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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326296/intrathecal-baclofen-therapy-versus-conventional-medical-management-for-severe-poststroke-spasticity-results-from-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-open-label-trial-sisters
#1
Michael Creamer, Geoffrey Cloud, Peter Kossmehl, Michael Yochelson, Gerard E Francisco, Anthony B Ward, Jörg Wissel, Mauro Zampolini, Abdallah Abouihia, Nathalie Berthuy, Alessandra Calabrese, Meghann Loven, Leopold Saltuari
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is a treatment option for patients with severe poststroke spasticity (PSS) who have not reached their therapy goal with other interventions. METHODS: 'Spasticity In Stroke-Randomised Study' (SISTERS) was a randomised, controlled, open-label, multicentre phase IV study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ITB therapy versus conventional medical management (CMM) with oral antispastic medications for treatment of PSS. Patients with chronic stroke with spasticity in ≥2 extremities and an Ashworth Scale (AS) score ≥3 in at least two affected muscle groups in the lower extremities (LE) were randomised (1:1) to ITB or CMM...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320416/eating-patterns-in-patients-with-compensated-cirrhosis-a-case-control-study
#2
Camille Buscail, Valérie Bourcier, Léopold K Fezeu, Dominique Roulot, Séverine Brulé, Zahia Ben-Abdesselam, Carole Cagnot, Serge Hercberg, Pierre Nahon, Nathalie Ganne-Carrié, Chantal Julia
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence suggesting that maintaining an adequate nutritional status for patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) is relevant to prevent complications. The present study aimed to describe dietary behaviours of patients with compensated and non-complicated LC and comparing them with those of subjects from the general population. METHODS: In this case-control study, patients were volunteers enrolled in the ALICIR (ALImentation et CIRrhose) study, an observational survey nested in two French prospective cohorts of patients with biopsy-proven compensated cirrhosis related either to excessive alcohol consumption (CIRRAL) or to hepatitis B or C virus infection (CirVir)...
January 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318383/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-a-review-of-current-and-future-clinical-applications
#3
REVIEW
Marcus Ang, Anna C S Tan, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung, Pearse A Keane, Rosa Dolz-Marco, Chelvin C A Sng, Leopold Schmetterer
Optical coherence tomography angiography is a non-invasive imaging technique that now allows for simultaneous in vivo imaging of the morphology as well as the vasculature in the eye. In this review, we provide an update on the existing clinical applications of optical coherence tomography angiography technology from the anterior to posterior segment of the eye. We also discuss the limitations of optical coherence tomography angiography technology, as well as the caveats to the interpretation of images. As current optical coherence tomography angiography systems are optimized for the retina, most studies have focused on interpreting images from conditions such as age related macular degeneration and retinal vascular diseases...
January 9, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317751/methylation-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-is-lineage-specific-with-associated-mutations-present-globally
#4
Jody Phelan, Paola Florez de Sessions, Leopold Tientcheu, Joao Perdigao, Diana Machado, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Indra L Bergval, Richard Anthony, Ruth McNerney, Martin Antonio, Isabel Portugal, Miguel Viveiros, Susana Campino, Martin L Hibberd, Taane G Clark
DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification of the genome involved in regulating crucial cellular processes, including transcription and chromosome stability. Advances in PacBio sequencing technologies can be used to robustly reveal methylation sites. The methylome of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is poorly understood but may be involved in virulence, hypoxic survival and the emergence of drug resistance. In the most extensive study to date, we characterise the methylome across the 4 major lineages of M...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316814/biology-of-the-adrenal-gland-cortex-obviates-effective-use-of-adeno-associated-virus-vectors-to-treat-hereditary-adrenal-disorders
#5
Sandra Markmann, Bishnu P De, Jasmine Reid, Clarisse Jose, Jonathan B Rosenberg, Philip Leopold, Stephen M Kaminsky, Dolan Sondhi, Odelya E Pagovich, Ronald G Crystal
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder occurring in 1:10,000-1:20,000 live births. In >95% of the cases, CAH results from mutations in the CYP21A2 gene, encoding the adrenal steroid enzyme 21-hydroxylase (21OH). Cardinal phenotypic features of CAH include genital ambiguity and sexual precocity, and in severe cases, neonatal salt loss and death. Current standard of care consists of life-long oral steroid replacement to reverse the cortisol deficiency. Although significant advances in the treatment of CAH have been made, the burden of a life-long therapeutic intervention is not ideal for quality of life...
January 9, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316413/visual-cortex-the-eccentric-area-prostriata-in-the-human-brain
#6
Marco Tamietto, David A Leopold
Human area Prostriata is a small, unstudied portion of the visual brain set deep in the calcarine sulcus, next to V1. A recent neuroimaging study in humans indicates that this area is specialized to respond to rapidly moving stimuli in the far periphery, consistent with single-unit responses in other mammals.
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312737/perforation-of-myocardial-wall-and-great-vessels-after-cardiovascular-interventions-a-5-year-analysis
#7
Zdenek Provaznik, Andreas Holzamer, Daniele Camboni, Leopold Rupprecht, Markus Resch, Sigrid Wittmann, Christof Schmid, Bernhard Floerchinger
Background: Less invasive procedures have replaced open surgical treatment in many cardiovascular disorders. During these interventions, iatrogenic cardiac perforation may ensue, which is a severe complication and requires immediate diagnostic assessment and treatment. Methods: From March 2011 to April 2016, all patients referred to the Dept. of Cardio-thoracic Surgery with the diagnosis of iatrogenic perforation of myocardial wall or great vessels were included into the retrospective study...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305788/plastic-ingestion-by-harbour-porpoises-phocoena-phocoena-in-the-netherlands-establishing-a-standardised-method
#8
Jan A van Franeker, Elisa L Bravo Rebolledo, Eileen Hesse, Lonneke L IJsseldijk, Susanne Kühn, Mardik Leopold, Lara Mielke
Stomach contents of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) collected in the Netherlands between 2003 and 2013 were inspected for the presence of plastic and other man-made litter. In 654 stomach samples the frequency of occurrence of plastic litter was 7% with less than 0.5% additional presence of non-synthetic man-made litter. However, we show that when a dedicated standard protocol for the detection of litter is followed, a considerably higher percentage (15% of 81 harbour porpoise stomachs from the period 2010-2013) contained plastic litter...
January 5, 2018: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298912/transient-visual-pathway-critical-for-normal-development-of-primate-grasping-behavior
#9
Inaki-Carril Mundinano, Dylan M Fox, William C Kwan, Diego Vidaurre, Leon Teo, Jihane Homman-Ludiye, Melvyn A Goodale, David A Leopold, James A Bourne
An evolutionary hallmark of anthropoid primates, including humans, is the use of vision to guide precise manual movements. These behaviors are reliant on a specialized visual input to the posterior parietal cortex. Here, we show that normal primate reaching-and-grasping behavior depends critically on a visual pathway through the thalamic pulvinar, which is thought to relay information to the middle temporal (MT) area during early life and then swiftly withdraws. Small MRI-guided lesions to a subdivision of the inferior pulvinar subnucleus (PIm) in the infant marmoset monkey led to permanent deficits in reaching-and-grasping behavior in the adult...
January 3, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283010/runaway-inequality-seeking-solutions-to-growing-inequality-leopold-les-2015-runaway-inequality-an-activist-s-guide-to-economic-justice-new-york-ny-labor-institute-press-314-pp-19-95-pbk-isbn-9780692436301
#10
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281619/shortages-of-benzathine-penicillin-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-syphilis-an-evaluation-from-multi-country-surveys-and-stakeholder-interviews
#11
Stephen Nurse-Findlay, Melanie M Taylor, Margaret Savage, Maeve B Mello, Sanni Saliyou, Manuel Lavayen, Frederic Seghers, Michael L Campbell, Françoise Birgirimana, Leopold Ouedraogo, Morkor Newman Owiredu, Nancy Kidula, Lee Pyne-Mercier
BACKGROUND: Benzathine penicillin G (BPG) is the only recommended treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission of syphilis. Due to recent reports of country-level shortages of BPG, an evaluation was undertaken to quantify countries that have experienced shortages in the past 2 years and to describe factors contributing to these shortages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Country-level data about BPG shortages were collected using 3 survey approaches. First, a survey designed by the WHO Department of Reproductive Health and Research was distributed to 41 countries and territories in the Americas and 41 more in Africa...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280376/towards-gw-calculations-on-thousands-of-atoms
#12
Jan Wilhelm, Dorothea Golze, Leopold Talirz, Juerg Hutter, Carlo A Pignedoli
The GW approximation of many-body perturbation theory is an accurate method for computing electron addition and removal energies of molecules and solids. In a canonical implementation, however, its computational cost is O(N4) in the system size N, which prohibits its application to many systems of interest. We present a full-frequency GW algorithm in a Gaussian-type basis, whose computational cost scales with O(N2) to O(N3). The implementation is optimized for massively parallel execution on state-of-the-art supercomputers and is suitable for nanostructures and molecules in the gas, liquid or condensed phase, using either pseudopotentials or all electrons...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276055/morphometric-similarity-networks-detect-microscale-cortical-organization-and-predict-inter-individual-cognitive-variation
#13
Jakob Seidlitz, František Váša, Maxwell Shinn, Rafael Romero-Garcia, Kirstie J Whitaker, Petra E Vértes, Konrad Wagstyl, Paul Kirkpatrick Reardon, Liv Clasen, Siyuan Liu, Adam Messinger, David A Leopold, Peter Fonagy, Raymond J Dolan, Peter B Jones, Ian M Goodyer, Armin Raznahan, Edward T Bullmore
Macroscopic cortical networks are important for cognitive function, but it remains challenging to construct anatomically plausible individual structural connectomes from human neuroimaging. We introduce a new technique for cortical network mapping based on inter-regional similarity of multiple morphometric parameters measured using multimodal MRI. In three cohorts (two human, one macaque), we find that the resulting morphometric similarity networks (MSNs) have a complex topological organization comprising modules and high-degree hubs...
December 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273946/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-intensive-case-management-project-bridge-for-hiv-infected-probationers-and-parolees
#14
Michael S Gordon, Erika L Crable, Steven B Carswell, Jessica Leopold, Jennifer Hodo-Powell, Michelle McKenzie, Josiah D Rich
Individuals on probation and parole are disproportionately at high risk for HIV infection and experience significant barriers to accessing health care. This study was a two-group randomized controlled trial conducted at a community corrections office and was designed to link HIV positive probationers/parolees to HIV treatment in the community. HIV positive participants were assigned to one of the two treatment conditions: (1) Project Bridge (PB), an intensive case-management intervention; or (2) treatment as usual (TAU), involving standard referral to treatment...
December 22, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273312/effect-of-cryopreservation-on-the-pre-hatching-behavior-in-the-mexican-fruit-fly-anastrepha-ludens-loew-diptera-tephritidae
#15
Arun Rajamohan, Joseph P Rinehart, Roger A Leopold
In a sampling of untreated embryos of the economically important fruit pest species, Anastrepha ludens, the cumulative hatch percentage in the lab was noted to be ∼85%. Approximately 70% of the larvae had eclosed through the posterior pole of the egg. This process is effected by the act of Pole Reversal (PR) of the fully developed pre-hatch larva from the wider anterior to the narrower posterior pole of the egg. Investigation of the effects of cryopreservation and various pretreatments prior to cryostorage on the PR behavior was prompted by the observation of significantly lower proportion of cryopreserved embryos exhibiting the PR behavior...
December 19, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244026/jnj-63623872-treatment-in-adult-volunteers-experimentally-inoculated-with-live-influenza-virus-a-phase-iia-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#16
Jose M Trevejo, Mohammed Asmal, Johan Vingerhoets, Ramon Polo, Sarah Robertson, Ying Jiang, Tara L Kieffer, Lorant Leopold
BACKGROUND: JNJ-63623872 is a novel, non-nucleoside polymerase complex inhibitor with in vitro activity against influenza A virus, including pandemic 2009 H1N1, H7N9, H5N1 strains as well as neuraminidase-and amantadine-resistant strains. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 2a study. Healthy volunteers (N = 104) were inoculated with an influenza A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2) challenge virus. 72 received JNJ-63623872 and 32 placebo. JNJ-63623872 was dosed for 5 days once daily from 24 hours after viral inoculation at four dose levels: 100 mg, 400 mg, loading dose 900/600 mg and loading dose 1200/600 mg...
December 15, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234126/epidermal-cornification-is-preceded-by-the-expression-of-a-keratinocyte-specific-set-of-pyroptosis-related-genes
#17
Julia Lachner, Veronika Mlitz, Erwin Tschachler, Leopold Eckhart
The homeostasis of the epidermis depends on keratinocyte differentiation and cornification, a mode of programmed cell death that does not elicit inflammation. Here, we report that cornification is associated with the expression of specific genes that control multiple steps of pyroptosis, another form of cell death that involves the processing and release of interleukin-1 family (IL1F) cytokines. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory IL1A and IL1B and of the pyroptotic pore-forming gasdermin (GSDM) D were downregulated during terminal differentiation of human keratinocytes in vitro...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227286/drug-perturbation-based-stratification-of-blood-cancer
#18
Sascha Dietrich, Małgorzata Oleś, Junyan Lu, Leopold Sellner, Simon Anders, Britta Velten, Bian Wu, Jennifer Hüllein, Michelle da Silva Liberio, Tatjana Walther, Lena Wagner, Sophie Rabe, Sonja Ghidelli-Disse, Marcus Bantscheff, Andrzej K Oleś, Mikołaj Słabicki, Andreas Mock, Christopher C Oakes, Shihui Wang, Sina Oppermann, Marina Lukas, Vladislav Kim, Martin Sill, Axel Benner, Anna Jauch, Lesley Ann Sutton, Emma Young, Richard Rosenquist, Xiyang Liu, Alexander Jethwa, Kwang Seok Lee, Joe Lewis, Kerstin Putzker, Christoph Lutz, Davide Rossi, Andriy Mokhir, Thomas Oellerich, Katja Zirlik, Marco Herling, Florence Nguyen-Khac, Christoph Plass, Emma Andersson, Satu Mustjoki, Christof von Kalle, Anthony D Ho, Manfred Hensel, Jan Dürig, Ingo Ringshausen, Marc Zapatka, Wolfgang Huber, Thorsten Zenz
As new generations of targeted therapies emerge and tumor genome sequencing discovers increasingly comprehensive mutation repertoires, the functional relationships of mutations to tumor phenotypes remain largely unknown. Here, we measured ex vivo sensitivity of 246 blood cancers to 63 drugs alongside genome, transcriptome, and DNA methylome analysis to understand determinants of drug response. We assembled a primary blood cancer cell encyclopedia data set that revealed disease-specific sensitivities for each cancer...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221480/prevalence-and-etiologies-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Jean Joel Bigna, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent increasing worldwide attention towards pulmonary hypertension (PH), its epidemiology remains poorly described in Africa. Accordingly, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of PH prevalence, incidence and etiologies in Africa. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, African Journals Online, and Africa Index Medicus. Published observational studies until September 20, 2017, including adult participants residing in Africa were considered...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219848/embedded-tin-nanocrystals-in-silicon-an-electrical-characterization
#20
Leopold Scheffler, Mark Jonas Haastrup, Søren Roesgaard, John Lundsgaard Hansen, Arne Nylandsted Larsen, Brian Julsgaard
Tin nanocrystals embedded in a SiSn layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy on n-type Si are investigated by means of deep level transient spectroscopy. Two Sn related deep traps are observed, depending on the annealing temperature of the samples. A deep level at EC - 0.62 eV (Sn1) is observed for annealing temperatures up to 650 °C, whereas a level at EC - 0.53 eV (Sn2) appears for annealing temperatures above 600 °C. Scanning transmission electron microscopy shows the formation of Sn nanocrystals at 600 °C, which coincides with the appearance of Sn2...
December 8, 2017: Nanotechnology
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