function
#14
REVIEW
Marie Luise Kubasch, Anne Sophie Kubasch, Juliana Torres Pacheco, Sylvia J Buchmann, Ben Min-Woo Illigens, Kristian Barlinn, Timo Siepmann
The vasomotor axon reflex can be evoked in peripheral epidermal nociceptive C-fibers to induce local vasodilation. This neurogenic flare response is a measure of C-fiber functional integrity and therefore shows impairment in patients with small fiber neuropathy. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and laser Doppler imaging (LDI) are both techniques to analyze vasomotor small fiber function by quantifying the integrity of the vasomotor-mediated axon reflex. While LDF assesses the flare response following acetylcholine iontophoresis with temporal resolution at a single defined skin point, LDI records flare responses with spatial and temporal resolution, generating a two-dimensional map of superficial blood flow...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855793/the-use-of-compression-tack-and-flossing-along-with-lacrosse-ball-massage-to-treat-chronic-achilles-tendinopathy-in-an-adolescent-athlete-a-case-report
#15
Jennifer Borda, Mitchell Selhorst
BACKGROUND: Achilles tendinopathy is an overuse injury that often affects individuals engaged in recreational or competitive level activity. Although most patients experience satisfactory results with therapy, a substantial portion fail to respond to traditional treatment. The purpose of this case study is to describe the successful use of compression tack and flossing (CTF) with lacrosse ball massage (LBM) in the treatment of an adolescent athlete with Achilles tendinopathy who had failed to respond to traditional treatment...
February 2017: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834388/dry-eye-disease-and-oxidative-stress
#16
REVIEW
Sophia Seen, Louis Tong
Dry eye, an age-related condition, is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance and tear film instability. Environmental factors are also often implicated in dry eye including exposure to pollutants, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and ozone as well as the chronic use of preserved eyedrops such as in the treatment of glaucoma. These factors increase oxidative stress and ocular surface inflammation. Here, we reviewed the cellular, animal and clinical studies that point to the role of oxidative stress in dry eye disease...
August 21, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814142/effect-of-terpenes-on-transdermal-iontophoretic-delivery-of-diclofenac-potassium-under-constant-voltage
#17
Arunkumar S, Shivakumar H N, S Narasimha Murthy
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to enhance the transdermal delivery of diclofenac potassium (DP) from hydrogels by constant voltage iontophoresis (CVI). The other objective was to establish the safety and efficacy of CVI in rats. METHODS: Hydrogels of DP were developed using hydroxyethyl cellulose as matrix material and geraniol, l-menthol and thymol as iontophoretic efficiency enhancers (IEE). In vitro permeation of hydrogels under CVI (1.5V) was performed in Franz diffusion cells across porcine skin...
August 17, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755994/non-invasive-strategies-for-targeting-the-posterior-segment-of-eye
#18
REVIEW
Asadullah Madni, Muhammad Abdur Rahem, Nayab Tahir, Muhammad Sarfraz, Abdul Jabar, Mubashar Rehman, Prince Muhammad Kashif, Syed Faisal Badshah, Kifayat Ullah Khan, Hélder A Santos
The safe and effective treatment of eye diseases has been remained a global myth. Several advancements have been done and various drug delivery and treatment techniques have been suggested. The Posterior segment disorders are the leading cause of visual impairments and blindness. Targeting the therapeutic agents to the anterior and posterior segments of the eye has attracted extensive attention from the scientific community. Significant key factors in the success of ocular therapy are the development of safe, effective, economic and non-invasive novel drug delivery systems...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755756/brain-extracellular-space-the-final-frontier-of%C3%A2-neuroscience
#19
REVIEW
Charles Nicholson, Sabina Hrabětová
Brain extracellular space is the narrow microenvironment that surrounds every cell of the central nervous system. It contains a solution that closely resembles cerebrospinal fluid with the addition of extracellular matrix molecules. The space provides a reservoir for ions essential to the electrical activity of neurons and forms an intercellular chemical communication channel. Attempts to reveal the size and structure of the extracellular space using electron microscopy have had limited success; however, a biophysical approach based on diffusion of selected probe molecules has proved useful...
July 26, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754178/evaluation-of-microvascular-endothelial-function-in-patients-with-infective-endocarditis-using-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging-and-skin-video-capillaroscopy-research-proposal-of-a-case-control-prospective-study
#20
Amanda Barcelos, Cristiane Lamas, Eduardo Tibiriça
OBJECTIVE: Infective endocarditis is a severe condition with high in-hospital and 5-year mortality. There is increasing incidence of infective endocarditis, which may be related to healthcare and changes in prophylaxis recommendations regarding oral procedures. Few studies have evaluated the microcirculation in patients with infective endocarditis, and so far, none have utilized laser-based technology or evaluated functional capillary density. The aim of the study is to evaluate the changes in the systemic microvascular bed of patients with both acute and subacute endocarditis...
July 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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