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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770867/dietary-supplementation-with-an-amino-acid-blend-enhances-intestinal-function-in-piglets
#1
Dan Yi, Baocheng Li, Yongqing Hou, Lei Wang, Di Zhao, Hongbo Chen, Tao Wu, Ying Zhou, Binying Ding, Guoyao Wu
The traditionally classified nutritionally non-essential amino acids are now known to be insufficiently synthesized for maximal growth and optimal health in piglets. This study determined the effects of dietary supplementation with an amino acid blend (AAB; glutamate:glutamine:glycine:arginine:N-acetylcysteine = 5:2:2:1:0.5) on piglet growth performance and intestinal functions. Sixteen piglets (24-day-old) were randomly assigned to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.99% alanine (isonitrogenous control) or 1% AAB...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768217/integrative-characterization-of-the-r6-2-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease-reveals-dysfunctional-astrocyte-metabolism
#2
Niels H Skotte, Jens V Andersen, Alberto Santos, Blanca I Aldana, Cecilie W Willert, Anne Nørremølle, Helle S Waagepetersen, Michael L Nielsen
Huntington's disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, where dysfunction and loss of striatal and cortical neurons are central to the pathogenesis of the disease. Here, we integrated quantitative studies to investigate the underlying mechanisms behind HD pathology in a systems-wide manner. To this end, we used state-of-the-art mass spectrometry to establish a spatial brain proteome from late-stage R6/2 mice and compared this with wild-type littermates. We observed altered expression of proteins in pathways related to energy metabolism, synapse function, and neurotransmitter homeostasis...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764985/responses-to-systemic-nitrogen-signaling-in-arabidopsis-roots-involve-trans-zeatin-in-shoots
#3
Arthur Poitout, Amandine Crabos, Ivan Petřík, Ondřej Novák, Gabriel Krouk, Benoît Lacombe, Sandrine Ruffel
Plants face temporal and spatial variation in nitrogen (N) availability. This includes heterogeneity in soil nitrate (NO3-) content. To overcome these constraints, plants modify their gene expression and physiological processes to optimize N acquisition. This plasticity relies on a complex long-distance root-shoot-root signaling network that remains poorly understood. We previously showed that cytokinin (CK) biosynthesis is required to trigger systemic N signaling. Here, we performed split-root experiments and used a combination of CK-related mutant analyses, hormone profiling, transcriptomic analysis, NO3- uptake assays, and root growth measurements to gain insight into systemic N signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana...
May 15, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764521/amino-acid-transporter-slc7a11-xct-at-the-crossroads-of-regulating-redox-homeostasis-and-nutrient-dependency-of-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Pranavi Koppula, Yilei Zhang, Li Zhuang, Boyi Gan
Cancer cells often upregulate nutrient transporters to fulfill their increased biosynthetic and bioenergetic needs, and to maintain redox homeostasis. One nutrient transporter frequently overexpressed in human cancers is the cystine/glutamate antiporter solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11; also known as xCT). SLC7A11 promotes cystine uptake and glutathione biosynthesis, resulting in protection from oxidative stress and ferroptotic cell death. Recent studies have unexpectedly revealed that SLC7A11 also plays critical roles in glutamine metabolism and regulates the glucose and glutamine dependency of cancer cells...
April 25, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759594/liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics-and-lipidomics-reveal-toxicological-mechanisms-of-bisphenol-f-in-breast-cancer-xenografts
#5
Chao Zhao, Peisi Xie, Hailin Wang, Zongwei Cai
Bisphenol F (BPF) is a major alternative to bisphenol (BPA) and has been widely used. Although BPA exposure is known to generate various toxic effects, toxicity of BPF remains under-explored. A comprehensive method involving mass spectrometry (MS)-based global lipidomics and metabolomics, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI)- MS imaging (MSI) was used to study toxic effects of BPF and the underlying mechanisms on tumor metastasis-related tissues (liver and kidney) in breast cancer xenografts...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755574/branched-chain-amino-acids-in-health-and-disease-metabolism-alterations-in-blood-plasma-and-as-supplements
#6
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are essential amino acids with protein anabolic properties, which have been studied in a number of muscle wasting disorders for more than 50 years. However, until today, there is no consensus regarding their therapeutic effectiveness. In the article is demonstrated that the crucial roles in BCAA metabolism play: (i) skeletal muscle as the initial site of BCAA catabolism accompanied with the release of alanine and glutamine to the blood; (ii) activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD); and (iii) amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) to BCAAs...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753678/deficiency-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc-in-mice-on-a-long-term-obesogenic-diet
#7
Garima Singhal, Gaurav Kumar, Suzanne Chan, Ffolliott M Fisher, Yong Ma, Hilde G Vardeh, Imad A Nasser, Jeffrey S Flier, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) associated with obesity is a major cause of liver diseases which can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) plays an important role in liver metabolism and is also a potential marker for NAFL. Here we aimed to test the effect of FGF21 deficiency on liver pathology in mice consuming a conventional high fat, high sucrose (HFHS) obesogenic diet for up to 52 weeks...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752600/pancreatic-cancer-metabolism-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-applications
#8
REVIEW
Abdel Nasser Hosein, Muhammad Shaalan Beg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a leading cause of cancer mortality in western countries with a uniformly poor prognosis. Unfortunately, there has been little in the way of novel therapeutics for this malignancy over the last several decades. Derangements in metabolic circuitry favoring excess glycolysis are increasingly recognized as a key hallmark of cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of alterations in glutamine metabolism in pancreatic tumor progression has been elucidated in animal models and human cells lines, and there has been considerable interest in exploiting these aberrations for the treatment of pancreatic cancer...
May 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750149/the-antioxidative-function-of-alpha-ketoglutarate-and-its-applications
#9
REVIEW
Shaojuan Liu, Liuqin He, Kang Yao
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a crucial intermediate of the Krebs cycle and plays a critical role in multiple metabolic processes in animals and humans. Of note, AKG contributes to the oxidation of nutrients (i.e., amino acids, glucose, fatty acids) and then provides energy for cell processes. As a precursor of glutamate and glutamine, AKG acts as an antioxidant agent as it directly reacts with hydrogen peroxide with formation of succinate, water, and carbon dioxide; meanwhile, it discharges plenty of ATP by oxidative decarboxylation...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743767/pressure-ulcer-and-nutrition
#10
REVIEW
Seied Hadi Saghaleini, Kasra Dehghan, Kamran Shadvar, Sarvin Sanaie, Ata Mahmoodpoor, Zohreh Ostadi
Pressure ulcers can diminish global life quality, contribute to rapid mortality in some patients and pose a significant cost to health-care organizations. Accordingly, their prevention and management are highly important. Nutritional deprivation and insufficient dietary intake are the key risk factors for the development of pressure ulcers and impaired wound healing. Unplanned weight loss is a major risk factor for malnutrition and pressure ulcer development. Suboptimal nutrition interferes with the function of the immune system, collagen synthesis, and tensile strength...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743038/valine-glutamine-vq-motif-coding-genes-are-ancient-and-non-plant-specific-with-comprehensive-expression-regulation-by-various-biotic-and-abiotic-stresses
#11
Shu-Ye Jiang, Mayalagu Sevugan, Srinivasan Ramachandran
BACKGROUND: Valine-glutamine (VQ) motif containing proteins play important roles in abiotic and biotic stress responses in plants. However, little is known about the origin and evolution as well as comprehensive expression regulation of the VQ gene family. RESULTS: In this study, we systematically surveyed this gene family in 50 plant genomes from algae, moss, gymnosperm and angiosperm and explored their presence in other species from animals, bacteria, fungi and viruses...
May 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733852/characterizing-lysine-acetylation-of-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-in-escherichia-coli
#12
Sumana Venkat, Hao Chen, Alleigh Stahman, Denver Hudson, Paige McGuire, Qinglei Gan, Chenguang Fan
The Escherichia coli isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) is one of the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, playing key roles in energy production and carbon flux regulation. E. coli ICDH was the first bacterial enzyme shown to be regulated by reversible phosphorylation. However, the effect of lysine acetylation on E. coli ICDH, which has no sequence similarity with its counterparts in eukaryotes, is still unclear. Based on previous studies of E. coli acetylome and ICDH crystal structures, eight lysine residues were selected for mutational and kinetic analyses...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723133/antipyrimidine-effects-of-five-different-pyrimidine-de-novo-synthesis-inhibitors-in-three-head-and-neck-cancer-cell-lines
#13
Godefridus J Peters
The pyrimidine de novo nucleotide synthesis consists of 6 sequential steps. Various inhibitors against these enzymes have been developed and evaluated in the clinic for their potential anticancer activity: acivicin inhibits carbamoyl-phosphate-synthase-II, N-(phosphonacetyl)-L- aspartate (PALA) inhibits aspartate-transcarbamylase, Brequinar sodium and dichloroallyl-lawsone (DCL) inhibit dihydroorotate-dehydrogenase, and pyrazofurin (PF) inhibits orotate-phosphoribosyltransferase. We compared their growth inhibition against 3 cell lines from head-and-neck-cancer (HEP-2, UMSCC-14B and UMSCC-14C) and related the sensitivity to their effects on nucleotide pools...
May 3, 2018: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722357/corrigendum-chloroplast-glutamine-synthetase-the-key-regulator-of-nitrogen-metabolism-in-wheat-performs-its-role-by-fine-regulation-of-enzyme-activity-via-negative-cooperativity-of-its-subunits
#14
Edit Németh, Zoltán Nagy, Attila Pécsváradi
[This corrects the article on p. 191 in vol. 9, PMID: 29520285.].
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713895/mutant-huntingtin-causes-a-selective-decrease-in-the-expression-of-synaptic-vesicle-protein-2c
#15
Chaohua Peng, Gaochun Zhu, Xiangqian Liu, He Li
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. Mutant Htt causes synaptic transmission dysfunctions by interfering in the expression of synaptic proteins, leading to early HD symptoms. Synaptic vesicle proteins 2 (SV2s), a family of synaptic vesicle proteins including 3 members, SV2A, SV2B, and SV2C, plays important roles in synaptic physiology. Here, we investigated whether the expression of SV2s is affected by mutant Htt in the brains of HD transgenic (TG) mice and Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma cells (N2a cells) expressing mutant Htt...
April 30, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702237/molecular-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-two-phospholipid-hydroperoxide-isoforms-from-larimichthys-crocea-under-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-challenge
#16
Xiaoze Xie, Mengnan Chen, Aiyi Zhu
Glutathione peroxidases family is a key role in the antioxidant system in oxybiotic organisms for cell redox homeostasis. One of their members, phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) have unique monomeric structure and can directly react with complex lipid and membrane-bound peroxides under the presence of glutathione(GSH). In this paper, two complete GPx4 cDNAs (designated as LcGPx4a and LcGPx4b) from Larimichthys crocea are identified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The cDNA of LcGPx4a was consisted of a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 258 bp, a 3'-UTR of 330 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 561 bp encoding 186 amino acid (aa) polypeptides...
April 24, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698392/gtr-ego-independent-torc1-activation-is-achieved-through-a-glutamine-sensitive-interaction-with-pib2-on-the-vacuolar-membrane
#17
Hirofumi Ukai, Yasuhiro Araki, Shintaro Kira, Yu Oikawa, Alexander I May, Takeshi Noda
TORC1 is a central regulator of cell growth in response to amino acids. The role of the evolutionarily conserved Gtr/Rag pathway in the regulation of TORC1 is well-established. Recent genetic studies suggest that an additional regulatory pathway, depending on the activity of Pib2, plays a role in TORC1 activation independently of the Gtr/Rag pathway. However, the interplay between the Pib2 pathway and the Gtr/Rag pathway remains unclear. In this study, we show that Pib2 and Gtr/Ego form distinct complexes with TORC1 in a mutually exclusive manner, implying dedicated functional relationships between TORC1 and Pib2 or Gtr/Rag in response to specific amino acids...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694413/proline-oxidase-controls-proline-glutamate-and-glutamine-cellular-concentrations-in-a-u87-glioblastoma-cell-line
#18
Pamela Cappelletti, Elena Tallarita, Valentina Rabattoni, Paola Campomenosi, Silvia Sacchi, Loredano Pollegioni
L-Proline is a multifunctional amino acid that plays an essential role in primary metabolism and physiological functions. Proline is oxidized to glutamate in the mitochondria and the FAD-containing enzyme proline oxidase (PO) catalyzes the first step in L-proline degradation pathway. Alterations in proline metabolism have been described in various human diseases, such as hyperprolinemia type I, velo-cardio-facial syndrome/Di George syndrome, schizophrenia and cancer. In particular, the mutation giving rise to the substitution Leu441Pro was identified in patients suffering of schizophrenia and hyperprolinemia type I...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691634/the-ctenidium-of-the-giant-clam-tridacna-squamosa-expresses-an-ammonium-transporter-1-that-displays-light-suppressed-gene-and-protein-expression-and-may-be-involved-in-ammonia-excretion
#19
Mel V Boo, Kum C Hiong, Enan J K Goh, Celine Y L Choo, Wai P Wong, Shit F Chew, Yuen K Ip
Ammonium transporters (AMTs) can participate in ammonia uptake or excretion across the plasma membrane of prokaryotic, plant and invertebrate cells. The giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, harbors nitrogen-deficient symbiotic zooxanthellae, and normally conducts light-enhanced ammonia absorption to benefit the symbionts. Nonetheless, it can excrete ammonia when there is a supply of exogenous nitrogen or exposed to continuous darkness. This study aimed to elucidate the role of AMT1 in the ctenidium of T. squamosa by cloning and characterizing the AMT1/AMT1, determining its subcellular localization, and examining changes in its transcript and protein expression levels in response to light exposure...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688630/the-complex-allosteric-and-redox-regulation-of-the-fumarate-hydratase-and-malate-dehydratase-reactions-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-fumarase-1-and-2-gives-clues-for-understanding-the-massive-accumulation-of-fumarate
#20
Juan Pablo Zubimendi, Andrea Martinatto, Maria Pía Valacco, Silvia Moreno, Carlos Santiago Andreo, María Fabiana Drincovich, Marcos Ariel Tronconi
Arabidopsis thaliana possesses two fumarase genes (FUM), AtFUM1 (At2g47510) encoding for the mitochondrial Krebs cycle-associated enzyme and AtFUM2 (At5g50950) for the cytosolic isoform required for fumarate massive accumulation. Here, the comprehensive biochemical studies of AtFUM1 and AtFUM2 shows that they are active enzymes with similar kinetic parameters but differential regulation. For both enzymes, fumarate hydratase (FH) activity is favored over the malate dehydratase (MD) activity; however, MD is the most regulated activity with several allosteric activators...
April 24, 2018: FEBS Journal
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