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Iontophoresis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912978/tap-water-iontophoresis-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-hyperhidrosis
#1
Haitham Dagash, Sinead McCaffrey, Katie Mellor, Agnes Roycroft, Ingrid Helbling
AIM OF THE STUDY: The treatment options for localized hyperhidrosis include antiperspirants, anticholinergics, iontophoresis, botulinum toxin and surgery. Tap water iontophoresis (TWI) involves immersing the affected area in tap water and passing a small electrical current through the area. Our aim was to assess the success of this therapy in a pediatric cohort. METHODS: Retrospective case note review of all patients younger than 18years who underwent TWI between 2002 and 2015...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892757/basic-principles-and-current-status-of-transcorneal-and-transscleral-iontophoresis
#2
Taís Gratieri, Verena Santer, Yogeshvar N Kalia
Iontophoresis is an active non-invasive drug delivery technique that can increase the transport of charged and neutral molecules into and across biological membranes. Most research to-date has focused on (per)cutaneous iontophoretic drug delivery. However, recent studies illustrate its potential for drug delivery to the eye: corneal iontophoresis may enable targeted topical therapy of intracorneal diseases, whereas transscleral iontophoresis may enable non-invasive intraocular drug delivery. Areas covered: We describe iontophoretic principles in the context of ocular delivery before providing a summary of recent preclinical studies involving transcorneal and transscleral iontophoresis in vitro and in vivo...
November 28, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885995/transdermal-delivery-of-estradiol-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-using-iontophoresis-for-treatment-of-osteoporosis
#3
Issei Takeuchi, Kohta Fukuda, Shiori Kobayashi, Kimiko Makino
BACKGROUND: Estradiol is one of the therapeutic agents for osteoporosis. We have reported transdermal permeability of estradiol-loaded nanoparticles, and permeability effect of estradiol was enhanced by using nanoparticle system and iontophoresis [Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces97 (2012), 84-89]. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted in vivo to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of the estradiol-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for osteoporosis. METHODS: Prior to the in vivo study, we have determined the surface charge density of the particles and found they have negatively charged polyelectrolyte layers on the surfaces...
November 25, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885499/the-effects-of-alpha-1-adrenoceptor-blockade-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-on-central-and-brachial-blood-pressure-and-vascular-reactivity-the-doxazosin-ramipril-study
#4
Andreas Jekell, Majid Kalani, Thomas Kahan
We aimed to study whether inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has effects on vascular structure and function beyond the effects on blood pressure reduction alone. Patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension (n = 61, age 54 ± 12 years, 34% women) received the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril 10 mg or the alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocker doxazosin 8 mg double-blind for 12 weeks. Aortic blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index were assessed by applanation tonometry...
November 24, 2016: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819148/co-delivery-of-curcumin-and-stat3-sirna-using-deformable-cationic-liposomes-to-treat-skin-cancer
#5
Anup Jose, Suman Labala, Venkata Vamsi Krishna Venuganti
Skin cancer is one of the most widely prevalent cancer types with over expression of multiple oncogenic signaling molecules including STAT3. Curcumin is a natural compound with effective anti-cancer properties. The objective of this work was to investigate the liposomal co-delivery of curcumin and STAT3 siRNA by non-invasive topical iontophoretic application to treat skin cancer. Curcumin was encapsulated in cationic liposomes and then complexed with STAT3 siRNA. The liposomal nanocomplex was characterized for particle size, zeta-potential, drug release and stability...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814280/l-arginine-as-dietary-supplement-for-improving-microvascular-function
#6
Ziva Melik, Polona Zaletel, Tina Virtic, Ksenija Cankar
BACKGROUND: Reduced availability of nitric oxide leads to dysfunction of endothelium which plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine whether the dietary supplement L-arginine improves the endothelial function of microvessels by increasing nitric oxide production. METHODS: We undertook experiments on 51 healthy male volunteers, divided into 4 groups based on their age and physical activity since regular physical activity itself increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation...
November 4, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802901/percutaneous-penetration-of-anticancer-agents-past-present-and-future
#7
REVIEW
Kevin Ita
Cancer occurs as a result of alterations in oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes, and microRNA genes. Over the past few decades, efforts have been made to understand the dominant oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes whose respective activation/upregulation or loss of function serve to impart aberrant properties on normal cells. Cancer continues to be a source of public health concern due to widespread prevalence, morbidity and mortality. The most common types include but are not limited to lung, prostate, colorectal, breast, ovarian and skin cancers...
October 29, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800639/measurement-of-skin-surface-biomakers-by-transdermal-analyses-patch-following-different-in-vivo-models-of-irritation-a-pilot-study
#8
D Falcone, P Spee, K Salk, M Peppelman, P C M van de Kerkhof, P E J van Erp
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: FibroTx Transdermal Analyses Patch (TAP) is a novel technology for non-invasive measurements of protein biomarkers on the skin surface, in vivo. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of TAP in detecting skin surface biomarkers following mild perturbations, in vivo, using two experimental models: tape stripping, mimicking acute barrier disruption, and histamine iontophoresis, mimicking acute and local inflammation at minimal skin barrier insult. METHODS: Tape stripping and histamine iontophoresis were performed in two separate experiments on the volar forearm of healthy volunteers (n = 27 and n = 10, respectively)...
November 1, 2016: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765574/an-investigation-into-corneal-enzymatic-resistance-following-epithelium-off-and-epithelium-on-corneal-cross-linking-protocols
#9
Nada H Aldahlawi, Sally Hayes, David P S O'Brart, Naomi D O'Brart, Keith M Meek
The aim of this study was to investigate corneal enzymatic resistance following epithelium off and on riboflavin/UVA cross-linking (CXL). One hundred and fourteen porcine eyes were divided into four non-irradiated control groups and seven CXL groups. The latter comprised; (i) epithelium-off, 0.1% iso-osmolar riboflavin, 9 mW UVA irradiation for 10 min, (ii) disrupted epithelium, 0.1% hypo-osmolar riboflavin, 9 mW UVA for 10 min, (iii) epithelium-on, 0.25% hypo-osmolar riboflavin with 0.01% benzylalkonium chloride (BACS), 9 mW UVA for 10 min, (iv) epithelium-on, 5 min iontophoresis at 0...
December 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759804/autonomic-thermoregulatory-dysfunction-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#10
Luciana G Madeira, Renata Lf Passos, Juliana F de Souza, Nilton A Rezende, Luiz O C Rodrigues
Objective: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) causes neural and cutaneous disorders and reduced exercise capacity. Exercise/heat exposure increasing internal temperature must be compensated by eccrine sweat function and warmed skin vasodilation. We suspected NF1 could adversely affect eccrine sweat function and/or vascular thermoregulatory responses (VTR). Methods: The eccrine sweat function and VTR of 25 NF1 volunteers (14 males, 11 females; 16-57 years old) were compared with 23 non-NF1 controls matched by sex, age, height and weight (CG)...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743393/adjuvant-alternative-treatment-with-chemical-peeling-and-subsequent-iontophoresis-for-postinflammatory-hyperpigmentation-erosion-with-inflamed-red-papules-and-non-inflamed-atrophic-scars-in-acne-vulgaris
#11
Ichiro Kurokawa, Naoki Oiso, Akira Kawada
The standard management of acne vulgaris in Japan includes a combination of topical treatment with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and BPO/clindamycin (CLDM), topical adapalene and systemic antimicrobials. However, the treatment of therapy-resistant complications such as postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), erosions with inflamed red papules and atrophic scars has not been established. We performed chemical peeling with glycolic acid and iontophoresis with ascorbyl 2-phosphate 6-palmitate and DL-α-tocopherol phosphate for the treatment of PIH, erosions with inflamed red papules and non-inflamed atrophic scars in 31 patients with acne vulgaris (mild to severe severity), and evaluated the efficacy and safety of these interventions...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722754/transepithelial-iontophoresis-versus-standard-corneal-collagen-cross-linking-1-year-results-of-a-prospective-clinical-study
#12
Paolo Vinciguerra, Vito Romano, Pietro Rosetta, Emanuela F Legrottaglie, Raffaele Piscopo, Claudia Fabiani, Claudio Azzolini, Riccardo Vinciguerra
PURPOSE: To compare 1-year transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking with iontophoresis (I-CXL) outcomes with standard CXL (S-CXL) epithelium-off for progressive keratoconus. METHODS: Forty eyes of 40 patients with progressive keratoconus were included in this comparative, prospective clinical study. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), spherical equivalent, cylinder refraction, corneal topography, Scheimpflug tomography, aberrometry, and endothelial cell count were assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700111/transpapillary-nipple-delivery-of-macromolecules-to-the-breast-proof-of-concept-study
#13
Kaushalkumar Dave, Fahd M Alsharif, Omathanu Perumal
Localized drug delivery to the breast can maximize drug concentration at the target site and minimize systemic drug distribution. To this end, the study explored the feasibility of delivering macromolecules to the breast through mammary papilla (nipple). The in-vitro penetration of model macromolecules (inulin, dextran, ovalbumin and bovine serum albumin) varying in molecular weight from 5 kDa to 67 kDa was studied using excised porcine and human mammary papilla. The penetration of macromolecules decreased with increase in molecular weight...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680811/f5-skin-microvascular-dysfunction-in-preeclampsia-persists-to-the-postpartum-period
#14
Melanie Wittwer, Yann York Chow, Gus Dekker, Vicki Clifton, Margaret Arstall
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder characterised by endothelial and microvascular dysfunction that develops in ∼10% of pregnancies. This study will characterise skin microvascular reactivity using laser Doppler flowmetry in women with preeclampsia compared to matched controls during pregnancy and early postpartum. METHODS: Women were recruited and studied on the diagnosis of preeclampsia and followed up for 6-months during postpartum period. Controls were matched for age, gestation and comorbidities...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610036/seasonal-acclimation-in-sudomotor-function-evaluated-by-qsart-in-healthy-humans
#15
Young Oh Shin, Jeong-Beom Lee, Jeong-Ho Kim
The quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART) is a classic test of routine postganglionic sudomotor function. We investigated sudomotor function by QSART after summer (July 2012) and winter (January 2013) seasonal acclimation (SA) in the Republic of Korea. QSART with acetylcholine (ACh) iontophoresis were performed to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR1, 2) sweating rate. Onset time of axon reflex, activated sweat gland density (ASGD), activated sweat gland output (ASGO), tympanic and skin temperatures (Tty, Tsk), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and evaporative loss volume changes were measured...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605912/electrochemical-skin-conductance-correlates-with-skin-nerve-fiber-density
#16
Peter Novak
PURPOSE: Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) using reverse iontophoresis and chronoamperometry has been used to evaluate abnormal function of small fibers. How ESC correlates with loss of small fibers in skin is unclear. METHODS: This was a prospective, blinded study. The primary outcome measure was the correlation between ESC at the feet and results of skin biopsies including epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD) and sweat gland nerve fiber density (SGNFD) at the distal leg...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597895/novel-technique-of-transepithelial-corneal-cross-linking-using-iontophoresis-in-progressive-keratoconus
#17
Marco Lombardo, Sebastiano Serrao, Paolo Raffa, Marianna Rosati, Giuseppe Lombardo
In this work, the authors presented the techniques and the preliminary results at 6 months of a randomized controlled trial (NCT02117999) comparing a novel transepithelial corneal cross-linking protocol using iontophoresis with the Dresden protocol for the treatment of progressive keratoconus. At 6 months, there was a significant average improvement with an average flattening of the maximum simulated keratometry reading of 0.72 ± 1.20 D (P = 0.01); in addition, corrected distance visual acuity improved significantly (P = 0...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593873/the-relationship-between-magnesium-and-endothelial-function-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-on-hemodialysis
#18
Shina Lee, Jung Hwa Ryu, Seung Jung Kim, Dong Ryeol Ryu, Duk Hee Kang, Kyu Bok Choi
PURPOSE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients tend to have higher serum magnesium values than healthy population due to their positive balance of magnesium in kidney. Recent studies found that magnesium level is positively correlated with endothelial function. Therefore, this study was conducted to define the relationship between magnesium level and endothelial dysfunction in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis (HD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 27 patients were included in this cross-sectional study...
November 2016: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583476/effect-of-linagliptin-on-vascular-function-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#19
Dimitrios Baltzis, Jody R Dushay, Jordan Loader, Jim Wu, Robert L Greenman, Matthieu Roustit, Aristidis Veves
CONTEXT: The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, linagliptin, possesses pleiotropic vasodilatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties in animals, independent of its glucose-lowering properties. Although large, randomized clinical trials are being conducted to better evaluate the efficacy and safety of linagliptin on cardiovascular outcomes, little is known about its effects on vascular function in humans. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to evaluate the effect of linagliptin on surrogates of vascular and mitochondrial function...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569843/pilomotor-function-is-impaired-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-study-of-the-adrenergic-axon-reflex-response-and-autonomic-functions
#20
Timo Siepmann, Elka Frenz, Ana Isabel Penzlin, Susan Goelz, Wagner Zago, Ingeborg Friehs, Marie Luise Kubasch, Miriam Wienecke, Matthias Löhle, Wiebke Schrempf, Kristian Barlinn, Joachim Siegert, Alexander Storch, Heinz Reichmann, Ben Min-Woo Illigens
INTRODUCTION: Autonomic nervous system disturbances including sweating abnormalities and cardiovascular symptoms are frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and often precede motor involvement. Cholinergic vasomotor and sudomotor skin nerves are impaired in patients with PD even at early disease stages. We hypothesized that adrenergic pilomotor nerve function is similarly impaired in early PD and might constitute a novel diagnostic target. METHODS: We conducted a study in 12 PD patients (Hoehn&Yahr 1-2) and 12 healthy control subjects...
October 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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