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role of glutamine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913195/breast-cancer-derived-extracellular-vesicles-stimulate-myofibroblast-differentiation-and-pro-angiogenic-behavior-of-adipose-stem-cells
#1
REVIEW
Young Hye Song, Christine Warncke, Sung Jin Choi, Siyoung Choi, Aaron E Chiou, Lu Ling, Han-Yuan Liu, Susan Daniel, Marc A Antonyak, Richard A Cerione, Claudia Fischbach
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are abundantly present in the mammary microenvironment and can promote breast cancer malignancy by differentiating into myofibroblasts. However, it remains largely unclear which role tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TEVs) play in this process. Here, we used microfabricated, type I collagen-based 3-D tissue culture platforms to investigate the effect of breast cancer cell-derived TEVs on ASCs myofibroblast differentiation and consequential changes in extracellular matrix remodeling and vascular sprouting...
November 29, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897391/a-systematic-review-on-the-role-of-vitamins-minerals-proteins-and-other-supplements-for-the-treatment-of-cachexia-in-cancer-a-european-palliative-care-research-centre-cachexia-project
#2
REVIEW
Mochamat, Henning Cuhls, Milka Marinova, Stein Kaasa, Christiane Stieber, Rupert Conrad, Lukas Radbruch, Martin Mücke
We provide a systematic review to support the European Palliative Care Research Collaboration development of clinical guidelines for cancer patients suffering from cachexia. CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrials.gov, and a selection of cancer journals have been searched up until 15 April 2016. The systematic literature research yielded 4214 publications with 21 of these included in the final evaluation. Regarding minerals, our search identified only one study examining the use of magnesium with no effect on weight loss...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892481/autophagy-is-required-for-pdac-glutamine-metabolism
#3
Ju-Won Seo, Jungwon Choi, So-Yeon Lee, Suhyun Sung, Hyun Ju Yoo, Min-Ji Kang, Heesun Cheong, Jaekyoung Son
Macroautophagy (autophagy) is believed to maintain energy homeostasis by degrading unnecessary cellular components and molecules. Its implication in regulating cancer metabolism recently started to be uncovered. However, the precise roles of autophagy in cancer metabolism are still unclear. Here, we show that autophagy plays a critical role in glutamine metabolism, which is required for tumor survival. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells require both autophagy and typical glutamine transporters to maintain intracellular glutamine levels...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890529/mass-spectrometry-analysis-shows-the-biosynthetic-pathways-supported-by-pyruvate-carboxylase-in-highly-invasive-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Phatchariya Phannasil, Israr-Ul H Ansari, Mahmoud El Azzouny, Melissa J Longacre, Khanti Rattanapornsompong, Charles F Burant, Sarawut Jitrapakdee, Michael J MacDonald
We recently showed that the anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is up-regulated in human breast cancer tissue and its expression is correlated with the late stages of breast cancer and tumor size [Phannasil et al., PloS One 10, e0129848, 2015]. In the current study we showed that PC enzyme activity is much higher in the highly invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 than in less invasive breast cancer cell lines. We generated multiple stable PC knockdown cell lines from the MDA-MB-231 cell line and used mass spectrometry with (13)C6-glucose and (13)C5-glutamine to discern the pathways that use PC in support of cell growth...
November 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889927/sp2-is-the-only-glutamine-rich-specificity-protein-with-minor-impact-on-development-and-differentiation-in-myelinating-glia
#5
Amélie Wegener, Melanie Küspert, Elisabeth Sock, Sjaak Philipsen, Guntram Suske, Michael Wegner
Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are the myelinating glia of the vertebrate nervous system and by generation of myelin sheaths allow rapid saltatory conduction. Previous in vitro work had pointed to a role of the C2H2 zinc finger Specificity proteins Sp1 and Sp3 as major regulators of glial differentiation and myelination. Here, we asked whether such a role is also evident in vivo using mice with specific deletions of Sp1 or Sp3 in myelinating glia. We also studied glia-specific conditional Sp2- and constitutive Sp4-deficient mice to include all related glutamine-rich Sp factors into our analysis...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885636/glutamine-synthetase-role-in-neurological-disorders
#6
Arumugam R Jayakumar, Michael D Norenberg
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an ATP-dependent enzyme found in most species that synthesizes glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. In brain, GS is exclusively located in astrocytes where it serves to maintain the glutamate-glutamine cycle, as well as nitrogen metabolism. Changes in the activity of GS, as well as its gene expression, along with excitotoxicity, have been identified in a number of neurological conditions. The literature describing alterations in the activation and gene expression of GS, as well as its involvement in different neurological disorders, however, is incomplete...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885633/oligodendrocytes-development-physiology-and-glucose-metabolism
#7
Ana I Amaral, Joana M Tavares, Ursula Sonnewald, Mark R N Kotter
The glutamate-glutamine cycle is an outstanding example of how essential neuronal-glial interactions are for brain function. For several decades, this and other metabolic cycles in the brain have only included neurons and astrocytes but not oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent data revealed that oligodendrocytes are highly metabolically active cells in the brain and, therefore, should not be ignored. Using (13)C-labelled glucose in combination with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and/or mass spectrometry (MS) it is possible to characterize metabolic functions in primary oligodendrocyte cultures...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885632/glutamine-metabolism-in-gliomas
#8
Monika Szeliga, Jan Albrecht
By histological, morphological criteria, and malignancy, brain tumors are classified by WHO into grades I (most benign) to IV (highly malignant), and gliomas are the most frequently occurring class throughout the grades. Similar to peripheral tumors, the growth of glia-derived tumor cells largely depends on glutamine (Gln), which is vividly taken up by the cells, using mostly ASCT2 and SN1 as Gln carriers. Tumor growth-promoting effects of Gln are associated with its phosphate-activated glutaminase (GA) (specifically KGA)-mediated degradation to glutamate (Glu) and/or with its entry to the energy- and intermediate metabolite-generating pathways related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885631/the-glutamine-transporters-and-their-role-in-the-glutamate-gaba-glutamine-cycle
#9
Renata Leke, Arne Schousboe
Glutamine is a key amino acid in the CNS, playing an important role in the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle (GGC). In the GGC, glutamine is transferred from astrocytes to neurons, where it will replenish the inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter pools. Different transporters participate in this neural communication, i.e., the transporters responsible for glutamine efflux from astrocytes and influx into the neurons, such as the members of the SNAT, LAT, y(+)LAT, and ASC families of transporters. The SNAT family consists of the transporter isoforms SNAT3 and SNAT5 that are related to efflux from the astrocytic compartment, and SNAT1 and SNAT2 that are associated with glutamine uptake into the neuronal compartment...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885630/vesicular-glutamate-uptake
#10
Tetsufumi Ueda
Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter widely used in the vertebrate central nervous systems. The synaptic transmission process is characterized by three steps: (1) presynaptic vesicular transmitter uptake, (2) presynaptic release, and (3) postsynaptic receptor activation. Presynaptic vesicular glutamate uptake plays an initial pivotal role in glutamate transmission by concentrating glutamate in the vesicular lumen prior to its release. This active glutamate transport harnesses energy derived from ATP hydrolysis, and intra- or extravesicular chloride, and is highly specific to glutamate...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885629/glutaminases
#11
Javier Márquez, José M Matés, José A Campos-Sandoval
Mammalian glutaminases catalyze the stoichiometric conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamate and ammonium ions. In brain, glutaminase is considered the prevailing pathway for synthesis of the neurotransmitter pool of glutamate. Besides neurotransmission, the products of glutaminase reaction also fulfill crucial roles in energy and metabolic homeostasis in mammalian brain. In the last years, new functional roles for brain glutaminases are being uncovered by using functional genomic and proteomic approaches. Glutaminases may act as multifunctional proteins able to perform different tasks: the discovery of multiple transcript variants in neurons and glial cells, novel extramitochondrial localizations, and isoform-specific proteininteracting partners strongly support possible moonlighting functions for these proteins...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885628/bcaa-metabolism-and-nh3-homeostasis
#12
M E Conway, S M Hutson
The branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids required not only for growth and development, but also as nutrient signals and as nitrogen donors to neurotransmitter synthesis and glutamate/glutamine cycling. Transamination and oxidative decarboxylation of the BCAAs are catalysed by the branched-chain aminotransferase proteins (BCATm, mitochondrial and BCATc, cytosolic) and the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC), respectively. These proteins show tissue, cell compartmentation, and protein-protein interactions, which call for substrate shuttling or channelling and nitrogen transfer for oxidation to occur...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885627/enzyme-complexes-important-for-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle
#13
Mary C McKenna, Gustavo C Ferreira
Transient multienzyme and/or multiprotein complexes (metabolons) direct substrates toward specific pathways and can significantly influence the metabolism of glutamate and glutamine in the brain. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in brain. This neurotransmitter has essential roles in normal brain function including learning and memory. Metabolism of glutamate involves the coordinated activity of astrocytes and neurons and high affinity transporter proteins that are selectively distributed on these cells...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885624/introduction-to-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle
#14
Ursula Sonnewald, Arne Schousboe
The term 'glutamate-glutamine cycle' was coined several decades ago based on the observation that using certain (14)C-labeled precursors for studies of brain metabolism the specific radioactivity of glutamine generated from glutamate was higher than that of glutamate, its immediate precursor. This is metabolically impossible unless it is assumed that at least two distinct pools of these amino acids exist. This combined with the finding that the enzyme synthesizing glutamine from glutamate was expressed in astrocytes but not in neurons formed the basis of the notion that a cycle must exist in which glutamate released from neurons is transported into astrocytes, converted to glutamine which is subsequently returned to neurons and converted to glutamate by an enzyme the activity of which is much higher in neurons than in astrocytes...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880821/inhibition-of-the-tgf%C3%AE-pathway-enhances-retinal-regeneration-in-adult-zebrafish
#15
Christoph Tappeiner, Ellinor Maurer, Pauline Sallin, Thomas Bise, Volker Enzmann, Markus Tschopp
In contrast to the mammalian retina, the zebrafish retina exhibits the potential for lifelong retinal neurogenesis and regeneration even after severe damage. Previous studies have shown that the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway is activated during the regeneration of different tissues in the zebrafish and is needed for regeneration in the heart and the fin. In this study, we have investigated the role of the TGFβ pathway in the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced chemical model of rod photoreceptor de- and regeneration in adult zebrafish...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864691/characterization-of-tg2-and-tg1-tg2-double-knock-out-mouse-epidermis
#16
Consuelo Pitolli, Valentina Pietroni, Lyuben Marekov, Alessandro Terrinoni, Kiyofumi Yamanishi, Cinzia Mazzanti, Gerry Melino, Eleonora Candi
Transglutaminases (TGs) are a family of enzymes that catalyse the formation of isopeptide bonds between the γ-carboxamide groups of glutamine residues and the ε-amino groups of lysine residues leading to cross-linking reactions among proteins. Four members, TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG5, of the nine mammalian enzymes are expressed in the skin. TG1, TG3 and TG5 crosslinking properties are fundamental for cornified envelope assembly. In contrast, the role of TG2 in keratinization has never been studied at biochemical level in vivo...
November 18, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863447/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-triggers-a-tumor-like-glutamine-metabolism
#17
Pierre L Lévy, Sarah Duponchel, Hannah Eischeid, Jennifer Molle, Maud Michelet, Gaëlle Diserens, Martina Vermathen, Peter Vermathen, Jean-Francois Dufour, Hans-Peter Dienes, Hans-Michael Steffen, Margarete Odenthal, Fabien Zoulim, Birke Bartosch
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main causes of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the molecular mechanisms linking the infection to cancer development remain poorly understood. Here we used HCV-infected cells and liver biopsies to study how HCV modulates the glutaminolysis pathway, which is known to play an important role in cellular energetics, stress defense and neoplastic transformation. Transcript levels of glutaminolytic factors were quantified in Huh7.5 cells or primary human hepatocytes infected with the JFH1 HCV strain as well as in biopsies of chronic HCV patients...
November 18, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861875/the-effect-of-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway-in-the-lanthanum-chloride-induced-impairment-of-learning-and-memory-in-rats
#18
Lijin Zhang, Jinghua Yang, Cuihong Jin, Shengwen Wu, Xiaobo Lu, Xiaoyu Hu, Yaling Sun, Yuan Cai
Lanthanum (La) exerts adverse effects on the central nervous system. However, the mechanism underlying these adverse effects has not been clarified. It is known that oxidative stress plays an important role in neurological injuries induced by harmful factors. Nrf2 is very important in the response to oxidative stress in tissues and cells. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3 ) on the spatial learning and memory of rats and to determine whether the Nrf2/ARE pathway acts in the hippocampus...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861817/a-novel-spontaneous-mutation-in-the-tap2-gene-unravels-its-role-in-macrophage-survival
#19
Antonio Lapenna, Ibrahim Omar, Michael Berger
Here we report a new mouse strain with a single point mutation in the type 2 transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP2). This strain randomly arose in one of our C57BL/6J mouse colony and was initially discovered due to lack of CD8(+) T cells in the periphery. Following our observation, we subsequently revealed a lack of cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) expression, derived from TAP2 protein deficiency. Our strain, named eightless, has a C to T substitution in exon 5 resulting in a glutamine to stop codon substitution at position 285 in the TAP2 protein...
November 18, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860485/an-update-on-the-use-of-benzoate-phenylacetate-and-phenylbutyrate-ammonia-scavengers-for-interrogating-and-modifying-liver-nitrogen-metabolism-and-its-implications-in-urea-cycle-disorders-and-liver-disease
#20
Javier de Las Heras, Luis Aldámiz-Echevarría, María-Luz Martínez-Chantar, Teresa C Delgado
Ammonia-scavenging drugs, benzoate and phenylacetate (PA)/phenylbutyrate (PB), modulate hepatic nitrogen metabolism mainly by providing alternative pathways for nitrogen disposal. Areas Covered: We review the major findings and potential novel applications of ammonia-scavenging drugs, focusing on urea cycle disorders and liver disease. Expert Opinion: For over 40 years, ammonia-scavenging drugs have been used in the treatment of urea cycle disorders. Recently, the use of these compounds has been advocated in acute liver failure and cirrhosis for reducing hyperammonemic-induced hepatic encephalopathy...
November 18, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
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