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role of glutamine

Leena S Knight, Quinn Piibe, Ian Lambie, Christopher Perkins, Paul H Yancey
Betaine (N-trimethylglycine), a common osmolyte, has received attention because of the number of clinical reports associating betaine supplementation with improved cognition, neuroprotection and exercise physiology. However, tissue analyses report little accumulation of betaine in brain tissue despite the presence of betaine/GABA transporters (BGT1) at the blood brain barrier and in nervous tissue, calling into question whether betaine influences neuronal function directly or indirectly. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine what capacity nervous tissue has to accumulate betaine, specifically in the hippocampus, a region of the brain associated with learning and memory and one that is particularly susceptible to damage (e...
September 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
James González, Geovani López, Stefany Argueta, Ximena Escalera-Fanjul, Mohamed El Hafidi, Carlos Campero-Basaldua, Joseph Strauss, Lina Riego-Ruiz, Alicia González
Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbors BAT1 and BAT2 paralogous genes encoding branched chain aminotransferases (BCATs), showing opposed expression profiles and physiological role. Accordingly, in primary nitrogen sources such as glutamine, BAT1 expression is induced, supporting Bat1-dependent valine-isoleucine-leucine (VIL) biosynthesis, while BAT2 expression is repressed. Conversely, in the presence of VIL as sole nitrogen source, BAT1 expression is hindered while that of BAT2 is activated resulting in Bat2-dependent VIL catabolism...
September 14, 2017: Genetics
Jelka Zabavnik, Marko Cotman, Polona Juntes, Ivan Ambrozic
Sheep with valine (V) at codon 136 and glutamine (Q) at codon 171 of the prion protein gene ( Prnp) are highly susceptible to classical scrapie, whereas phenylalanine (F) at codon 141 and histidine (H) at codon 154 play a major role in the susceptibility to atypical scrapie. A TaqMan real-time PCR assay was developed to determine Prnp alleles at codons 136, 141, 154, and 171 and used in classical scrapie eradication and breeding programs adopted in Slovenia. The frequency of the most resistant genotypes ARR/ARR and ARR/ARQ increased significantly in tested animals ( n = 35,138) from 6...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Sanjay Pandey, Prachaya Srivanitchapoom
Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is commonly seen in Parkinson's disease patients treated with levodopa. This side effect is usually encountered after long duration of treatment, but occasionally, this may be seen even after few days or months of treatment. LID is broadly classified as peak-dose dyskinesia, wearing-off or off-period dyskinesia, and diphasic dyskinesia. Pathogenesis of LID is complex, and different neurotransmitters such as dopamine, glutamine, adenosine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid play important role altering the normal physiology of direct and indirect pathway of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop responsible for fine motor control...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Natalia Trempolec, Juan Pablo Muñoz, Konstantin Slobodnyuk, Silvia Marin, Marta Cascante, Antonio Zorzano, Angel R Nebreda
Adequate responses to environmental stresses are essential for cell survival. The regulation of cellular energetics that involves mitochondrial energy production and oxidative stress is central in the process of stress adaptation and response. The p38α signalling pathway plays a key role in the response to stress stimuli by orchestrating multiple cellular processes. However, prolonged activation of the p38α pathway results in impaired cell proliferation and can lead to cell death. Here we use a system to specifically activate p38α signalling and show that sustained activation of this pathway suffices to induce important metabolic changes, including high dependence on glucose for cell survival, increased consumption of glutamine, enhanced respiration rate and elevated production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiao Fan, Fang Qu, Ji-Jun Wang, Xue Du, Wei-Cai Liu
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have indicated that the central and autonomic nervous systems play roles in the genesis of sleep bruxism (SB). The role of specific neurochemicals in SB has been a subject of interest. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) to determine whether the levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu) are different in the brainstem and bilateral cortical masticatory area (CMA) between possible sleep bruxism (SB) patients and controls, and discuss whether the brainstem or cortical networks which may affect the central masticatory pathways are under the genesis of SB...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Patrizia D'Aquila, Paolina Crocco, Francesco De Rango, Cesare Indiveri, Dina Bellizzi, Giuseppina Rose, Giuseppe Passarino
Given the role of amino acid regulation for physiological and pathological cell proliferation, we investigated whether the variability of solute carrier family 1, member 5 (SLC1A5, namely ASCT2), encoding for ASCT2 protein, a major glutamine transporter, is related to longevity. A total of 607 differently aged unrelated individuals, 351 very old subjects (≥85 years, range 85-106 years, mean age 93.82 ± 4.44 years) and 256 younger controls (<85 years, range 64-84 years, mean age 73.60 ± 5.70 years) were analyzed...
September 8, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
Ana C Pereira, Xiangling Mao, Caroline S Jiang, Guoxin Kang, Sara Milrad, Bruce S McEwen, Ana C Krieger, Dikoma C Shungu
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a common disorder in aging that is associated with cognitive decline, including significant executive dysfunction, for which the neurobiological underpinnings remain poorly understood. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS), this study assessed whether dysregulation of the homeostatic balance of the major inhibitory and excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter systems of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, respectively, play a role in SDB. Levels of GABA and those of the combined resonances of glutamate and glutamine (Glx), were measured by 1H MRS in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (l-DLPFC) and bilateral hippocampal regions of 19 older adults (age ± SD: 66...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Luigi Servillo, Nunzia D'Onofrio, Alfonso Giovane, Rosario Casale, Domenico Cautela, Giovanna Ferrari, Domenico Castaldo, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
We report the LC-ESI-MS/MS determination of betaines in commercial flours of cereals and pseudocereals most utilized in human nutrition. Results showed that glycine betaine, trigonelline, proline betaine, N(ε)-trimethyllysine were metabolites common to all examined flours, whereas an uncommon betaine, valine betaine, and glutamine betaine were present only in flours of barley, rye, oat, durum wheat, winter wheat, Triticum dicoccum and Triticum monococcum. Valine betaine and glutamine betaine, the latter never reported before in plants and animals, are not evenly distributed in the Poaceae family, but their presence or absence in flours depends on the subfamily to which the plant belongs...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jessica B Spinelli, Liam P Kelley, Marcia C Haigis
Ammonia is a fundamental aspect of metabolism spanning all of phylogeny. Metabolomics, including metabolic tracing studies, are an integral part of elucidating the role of ammonia in these systems. However, current methods for measurement of ammonia are spectrophotometric, and cannot distinguish isotopologues of ammonia, significantly limiting metabolic tracing studies. Here, we describe a novel LC-MS-based method that quantitatively assesses both (14)N-and (15)N-isotopologues of ammonia in polar metabolite extracts...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sayuri Sumida, Makoto Ito, Ivan Galis, Hiroko Nakatani, Tomonori Shinya, Kouhei Ohnishi, Yasufumi Hikichi, Akinori Kiba
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci causes wildfire disease by the action of tabtoxinine-β-lactam (TβL), a non-specific bacterial toxin. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of wildfire disease and its development, we focused on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase in Nicotiana benthamiana (NbPI3K) and its potential role in the disease outbreak, using l-methionine sulfoximine (MSX) as an easily accessible mimic of the TβL action. The NbPI3K-silenced plants showed accelerated induction of cell death and necrotic lesion formation by MSX, and the expression of hin1, marker gene for the programmed cell death, was strongly induced in the plants...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Etidal Al-Suwailem, Saba Abdi, Afaf El-Ansary
Females have been found to be at lower risk for the development of neurodevelopmental disorders than males. The greater neuroprotection in females is mostly due to female sex hormones. Estrogen is hypothesized to provide neuroprotection by suppressing the neuro-excitotoxicity induced by glutamate (Glu). This study was conducted to understand the effect of sex in modulating Glu signaling in juvenile rats. Brain tissue homogenate of 15 Wistar albino rats (9 males, 6 females) weighing 60 to 80 g and aged approximately 28 days was used...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Nisha Verma, Mario Pink, Stefan Boland, Albert W Rettenmeier, Simone Schmitz-Spanke
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a well-known polyaromatic hydrocarbon, is known for its lung carcinogenicity, however, its role in bladder cancer development is still discussed. Comparative two-dimensional blue native SDS-PAGE analysis of protein complexes isolated from subcellular fractions of 0.5 µM B[a]P-exposed cells indicated a differential regulation of proteins involved in carbohydrate, fatty acid, and nucleotide metabolism, suggesting a possible metabolic flux redistribution. It appeared that B[a]P exposure led to a repression of enzymes (fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, lactate dehydrogenase) involved in glycolysis, and an up-regulation of proteins (glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconolactonase) catalyzing the pentose phosphate pathway and one carbon metabolism (10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein)...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Russell G Port, Christopher Gajewski, Elizabeth Krizman, Holly C Dow, Shinji Hirano, Edward S Brodkin, Gregory C Carlson, Michael B Robinson, Timothy P L Roberts, Steven J Siegel
Approximately one in 45 children have been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), which is characterized by social/communication impairments. Recent studies have linked a subset of familial ASD to mutations in the Protocadherin 10 (Pcdh10) gene. Additionally, Pcdh10's expression pattern, as well as its known role within protein networks, implicates the gene in ASD. Subsequently, the neurobiology of mice heterozygous for Pcdh10 (Pcdh10(+/-)) has been investigated as a proxy for ASD. Male Pcdh10(+/-) mice have demonstrated sex-specific deficits in social behavior, recapitulating the gender bias observed in ASD...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
Matthew Spencer, Nathan Max, Joanna Ireland, Zhongcheng Zou, Ruipeng Wang, Peter Sun
L-selectin (CD62L) is an extracellular protein with a lectin-like domain that mediates rolling adhesion of leukocytes to vascular endothelial cell surfaces. Currently, there are no solved structures for the ectodomain of CD62L, nor of CD62L in complex with its ligand. We have developed a rapid mammalian recombinant protein expression system using an amplifiable glutamine synthase based vector. Here, we further developed and applied this method to express and purify the entire extracellular region of CD62L. This resulted in excess of 20 mg/L yield of recombinant CD62L...
December 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
Yuan Cao, Shu-Hai Lin, Yongbin Wang, Y Eugene Chin, Lan Kang, Jun Mi
Increased glutamine metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. Mitochondrial glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT2) catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), also known as 2-oxoglutarate, to generate pyruvate and glutamate during cellular glutamine catabolism. However, the precise role of GPT2 in tumorigenesis remains elusive. Here, we report that in breast cancer tissue samples and breast cancer cell lines, GPT2 expression level was markedly elevated and correlated with the pathological grades of breast cancers...
2017: Theranostics
Johanna Carlsson, Henrik Svennerstam, Thomas Moritz, Ulrika Egertsdotter, Ulrika Ganeteg
Somatic embryogenesis is an in vitro system employed for plant propagation and the study of embryo development. Nitrogen is essential for plant growth and development and, hence, the production of healthy embryos during somatic embryogenesis. Glutamine has been shown to increase plant biomass in many in vitro applications, including somatic embryogenesis. However, several aspects of nitrogen nutrition during somatic embryogenesis remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the uptake and assimilation of nitrogen in Norway spruce pro-embryogenic masses to elucidate some of these aspects...
2017: PloS One
Hayden Weng Siong Tan, Arthur Yi Loong Sim, Yun Chau Long
Activation of autophagy and elevation of glutamine synthesis represent key adaptations to maintain amino acid balance during starvation. In this study, we investigate the role of autophagy and glutamine on the regulation of mTORC1, a critical kinase that regulates cell growth and proliferation. We report that supplementation of glutamine alone is sufficient to restore mTORC1 activity during prolonged amino acid starvation. Inhibition of autophagy abolishes the restorative effect of glutamine, suggesting that reactivation of mTORC1 is autophagy-dependent...
August 24, 2017: Nature Communications
Yaru Dong, Takeshi Yoshitomi, Ji-Fan Hu, Jizhe Cui
In animal cells, mitochondria are the primary powerhouses and metabolic factories. They also contain genomes and can produce mitochondrial-specific nucleic acids and proteins. To maintain homeostasis of the entire cell, an intense cross-talk between mitochondria and the nucleus, mediated by encoded noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), as well as proteins, is required. Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) contain characteristic structures, and they are involved in the regulation of almost every stage of gene expression, as well as being implicated in a variety of disease states, such as cancer...
August 23, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Angelina Rodríguez, Arturo Ortega
Glial glutamine and glutamate transporters play an important role in glial/neuronal interactions. An excellent model to establish the role of these membrane proteins is the cerebellum. The most abundant glutamatergic synapse in the central nervous system is present in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex, and it is entirely wrapped by Bergmann glial cells. The recycling of glutamate involves glutamate and glutamine transporters enriched in these radial glial processes. The functional properties of amino acid glial transporters allow, in an activity-dependent manner, the conformation of protein complexes important for the adequate support of glutamatergic neurotransmission...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
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