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Christin Giordano, David Hutchinson, Richard Peppler
PURPOSE: The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 plays a pivotal role in one's residency application. While prior literature has investigated which factors influence performance on the examination, the authors sought to include factors such as performance on a well-used question bank and financial need to develop a predictive model. METHOD : After obtaining institutional review board approval, the authors surveyed two consecutive second-year medical school classes and correlated the data to the students' Step 1 and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Examination (CBSE) scores...
September 7, 2016: Curēus
Božidara Cvetković, Vito Janko, Alfonso E Romero, Özgür Kafalı, Kostas Stathis, Mitja Luštrek
Diabetes is a disease that has to be managed through appropriate lifestyle. Technology can help with this, particularly when it is designed so that it does not impose an additional burden on the patient. This paper presents an approach that combines machine-learning and symbolic reasoning to recognise high-level lifestyle activities using sensor data obtained primarily from the patient's smartphone. We compare five methods for machine-learning which differ in the amount of manually labelled data by the user, to investigate the trade-off between the labelling effort and recognition accuracy...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Jacqueline L Gauer, Josephine M Wolff, J Brooks Jackson
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the associations and predictive values of Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) component and composite scores prior to 2015 with U.S. Medical Licensure Exam (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK) scores, with a focus on whether students scoring low on the MCAT were particularly likely to continue to score low on the USMLE exams. METHOD: Multiple linear regression, correlation, and chi-square analyses were performed to determine the relationship between MCAT component and composite scores and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores from five graduating classes (2011-2015) at the University of Minnesota Medical School (N=1,065)...
2016: Medical Education Online
Patrick J Herling, B Tanya Mohseni, Derek C Hill, Stacy Chelf, Jeffrey A Rickert, Jonathan T Leo, Natalie R Langley
Lincoln Memorial University-DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine (LMU-DCOM) offers an optional three-week summer Anatomy Boot Camp course (ABC) to facilitate students' transition into medical school and promote retention of anatomy subject matter. The pre-matriculation program is a supplemental instruction course that utilizes a small group learning format. Boot camp instruction is led by teaching assistants and two anatomy professors. Enrollees gain early exposure to Medical Gross Anatomy (MGA) course subject matter, which is taught in the fall semester, and learn study skills necessary to excel in medical school...
September 23, 2016: Anatomical Sciences Education
Jingquan Sun, Xin Ye, Minhao Xie, Jianping Ye
Muscle exercise induces intramuscular triglyceride (TG) accumulation and promotes mitochondrial maintenance in myotubes. However, the mechanism underlying exercise effects remains unknown. In this study, lactic acid was tested as a signaling molecule in C2C12 myotubes to understand the mechanism. Intracellular TG storage was induced in the cells by sodium lactate. The lactate activity was observed with an inhibition of the cAMP-PKA pathway as indicated by a reduction in the phosphorylation status of CREB (pCREB)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Wojciech Bednarz, Jacek Żurek, Thomas Gedrange, Marzena Dominiak
BACKGROUND: The most effective method for treating gingival recessions (GR) is with an autogenous connective tissue graft (CTG) via flap surgery. Often, however, the amount of CTG that can be grafted is insufficient to cover all of a patient's gingival recessions at one time. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to provide a 6-month comparative assessment of the results of covering multiple Miller Class I and II gingival recessions with a Fascia Lata Allograft (FL) and a CTG harvested from palatal mucosa...
May 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Fumihiro Ishikawa, Hiroyasu Sugimoto, Hideaki Kakeya
Andrimid (Adm) synthase, which belongs to the type II system of enzymes, produces Adm in Pantoea agglomerans. The adm biosynthetic gene cluster lacks canonical acyltransferases (ATs) to load the malonyl group to acyl carrier proteins (ACPs), thus suggesting that a malonyl-CoA ACP transacylase (MCAT) from the fatty acid synthase (FAS) complex provides the essential AT activity in Adm biosynthesis. Here we report that an MCAT is essential for catalysis of the transacylation of malonate from malonyl-CoA to AdmA polyketide synthase (PKS) ACP in vitro...
September 6, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Johanna Selvaratnam, Bernard Robaire
Advanced paternal age is associated with increased complications in pregnancy and genetic diseases in offspring. Oxidative stress is a major contributor to the damage accumulated in sperm during aging. Complex networks of antioxidants regulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the testis. While mounting evident shows that redox dysfunction compromises the quality of developing male germ cells, the mechanisms by which aging causes this remain unclear. Furthermore, therapies to successfully alleviate aging-associated loss in germ cell quality are limited...
November 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Jia-Wen Chen, Wan-Jun Liu, Dong-Xiong Hu, Xiang Wang, Srinivasan Balamurugan, Adili Alimujiang, Wei-Dong Yang, Jie-Sheng Liu, Hong-Ye Li
Oleaginous microalgae hold great promises for biofuel production. However, commercialization of microalgal biofuels remains impracticable due to lack of suitable industrial strain with high growth rate and lipid productivity. Engineering of metabolic pathways is a potential strategy for the improvement of microalgal strains for the production of lipids and also value-added products in microalgae. Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT) has been reported to be involved in fatty acid biosynthesis...
August 30, 2016: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Michael E Pichichero, Anthony Almudevar
We sought to determine if inflammatory cytokines are induced during asymptomatic nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization by the common respiratory bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat). 85 serum samples were studied from 85 children 6-36 months of age when children were healthy and potentially NP colonized with Spn, NTHi or Mcat. Immunoassays were used to quantitate serum sICAM-1, IL-10 and S100A12 levels. Logistic regression was used to develop a predictive model for NP colonization probability for causative bacterial pathogen presence...
August 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Won-Sang Cho, Jeong Eun Kim, Jin Chul Paeng, Minseok Suh, Yong-Il Kim, Hyun-Seung Kang, Young Je Son, Jae Seung Bang, Chang Wan Oh
BACKGROUND: Patients with moyamoya disease are frequently encountered with improved symptoms related to anterior cerebral artery territory (ACAt) and middle cerebral artery territory (MCAt) after bypass surgery at MCAt. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hemodynamic changes in MCAt and ACAt after bypass surgery in adult moyamoya disease. METHODS: Combined bypass surgery was performed on 140 hemispheres in 126 patients with MCAt symptoms. Among them, 87 hemispheres (62...
July 25, 2016: Neurosurgery
Raluca Cosgarea, Raluca Juncar, Nicole Arweiler, Liana Lascu, Anton Sculean
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a new porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) for the treatment of Miller Class I, II, and III multiple gingival recessions using the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT). METHOD AND MATERIALS: Twelve nonsmoking, systemically healthy patients presenting at least two adjacent Miller Class I, II, or III gingival recessions (GR), with a minimal depth of 2 mm, were treated consecutively with MCAT in conjunction with PADM...
2016: Quintessence International
Anton Sculean, Raluca Cosgarea, Alexana Stähli, Christos Katsaros, Nicole Birgit Arweiler, Richard John Miron, Herbert Deppe
OBJECTIVE: To clinically evaluate the healing of multiple adjacent maxillary Miller Class I, II, and III gingival recessions (MAGR) treated with the modified coronally advanced tunnel (MCAT) in conjunction with an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG). METHOD AND MATERIALS: Twelve systemically healthy patients (6 females) with a total of 54 adjacent maxillary Miller Class I, II, or III MAGR were consecutively treated with MCAT in conjunction with EMD and SCTG...
2016: Quintessence International
Terence E Ryan, Cameron A Schmidt, Thomas D Green, Espen E Spangenburg, P Darrell Neufer, Joseph M McClung
Patients with type 2 diabetes respond poorly to treatments for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and are more likely to present with the most severe manifestation of the disease, critical limb ischemia. The underlying mechanisms linking type 2 diabetes and the severity of PAD manifestation are not well understood. We sought to test whether diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress would increase the susceptibility of the peripheral limb to hindlimb ischemia (HLI). Six weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) in C57BL/6 mice was insufficient to alter skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and respiratory function or the size of ischemic lesion after HLI, despite reducing blood flow...
September 2016: Diabetes
Cassandra D L Fritz, Valerie G Press, Darrell Nabers, Dana Levinson, Holly Humphrey, Monica B Vela
OBJECTIVE: Medical schools may find implementing pipeline programs for minority pre-medical students prohibitive due to a number of factors including the lack of well-described programs in the literature, the limited evidence for program development, and institutional financial barriers. Our goals were to (1) design a pipeline program based on educational theory; (2) deliver the program in a low cost, sustainable manner; and (3) evaluate intermediate outcomes of the program. METHODS: SEALS is a 6-week program based on an asset bundles model designed to promote: (1) socialization and professionalism, (2) education in science learning tools, (3) acquisition of finance literacy, (4) the leveraging of mentorship and networks, and (5) social expectations and resilience, among minority pre-medical students...
June 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Peter Gliatto, I Michael Leitman, David Muller
In recent years, medical educators have been making meaningful attempts to rethink how premedical students are prepared for medical school, and how medical students are prepared for residency. Among the many challenges to redesigning premedical and medical school curricula, one that stands out is the constraint imposed by our current methods of assessing aptitude, particularly our use of the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) and the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). For much of the past century, medical school and residency admissions committees have relied heavily on MCAT and USMLE scores to evaluate and rank candidates to their programs...
May 31, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Jonathan T Unkart, Christopher M Reid, Joel M Baumgartner, Anne M Wallace, Carolyn J Kelly
BACKGROUND: Given more emphasis on training primary care physicians for underserved areas, we hypothesized that students self-identifying as "disadvantaged" would be less likely to pursue surgical training. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical school data on students graduating 2005-2014. Students were stratified into "disadvantaged" and "nondisadvantaged". Data were recorded on age, grade point average, Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), gender, surgery grade, United States Medical Licensing Examination step 1 score, and residency match into a surgical field...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Michael E Pichichero
This review summarizes a prospective, longitudinal 10-year study in Rochester, NY, involving 760 children where virtually all clinically diagnosed acute otitis media (AOM) was confirmed by bacterial culture of middle ear fluid. This review describes detection of otopathogens in middle ear fluid, nasopharyngeal (NP) otopathogen colonization patterns, AOM risk factor analysis, biomarkers of AOM and antibody responses to NP colonization by otopathogens. After licensure of PCV13, there was an immediate drop in AOM caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) vaccine serotypes and shortly thereafer an increase in nonvaccine types 16, 21 and 35B...
September 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Anne-Victoire Fayolle, Catherine Passirani, Elisabeth Letertre, Aline Ramond, Dominique Perrotin, Jean-Paul Saint-André, Isabelle Richard
CONTEXT: The number of applicants to medical school exceeds the number of places available, a situation that questions the effectiveness and relevance of medical student assessment and selection. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review of the literature was to analyze in a systematic way the studies looking for an association between results of an admission procedure and a later evaluation of the characteristics of the students or the doctors that they became. DOCUMENTARY SOURCES (KEY WORDS AND LANGUAGE): MedLine, Web of Science and Cochrane Library...
May 2016: La Presse Médicale
Petra M Casey, Brian A Palmer, Geoffrey B Thompson, Torrey A Laack, Matthew R Thomas, Martha F Hartz, Jani R Jensen, Benjamin J Sandefur, Julie E Hammack, Jerry W Swanson, Robert D Sheeler, Joseph P Grande
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that poor performance on standardized tests before and early in medical school is associated with poor performance on standardized tests later in medical school and beyond. This study aimed to explore relationships between standardized examination scores (before and during medical school) with test and clinical performance across all core clinical clerkships. METHODS: We evaluated characteristics of 435 students at Mayo Medical School (MMS) who matriculated 2000-2009 and for whom undergraduate grade point average, medical college aptitude test (MCAT), medical school standardized tests (United States Medical Licensing Examination [USMLE] 1 and 2; National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME] subject examination), and faculty assessments were available...
2016: BMC Medical Education
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