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Delusions culture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738648/embrained-drives-to-perform-extraordinary-roles-predict-schizotypal-traits-in-the-general-population
#1
Ana L Fernandez-Cruz, Ola Mohamed Ali, Gifty Asare, Morgan S Whyte, Ishan Walpola, Julia Segal, J Bruno Debruille
Some personal drives correspond to extraordinary social roles. Given that behavioral strategies associated with such drives may conflict with those associated with ordinary roles, they could cause behavioral disorganization. To test whether they do so independent of the factors responsible for full-blown schizotypy and schizophrenia, these drives were assessed in the general population. Two hundred and nine healthy volunteers were individually presented with hundreds of names of social roles in experimental psychology conditions...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495312/god-in-the-brain-experiencing-psychosis-in-the-postsecular-united-states
#2
Nev Jones, Timothy Kelly, Mona Shattell
There is a growing literature on what contemporary cultural theorists have broadly termed the "postsecular": the abandonment of clear-cut boundaries between the secular and nonsecular in the industrialized West and an embrace of a complex understanding of what is real that neither accepts nor rejects the supernatural. These new cultural currents may affect not only philosophers and theologians, but also the ways in which individuals with psychosis make sense of their experiences. This paper reports on the key findings of an in-depth qualitative analysis of 19 interviews of individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorders...
August 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487160/ethnic-differences-in-mental-illness-severity-a-population-based-study-of-chinese-and-south-asian-patients-in-ontario-canada
#3
Maria Chiu, Michael Lebenbaum, Alice M Newman, Juveria Zaheer, Paul Kurdyak
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the sociocultural determinants of mental illness at hospital presentation. Our objective was to examine ethnic differences in illness severity at hospital admission among Chinese, South Asian, and the general population living in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a large, population-based, cross-sectional study of psychiatric inpatients aged from 19 to 105 years who were discharged between 2006 and 2014. A total of 133,588 patients were classified as Chinese (n = 2,582), South Asian (n = 2,452), or the reference group (n = 128,554) using a validated surnames algorithm (specificity: 99...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26858615/resignation-syndrome-catatonia-culture-bound
#4
Karl Sallin, Hugo Lagercrantz, Kathinka Evers, Ingemar Engström, Anders Hjern, Predrag Petrovic
Resignation syndrome (RS) designates a long-standing disorder predominately affecting psychologically traumatized children and adolescents in the midst of a strenuous and lengthy migration process. Typically a depressive onset is followed by gradual withdrawal progressing via stupor into a state that prompts tube feeding and is characterized by failure to respond even to painful stimuli. The patient is seemingly unconscious. Recovery ensues within months to years and is claimed to be dependent on the restoration of hope to the family...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26838303/process-of-determining-the-value-of-belief-about-jinn-possession-and-whether-or-not-they-are-a-result-of-mental-illness
#5
Elspeth Guthrie, Seri Abraham, Shahzada Nawaz
We present the case of a 28-year-old Afghan woman who presented perinatally with concerns of being possessed by jinns. She was noted to have third person auditory hallucinations, delusions of control and somatic passivity. She was diagnosed with schizophrenia and was treated with antipsychotic medications with a positive outcome. Her husband also believed that his wife was possessed and believed that her jinns talked through his wife on occasions. He did not experience any psychotic symptoms himself. In the Muslim faith, beliefs about jinns are widely held by people with and without any signs of mental illness...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26283978/hallucinations-and-related-concepts-their-conceptual-background
#6
REVIEW
Diogo Telles-Correia, Ana Lúcia Moreira, João S Gonçalves
Prior to the seventeenth century, the experiences we now name hallucinations were valued within a cultural context, they could bring meaning to the subject or the world. From mid-seventeenth to eighteenth centuries, they acquire a medical quality in mental and organic illnesses. However, the term was only fully integrated in psychiatry by Esquirol in the eighteenth-nineteenth centuries. By then, a controversy begins on whether hallucinations have a perceptual or intellectual origin. Esquirol favors the intellectual origin, describing them as an involuntary exercise of memory and imagination...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26147782/religion-assessment-and-the-problem-of-normative-uncertainty-for-mental-health-student-nurses-a-critical-incident-informed-qualitative-interview-study
#7
A M Bassett, C Baker, S Cross
There is limited research around how mental health (MH) student nurses interpret and differentiate between people's religious and cultural beliefs and the existence of psychopathological symptomatology and experiences. Here we focus on one cultural issue that arose from research exploring how MH student nurses approach and interpret religion and culture in their practice - that is, the difficulties in determining the clinical significance of the religious beliefs and experiences expressed by the people they care for...
October 2015: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26124726/metacognitive-training-for-delusions-mctd-effectiveness-on-data-gathering-and-belief-flexibility-in-a-chinese-sample
#8
Suzanne Ho-Wai So, Arthur P Chan, Catherine Shiu-Yin Chong, Melissa Hiu-Mei Wong, William Tak-Lam Lo, Dicky Wai-Sau Chung, Sandra S Chan
Metacognitive training (MCT) was developed to promote awareness of reasoning biases among patients with schizophrenia. While MCT has been translated into 31 languages, most MCT studies were conducted in Europe, including newer evidence recommending an individualized approach of delivery. As reasoning biases covered in MCT are separable processes and are associated with different symptoms, testing the effect of selected MCT modules would help to develop a targeted and cost-effective intervention for specific symptoms and associated mechanisms...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25969595/delusion-of-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-of-84-cases-in-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Sagar Chandra Bera, Siddharth Sarkar
Case reports of delusion of pregnancy have emanated from all over the world, yet the rarity of this phenomenology has precluded systematic large scale descriptive or cohort studies. This systematic review was conducted to assess the demographic characteristics, clinical profile, treatment outcome and aetiological factors from the published case reports of delusion of pregnancy. Electronic databases including PubMed, PsychInfo and Google Scholar were used to identify case reports relating to delusion of pregnancy published in peer-reviewed English language journals...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25880379/from-dsm-i-to-dsm-5
#10
EDITORIAL
Vassilis Kontaxakis, George Konstantakopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25851336/effects-of-a-culturally-sensitive-assessment-on-symptom-profiles-in-native-dutch-and-moroccan-patients-with-a-first-psychosis-referral
#11
Tekleh Zandi, Johan M Havenaar, Wijnand Laan, René S Kahn, Wim van den Brink
Previous studies have reported a higher incidence of psychosis in Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands than among native-born residents. However, this disparity was substantially attenuated when cultural differences in symptom presentation were taken into account. To better understand the impact of different diagnostic procedures on incidence rates, we examined the effects of the use of a culturally sensitive diagnostic interview, compared to a standard semi-structured diagnostic interview, on symptom profiles among Moroccan immigrant and native Dutch patients in the Netherlands...
February 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25828924/epistemic-injustice-in-assessment-of-delusions
#12
Abdi Sanati, Michalis Kyratsous
Delusions are one of the most elusive concepts in psychiatry. There have been several theories on the nature and definition of delusions. Jaspers described them as entailing a total transformation of reality and considered primary delusions as un-understandable. When it comes to clinical practice, psychiatrists resort to criteria of falsity, incorrigibility, conviction and being out of keeping with the person's culture. All these criteria have been subject to various criticisms, some of which will be discussed in the paper...
June 2015: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25824537/jikoshu-kyofu-in-singapore
#13
Leslie Lim, Yi Min Wan
OBJECTIVE: Jikoshu-kyofu (JKF), a condition characterised by a fear of offending others through emitting foul body odour, was first described in Japan in the 1960s. Although initially thought to be a culture-bound syndrome, it has been described in other countries. It is well established that there are two variants, a non- delusional and a delusional variant. METHOD: We describe two cases of JKF who sought treatment from a hospital in Singapore, compare and contrast their characteristics, and in view of overlaps with other conditions, discuss differential diagnoses...
June 2015: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25757714/brief-culturally-adapted-cbt-for-psychosis-cacbtp-a-randomized-controlled-trial-from-a-low-income-country
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Farooq Naeem, Sofiya Saeed, Muhammad Irfan, Tayyeba Kiran, Nasir Mehmood, Mirrat Gul, Tariq Munshi, Sohail Ahmad, Ajmal Kazmi, Nusrat Husain, Saeed Farooq, Muhammad Ayub, David Kingdon
Evidence for the effectiveness of Culturally adapted CBT for psychosis in Low And Middle Income Countries (LAMIC) is limited. Therefore, brief Culturally adapted CBT for psychosis (CaCBTp) targeted at symptoms of schizophrenia for outpatients plus treatment as usual (TAU) is compared with TAU. A total of 116 participants with schizophrenia were recruited from 2 hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, and randomized into two groups with 1:1 allocation (CaCBTp plus TAU=59, TAU=57). A brief version of CaCBTp (6 individual sessions with the involvement of main carer, plus one session for the family) was provided over 4months...
May 2015: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25513971/metacognitive-training-mct-for-schizophrenia-improves-cognitive-insight-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-a-chinese-sample-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#15
Kino C K Lam, Christy P S Ho, Jimmy C Wa, Salina M Y Chan, Kevin K N Yam, Odelia S F Yeung, Willy C H Wong, Ryan P Balzan
Metacognitive training (MCT) is a group-based treatment program for people with schizophrenia that targets the cognitive biases thought to contribute to the pathogenesis and maintenance of delusions. Although effective in reducing the severity of delusions, the influence of MCT on cognitive insight, and its feasibility in Chinese culture, has yet to be investigated. The present randomized-controlled trial attempted to address these inconsistencies. A Chinese sample of 80 participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders was randomized to the eight-module MCT program or continued treatment as usual (TAU)...
January 2015: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25458570/factors-associated-with-violence-among-japanese-patients-with-schizophrenia-prior-to-psychiatric-emergency-hospitalization-a-case-controlled-study
#16
Atsushi Imai, Naoki Hayashi, Akihiro Shiina, Noriko Sakikawa, Yoshito Igarashi
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined a wide range of risk factors associated with violence among patients with schizophrenia. However, risk factors linked to different socio-cultural backgrounds remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to investigate factors associated with violence among Japanese patients with schizophrenia prior to emergency hospitalizations and to compare them with factors found in studies on other populations. METHODS: We recruited 420 Japanese patients with schizophrenia who had committed violent acts immediately prior to emergency admission to a psychiatric hospital in Tokyo, during the period 1986 to 2005...
December 2014: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25113123/ammonium-increases-ca-2-signalling-and-up-regulates-expression-of-trpc1-gene-in-astrocytes-in-primary-cultures-and-in-the-in-vivo-brain
#17
Chunguang Liang, Ting Du, Jing Zhou, Alexei Verkhratsky, Liang Peng
Rapid rise in ammonium concentration in the brain is the major pathogenic factor in hepatic encephalopathy that is manifested by state of confusion, forgetfulness and irritability, psychotic symptoms, delusions, lethargy, somnolence and, in the terminal stages, coma. Primary cultures of mouse astrocytes were used to investigate effects of chronic treatment (3 days) with ammonium chloride (ammonium) at 3 mM, this being a relevant concentration for hepatic encephalopathy condition, on metabotropic receptor agonist-induced increases in free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration [(Ca(2+))i], measured with fura-2 based microfluorimetry and on store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) activated following treatment with the SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin...
November 2014: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24981830/dsm-iv-criterion-a-schizophrenia-symptoms-across-ethnically-different-populations-evidence-for-differing-psychotic-symptom-content-or-structural-organization
#18
Duncan McLean, Rangaswamy Thara, Sujit John, Robert Barrett, Peter Loa, John McGrath, Bryan Mowry
There is significant variation in the expression of schizophrenia across ethnically different populations, and the optimal structural and diagnostic representation of schizophrenia are contested. We contrasted both lifetime frequencies of DSM-IV criterion A (the core symptom criterion of the internationally recognized DSM classification system) symptoms and types/content of delusions and hallucinations in transethnic schizophrenia populations from Australia (n = 776), India (n = 504) and Sarawak, Malaysia (n = 259), to elucidate clinical heterogeneity...
September 2014: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24962820/the-use-of-expensive-technologies-instead-of-simple-sound-and-effective-lifestyle-interventions-a-perpetual-delusion
#19
REVIEW
Silvia Carlos, Jokin de Irala, Matt Hanley, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González
A dangerous distortion of priorities seems to be currently apparent in the dominant approaches to major public health problems, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer and some infectious diseases. Relevant examples suggest an apparently inappropriate tendency to prioritise technocratic, partial solutions rather than confronting their true behavioural and structural determinants. Technically oriented preventive medicine often takes excessive precedence over simpler, more sensible approaches to modify lifestyles, the environment and the social structure...
September 2014: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24936661/depression-in-north-india-comparison-of-symptoms-and-life-events-with-ocher-patient-groups
#20
D Bhugra, K R Gupta, B Wright
Cross-cultural studies of depression have raised interesting issues in terms of symptoms and diagnosis in patients seeking treatment. To understand the symptom patterns of depression in a clinic population in north India, we studied 75 consecutive patients diagnosed as suffering from depression. They were asked to describe their symptoms, life events in the year before the onset of depression, and family history. Sleep disturbances, low mood and irritability were common symptoms. Suicidal intent was reported by 54% of the sample, and guilt by 56%...
1997: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
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