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3d space

Tao Zhang, Caroline Hartl, Kilian Frank, Amelie Heuer-Jungemann, Stefan Fischer, Philipp C Nickels, Bert Nickel, Tim Liedl
3D crystals assembled entirely from DNA provide a route to design materials on a molecular level and to arrange guest particles in predefined lattices. This requires design schemes that provide high rigidity and sufficiently large open guest space. A DNA-origami-based "tensegrity triangle" structure that assembles into a 3D rhombohedral crystalline lattice with an open structure in which 90% of the volume is empty space is presented here. Site-specific placement of gold nanoparticles within the lattice demonstrates that these crystals are spacious enough to efficiently host 20 nm particles in a cavity size of 1...
May 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
Siying Liu, Xiang-Dong Tian, Yun Zhang, Jian-Feng Li
The realization of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to be a reliable quantitative analytical technique requires sensitive and reproducible enhancing substrates. Here, uniform three-dimensional (3D) Ag nanorod (AgNR) substrates with well-defined interlayer spacings are prepared through the air-liquid interface-assisted self-assembly of AgNR in a layer-by-layer manner. The correlation of the SERS performance with the 3D AgNR structures is performed by SERS mapping the substrates. SERS mapping reveals the excellent enhancement uniformity of the 3D substrates with the relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 10%...
May 17, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Keith Wachowicz, Brad Murray, B Gino Fallone
The recent interest in the integration of external beam radiotherapy with a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit offers the potential for real-time adaptive tumour tracking during radiation treatment. The tracking of large tumours which follow a rapid trajectory may best be served by the generation of a projection image from the perspective of the beam source, or "beam's eye view" (BEV). This type of image projection represents the path of the radiation beam, thus enabling rapid compensations for target translations, rotations and deformations, as well time-dependent critical structure avoidance...
May 17, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Haijian Li, Philip Kegler, Vladislav V Klepov, Martina Klinkenberg, Dirk Bosbach, Evgeny V Alekseev
Two uranium and two thorium silicates were obtained using high temperature mixed fluxes methods. K14 (UO2 )3 Si10 O30 crystallizes in the P21 / c space group and contains open-branched sechser (six) single silicate chains, whereas K2 (UO2 )Si2 O6 crystallizes in the C2/ c space group and is built of unbranched achter (eight) silicate chains. The crystals of K14 (UO2 )3 Si10 O30 and K2 (UO2 )Si2 O6 are related by increasing U/Si molar ratios, and both structures contain the same secondary building units (SBUs), [USi6 ] heptamers...
May 16, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
C Patrick Royall
We review efforts to realise so-called mermaid (or short-ranged attraction/long ranged repulsion) interactions in 3d real space. The repulsive and attractive contributions to these interactions in charged colloids and colloid-polymer mixtures, may be accurately realised, by comparing particle-resolved studies with colloids to computer simulation. However, when we review work where these interactions have been combined, despite early indications of behaviour consistent with predictions, closer analysis reveals that in the non-aqueous systems used for particle-resolved studies, the idea of summing the attractive and repulsive components leads to wild deviations with experiment...
May 16, 2018: Soft Matter
David J Harris, Samuel J Vine, Mark R Wilson, John S McGrath, Marie-Eve LeBel, Gavin Buckingham
BACKGROUND: Advances in 3D technology mean that both robotic surgical devices and surgical simulators can now incorporate stereoscopic viewing capabilities. While depth information may benefit robotic surgical performance, it is unclear whether 3D viewing also aids skill acquisition when learning from observing others. As observational learning plays a major role in surgical skills training, this study aimed to evaluate whether 3D viewing provides learning benefits in a robotically assisted surgical task...
May 14, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Honggu Choi, Zhe Li, Hao Sun, Dan Merrill, John Turek, Michael Childress, David Nolte
Biodynamic digital holography was used to obtain phenotypic profiles of canine non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma biopsies treated with standard-of-care chemotherapy. Biodynamic signatures from the living 3D tissues were extracted using fluctuation spectroscopy from intracellular Doppler light scattering in response to the molecular mechanisms of action of therapeutic drugs that modify a range of internal cellular motions. The standard-of-care to treat B-cell lymphoma in both humans and dogs is a combination CHOP therapy that consists of doxorubicin, prednisolone, cyclophosphamide and vincristine...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Marta Vidal-García, Lashi Bandara, J Scott Keogh
The quantification of complex morphological patterns typically involves comprehensive shape and size analyses, usually obtained by gathering morphological data from all the structures that capture the phenotypic diversity of an organism or object. Articulated structures are a critical component of overall phenotypic diversity, but data gathered from these structures are difficult to incorporate into modern analyses because of the complexities associated with jointly quantifying 3D shape in multiple structures...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Chenyuan Sha, Xuemei Wang, Yuanyuan Lin, Yifan Fan, Xi Chen, Jian Hang
Sustainable urban design is an effective way to improve urban ventilation and reduce vehicular pollutant exposure to urban residents. This paper investigated the impacts of urban open space and 'lift-up' building design on vehicular CO (carbon monoxide) exposure in typical three-dimensional (3D) urban canopy layer (UCL) models under neutral atmospheric conditions. The building intake fraction (IF) represents the fraction of total vehicular pollutant emissions inhaled by residents when they stay at home. The building daily CO exposure (Et ) means the extent of human beings' contact with CO within one day indoor at home...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zijing Dong, Erpeng Dai, Fuyixue Wang, Zhe Zhang, Xiaodong Ma, Chun Yuan, Hua Guo
PURPOSE: Multishot interleaved echo-planar imaging (iEPI) can achieve higher image resolution than single-shot EPI for diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI), but its application is limited by the prolonged acquisition time. To reduce the acquisition time, a novel model-based reconstruction for simultaneous multislice (SMS) and parallel imaging (PI) accelerated iEPI DTI is proposed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DTI datasets acquired by iEPI with SMS and PI acceleration can be regarded as 3D k-space data, which is undersampled along both the slice and phase encoding directions...
May 14, 2018: Medical Physics
Junyong Wang, Qinglin Deng, Mengjiao Li, Cong Wu, Kai Jiang, Zhigao Hu, Junhao Chu
To overcome inferior rate capability and cycle stability of MnO-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), we reported a novel 3D porous MnO@GS/CNT composite, consisting of MnO nanoparticles homogeneously distributed on the conductive interconnected framework based on 2D graphene sheets (GS) and 1D carbon nanotubes (CNT). The distinctive architecture offers highly interpenetrated network along with efficient porous channels for fast electron transfer and ionic diffusion as well as abundant stress buffer space to accommodate the volume expansion of the MnO nanoparticles...
May 14, 2018: Nanotechnology
Syed Rashid Habib, Asim Khaled Al Otaibi, Talal Ali Al Anazi, Samer Mosleh Al Anazi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in-vitro study was to investigate the marginal and internal fit of zirconia copings fabricated by five CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture) systems. METHOD AND MATERIALS: A typodont mandibular right first molar was prepared according to ideal parameters for a zirconia crown, scanned digitally, and 100 identical resin dies fabricated by 3D printing. Samples were randomly divided into five groups and sent to CAD/CAM systems for zirconia copings (A, Ceramill-Motion 2, Amann Girrbach; B, Weiland, Ivoclar Vivadent; C, Cerec, Ivoclar Vivadent; D, Prettau Zirconia, Zirkonzahn; E, Cad4dent)...
2018: Quintessence International
Ting Liu, Rong-Gui Yang, Guo-Qing Zhong
The novel 3D edta-linked heterometallic complex [Sb2 Er(edta)2 (H2 O)4 ]NO3 ·4H2 O (H4 edta = ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermal analysis. The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group Pm . In the complex, each erbium(III) ion is connected with antimony(III) ions bridging by four carboxylic oxygen atoms, and in each [Sb(edta)]- anion, the antimony(III) ion is hexacoordinated by two nitrogen atoms and four oxygen atoms from the edta4- ions, together with a lone electron pair at the equatorial position...
2018: Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Ravinder Jerath, Connor Beveridge
Aside from the nature of consciousness itself, there are still many unsolved problems in the neurosciences. Despite the vast and quickly growing body of work in this field, we still find ourselves perplexed at seemingly simple qualities of our mental being such as why we need to sleep. The neurosciences are at least beginning to take a hold on these mysteries and are working toward solving them. We hold a perspective that metastable consciousness models, specifically the Default Space Model (DSM), provide insights into these mysteries...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Guillermo Ruiz, Eduard Ramon, Jaime García, Federico M Sukno, Miguel A González Ballester
The use of 3D imaging has increased as a practical and useful tool for plastic and aesthetic surgery planning. Specifically, the possibility of representing the patient breast anatomy in a 3D shape and simulate aesthetic or plastic procedures is a great tool for communication between surgeon and patient during surgery planning. For the purpose of obtaining the specific 3D model of the breast of a patient, model-based reconstruction methods can be used. In particular, 3D morphable models (3DMM) are a robust and widely used method to perform 3D reconstruction...
May 2, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Seung Kwan Kang, Seongho Seo, Seong A Shin, Min Soo Byun, Dong Young Lee, Yu Kyeong Kim, Dong Soo Lee, Jae Sung Lee
Accurate spatial normalization (SN) of amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) images for Alzheimer's disease assessment without coregistered anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the same individual is technically challenging. In this study, we applied deep neural networks to generate individually adaptive PET templates for robust and accurate SN of amyloid PET without using matched 3D MR images. Using 681 pairs of simultaneously acquired 11 C-PIB PET and T1-weighted 3D MRI scans of AD, MCI, and cognitively normal subjects, we trained and tested two deep neural networks [convolutional auto-encoder (CAE) and generative adversarial network (GAN)] that produce adaptive best PET templates...
May 11, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Tommaso Lorenzi, Chandrasekhar Venkataraman, Alexander Lorz, Mark A J Chaplain
We present here a space- and phenotype-structured model of selection dynamics between cancer cells within a solid tumour. In the framework of this model, we combine formal analyses with numerical simulations to investigate in silico the role played by the spatial distribution of abiotic components of the tumour microenvironment in mediating phenotypic selection of cancer cells. Numerical simulations are performed both on the 3D geometry of an in silico multicellular tumour spheroid and on the 3D geometry of an in vivo human hepatic tumour, which was imaged using computerised tomography...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Brian Iglehart
Laboratory automation improves test reproducibility, which is vital to patient care in clinical laboratories. Many small and specialty laboratories are excluded from the benefits of automation due to low sample number, cost, space, and/or lack of automation expertise. The Minimum Viable Option (MVO) automation platform was developed to address these hurdles and fulfill an unmet need. Consumer 3D printing enabled rapid iterative prototyping to allow for a variety of instrumentation and assay setups and procedures...
May 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
A Jovanović, A S Dobrota, L D Rafailović, S V Mentus, I A Pašti, B Johansson, N V Skorodumova
New electrode materials for alkaline-ion batteries are a timely topic. Among many promising candidates, V2O5 is one of the most interesting cathode materials. While having very high theoretical capacity, in practice, its performance is hindered by its low stability and poor conductivity. As regards the theoretical descriptions of V2O5, common DFT-GGA calculations fail to reproduce both the electronic and crystal structures. While the band gap is underestimated, the interlayer spacing is overestimated as weak dispersion interactions are not properly described within GGA...
May 10, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Hongjie Hu, Xuan Zhu, Chonghe Wang, Lin Zhang, Xiaoshi Li, Seunghyun Lee, Zhenlong Huang, Ruimin Chen, Zeyu Chen, Chunfeng Wang, Yue Gu, Yimu Chen, Yusheng Lei, Tianjiao Zhang, NamHeon Kim, Yuxuan Guo, Yue Teng, Wenbo Zhou, Yang Li, Akihiro Nomoto, Simone Sternini, Qifa Zhou, Matt Pharr, Francesco Lanza di Scalea, Sheng Xu
Ultrasonic imaging has been implemented as a powerful tool for noninvasive subsurface inspections of both structural and biological media. Current ultrasound probes are rigid and bulky and cannot readily image through nonplanar three-dimensional (3D) surfaces. However, imaging through these complicated surfaces is vital because stress concentrations at geometrical discontinuities render these surfaces highly prone to defects. This study reports a stretchable ultrasound probe that can conform to and detect nonplanar complex surfaces...
March 2018: Science Advances
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