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Delusions culture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251748/-disturbances-of-the-body-image-a-cultural-and-historical-comparison-between-the-glass-delusion-and-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#1
E I Müller
background Research on body dysmorphic disorder (bdd) shows that many debates in the field of psychology, sociology and philosophy already focus on the ways 'ideals of the perfect body' influence this disorder. However, more work needs to be done on the question in what ways bdd is culturally, historically and technologically mediated. AIM: To argue that norms and values of the perfect body and the ways a society prescribes how body and mind should be related, are technologically mediated through different time frames, which influence disorders of disturbances of the body image...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207980/pilot-randomised-controlled-trial-of-culturally-adapted-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-psychosis-cacbtp-in-pakistan
#2
Muhammed Omair Husain, Imran B Chaudhry, Nasir Mehmood, Raza Ur Rehman, Ajmal Kazmi, Munir Hamirani, Tayyeba Kiran, Ameer Bukhsh, Paul Bassett, Muhammad Ishrat Husain, Farooq Naeem, Nusrat Husain
BACKGROUND: Evidence for efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in treatment of schizophrenia is growing. CBT is effective and cost efficient in treating positive and negative symptoms. To effectively meet the needs of diverse cultural groups, CBT needs to be adapted to the linguistic, cultural and socioeconomic context. We aimed to assess the feasibility, efficacy and acceptability of a culturally adapted CBT for treatment of psychosis (CaCBTp) in a low-income country. METHODS: Rater-blind, randomised, controlled trial of the use of standard duration CBT in patients with psychosis from a low-income country...
December 6, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932297/flow-cytometry-in-detecting-resistant-e-coli-strains
#3
Lyudmila Akhmaltdinova, Alyona Lavrinenko, Ilya Belyayev
Antibacterial drugs are the most consumed group of drugs in the modern hospitals. Standard methods of antibiotic sensitivity are labour and time-consuming, taking up to 24 hours after the pure culture is isolated (the analysis typically lasts up to 72 hours). Working out express diagnostic methods is of importance, and studies are made in various directions. Flow cytometry in detecting resistant E. coli strains was used. Flow cytometry fluorescent dyes were used to stain viable and dead cells. For method validation, relative accuracy, relative susceptibility, relative specificity and Cohen's kappa test were determined compared to the delusion test...
August 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638196/primary-delusion-and-the-sociopolitical-milieu-in-india-a-case-report-short-review
#4
Rahul Saha, Aastha Sharma
Delusion has always been a central topic for psychiatric research with regard to its etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and forensic relevance. Among these, primary delusion seems to be the interest of many psychiatrists. Content of delusion has always been the area of interest of cultural psychiatry. We have tried to discuss the various aspects of primary delusion and also tried to explain how cultural and sociopolitical environment in a country like India can shape the formation of primary delusion and influence its psychopathology...
August 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601666/a-conditioning-model-of-delusion
#5
REVIEW
Douglas John Roy
"Delusions" are beliefs that are false and persistent. It is suggested here that these characteristics can emerge from interplays between two fundamental learning processes: (1) the allocation of attentional resources among stimuli; and (2) the effects of feedback on learning. The former of these has been operationalized in the learned irrelevance and latent inhibition paradigms; the latter in studies of the effects of persistence-training. Normally, the attentional process functions to constrain persistence-training effects so that only valid associations acquire persistence...
September 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469582/exploring-the-intersections-of-trauma-structural-adversity-and-psychosis-among-a-primarily-african-american-sample-a-mixed-methods-analysis
#6
Cherise Rosen, Nev Jones, Eleanor Longden, Kayla A Chase, Mona Shattell, Jennifer K Melbourne, Sarah K Keedy, Rajiv P Sharma
Traumatic life events (TLEs) have been associated with multiple psychiatric diagnoses, including anxiety disorders, major depression, PTSD, and psychosis. To advance our understanding of the complex interactions between forms of adversity as they manifest across the lifespan, psychosis, and symptom content, we undertook a mixed-methods investigation of TLEs and psychosis. Our research explored the association between cumulative exposures, type of TLE, and proximity to the traumatic event and psychosis; the association between TLEs and clinical symptomology including specific types of delusions and/or hallucinations; and how qualitative data further inform understanding of complex relationships and patterns of past trauma and symptoms as they unfold over time...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262165/folie-%C3%A3-deux-and-fregoli-syndrome-with-greater-severity-in-the-secondary-a-case-report
#7
LETTER
David C L Teo, Abishek M Abraham, Andrew L H Peh
Folie à deux and Fregoli syndrome are rarely seen in clinical practice. We present a case in which these rare syndromes co-occur. Remarkably, in this case the 'secondary' develops a more serious illness course than the 'primary' and reciprocally induces a de novo Fregoli delusion in the 'primary'. This case discusses how socio-cultural factors, such as interdependent family dynamics, could have precipitated this rare variant of folie à deux. It also highlights the importance of making culturally-sensitive formulations for treatment...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118821/the-content-of-delusions-in-a-sample-of-south-african-xhosa-people-with-schizophrenia
#8
Megan M Campbell, Goodman Sibeko, Sumaya Mall, Adam Baldinger, Mohamed Nagdee, Ezra Susser, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Although the relationship between cultural beliefs and schizophrenia has received some attention, relatively little work has emerged from African contexts. In this study we draw from a sample of South African Xhosa people with schizophrenia, exploring their cultural beliefs and explanations of illness. The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between this cultural context and the content of delusions. METHODS: A sample comprising 200 Xhosa people with schizophrenia participating in a South African schizophrenia genomics study were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I)...
January 24, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969065/cross-cultural-variations-in-psychiatrists-perception-of-mental-illness-a-tool-for-teaching-culture-in-psychiatry
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jhilam Biswas, B N Gangadhar, Matcheri Keshavan
A frequent debate in psychiatry is to what extent major psychiatric diagnoses are universal versus unique across cultures. We sought to identify cultural variations between psychiatrists' diagnostic practices of mental illness in Boston Massachusetts and Bangalore, India. We surveyed psychiatrists to identify differences in how frequently symptoms appear in major mental illness in two culturally and geographically different cities. Indian psychiatrists found somatic symptoms like pain, sleep and appetite to be significantly more important in depression and violent and aggressive behavior to be significantly more common in mania than did American psychiatrists...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738648/embrained-drives-to-perform-extraordinary-roles-predict-schizotypal-traits-in-the-general-population
#10
Ana L Fernandez-Cruz, Ola Mohamed Ali, Gifty Asare, Morgan S Whyte, Ishan Walpola, Julia Segal, J Bruno Debruille
Some personal drives correspond to extraordinary social roles. Given that behavioral strategies associated with such drives may conflict with those associated with ordinary roles, they could cause behavioral disorganization. To test whether they do so independent of the factors responsible for full-blown schizotypy and schizophrenia, these drives were assessed in the general population. Two hundred and nine healthy volunteers were individually presented with hundreds of names of social roles in experimental psychology conditions...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495312/god-in-the-brain-experiencing-psychosis-in-the-postsecular-united-states
#11
Nev Jones, Timothy Kelly, Mona Shattell
There is a growing literature on what contemporary cultural theorists have broadly termed the "postsecular": the abandonment of clear-cut boundaries between the secular and nonsecular in the industrialized West and an embrace of a complex understanding of what is real that neither accepts nor rejects the supernatural. These new cultural currents may affect not only philosophers and theologians, but also the ways in which individuals with psychosis make sense of their experiences. This paper reports on the key findings of an in-depth qualitative analysis of 19 interviews of individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorders...
August 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487160/ethnic-differences-in-mental-illness-severity-a-population-based-study-of-chinese-and-south-asian-patients-in-ontario-canada
#12
Maria Chiu, Michael Lebenbaum, Alice M Newman, Juveria Zaheer, Paul Kurdyak
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the sociocultural determinants of mental illness at hospital presentation. Our objective was to examine ethnic differences in illness severity at hospital admission among Chinese, South Asian, and the general population living in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a large, population-based, cross-sectional study of psychiatric inpatients aged from 19 to 105 years who were discharged between 2006 and 2014. A total of 133,588 patients were classified as Chinese (n = 2,582), South Asian (n = 2,452), or the reference group (n = 128,554) using a validated surnames algorithm (specificity: 99...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26858615/resignation-syndrome-catatonia-culture-bound
#13
Karl Sallin, Hugo Lagercrantz, Kathinka Evers, Ingemar Engström, Anders Hjern, Predrag Petrovic
Resignation syndrome (RS) designates a long-standing disorder predominately affecting psychologically traumatized children and adolescents in the midst of a strenuous and lengthy migration process. Typically a depressive onset is followed by gradual withdrawal progressing via stupor into a state that prompts tube feeding and is characterized by failure to respond even to painful stimuli. The patient is seemingly unconscious. Recovery ensues within months to years and is claimed to be dependent on the restoration of hope to the family...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26838303/process-of-determining-the-value-of-belief-about-jinn-possession-and-whether-or-not-they-are-a-result-of-mental-illness
#14
Elspeth Guthrie, Seri Abraham, Shahzada Nawaz
We present the case of a 28-year-old Afghan woman who presented perinatally with concerns of being possessed by jinns. She was noted to have third person auditory hallucinations, delusions of control and somatic passivity. She was diagnosed with schizophrenia and was treated with antipsychotic medications with a positive outcome. Her husband also believed that his wife was possessed and believed that her jinns talked through his wife on occasions. He did not experience any psychotic symptoms himself. In the Muslim faith, beliefs about jinns are widely held by people with and without any signs of mental illness...
February 2, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26283978/hallucinations-and-related-concepts-their-conceptual-background
#15
REVIEW
Diogo Telles-Correia, Ana Lúcia Moreira, João S Gonçalves
Prior to the seventeenth century, the experiences we now name hallucinations were valued within a cultural context, they could bring meaning to the subject or the world. From mid-seventeenth to eighteenth centuries, they acquire a medical quality in mental and organic illnesses. However, the term was only fully integrated in psychiatry by Esquirol in the eighteenth-nineteenth centuries. By then, a controversy begins on whether hallucinations have a perceptual or intellectual origin. Esquirol favors the intellectual origin, describing them as an involuntary exercise of memory and imagination...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26147782/religion-assessment-and-the-problem-of-normative-uncertainty-for-mental-health-student-nurses-a-critical-incident-informed-qualitative-interview-study
#16
A M Bassett, C Baker, S Cross
There is limited research around how mental health (MH) student nurses interpret and differentiate between people's religious and cultural beliefs and the existence of psychopathological symptomatology and experiences. Here we focus on one cultural issue that arose from research exploring how MH student nurses approach and interpret religion and culture in their practice - that is, the difficulties in determining the clinical significance of the religious beliefs and experiences expressed by the people they care for...
October 2015: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26124726/metacognitive-training-for-delusions-mctd-effectiveness-on-data-gathering-and-belief-flexibility-in-a-chinese-sample
#17
Suzanne Ho-Wai So, Arthur P Chan, Catherine Shiu-Yin Chong, Melissa Hiu-Mei Wong, William Tak-Lam Lo, Dicky Wai-Sau Chung, Sandra S Chan
Metacognitive training (MCT) was developed to promote awareness of reasoning biases among patients with schizophrenia. While MCT has been translated into 31 languages, most MCT studies were conducted in Europe, including newer evidence recommending an individualized approach of delivery. As reasoning biases covered in MCT are separable processes and are associated with different symptoms, testing the effect of selected MCT modules would help to develop a targeted and cost-effective intervention for specific symptoms and associated mechanisms...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25969595/delusion-of-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-of-84-cases-in-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Sagar Chandra Bera, Siddharth Sarkar
Case reports of delusion of pregnancy have emanated from all over the world, yet the rarity of this phenomenology has precluded systematic large scale descriptive or cohort studies. This systematic review was conducted to assess the demographic characteristics, clinical profile, treatment outcome and aetiological factors from the published case reports of delusion of pregnancy. Electronic databases including PubMed, PsychInfo and Google Scholar were used to identify case reports relating to delusion of pregnancy published in peer-reviewed English language journals...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25880379/from-dsm-i-to-dsm-5
#19
EDITORIAL
Vassilis Kontaxakis, George Konstantakopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25851336/effects-of-a-culturally-sensitive-assessment-on-symptom-profiles-in-native-dutch-and-moroccan-patients-with-a-first-psychosis-referral
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Tekleh Zandi, Johan M Havenaar, Wijnand Laan, René S Kahn, Wim van den Brink
Previous studies have reported a higher incidence of psychosis in Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands than among native-born residents. However, this disparity was substantially attenuated when cultural differences in symptom presentation were taken into account. To better understand the impact of different diagnostic procedures on incidence rates, we examined the effects of the use of a culturally sensitive diagnostic interview, compared to a standard semi-structured diagnostic interview, on symptom profiles among Moroccan immigrant and native Dutch patients in the Netherlands...
February 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
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