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role of glutamine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644842/investigation-of-discriminant-metabolites-in-tamoxifen-resistant-and-choline-kinase-alpha-downregulated-breast-cancer-cells-using-1h-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#1
Hoe Suk Kim, Lianji Tian, Hyeonjin Kim, Woo Kyung Moon
Metabolites linked to changes in choline kinase-α (CK-α) expression and drug resistance, which contribute to survival and autophagy mechanisms, are attractive targets for breast cancer therapies. We previously reported that autophagy played a causative role in driving tamoxifen (TAM) resistance of breast cancer cells (BCCs) and was also promoted by CK-α knockdown, resulting in the survival of TAM-resistant BCCs. There is no comparative study yet about the metabolites resulting from BCCs with TAM-resistance and CK-α knockdown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642844/role-of-bacterioferritin-ferritin-in-m-tuberculosis-pathogenesis-and-drug-resistance-a-future-perspective-by-interactomic-approach
#2
Divakar Sharma, Deepa Bisht
Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the most successful and deadliest human pathogen. Aminoglycosides resistance leads to emergence of extremely drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Iron is crucial for the biological functions of the cells. Iron assimilation, storage and their utilization is not only involved in pathogenesis but also in emergence of drug resistance strains. We previously reported that iron storing proteins (bacterioferritin and ferritin) were found to be overexpressed in aminoglycosides resistant isolates...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638888/modulation-of-key-biochemical-markers-relevant-to-stroke-by-antiaris-africana-leaf-extract-following-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#3
Omotayo B Ilesanmi, Afolabi C Akinmoladun, Olanrewaju Sam Olayeriju, Ibrahim Olabayode Saliu, M Tolulope Olaleye, Afolabi A Akindahunsi
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress plays a significant role in stroke pathogenesis. Hence, plants rich in antioxidant phytochemicals have been suggested as effective remedies for prevention and treatment of stroke and other neurological diseases. Antiaris africana Engl. (Moraceae) is traditionally used for the management of brain-related problems but there is paucity of data on its anti-stroke potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by a 30 min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion/ 2 h reperfusion (BCCAO/R) in the brain of male Wistar rats...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637353/hallmarks-of-pulmonary-hypertension-mesenchymal-and-inflammatory-cell-metabolic-reprogramming
#4
Angelo D'Alessandro, Karim El Kasmi, Lydie Plecita-Hlavata, Petr Jezek, Min Li, Hui Zhang, Sachin A Gupte, Kurt Randall Stenmark
The molecular events that promote the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) are complex and incompletely understood. The complex interplay between the pulmonary vasculature and its immediate microenvironment involving cells of immune system (i.e. macrophages) promotes a persistent inflammatory state, pathological angiogenesis and fibrosis that is driven by metabolic reprogramming of mesenchymal and immune cells. Consistent with previous findings in the field of cancer metabolism, increased glycolytic rates, incomplete glucose and glutamine oxidation to support anabolism and anaplerosis, altered lipid synthesis/oxidation ratios, increased one-carbon metabolism and activation of the pentose phosphate pathway to support nucleoside synthesis are but some of the key metabolic signatures of vascular cells in PH...
June 22, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627692/the-role-of-intestinal-endotoxemia-in-a-rat-model-of-aluminum-neurotoxicity
#5
Feng Wang, Rui-Xia Guo, Wen-Xing Li, Bao-Feng Yu, Bai Han, Li-Xin Liu, De-Wu Han
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of intestinal endotoxemia (IETM) in a rat model of aluminum neurotoxicity established by D-galactose and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3). Adult Wistar rats were administered D‑galactose and AlCl3 to create the aluminum neurotoxicity model. The learning and memory abilities of the rats were subsequently observed using a Morris water maze test and the serum levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1, diamine oxidase (DAO), glutamine (Gln) and glutaminase were measured...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621566/glutamate-dehydrogenase-is-essential-to-sustain-neuronal-oxidative-energy-metabolism-during-stimulation
#6
Michaela C Hohnholt, Vibe H Andersen, Jens V Andersen, Sofie K Christensen, Melis Karaca, Pierre Maechler, Helle S Waagepetersen
The enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; Glud1) catalyzes the (reversible) oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate accompanied by a reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. GDH connects amino acid, carbohydrate, neurotransmitter and oxidative energy metabolism. Glutamine is a neurotransmitter precursor used by neurons to sustain the pool of glutamate, but glutamine is also vividly oxidized for support of energy metabolism. This study investigates the role of GDH in neuronal metabolism by employing the Cns- Glud1(-/-) mouse, lacking GDH in the brain (GDH KO) and metabolic mapping using (13)C-labelled glutamine and glucose...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614987/role-of-amino-acid-supplementation-in-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-neonates-a-review-of-current-evidences
#7
Bhawan Deep Garg, Nandkishor S Kabra
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common acute and fatal gastrointestinal emergency in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates with mortality range from 15-30%. NEC is likely due to multifactorial process such as oxidative injury, ischemic necrosis and over reactive inflammatory response to intestinal microbes. AIMS: To evaluate the role of amino acid supplementation for reduction of neonatal NEC in preterm neonates. METHOD: The literature search was done for various randomized control trial (RCT) by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Index Copernicus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Thomson Reuters (ESCI), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) and other data base...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614770/transcription-factor-gata3-expression-is-induced-by-gls2-overexpression-in-a-glioblastoma-cell-line-but-is-gls2-independent-in-patient-derived-glioblastoma
#8
E Majewska, R Rola, M Barczewska, J Marquez, J Albrecht, M Szeliga
Phosphate-activated glutaminase (GA), a ubiquitous glutamine-metabolizing enzyme, is encoded by two genes, GLS and GLS2. In mammalian cancers, GLS isoforms are perceived as molecules promoting cell proliferation and invasion, whereas the role of GLS2 isoforms seems to be more complex and cell type-specific. Previous studies have shown abundance of GLS and lack of GLS2 transcripts in T98G human glioblastoma (GBM) cell line and patient-derived GBM. Transfection with GAB sequence, the whole GLS2 cDNA transcript, suppressed malignant phenotype of T98G cells...
April 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611214/interplay-between-tolerance-mechanisms-to-copper-and-acid-stress-in-escherichia-coli
#9
Karrera Y Djoko, Minh-Duy Phan, Kate M Peters, Mark J Walker, Mark A Schembri, Alastair G McEwan
Copper (Cu) is a key antibacterial component of the host innate immune system and almost all bacterial species possess systems that defend against the toxic effects of excess Cu. The Cu tolerance system in Gram-negative bacteria is composed minimally of a Cu sensor (CueR) and a Cu export pump (CopA). The cueR and copA genes are encoded on the chromosome typically as a divergent but contiguous operon. In Escherichia coli, cueR and copA are separated by two additional genes, ybaS and ybaT, which confer glutamine (Gln)-dependent acid tolerance and contribute to the glutamate (Glu)-dependent acid resistance system in this organism...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607053/trigger-loop-of-rna-polymerase-is-a-positional-not-acid-base-catalyst-for-both-transcription-and-proofreading
#10
Tatiana V Mishanina, Michael Z Palo, Dhananjaya Nayak, Rachel A Mooney, Robert Landick
The active site of multisubunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs) is highly conserved from humans to bacteria. This single site catalyzes both nucleotide addition required for RNA transcript synthesis and excision of incorrect nucleotides after misincorporation as a proofreading mechanism. Phosphoryl transfer and proofreading hydrolysis are controlled in part by a dynamic RNAP component called the trigger loop (TL), which cycles between an unfolded loop and an α-helical hairpin [trigger helices (TH)] required for rapid nucleotide addition...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599655/canine-reic-dkk-3-interacts-with-sgta-and-restores-androgen-receptor-signalling-in-androgen-independent-prostate-cancer-cell-lines
#11
Yuiko Kato, Kazuhiko Ochiai, Shota Kawakami, Nobuhiro Nakao, Daigo Azakami, Makoto Bonkobara, Masaki Michishita, Masami Morimatsu, Masami Watanabe, Toshinori Omi
BACKGROUND: The pathological condition of canine prostate cancer resembles that of human androgen-independent prostate cancer. Both canine and human androgen receptor (AR) signalling are inhibited by overexpression of the dimerized co-chaperone small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α (SGTA), which is considered to cause the development of androgen-independency. Reduced expression in immortalised cells (REIC/Dkk-3) interferes with SGTA dimerization and rescues AR signalling...
June 9, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597996/sensitization-of-melanoma-cells-to-temozolomide-by-overexpression-of-microrna-203-through-direct-targeting-of-glutaminase-mediated-glutamine-metabolism
#12
X Chang, W Zhu, H Zhang, S Lian
BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma (MM) is an aggressive malignancy, which accounts for 80% of skin cancer-related deaths and is notably resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. One of the most common treatments for melanoma is surgery, followed by various combinations of chemotherapy drugs. AIM: To investigate the role of microRNA (miR)-203 in sensitivity of MM cells to the chemotherapy drug temozolomide (TMZ). METHODS: Using quantitative reverse transcription PCR, we measured the expression of miR-203 in an MM cell line...
June 9, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597918/inflammation-in-the-developing-rat-modulates-astroglial-reactivity-to-seizures-in-the-mature-brain
#13
Zuzanna Setkowicz, Emilia Kosonowska, Krzysztof Janeczko
Astrocytes participate in neuronal development and excitability, and produce factors enhancing or suppressing inflammatory processes occurring due to neurodegenerative diseases, such as epilepsy. Seizures, in turn, trigger the release of inflammatory mediators, causing structural and functional changes in the brain. Therefore, it appears reasonable to determine whether generalized inflammation at developmental periods can affect astrocyte reactivity to epileptic seizures occurring in the adult brain. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected in 6- or 30-day-old rats (P6 or P30, respectively)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593130/the-neuronal-and-astrocytic-protein-slc38a10-transports-glutamine-glutamate-and-aspartate-suggesting-a-role-in-neurotransmission
#14
Sofie V Hellsten, Maria G Hägglund, Mikaela M Eriksson, Robert Fredriksson
In brain cells, glutamine transporters are vital to monitor and control the levels of glutamate and GABA. There are 11 members of the SLC38 family of amino acid transporters of which eight have been functionally characterized. Here, we report the first histological and functional characterization of the previously orphan member, SLC38A10. We used pairwise global sequence alignments to determine the sequence identity between the SLC38 family members. SLC38A10 was found to share 20-25% transmembrane sequence identity with several family members, and was predicted to have 11 transmembrane helices...
June 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592702/a-past-and-present-overview-of-macrophage-metabolism-and-functional-outcomes
#15
REVIEW
Rui Curi, Renata de Siqueira Mendes, Luiz Aurélio de Campos Crispin, Giuseppe Danilo Norata, Sandra Coccuzzo Sampaio, Philip Newsholme
In 1986 and 1987, Philip Newsholme et al. reported macrophages utilize glutamine, as well as glucose, at high rates. These authors measured key enzyme activities and consumption and production levels of metabolites in incubated or cultured macrophages isolated from the mouse or rat intraperitoneal cavity. Metabolic pathways essential for macrophage function were then determined. Macrophages utilize glucose to generate (i) ATP in the pathways of glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, (ii) glycerol 3-phosphate for the synthesis of phospholipids and triacylglycerols, (iii) NADPH for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and (iv) ribose for the synthesis of RNA and subsequently production and secretion of protein mediators (e...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591638/interrupted-glucagon-signaling-reveals-hepatic-%C3%AE-cell-axis-and-role-for-l-glutamine-in-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation
#16
E Danielle Dean, Mingyu Li, Nripesh Prasad, Scott N Wisniewski, Alison Von Deylen, Jason Spaeth, Lisette Maddison, Anthony Botros, Leslie R Sedgeman, Nadejda Bozadjieva, Olga Ilkayeva, Anastasia Coldren, Greg Poffenberger, Alena Shostak, Michael C Semich, Kristie I Aamodt, Neil Phillips, Hai Yan, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi, Jackie D Corbin, Kasey C Vickers, Shawn E Levy, Chunhua Dai, Christopher Newgard, Wei Gu, Roland Stein, Wenbiao Chen, Alvin C Powers
Decreasing glucagon action lowers the blood glucose and may be useful therapeutically for diabetes. However, interrupted glucagon signaling leads to α cell proliferation. To identify postulated hepatic-derived circulating factor(s) responsible for α cell proliferation, we used transcriptomics/proteomics/metabolomics in three models of interrupted glucagon signaling and found that proliferation of mouse, zebrafish, and human α cells was mTOR and FoxP transcription factor dependent. Changes in hepatic amino acid (AA) catabolism gene expression predicted the observed increase in circulating AAs...
June 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590138/vibrational-probes-of-molybdenum-cofactor-protein-interactions-in-xanthine-dehydrogenase
#17
Chao Dong, Jing Yang, Stefan Reschke, Silke Leimkühler, Martin L Kirk
The pyranopterin dithiolene (PDT) ligand is an integral component of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) found in all molybdoenzymes with the sole exception of nitrogenase. However, the roles of the PDT in catalysis are still unknown. The PDT is believed to be bound to the proteins by an extensive hydrogen-bonding network, and it has been suggested that these interactions may function to fine-tune Moco for electron- and atom-transfer reactivity in catalysis. Here, we use resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy to probe Moco-protein interactions using heavy-atom congeners of lumazine, molecules that bind tightly to both wild-type xanthine dehydrogenase (wt-XDH) and its Q102G and Q197A variants following enzymatic hydroxylation to the corresponding violapterin product molecules...
June 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587384/upregulation-of-glutamate-metabolism-by-byhwd-in-cultured-astrocytes-following-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation-in-part-depends-on-the-activation-of-p38-mapk
#18
Peng Yu, Li Guan, Lequan Zhou, Jianchao Guo, Ruixian Guo, Ruishan Lin, Wenting Ding, Xiaoying Li, Wei Liu
Recent studies have demonstrated that Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) decreased glutamate levels subsequent to cerebral ischemia. Glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and glutamine synthetase (GS), which are located in astrocytes, mainly contribute to glutamate transportation, thus reducing glutamate concentration. BYHWD has previously been demonstrated to upregulate GLT-1 and GS following ischemia in vivo. However, whether BYHWD can directly influence astrocytic GLT-1/GS levels remains unknown. In the present study, the effect of BYHWD containing serum (BYHWD-CS) on GLT-1/GS levels in astrocytes following oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) was investigated...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584302/crispr-cas9-mediated-p53-and-pten-dual-mutation-accelerates-hepatocarcinogenesis-in-adult-hepatitis-b-virus-transgenic-mice
#19
Yongzhen Liu, Xuewei Qi, Zhenzhen Zeng, Lu Wang, Jie Wang, Ting Zhang, Qiang Xu, Congle Shen, Guangde Zhou, Shaomin Yang, Xiangmei Chen, Fengmin Lu
The p53 mutation and altered Pten expression are two most common genetic events in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To confirm the causative role of p53 and Pten somatic mutation in HCC development, we established CRISPR/Cas9-mediated somatic gene disruption via hydrodynamic tail vein injection, allowing for in vivo targeting p53 and Pten simultaneously in adult HBV transgenic mice. Here we demonstrated that the utility of this approach resulted in macroscopic liver tumors as early as 4 months' post injection and most tumors harbored both p53 and Pten loss-of-function alterations...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582846/decreased-sirt4-protein-levels-in-endometrioid-adenocarcinoma-tissues-are-associated-with-advanced-ajcc-stage
#20
Xiaoxi Chen, Xiangwen Lai, Caixia Wu, Qingxin Tian, Tingting Lei, Jingye Pan, Guoyu Huang
BACKGROUND: Members of the SIRT family are a highly conserved family of NAD+-dependent enzymes, many of which (SIRT1-7) play an important role in tumor formation. Recently, several studies have suggested that SIRT4 not only regulates glutamine metabolism, but also serves as a tumor suppressor. There are no studies have assessed its clinical significance in endometrioid adenocarcinoma. METHODS: We investigated SIRT4 protein levels in endometrioid adenocarcinoma and its possible association with selected clinico-pathological parameters by immunohistochemical staining of a tissue microarray that included 65 endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients...
May 12, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
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