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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432504/3t-mri-of-the-knee-with-optimised-isotropic-3d-sequences-accurate-delineation-of-intra-articular-pathology-without-prolonged-acquisition-times
#1
Osamah M Abdulaal, Louise Rainford, Peter MacMahon, Eoin Kavanagh, Marie Galligan, James Cashman, Allison McGee
OBJECTIVES: To investigate optimised isotropic 3D turbo spin echo (TSE) and gradient echo (GRE)-based pulse sequences for visualisation of articular cartilage lesions within the knee joint. METHODS: Optimisation of experimental imaging sequences was completed using healthy volunteers (n=16) with a 3-Tesla (3T) MRI scanner. Imaging of patients with knee cartilage abnormalities (n=57) was then performed. Acquired sequences included 3D proton density-weighted (PDW) TSE (SPACE) with and without fat-suppression (FS), and T2*W GRE (TrueFISP) sequences, with acquisition times of 6:51, 6:32 and 5:35 min, respectively...
April 21, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430411/2-methylimidazole-derived-ni-co-layered-double-hydroxide-nanosheets-as-high-rate-capability-and-high-energy-density-storage-material-in-hybrid-supercapacitors
#2
Teng Wang, Shengli Zhang, Xingbin Yan, Miaoqiang Lyu, Lianzhou Wang, John M Bell, Hongxia Wang
A new method based on one-step solvothermal reaction is demonstrated to synthesize ultrathin Ni-Co layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets which grow directly on a flexible carbon fiber cloth (NiCo-LDH/CFC). Through using 2-methylimidazole as complex and methanol as solvent, the as-prepared NiCo-LDH/CFC shows a (003) facet preferential growth and an expanded interlayer spacing structure, resulting in a unique 3D porous nanostructure with the thickness of nanosheets around 5-7 nm that shows high energy storage performance...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427436/a-3d-in-vitro-model-of-the-human-breast-duct-a-method-to-unravel-myoepithelial-luminal-interactions-in-the-progression-of-breast-cancer
#3
Edward P Carter, James A Gopsill, Jennifer J Gomm, J Louise Jones, Richard P Grose
BACKGROUND: 3D modelling fulfils a critical role in research, allowing for complex cell behaviour and interactions to be studied in physiomimetic conditions. With tissue banks becoming established for a number of cancers, researchers now have access to primary patient cells, providing the perfect building blocks to recreate and interrogate intricate cellular systems in the laboratory. The ducts of the human breast are composed of an inner layer of luminal cells supported by an outer layer of myoepithelial cells...
April 21, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427408/time-averaged-simulated-microgravity-tasmg-inhibits-proliferation-of-lymphoma-cells-l-540-and-hdlm-2-using-a-3d-clinostat
#4
Yoon Jae Kim, Ae Jin Jeong, Myungjoon Kim, Chiwon Lee, Sang-Kyu Ye, Sungwan Kim
BACKGROUND: Gravity is omnipresent on Earth; however, humans in space, such as astronauts at the International Space Station, experience microgravity. Long-term exposure to microgravity is considered to elicit physiological changes, such as muscle atrophy, in the human body. In addition, certain types of cancer cells demonstrate inhibited proliferation under condition of time-averaged simulated microgravity (taSMG). However, the response of human Hodgkin's lymphoma cancer cells to reduced gravity, and the associated physiological changes in these cells, have not been elucidated...
April 20, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425560/impact-of-simulated-three-dimensional-perception-on-precision-of-depth-judgements-technical-performance-and-perceived-workload-in-laparoscopy
#5
S Sakata, P M Grove, A Hill, M O Watson, A R L Stevenson
BACKGROUND: This study compared precision of depth judgements, technical performance and workload using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) laparoscopic displays across different viewing distances. It also compared the accuracy of 3D displays with natural viewing, along with the relationship between stereoacuity and 3D laparoscopic performance. METHODS: A counterbalanced within-subjects design with random assignment to testing sequences was used. The system could display 2D or 3D images with the same set-up...
April 20, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425431/characterization-of-spatial-distortion-in-a-0-35t-mri-guided-radiotherapy-system
#6
John S Ginn, Nzhde Agazaryan, Minsong Cao, Umar Baharom, Daniel Low, Yingli Yang, Yu Gao, Peng Hu, Percy Lee, James Lamb
Spatial distortion results in image deformation that can degrade accurate targeting and dose calculations in MRI-guided adaptive radiotherapy. The authors present a comprehensive assessment of a 0.35T MRI-guided radiotherapy system's spatial distortion using two commercially-available phantoms with regularly spaced markers. Images of the spatial integrity phantoms were acquired using five clinical protocols on the MRI-guided radiotherapy machine with the radiotherapy gantry positioned at various angles. Software was developed to identify and localize all phantom markers using a template matching approach...
April 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424353/constrained-release-of-lamina-associated-enhancers-and-genes-from-the-nuclear-envelope-during-t-cell-activation-facilitates-their-association-in-chromosome-compartments
#7
Michael I Robson, Jose I de Las Heras, Rafal Czapiewski, Aishwarya Sivakumar, Alastair R W Kerr, Eric Schirmer
The 3D organization of the genome changes concomitantly with expression changes during hematopoiesis and immune activation. Studies have focused either on lamina-associated domains (LADs) or on topologically-associated domains (TADs), defined by preferential local chromatin interactions, and chromosome compartments, defined as higher-order interactions between TADs sharing functionally similar states. However, few studies have investigated how these affect one another. To address this, we mapped LADs using Lamin B1-DamID during Jurkat T-cell activation, finding significant genome re-organization at the nuclear periphery dominated by release of loci frequently important for T-cell function...
April 19, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422685/outdoor-markerless-motion-capture-with-sparse-handheld-video-cameras
#8
Yangang Wang, Yebin Liu, Xin Tong, Qionghai Dai, Ping Tan
We present a method for outdoor markerless motion capture with sparse handheld video cameras. In the simplest setting, it only involves two mobile phone cameras following the character. This setup can maximize the flexibilities of data capture and broaden the applications of motion capture. To solve the character pose under such challenge settings, we exploit the generative motion capture methods and propose a novel model-view consistency that considers both foreground and background in the tracking stage. The background is modeled as a deformable 2D grid, which allows us to compute the background-view consistency for sparse moving cameras...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420897/in-vivo-analysis-of-three-dimensional-dynamic-scapular-dyskinesis-in-scapular-or-clavicular-fractures
#9
Eugene Kim, Jai Hyung Park, Byeong-Ryong Han, Hee Jin Park, So Yeon Lee, Tsuyoshi Murase, Kazumi Sugamoto, Sumika Ikemoto, Se-Jin Park
The three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of the scapula were analyzed in vivo in 10 patients with scapular and 10 patients with clavicular fracture. Both the injured shoulder and normal contralateral shoulder were evaluated by computed tomography in the neutral and fully elevated positions. 3D rotational and translational movements of the scapula relative to the thorax during arm elevation were analyzed. A computer simulation program was used to compare rotational elevation/depression in the coronal plane, anterior/posterior tilting in the sagittal plane and protraction/retraction in the axial plane between the normal and affected sides...
April 2017: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420248/creating-an-optimal-3d-printed-model-for-temporal-bone-dissection-training
#10
Kuniyuki Takahashi, Yuka Morita, Shinsuke Ohshima, Shuji Izumi, Yamato Kubota, Yutaka Yamamoto, Sugata Takahashi, Arata Horii
OBJECTIVE: Making a 3-dimensional (3D) temporal bone model is simple using a plaster powder bed and an inkjet printer. However, it is difficult to reproduce air-containing spaces and precise middle ear structures. The objective of this study was to overcome these problems and create a temporal bone model that would be useful both as a training tool and for preoperative simulation. METHODS: Drainage holes were made to remove excess materials from air-containing spaces, ossicle ligaments were manually changed to bony structures, and small and/or soft tissue structures were colored differently while designing the 3D models...
April 1, 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420152/measurement-of-pressure-fluctuations-inside-a-model-thrust-bearing-using-pvdf-sensors
#11
Andrew Youssef, David Matthews, Andrew Guzzomi, Jie Pan
Thrust bearings play a vital role in propulsion systems. They rely on a thin layer of oil being trapped between rotating surfaces to produce a low friction interface. The "quality" of this bearing affects many things from noise transmission to the ultimate catastrophic failure of the bearing itself. As a result, the direct measure of the forces and vibrations within the oil filled interface would be very desirable and would give an indication of the condition of the bearing in situ. The thickness of the oil film is, however, very small and conventional vibration sensors are too cumbersome to use in this confined space...
April 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417635/crystallization-of-amphiphilic-dna-c-stars
#12
Ryan A Brady, Nicholas J Brooks, Pietro Cicuta, Lorenzo Di Michele
Many emerging technologies require materials with well-defined three-dimensional nanoscale architectures. Production of these structures is currently underpinned by self-assembling amphiphilic macromolecules or engineered all-DNA building blocks. Both of these approaches produce restricted ranges of crystal geometries due to synthetic amphiphiles' simple shape and limited specificity, or the technical difficulties in designing space-filling DNA motifs with targeted shapes. We have overcome these limitations with amphiphilic DNA nanostructures, or "C-Stars", that combine the design freedom and facile functionalization of DNA-based materials with robust hydrophobic interactions...
April 20, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417080/applying-a-systems-approach-to-thyroid-physiology-looking-at-the-whole-with-a-mitochondrial-perspective-instead-of-judging-single-tsh-values-or-why-we-should-know-more-about-mitochondria-to-understand-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
Roy Moncayo, Helga Moncayo
Classical thinking in endocrine physiology squeezes our diagnostic handling into a simple negative feedback mechanism with a controller and a controlled variable. In the case of the thyroid this is reduced to TSH and fT3 and fT4, respectively. The setting of this tight notion has no free space for any additions. In this paper we want to challenge this model of limited application by proposing a construct based on a systems approach departing from two basic considerations. In first place since the majority of cases of thyroid disease develop and appear during life it has to be considered as an acquired condition...
June 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411443/assessment-of-stability-during-gait-in-patients-with-spinal-deformity-a-preliminary-analysis-using-the-dynamic-stability-margin
#14
Anne-Laure Simon, Vipul Lugade, Kathie Bernhardt, A Noelle Larson, Kenton Kaufman
Daily living activities are dynamic, requiring spinal motion through space. Current assessment of spinal deformities is based on static measurements from full-spine standing radiographs. Tools to assess dynamic stability during gait might be useful to enhance the standard evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate gait dynamic imbalance in patients with spinal deformity using the dynamic stability margin (DSM). Twelve normal subjects and 17 patients with spinal deformity were prospectively recruited...
April 5, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410097/progressive-minimal-path-method-for-segmentation-of-2d-and-3d-line-structures
#15
Wei Liao, Stefan Worz, Chang-Ki Kang, Zang-Hee Cho, Karl Rohr
We propose a novel minimal path method for the segmentation of 2D and 3D line structures. Minimal path methods perform propagation of a wavefront emanating from a start point at a speed derived from image features, followed by path extraction using backtracing. Usually, the computation of the speed and the propagation of the wave are two separate steps, and point features are used to compute a static speed. We introduce a new continuous minimal path method which steers the wave propagation progressively using dynamic speed based on path features...
April 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399908/using-cone-beam-ct-to-assess-the-upper-airway-after-surgery-in-children-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-symptoms-and-maxillary-mandibular-disproportions-a-clinical-pilot
#16
Noura A Alsufyani, Michelle L Noga, Manisha Witmans, Irene Cheng, Hamdy El-Hakim, Paul W Major
BACKGROUND: The surgical excision of anatomic obstructions such as adenoids, palatine or lingual tonsils are commonly performed in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Imaging studies measuring airway changes post-surgery in the SDB pediatric population are scarce, rarely addresses the nasal cavity, and are based on global measures (e.g. volume) that do not represent the complexity of the upper airway anatomy. The purpose of this pilot is to test the feasibility in using cone beam CT (CBCT) to analyze the nasal and pharyngeal airway space post-surgery using meaningful methods of analyses, and correlating imaging findings with clinical outcomes in children with SDB symptoms and maxillary-mandibular disproportion...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399444/reticulated-vitreous-carbon-as-a-scaffold-for-enzymatic-fuel-cell-designing
#17
Michal Kizling, Maciej Dzwonek, Bartłomiej Olszewski, Paweł Bącal, Łukasz Tymecki, Agnieszka Więckowska, Krzysztof Stolarczyk, Renata Bilewicz
Three - dimensional (3D) electrodes are successfully used to overcome the limitations of the low space - time yield and low normalized space velocity obtained in electrochemical processes with two - dimensional electrodes. In this study, we developed a three - dimensional reticulated vitreous carbon - gold (RVC-Au) sponge as a scaffold for enzymatic fuel cells (EFC). The structure of gold and the real electrode surface area can be controlled by the parameters of metal electrodeposition. In particular, a 3D RVC-Au sponge provides a large accessible surface area for immobilization of enzyme and electron mediators, moreover, effective mass diffusion can also take place through the uniform macro - porous scaffold...
April 4, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399432/graph-cut-based-method-for-segmenting-the-left-ventricle-from-mri-or-echocardiographic-images
#18
Michael Bernier, Pierre-Marc Jodoin, Olivier Humbert, Alain Lalande
In this paper, we present a fast and interactive graph cut method for 3D segmentation of the endocardial wall of the left ventricle (LV) adapted to work on two of the most widely used modalities: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography. Our method accounts for the fundamentally different nature of both modalities: 3D echocardiographic images have a low contrast, a poor signal-to-noise ratio and frequent signal drop, while MR images are more detailed but also cluttered and contain highly anisotropic voxels...
April 2, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399397/genome-architecture-from-a-different-angle
#19
Elizabeth H Finn, Tom Misteli
The study of genome architecture has recently been advanced by new techniques combining nuclear proximity ligation and high-throughput sequencing, but independent methods to validate them have been lacking. Reporting in Nature, Beagrie et al. (2017) describe such an orthogonal technique, called genome architecture mapping, to map genomes in 3D space.
April 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397968/trajectory-optimization-in-radiotherapy-using-sectioning-torus
#20
Christopher Barry Locke, Karl Kenneth Bush
PURPOSE: A challenging problem in trajectory optimization for radiotherapy is properly handling the synchronization of the medical accelerators dynamic delivery. The initial coarse sampling of control points implemented in a Progressive Resolution Optimization type approach (VMAT) routinely results in MLC aperture forming contention issues as the sampling resolution increases. This work presents an approach to optimize continuous, beam-on radiation trajectories through exploration of the anatomical topology present in the patient and formation of a novel dual-metric graph optimization problem...
April 11, 2017: Medical Physics
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