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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527661/modulation-of-adipocyte-function-by-the-tgf-%C3%AE-family
#1
Yuhang Qiao, Shozo Tomonaga, Masashi Suenaga, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family are known to regulate the commitment of mesenchymal stem cells to an adipocyte lineage and the differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes. However, the roles of TGF-β family members in mature adipocytes are not known. The present study explored the modulation of cell function in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with the TGF-β family members TGF-β1, activin A, activin B, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4, and BMP7. These TGF-β family members modulated the expression of some adipokines; activin A upregulated leptin expression, and activin B downregulated the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1...
May 17, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527336/title-potassium-application-regulates-nitrogen-metabolism-and-osmotic-adjustment-in-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l-functional-leaf-under-drought-stress
#2
Rizwan Zahoor, Wenqing Zhao, Muhammad Abid, Haoran Dong, Zhiguo Zhou
To evaluate the role of potassium (K) in maintaining nitrogen metabolism and osmotic adjustment development of cotton functional leaves to sustain growth under soil drought and rewatering conditions, the plants of two cotton cultivars Siza 3 (low-K sensitive) and Simian 3 (low-K tolerant), were grown under three different K rates (K0, K1, and K2; 0, 150, and 300kgK2Oha(-1), respectively) and exposed to drought stress with 40±5% soil relative water content (SRWC). The drought stress was applied at flowering stage by withholding water for eight days followed by rewatering to a well-watered level (75±5% SRWC)...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523359/arginine-cga-codons-as-a-source-of-nonsense-mutations-a-possible-role-in-multivariant-gene-expression-control-of-mrna-quality-and-aging
#3
Georgy A Romanov, Victor S Sukhoverov
Methylation of cytosine residues in DNA of higher eukaryotes, including humans, creates "hot spots" of C→T transitions in the genome. The predominantly methylated sequence in mammalian DNAs is CG (CpG). Among CG-containing codons, CGA codons for arginine are unique due to their ability to create stop codons TGA (UGA in mRNA) upon epigenetic-mediated mutation. As such nonsense mutations can have a strong adverse effect on the cell and organism, we have performed a study, on the example of human genes, aimed to characterise the anticipated effects of epigenetic-mediated nonsense mutations CGA→TGA in somatic cells...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515319/the-h-region-of-twin-arginine-signal-peptides-supports-productive-binding-of-bacterial-tat-precursor-proteins-to-the-tatbc-receptor-complex
#4
Agnes Ulfig, Julia Fröbel, Frank Lausberg, Anne-Sophie Blümmel, Anna Katharina Heide, Matthias Müller, Roland Freudl
The twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports folded proteins across bacterial membranes. Tat precursor proteins possess a conserved twin-arginine (RR) motif in their signal peptides that is involved in their binding to the Tat translocase, but some facets of this interaction remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of the hydrophobic (h-) region of the Escherichia coli TMAO reductase (TorA) signal peptide in TatBC receptor binding in vivo and in vitro. We show that besides the RR motif, a minimal functional h-region in the signal peptide is required for Tat-dependent export in E...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515089/the-n-terminus-regulates-voltage-dependent-gating-of-calhm-ion-channels
#5
Jessica E Tanis, Zhongming Ma, J Kevin Foskett
CALHM1 and its C. elegans (ce) homolog, CLHM-1, belong to a new family of physiologically important ion channels that are regulated by voltage and extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)o), but lack a canonical voltage-sensing domain. Consequently, the intrinsic voltage-dependent gating mechanisms for CALHM channels are unknown. Here, we performed voltage-clamp experiments on ceCLHM-1 chimeric, deletion, insertion and point mutants to assess the role of the N-terminus (NT) in CALHM channel gating. Analyses of chimeric channels in which the ceCLHM-1 and human (h)CALHM1 N-termini were interchanged showed that the hCALHM1 NT destabilized channel-closed states, whereas the ceCLHM-1 NT had a stabilizing effect...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510485/metabolomic-response-to-huanglongbing-role-of-carboxylic-compounds-in-citrus-sinensis-response-to-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-and-its-vector-diaphorina-citri
#6
Nabil Killiny, Yasser Nehela
Huanglongbing, a destructive disease of citrus, is caused by the fastidious bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), and transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. The impact of CLas-infection and/or D. citri-infestation on Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) leaf metabolites was investigated using GC-MS, followed by gene expression analysis for 37 genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and proline-glutamine pathways. The total amino acid abundance increased after CLas-infection, while the total fatty acids increased dramatically after infestation with D...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508995/l-carnitine-and-acetyl-l-carnitine-roles-and-neuroprotection-in-developing-brain
#7
Gustavo C Ferreira, Mary C McKenna
L-Carnitine functions to transport long chain fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria for degradation by β-oxidation. Treatment with L-carnitine can ameliorate metabolic imbalances in many inborn errors of metabolism. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of L-carnitine and its acetylated derivative acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) for neuroprotection in a number of disorders including hypoxia-ischemia, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease and in conditions leading to central or peripheral nervous system injury...
May 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507224/c-myc-mrna-tail-tale-about-glutamine-control-of-transcription
#8
Chi V Dang
Dejure et al (2017) demonstrates an intriguing link between glutamine, c-MYC protein levels, and c-MYC-dependent transcription. Glutamine-dependent c-MYC protein level, which is sensed through the c-MYC mRNA 3'-UTR, determines global transcriptional response to glutamine deprivation in HCT116 colon cancer cells. These findings add another layer of complexity to c-MYC's role as a nexus in metabolic regulation.
May 15, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500980/serum-metabolomics-reveals-the-mechanistic-role-of-functional-foods-and-exercise-for-obesity-management-in-rats
#9
Naglaa M Ammar, Mohamed A Farag, Tahani E Kholeif, Nadia S Metwally, Nora M El-Sheikh, Abdel Nasser El Gendy, Abdel-Hamid Z Abdel-Hamid
Obesity is one of the independent risk factors for several health problems, leading to metabolic perturbations and for which analytical approaches i.e., "metabolomics" is needed to monitor the underlying metabolic changes. In this study, obesity associated changes were assessed via serum metabolites analysis of obese rats fed on high fat diet. Obese rats were subsequently treated with different functional foods used for obesity management including pomegranate, grapefruit, and red cabbage in parallel to swimming exercise...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500346/structural-studies-of-the-periplasmic-portion-of-the-diguanylate-cyclase-cdgh-from-vibrio-cholerae
#10
Min Xu, Yi-Zhi Wang, Xiu-An Yang, Tao Jiang, Wei Xie
Cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger involved in bacterial signal transduction and produced by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) generally containing highly variable periplasmic signal-recognition domains. CdgH is a DGC enzyme that regulates rugosity associated phenotypes in Vibrio cholerae. CdgH has two N-terminal tandem periplasmic substrate-binding (PBPb) domains for its signal recognition; however, the role of the tandem PBPb domains remains unclear. Here, we reported the crystal structure of the periplasmic portion of CdgH, which indicated that both tandem PBPb domains consist of typical interlobe ligand-binding architecture...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498331/the-roles-of-glutamine-in-the-intestine-and-its-implication-in-intestinal-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Min-Hyun Kim, Hyeyoung Kim
Glutamine, the most abundant free amino acid in the human body, is a major substrate utilized by intestinal cells. The roles of glutamine in intestinal physiology and management of multiple intestinal diseases have been reported. In gut physiology, glutamine promotes enterocyte proliferation, regulates tight junction proteins, suppresses pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, and protects cells against apoptosis and cellular stresses during normal and pathologic conditions. As glutamine stores are depleted during severe metabolic stress including trauma, sepsis, and inflammatory bowel diseases, glutamine supplementation has been examined in patients to improve their clinical outcomes...
May 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494460/persistently-altered-metabolic-phenotype-following-perinatal-excitotoxic-brain-injury
#12
Benjamin J Blaise, Leslie Schwendimann, Vibol Chhor, Vincent Degos, Mark P Hodson, Guido Dallmann, Matthias Keller, Pierre Gressens, Bobbi Fleiss
Excitotoxicity plays a key role during insults to the developing brain such as neonatal encephalopathy, stroke, and encephalopathy of prematurity. Such insults affect many thousands of infants each year. Excitotoxicity causes frank lesions due to cell death and gliosis and disturbs normal developmental process, leading to deficits in learning, memory, and social integration that persist into adulthood. Understanding the underlying processes of the acute effects of excitotoxicity and its persistence during brain maturation provides an opportunity to identify mechanistic or diagnostic biomarkers, thus enabling and designing possible therapies...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486989/postnatal-treatment-using-curcumin-supplements-to-amend-the-damage-in-vpa-induced-rodent-models-of-autism
#13
Maha Al-Askar, Ramesa Shafi Bhat, Manar Selim, Laila Al-Ayadhi, Afaf El-Ansary
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is used as a first-line antiepileptic agent and is undergoing clinical trials for use as a treatment for many disorders. Mothers undergoing VPA treatment during early pregnancy reportedly show increased rates of autism among their offspring. The benefits of curcumin supplementation were investigated using an animal model of VPA-induced autism. METHODS: The study was performed using a rodent model of autism by exposing rat fetuses to valproic acid (VPA) on the 12...
May 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486580/enterocyte-glycosylation-is-responsive-to-changes-in-extracellular-conditions-implications-for-membrane-functions
#14
Dayoung Park, Gege Xu, Mariana Barboza, Ishita M Shah, Maurice Wong, Helen Raybould, David A Mills, Carlito B Lebrilla
Epithelial cells in the lining of the intestines play critical roles in maintaining homeostasis while challenged by dynamic and sudden changes in luminal contents. Given the high density of glycosylation that encompasses their extracellular surface, environmental changes may lead to extensive reorganization of membrane-associated glycans. However, neither the molecular details nor the consequences of conditional glycan changes are well understood. Here we assessed the sensitivity of Caco-2 and HT-29 membrane N-glycosylation to variations in (i) dietary elements; (ii) microbial fermentation products; and (ii) cell culture parameters relevant to intestinal epithelial cell growth and survival...
May 9, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486006/protein-kinase-activity-of-the-glycolytic-enzyme-pgk1-regulates-autophagy-to-promote-tumorigenesis
#15
Xu Qian, Xinjian Li, Zhimin Lu
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a cellular defense response to stress conditions and is crucial for cell homeostasis maintenance. However, the precise mechanism underlying autophagy initiation, especially in response to glutamine deprivation and hypoxia, remains to be explored. We recently discovered that PGK1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1), a glycolytic enzyme, functions as a protein kinase, phosphorylating BECN1/Beclin1 to initiate autophagy. Under glutamine deprivation or hypoxia stimulation, PGK1 is acetylated at K388 by NAA10/ARD1 in an MTOR-inhibition-dependent manner, leading to the interaction between PGK1 and BECN1 and the subsequent phosphorylation of BECN1 at S30 by PGK1...
May 9, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484595/fetal-and-neonatal-programming-of-postnatal-growth-and-feed-efficiency-in-swine
#16
REVIEW
Yun Ji, Zhenlong Wu, Zhaolai Dai, Xiaolong Wang, Ju Li, Binggen Wang, Guoyao Wu
Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy alters organ structure, impairs prenatal and neonatal growth and development, and reduces feed efficiency for lean tissue gains in pigs. These adverse effects may be carried over to the next generation or beyond. This phenomenon of the transgenerational impacts is known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467910/targeting-ras-driven-cancer-cell-survival-and-invasion-through-selective-inhibition-of-dock1
#17
Hirotada Tajiri, Takehito Uruno, Takahiro Shirai, Daisuke Takaya, Shigeki Matsunaga, Daiki Setoyama, Mayuki Watanabe, Mutsuko Kukimoto-Niino, Kounosuke Oisaki, Miho Ushijima, Fumiyuki Sanematsu, Teruki Honma, Takaho Terada, Eiji Oki, Senji Shirasawa, Yoshihiko Maehara, Dongchon Kang, Jean-François Côté, Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Motomu Kanai, Yoshinori Fukui
Oncogenic Ras plays a key role in cancer initiation but also contributes to malignant phenotypes by stimulating nutrient uptake and promoting invasive migration. Because these latter cellular responses require Rac-mediated remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, we hypothesized that molecules involved in Rac activation may be valuable targets for cancer therapy. We report that genetic inactivation of the Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor DOCK1 ablates both macropinocytosis-dependent nutrient uptake and cellular invasion in Ras-transformed cells...
May 2, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467675/ribosome-bound-pub1-modulates-stop-codon-decoding-during-translation-termination-in-yeast
#18
Valery N Urakov, Olga V Mitkevich, Irina V Safenkova, Michael D Ter-Avanesyan
In eukaryotes termination of translation is controlled by polypeptide chain release factors eRF1 and eRF3, of which the former recognizes nonsense codons, while the latter interacts with eRF1 and stimulates polypeptide release from the ribosome in a GTP- dependent manner, and ABCE1, which facilitates ribosome recycling. In this work we demonstrate that Pub1, a yeast protein known to be involved in stress granule formation, regulation of gene expression, and organization of the tubulin cytoskeleton, also plays a role in translation termination...
May 3, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467421/a-fungal-transcription-factor-essential-for-starch-degradation-affects-integration-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-metabolism
#19
Yi Xiong, Vincent W Wu, Andrea Lubbe, Lina Qin, Siwen Deng, Megan Kennedy, Diane Bauer, Vasanth R Singan, Kerrie Barry, Trent R Northen, Igor V Grigoriev, N Louise Glass
In Neurospora crassa, the transcription factor COL-26 functions as a regulator of glucose signaling and metabolism. Its loss leads to resistance to carbon catabolite repression. Here, we report that COL-26 is necessary for the expression of amylolytic genes in N. crassa and is required for the utilization of maltose and starch. Additionally, the Δcol-26 mutant shows growth defects on preferred carbon sources, such as glucose, an effect that was alleviated if glutamine replaced ammonium as the primary nitrogen source...
May 3, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464016/muc1-facilitates-metabolomic-reprogramming-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#20
Gennifer Goode, Venugopal Gunda, Nina V Chaika, Vinee Purohit, Fang Yu, Pankaj K Singh
BACKGROUND: Mucin1 (MUC1), a glycoprotein associated with chemoresistance and an aggressive cancer phenotype, is aberrantly overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Recent studies suggest that MUC1 plays a role in modulating cancer cell metabolism and thereby supports tumor growth. Herein, we examined the role of MUC1 in metabolic reprogramming in TNBC. METHODS: MUC1 was stably overexpressed in MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells and stably knocked down in MDA-MB-468 cells...
2017: PloS One
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