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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646374/item-usage-in-a-multidimensional-computerized-adaptive-test-mcat-measuring-health-related-quality-of-life
#1
Muirne C S Paap, Karel A Kroeze, Caroline B Terwee, Job van der Palen, Bernard P Veldkamp
PURPOSE: Examining item usage is an important step in evaluating the performance of a computerized adaptive test (CAT). We study item usage for a newly developed multidimensional CAT which draws items from three PROMIS domains, as well as a disease-specific one. METHODS: The multidimensional item bank used in the current study contained 194 items from four domains: the PROMIS domains fatigue, physical function, and ability to participate in social roles and activities, and a disease-specific domain (the COPD-SIB)...
June 23, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596373/mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-promotes-atherosclerosis-and-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-aged-mice
#2
Ying Wang, Wei Wang, Nan Wang, Alan R Tall, Ira Tabas
RATIONALE: Mitochondrial oxidative stress (mitoOS) has been shown to be increased in various cell types in human atherosclerosis and with aging. However, the role of cell type-specific mitoOS in atherosclerosis in the setting of advanced age and the molecular mechanisms remains to be determined in vivo. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the role of myeloid cell mitoOS in atherosclerosis in aged mice. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Lethally irradiated low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice (Ldlr(-/-) ) were reconstituted with bone marrow from either wild-type or mitochondrial catalase (mCAT) mice...
June 8, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573595/developing-and-evaluating-an-innovative-structural-competency-curriculum-for-pre-health-students
#3
JuLeigh Petty, Jonathan M Metzl, Mia R Keeys
The inclusion of structural competency training in pre-health undergraduate programs may offer significant benefits to future healthcare professionals. This paper presents the results of a comparative study of an interdisciplinary pre-health curriculum based in structural competency with a traditional premedical curriculum. The authors describe a new evaluation tool, the Structural Foundations of Health Survey © (2016), developed to evaluate structural skills and sensibilities. The authors use the survey to evaluate two groups of graduating seniors at Vanderbilt University-majors in an interdisciplinary pre-health curriculum titled Medicine, Health, and Society (MHS), and premed science majors-with particular attention to understanding how political, cultural, economic, and social factors shape health...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526873/role-of-s-palmitoylation-by-zdhhc13-in-mitochondrial-function-and-metabolism-in-liver
#4
Li-Fen Shen, Yi-Ju Chen, Kai-Ming Liu, Amir N Saleem Haddad, I-Wen Song, Hsiao-Yuh Roan, Li-Ying Chen, Jeffrey J Y Yen, Yu-Ju Chen, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Yuan-Tsong Chen
Palmitoyltransferase (PAT) catalyses protein S-palmitoylation which adds 16-carbon palmitate to specific cysteines and contributes to various biological functions. We previously reported that in mice, deficiency of Zdhhc13, a member of the PAT family, causes severe phenotypes including amyloidosis, alopecia, and osteoporosis. Here, we show that Zdhhc13 deficiency results in abnormal liver function, lipid abnormalities, and hypermetabolism. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying these disease phenotypes, we applied a site-specific quantitative approach integrating an alkylating resin-assisted capture and mass spectrometry-based label-free strategy for studying the liver S-palmitoylome...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501933/the-influence-of-mcat-and-gpa-preadmission-academic-metrics-on-interview-scores
#5
Steven E Gay, Sally A Santen, Rajesh S Mangrulkar, Thomas H Sisson, Paula T Ross, Nikki L Bibler Zaidi
Medical school admissions interviews are used to assess applicants' nonacademic characteristics as advocated by the Association of American Medical Colleges' Advancing Holistic Review Initiative. The objective of this study is to determine whether academic metrics continue to significantly influence interviewers' scores in holistic processes by blinding interviewers to applicants' undergraduate grade point averages (uGPA) and Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). This study examines academic and demographic predictors of interview scores for two applicant cohorts at the University of Michigan Medical School...
May 13, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476930/mitochondrial-targeted-catalase-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-muscle-insulin-resistance-by-decreasing-intramuscular-lipid-accumulation
#6
Hui-Young Lee, Jae Sung Lee, Tiago Alves, Warren Ladiges, Peter S Rabinovitch, Michael J Jurczak, Cheol Soo Choi, Gerald I Shulman, Varman T Samuel
We explored the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of muscle insulin resistance by assessing insulin action in vivo with a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in mice expressing a mitochondrially-targeted catalase (MCAT) that were fed regular chow (RC), a high-fat diet (HFD), or undergoing an acute infusion of a lipid emulsion. RC MCAT mice were similar to littermate wild-type (WT) mice. However, HFD MCAT mice were protected from diet-induced insulin resistance. In contrast, an acute lipid infusion caused muscle insulin resistance in both MCAT and WT mice...
May 5, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444397/advancing-the-efficiency-and-efficacy-of-patient-reported-outcomes-with-multivariate-computer-adaptive-testing
#7
Scott Morris, Mike Bass, Mirinae Lee, Richard E Neapolitan
Objective: : The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative developed an array of patient reported outcome (PRO) measures. To reduce the number of questions administered, PROMIS utilizes unidimensional item response theory and unidimensional computer adaptive testing (UCAT), which means a separate set of questions is administered for each measured trait. Multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) and multidimensional computer adaptive testing (MCAT) simultaneously assess correlated traits...
March 11, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428174/klotho-an-anti-aging-molecule-attenuates-oxidant-induced-alveolar-epithelial-cell-mtdna-damage-and-apoptosis
#8
Seok-Jo Kim, Paul Cheresh, Mesut Eren, Renea P Jablonski, Anjana Yeldandi, Karen M Ridge, Gr Scott Budinger, Dong-Hyun Kim, Myles S Wolf, Douglas Vaughan, David W Kamp
Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis and inadequate repair resulting from 'exaggerated' lung aging and mitochondrial dysfunction are critical determinants promoting lung fibrosis. α-Klotho, which is an anti-aging molecule that is expressed predominantly in the kidney and secreted in the blood, can protect lung epithelial cells against hyperoxia-induced apoptosis. We reasoned that Klotho protects AEC exposed to oxidative stress in part by maintaining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and mitigating apoptosis...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412081/nasopharyngeal-polymicrobial-colonization-during-health-viral-upper-respiratory-infection-and-upper-respiratory-bacterial-infection
#9
Qingfu Xu, Jareth Wischmeyer, Eduardo Gonzalez, Michael E Pichichero
OBJECTIVES: We sought to understand how polymicrobial colonization varies during health, viral upper respiratory infection (URI) and acute upper respiratory bacterial infection to understand differences in infection-prone vs. non-prone patients. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal (NP) samples were collected from 74 acute otitis media (AOM) infection-prone and 754 non-prone children during 2094 healthy visits, 673 viral URI visits and 631 AOM visits. Three otopathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) were identified by culture...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405943/myocardial-oxidative-stress-correlates-with-left-ventricular-dysfunction-on-strain-echocardiography-in-a-rodent-model-of-sepsis
#10
Bereketeab Haileselassie, Erik Su, Iraklis Pozios, Diego F Niño, Hongyun Liu, Dai-Yin Lu, Ioannis Ventoulis, William B Fulton, Chhinder P Sodhi, David Hackam, Brian O'Rourke, Theodore Abraham
BACKGROUND: Recognition of cardiomyopathy in sepsis can be challenging due to the limitations of conventional measures such as ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS) in the context of variable preload and afterload conditions. This study correlates myocardial function using strain echocardiography (SE) with cardiomyocyte oxidative stress in a murine model of sepsis. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were randomized into control (n = 10), sham (n = 25), and a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) (n = 33) model of sepsis...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389429/integrating-concepts-in-biology-textbook-increases-learning-assessment-triangulation-using-concept-inventory-card-sorting-and-mcat-instruments-followed-by-longitudinal-tracking
#11
Douglas B Luckie, Anne-Marie Hoskinson, Caleigh E Griffin, Andrea L Hess, Katrina J Price, Alex Tawa, Samantha M Thacker
The purpose of this study was to examine the educational impact of an intervention, the inquiry-focused textbook Integrating Concepts in Biology (ICB), when used in a yearlong introductory biology course sequence. Student learning was evaluated using three published instruments: 1) The Biology Concept Inventory probed depth of student mastery of fundamental concepts in organismal and cellular topics when confronting misconceptions as distractors. ICB students had higher gains in all six topic categories (+43% vs...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365122/derivation-and-genome-wide-association-study-of-a-principal-component-based-measure-of-heat-tolerance-in-dairy-cattle
#12
N P P Macciotta, S Biffani, U Bernabucci, N Lacetera, A Vitali, P Ajmone-Marsan, A Nardone
Heat stress represents a key factor that negatively affects the productive and reproductive performance of farm animals. In the present work, a new measure of tolerance to heat stress for dairy cattle was developed using principal component analysis. Data were from 590,174 test-day records for milk yield, fat and protein percentages, and somatic cell score of 39,261 Italian Holstein cows. Test-day records adjusted for main systematic factors were grouped into 11 temperature-humidity index (THI) classes. Daughter trait deviations (DTD) were calculated for 1,540 bulls as means of the adjusted test-day records for each THI class...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343349/modernizing-quality-of-life-assessment-development-of-a-multidimensional-computerized-adaptive-questionnaire-for-patients-with-schizophrenia
#13
Pierre Michel, Karine Baumstarck, Christophe Lancon, Badih Ghattas, Anderson Loundou, Pascal Auquier, Laurent Boyer
OBJECTIVE: Quality of life (QoL) is still assessed using paper-based and fixed-length questionnaires, which is one reason why QoL measurements have not been routinely implemented in clinical practice. Providing new QoL measures that combine computer technology with modern measurement theory may enhance their clinical use. The aim of this study was to develop a QoL multidimensional computerized adaptive test (MCAT), the SQoL-MCAT, from the fixed-length SQoL questionnaire for patients with schizophrenia...
March 25, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253986/mitochondrial-targeted-catalase-extended-longevity-and-the-roles-in-various-disease-models
#14
D-F Dai, Y-A Chiao, G M Martin, D J Marcinek, N Basisty, E K Quarles, P S Rabinovitch
The free-radical theory of aging was proposed more than 50 years ago. As one of the most popular mechanisms explaining the aging process, it has been extensively studied in several model organisms. However, the results remain controversial. The mitochondrial version of free-radical theory of aging proposes that mitochondria are both the primary sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the primary targets of ROS-induced damage. One critical ROS is hydrogen peroxide, which is naturally degraded by catalase in peroxisomes or glutathione peroxidase within mitochondria...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178916/development-of-an-interdisciplinary-pre-matriculation-program-designed-to-promote-medical-students-self-efficacy
#15
Anna Wirta Kosobuski, Abigail Whitney, Andrew Skildum, Amy Prunuske
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A four-week interdisciplinary pre-matriculation program for Native American and rural medical students was created and its impact on students' transition to medical school was assessed. The program extends the goals of many pre-matriculation programs by aiming to increase not only students' understanding of basic science knowledge, but also to build student self-efficacy through practice with medical school curricular elements while developing their academic support networks...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178271/tead-transcription-factors-are-required-for-normal-primary-myoblast-differentiation-in-vitro-and-muscle-regeneration-in-vivo
#16
Shilpy Joshi, Guillaume Davidson, Stéphanie Le Gras, Shuichi Watanabe, Thomas Braun, Gabrielle Mengus, Irwin Davidson
The TEAD family of transcription factors (TEAD1-4) bind the MCAT element in the regulatory elements of both growth promoting and myogenic differentiation genes. Defining TEAD transcription factor function in myogenesis has proved elusive due to overlapping expression of family members and their functional redundancy. We show that silencing of either Tead1, Tead2 or Tead4 did not effect primary myoblast (PM) differentiation, but that their simultaneous knockdown strongly impaired differentiation. In contrast, Tead1 or Tead4 silencing impaired C2C12 differentiation showing their different contributions in PMs and C2C12 cells...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130937/developing-new-online-calibration-methods-for-multidimensional-computerized-adaptive-testing
#17
Ping Chen, Chun Wang, Tao Xin, Hua-Hua Chang
Multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT) has received increasing attention over the past few years in educational measurement. Like all other formats of CAT, item replenishment is an essential part of MCAT for its item bank maintenance and management, which governs retiring overexposed or obsolete items over time and replacing them with new ones. Moreover, calibration precision of the new items will directly affect the estimation accuracy of examinees' ability vectors. In unidimensional CAT (UCAT) and cognitive diagnostic CAT, online calibration techniques have been developed to effectively calibrate new items...
February 2017: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127127/factors-associated-with-performance-in-an-internal-medicine-clerkship
#18
Colleen Colbert, Tresa McNeal, Maybelline Lezama, Martha Chandler, Lisa Forrester, Austin Metting, Curtis Mirkes, Holly Van Cleave, Sonny Win, John D Myers
The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the relationship between demographic and educational variables and student performance on an internal medicine (IM) clerkship in order to target areas for educational intervention and potential early remediation. This study examined data associated with third-year medical student performance (N = 505) during the IM clerkship at Baylor Scott & White, Temple/Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine from 2005 to 2011. Multiple regression analysis (N = 341) showed that a model containing the following variables was significantly associated with scores on the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) subject exam, accounting for 46...
January 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798818/an-evaluation-of-outcomes-following-the-replacement-of-traditional-histology-laboratories-with-self-study-modules
#19
Andrew R Thompson, D J Lowrie
Changes in medical school curricula often require educators to develop teaching strategies that decrease contact hours while maintaining effective pedagogical methods. When faced with this challenge, faculty at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine converted the majority of in-person histology laboratory sessions to self-study modules that utilize multiple audiovisual modalities and a virtual microscope platform. Outcomes related to this shift were investigated through performance on in-house examinations, results of the United States Medical Licensing Examination(®) (USMLE(®) ) Step 1 Examination, and student feedback...
October 31, 2016: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738569/a-predictive-model-for-usmle-step-1-scores
#20
Christin Giordano, David Hutchinson, Richard Peppler
PURPOSE: The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 plays a pivotal role in one's residency application. While prior literature has investigated which factors influence performance on the examination, the authors sought to include factors such as performance on a well-used question bank and financial need to develop a predictive model. METHOD : After obtaining institutional review board approval, the authors surveyed two consecutive second-year medical school classes and correlated the data to the students' Step 1 and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Examination (CBSE) scores...
September 7, 2016: Curēus
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