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role of glutamine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814091/the-effect-of-vitamin-d-on-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cell-metabolism
#1
B Saracligil, B Ozturk, A Unlu, S Abusoglu, G Tekin
The role of vitamin D in calcium absorption and bone health is known. The studies revealed that vitamin D modulates breast cancer cell growth and it is also associated with a reduced breast cancer risk. The primary objective of this study was to highlight the metabolic effect of Vitamin D on MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. For that purpose, we checked the apoptosis, energy, amino-acid and acylcarnitine levels in cancer cells, that the study propose, that 1α, 25(OH)2D3 could inhibit cell growth in a dose and time dependent manner...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813676/pharmacologic-or-genetic-targeting-of-glutamine-synthetase-skews-macrophages-toward-an-m1-like-phenotype-and-inhibits-tumor-metastasis
#2
Erika M Palmieri, Alessio Menga, Rosa Martín-Pérez, Annamaria Quinto, Carla Riera-Domingo, Giacoma De Tullio, Douglas C Hooper, Wouter H Lamers, Bart Ghesquière, Daniel W McVicar, Attilio Guarini, Massimiliano Mazzone, Alessandra Castegna
Glutamine-synthetase (GS), the glutamine-synthesizing enzyme from glutamate, controls important events, including the release of inflammatory mediators, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation, and autophagy. However, its role in macrophages remains elusive. We report that pharmacologic inhibition of GS skews M2-polarized macrophages toward the M1-like phenotype, characterized by reduced intracellular glutamine and increased succinate with enhanced glucose flux through glycolysis, which could be partly related to HIF1α activation...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812298/a-gata-type-transcription-factor-acareb-for-nitrogen-metabolism-is-involved-in-regulation-of-cephalosporin-biosynthesis-in-acremonium-chrysogenum
#3
Feifei Guan, Yuanyuan Pan, Jinyang Li, Gang Liu
In filamentous fungi, nitrogen metabolism is repressed by GATA-type zinc finger transcription factors. Nitrogen metabolite repression has been found to affect antibiotic production, but the mechanism is still poorly understood. AcareB, encoding a homologue of fungal GATA-type regulatory protein, was cloned from Acremonium chrysogenum. Gene disruption and genetic complementation demonstrated that AcareB plays a key role in utilization of ammonium, glutamine and urea. In addition, significant reduction of cephalosporin production in the AcareB disruption mutant indicated that AcareB is important for cephalosporin production...
August 14, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811348/a-critical-role-of-glutamine-and-asparagine-%C3%AE-nitrogen-in-nucleotide-biosynthesis-in-cancer-cells-hijacked-by-an-oncogenic-virus
#4
Ying Zhu, Tingting Li, Suzane Ramos da Silva, Jae-Jin Lee, Chun Lu, Hyungjin Eoh, Jae U Jung, Shou-Jiang Gao
While glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that can be synthesized from glucose, some cancer cells primarily depend on glutamine for their growth, proliferation, and survival. Numerous types of cancer also depend on asparagine for cell proliferation. The underlying mechanisms of the glutamine and asparagine requirement in cancer cells in different contexts remain unclear. In this study, we show that the oncogenic virus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) accelerates the glutamine metabolism of glucose-independent proliferation of cancer cells by upregulating the expression of numerous critical enzymes, including glutaminase 2 (GLS2), glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GLUD1), and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 (GOT2), to support cell proliferation...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810585/glutamine-promotes-hsp70-and-inhibits-%C3%AE-synuclein-accumulation-in-pheochromocytoma-pc12-cells
#5
Haiyang Wang, Chongyang Tang, Zhenfeng Jiang, Xiao Zhou, Jianhang Chen, Meng Na, Hong Shen, Zhiguo Lin
Hsp70 regulates α-Synuclein (α-Syn) degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD), indicating that Hsp70 promotion may be able to prevent or reverse α-Syn-induced toxicity in PD. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that glutamine (Gln) enhances Hsp70 expression. In the present study, Gln-induced Hsp70 promotion in pheochromocytoma was investigated with reverse transcription- quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting methods. Then it was observed whether heat shock factor (HSF)-1 was required for this phenomenon with an RNA interference strategy...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808255/critical-role-for-arginase-2-in-obesity-associated-pancreatic-cancer
#6
Tamara Zaytouni, Pei-Yun Tsai, Daniel S Hitchcock, Cory D DuBois, Elizaveta Freinkman, Lin Lin, Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Patrick J Lenehan, Brian M Wolpin, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Eduardo M Torres, Nicholas Stylopoulos, Clary B Clish, Nada Y Kalaany
Obesity is an established risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Despite recent identification of metabolic alterations in this lethal malignancy, the metabolic dependencies of obesity-associated PDA remain unknown. Here we show that obesity-driven PDA exhibits accelerated growth and a striking transcriptional enrichment for pathways regulating nitrogen metabolism. We find that the mitochondrial form of arginase (ARG2), which hydrolyzes arginine into ornithine and urea, is induced upon obesity, and silencing or loss of ARG2 markedly suppresses PDA...
August 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805497/putative-role-of-glutamine-in-the-activation-of-cbl-cipk-signalling-pathways-during-salt-stress-in-sorghum
#7
Rafael de Souza Miranda, Juan Carlos Alvarez-Pizarro, José Hélio Costa, Stelamaris de Oliveira Paula, José Tarquinio Prisco, Enéas Gomes-Filho
The salt overly sensitive (SOS) pathway is the only mechanism known for Na(+) extrusion in plant cells. SOS pathway activation involves Ca(2+)-sensing proteins, such as calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins, and CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). In this signalling mechanism, a transit increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration triggered by Na(+) accumulation is perceived by CBL (also known as SOS3). Afterward, SOS3 physically interacts with a CIPK (also known as SOS2), forming the SOS2/SOS3 complex, which can regulate the number downstream targets, controlling ionic homeostasis...
August 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800318/mir-513c-suppresses-neuroblastoma-cell-migration-invasion-and-proliferation-through-direct-targeting-glutaminase-gls
#8
Hong-Liang Xia, Yao Lv, Chun-Wei Xu, Ming-Cui Fu, Ting Zhang, Xiang-Ming Yan, Shu Dai, Qian-Wei Xiong, Yun Zhou, Jian Wang, Xu Cao
Neuroblastoma is a brain malignancy of childhood and accounts for 7-10% of childhood cancers, leading to approximately 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short (about 18-25 nucleotides), noncoding and single stranded endogenous RNAs, which complementarily bind to the 3' untranslated regions of their target genes. Recently, glutamine metabolism has been recognized as an important nutrition source for tumor cells, and hence targeting glutamine metabolism could benefit to development of anti-cancer agents...
July 2, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797105/regulation-of-hepatic-stellate-cell-proliferation-and-activation-by-glutamine-metabolism
#9
Jiang Li, Mohammed Ghazwani, Ke Liu, Yixian Huang, Na Chang, Jie Fan, Fengtian He, Liying Li, Shizhong Bu, Wen Xie, Xiaochao Ma, Song Li
Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, which is mainly caused by accumulation of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The mechanisms of activation and proliferation of HSCs, two key events after liver damage, have been studied for many years. Here we report a novel pathway to control HSCs by regulating glutamine metabolism. We demonstrated that the proliferation of HSCs is critically dependent on glutamine that is used to generate α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and non-essential amino acid (NEAA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794442/the-conserved-lysine-265-allosterically-modulates-nucleotide-and-actin-binding-site-coupling-in-myosin-2
#10
Vincent A Behrens, Stefan Münnich, Georg Adler-Gunzelmann, Claudia Thiel, Arnon Henn, Sharissa L Latham, Manuel H Taft
Myosin motor proteins convert chemical energy into force and movement through their interactions with nucleotide and filamentous actin (F-actin). The evolutionarily conserved lysine-265 (K265) of the myosin-2 motor from Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd) is proposed to be a key residue in an allosteric communication pathway that mediates actin-nucleotide coupling. To better understand the role of K265, point mutations were introduced within the Dd myosin-2 M765-2R framework, replacing this lysine with alanine (K265A), glutamic acid (K265E) or glutamine (K265Q), and the functional and kinetic properties of the resulting myosin motors were assessed...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782227/short-androgen-receptor-poly-glutamine-promoted-endometrial-cancer-is-associated-with-benzo-a-pyrene-mediated-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation
#11
Lumin Chen, Bo-Ying Bao, Wei-Chun Chang, Jason Yen-Ping Ho, Bi-Hua Cheng, Chung-Lin Wang, Qifeng Tang, Wei-Chung Cheng, Hui-Wen Chang, Yao-Ching Hung, Wen-Lung Ma
The androgen receptor (AR) poly-glutamine polymorphism (AR-Q) was reported to play role in endometrial cancer (EMCA) development, yet controversial. Environmental factors interact with genetic variation have been reported in EMCA. Aerosol toxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are EMCA facilitators. This report examined the interplay between AR-Qs and BaP in EMCA. During analysing patient AR-Q polymorphism and Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) expressions, we found overall survival (OS) benefit is ascending with AR-Q lengths (5-year OS of 61...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780615/a-knock-in-knock-out-mouse-model-of-hspb8-associated-distal-hereditary-motor-neuropathy-and-myopathy-reveals-toxic-gain-of-function-of-mutant-hspb8
#12
Delphine Bouhy, Manisha Juneja, Istvan Katona, Anne Holmgren, Bob Asselbergh, Vicky De Winter, Tino Hochepied, Steven Goossens, Jody J Haigh, Claude Libert, Chantal Ceuterick-de Groote, Joy Irobi, Joachim Weis, Vincent Timmerman
Mutations in the small heat shock protein B8 gene (HSPB8/HSP22) have been associated with distal hereditary motor neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and recently distal myopathy. It is so far not clear how mutant HSPB8 induces the neuronal and muscular phenotypes and if a common pathogenesis lies behind these diseases. Growing evidence points towards a role of HSPB8 in chaperone-associated autophagy, which has been shown to be a determinant for the clearance of poly-glutamine aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases but also for the maintenance of skeletal muscle myofibrils...
August 5, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770953/microrna-200c-exacerbates-the-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-of-heart-through-targeting-the-glutaminase-gls-mediated-glutamine-metabolism
#13
F Liu, Y Li, G Liu
OBJECTIVE: Cardiac ischemia and reperfusion, the common pathophysiological processes during cardiovascular surgery, are followed by oxidative stresses during the restoration of blood flow to the tissue, known as ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of endogenous, short and noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally repress their target mRNA expressions. Currently, the roles of microRNAs in the IR are still under investigated. This study will investigate the roles and mechanisms of miRNAs in the ischemia/reperfusion injury of the heart...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770610/amino-acid-profiles-as-potential-biomarkers-for-pediatric-cancers-a-preliminary-communication
#14
Anna Synakiewicz, Malgorzata Sawicka-Zukowska, Natalia Adrianowska, Grazyna Galezowska, Joanna Ratajczyk, Anna Owczarzak, Lucyna Konieczna, Teresa Stachowicz-Stencel
AIM: Childhood cancer remains one of the main cause of death in the pediatric population. Amino acids (AAs) level alterations in plasma are considered to play a role in carcinogenesis and further course of the disease. METHODS: Seventy-seven children with cancer, including 47 with hematological and 30 with solid tumors were enrolled in this study and compared with healthy children. Twenty-two plasma-free AAs were determined by HPLC with fluorometric detection. RESULTS: The results revealed significant decrease in glutamine levels for oncological patients and significant increase in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, serine, citrulline, alanine, GABA, tryptophan, methionine, valine, phenylalanine and isoleucine levels in cancer children versus control...
August 3, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763009/metal-binding-properties-of-the-n-terminus-of-the-functional-amyloid-orb2
#15
Thalia H Bajakian, Silvia A Cervantes, Maria A Soria, Maïwenn Beaugrand, Ji Yun Kim, Rachel J Service, Ansgar B Siemer
The cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB) homologue Orb2 is a functional amyloid that plays a key regulatory role for long-term memory in Drosophila. Orb2 has a glutamine, histidine-rich (Q/H-rich) domain that resembles the Q/H-rich, metal binding domain of the Hpn-like protein (Hpnl) found in Helicobacter pylori. In the present study, we used chromatography and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to show that the Q/H-rich domain of Orb2 binds Ni(2+) and other transition metals ions with μM affinity...
August 1, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760433/branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-in-treatment-of-liver-cirrhosis-updated-views-on-how-to-attenuate-their-harmful-effects-on-cataplerosis-and-ammonia-formation
#16
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) supplementation is common for patients with liver cirrhosis due to decreased levels of BCAA in the blood plasma of these patients, which plays a role in pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and cachexia. The unique pharmacologic properties of BCAA also are a factor for use as supplementation in this population. In the present article, BCAA is shown to provide nitrogen to alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG) for synthesis of glutamate, which is a substrate for ammonia detoxification to glutamine (GLN) in the brain and muscles...
September 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753979/lack-of-association-between-hepatitis-c-virus-core-gene-variation-70-91aa-and-insulin-resistance
#17
Letícia de Paula Scalioni, Allan Peres da Silva, Juliana Custódio Miguel, Márcia Paschoal do Espírito Santo, Vanessa Alves Marques, Carlos Eduardo Brandão-Mello, Cristiane Alves Villela-Nogueira, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Elisabeth Lampe, Livia Melo Villar
The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in insulin resistance (IR) is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of amino acid (aa) substitutions in the core region of HCV according to IR and to identify clinical and laboratory associations. Ninety-two treatment-naive HCV patients were recruited to determine laboratory data and blood cell count. IR was determined using Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index where IR was defined as HOMA ≥2. HCV RNA load and genotype were determined by Abbott Real time HCV...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749408/clinical-role-of-asct2-slc1a5-in-kras-mutated-colorectal-cancer
#18
Kosuke Toda, Gen Nishikawa, Masayoshi Iwamoto, Yoshiro Itatani, Ryo Takahashi, Yoshiharu Sakai, Kenji Kawada
Mutation in the KRAS gene induces prominent metabolic changes. We have recently reported that KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC) cause alterations in amino acid metabolism. However, it remains to be investigated which amino acid transporter can be regulated by mutated KRAS in CRC. Here, we performed a screening of amino acid transporters using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and then identified that ASCT2 (SLC1A5) was up-regulated through KRAS signaling. Next, immunohistochemical analysis of 93 primary CRC specimens revealed that there was a significant correlation between KRAS mutational status and ASCT2 expression...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743736/sfpq-a-multifunctional-nuclear-protein-regulates-the-transcription-of-pde3a
#19
Dong Keun Rhee, Steven C Hockman, Sun-Kyung Choi, Yong-Eun Kim, Chungoo Park, Vincent C Manganiello, Kee Kwang Kim
Phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A), a member of the cGMP-inhibited cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) family, plays important roles in oocyte maturation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate PDE3A gene expression remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of PDE3A , and found that the splicing factor proline and glutamine rich (SFPQ) protein modulated PDE3A mRNA levels. Multiple transcription start sites (TSS1, 2, and 3) were identified within the first exon of PDE3A using 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)...
July 25, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734063/atp-and-astrocytes-play-a-prominent-role-in-the-control-of-the-respiratory-pattern-generator-in-the-lamprey
#20
Elenia Cinelli, Ludovica Iovino, Donatella Mutolo
The role of ATP and astrocytes in respiratory rhythm modulation has been recently investigated in neonatal rodents. However, no information on the role of ATP and astrocytes within the respiratory network of the lamprey is available, particularly within the paratrigeminal respiratory group (pTRG), the proposed respiratory central pattern generator. To address these issues, the present study was carried out on isolated brainstems of the adult lamprey. Bath application of ATP caused marked increases in respiratory frequency followed by decreases in the respiratory motor output, mediated by the ATP metabolite adenosine at the level of the pTRG...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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