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D-F Dai, Y-A Chiao, G M Martin, D J Marcinek, N Basisty, E K Quarles, P S Rabinovitch
The free-radical theory of aging was proposed more than 50 years ago. As one of the most popular mechanisms explaining the aging process, it has been extensively studied in several model organisms. However, the results remain controversial. The mitochondrial version of free-radical theory of aging proposes that mitochondria are both the primary sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the primary targets of ROS-induced damage. One critical ROS is hydrogen peroxide, which is naturally degraded by catalase in peroxisomes or glutathione peroxidase within mitochondria...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Anna Wirta Kosobuski, Abigail Whitney, Andrew Skildum, Amy Prunuske
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A four-week interdisciplinary pre-matriculation program for Native American and rural medical students was created and its impact on students' transition to medical school was assessed. The program extends the goals of many pre-matriculation programs by aiming to increase not only students' understanding of basic science knowledge, but also to build student self-efficacy through practice with medical school curricular elements while developing their academic support networks...
2017: Medical Education Online
Shilpy Joshi, Guillaume Davidson, Stéphanie Le Gras, Shuichi Watanabe, Thomas Braun, Gabrielle Mengus, Irwin Davidson
The TEAD family of transcription factors (TEAD1-4) bind the MCAT element in the regulatory elements of both growth promoting and myogenic differentiation genes. Defining TEAD transcription factor function in myogenesis has proved elusive due to overlapping expression of family members and their functional redundancy. We show that silencing of either Tead1, Tead2 or Tead4 did not effect primary myoblast (PM) differentiation, but that their simultaneous knockdown strongly impaired differentiation. In contrast, Tead1 or Tead4 silencing impaired C2C12 differentiation showing their different contributions in PMs and C2C12 cells...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
Ping Chen, Chun Wang, Tao Xin, Hua-Hua Chang
Multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT) has received increasing attention over the past few years in educational measurement. Like all other formats of CAT, item replenishment is an essential part of MCAT for its item bank maintenance and management, which governs retiring overexposed or obsolete items over time and replacing them with new ones. Moreover, calibration precision of the new items will directly affect the estimation accuracy of examinees' ability vectors. In unidimensional CAT (UCAT) and cognitive diagnostic CAT, online calibration techniques have been developed to effectively calibrate new items...
February 2017: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Colleen Colbert, Tresa McNeal, Maybelline Lezama, Martha Chandler, Lisa Forrester, Austin Metting, Curtis Mirkes, Holly Van Cleave, Sonny Win, John D Myers
The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the relationship between demographic and educational variables and student performance on an internal medicine (IM) clerkship in order to target areas for educational intervention and potential early remediation. This study examined data associated with third-year medical student performance (N = 505) during the IM clerkship at Baylor Scott & White, Temple/Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine from 2005 to 2011. Multiple regression analysis (N = 341) showed that a model containing the following variables was significantly associated with scores on the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) subject exam, accounting for 46...
January 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Andrew R Thompson, D J Lowrie
Changes in medical school curricula often require educators to develop teaching strategies that decrease contact hours while maintaining effective pedagogical methods. When faced with this challenge, faculty at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine converted the majority of in-person histology laboratory sessions to self-study modules that utilize multiple audiovisual modalities and a virtual microscope platform. Outcomes related to this shift were investigated through performance on in-house examinations, results of the United States Medical Licensing Examination(®) (USMLE(®) ) Step 1 Examination, and student feedback...
October 31, 2016: Anatomical Sciences Education
Christin Giordano, David Hutchinson, Richard Peppler
PURPOSE: The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 plays a pivotal role in one's residency application. While prior literature has investigated which factors influence performance on the examination, the authors sought to include factors such as performance on a well-used question bank and financial need to develop a predictive model. METHOD : After obtaining institutional review board approval, the authors surveyed two consecutive second-year medical school classes and correlated the data to the students' Step 1 and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Examination (CBSE) scores...
September 7, 2016: Curēus
Božidara Cvetković, Vito Janko, Alfonso E Romero, Özgür Kafalı, Kostas Stathis, Mitja Luštrek
Diabetes is a disease that has to be managed through appropriate lifestyle. Technology can help with this, particularly when it is designed so that it does not impose an additional burden on the patient. This paper presents an approach that combines machine-learning and symbolic reasoning to recognise high-level lifestyle activities using sensor data obtained primarily from the patient's smartphone. We compare five methods for machine-learning which differ in the amount of manually labelled data by the user, to investigate the trade-off between the labelling effort and recognition accuracy...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Jacqueline L Gauer, Josephine M Wolff, J Brooks Jackson
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the associations and predictive values of Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) component and composite scores prior to 2015 with U.S. Medical Licensure Exam (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK) scores, with a focus on whether students scoring low on the MCAT were particularly likely to continue to score low on the USMLE exams. METHOD: Multiple linear regression, correlation, and chi-square analyses were performed to determine the relationship between MCAT component and composite scores and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores from five graduating classes (2011-2015) at the University of Minnesota Medical School (N=1,065)...
2016: Medical Education Online
Patrick J Herling, B Tanya Mohseni, Derek C Hill, Stacy Chelf, Jeffrey A Rickert, Jonathan T Leo, Natalie R Langley
Lincoln Memorial University-DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine (LMU-DCOM) offers an optional three-week summer Anatomy Boot Camp course (ABC) to facilitate students' transition into medical school and promote retention of anatomy subject matter. The pre-matriculation program is a supplemental instruction course that utilizes a small group learning format. Boot camp instruction is led by teaching assistants and two anatomy professors. Enrollees gain early exposure to Medical Gross Anatomy (MGA) course subject matter, which is taught in the fall semester, and learn study skills necessary to excel in medical school...
September 23, 2016: Anatomical Sciences Education
Jingquan Sun, Xin Ye, Minhao Xie, Jianping Ye
Muscle exercise induces intramuscular triglyceride (TG) accumulation and promotes mitochondrial maintenance in myotubes. However, the mechanism underlying exercise effects remains unknown. In this study, lactic acid was tested as a signaling molecule in C2C12 myotubes to understand the mechanism. Intracellular TG storage was induced in the cells by sodium lactate. The lactate activity was observed with an inhibition of the cAMP-PKA pathway as indicated by a reduction in the phosphorylation status of CREB (pCREB)...
September 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wojciech Bednarz, Jacek Żurek, Thomas Gedrange, Marzena Dominiak
BACKGROUND: The most effective method for treating gingival recessions (GR) is with an autogenous connective tissue graft (CTG) via flap surgery. Often, however, the amount of CTG that can be grafted is insufficient to cover all of a patient's gingival recessions at one time. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to provide a 6-month comparative assessment of the results of covering multiple Miller Class I and II gingival recessions with a Fascia Lata Allograft (FL) and a CTG harvested from palatal mucosa...
May 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Fumihiro Ishikawa, Hiroyasu Sugimoto, Hideaki Kakeya
Andrimid (Adm) synthase, which belongs to the type II system of enzymes, produces Adm in Pantoea agglomerans. The adm biosynthetic gene cluster lacks canonical acyltransferases (ATs) to load the malonyl group to acyl carrier proteins (ACPs), thus suggesting that a malonyl-CoA ACP transacylase (MCAT) from the fatty acid synthase (FAS) complex provides the essential AT activity in Adm biosynthesis. Here we report that an MCAT is essential for catalysis of the transacylation of malonate from malonyl-CoA to AdmA polyketide synthase (PKS) ACP in vitro...
September 6, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Johanna Selvaratnam, Bernard Robaire
Advanced paternal age is associated with increased complications in pregnancy and genetic diseases in offspring. Oxidative stress is a major contributor to the damage accumulated in sperm during aging. Complex networks of antioxidants regulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the testis. While mounting evident shows that redox dysfunction compromises the quality of developing male germ cells, the mechanisms by which aging causes this remain unclear. Furthermore, therapies to successfully alleviate aging-associated loss in germ cell quality are limited...
November 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Jia-Wen Chen, Wan-Jun Liu, Dong-Xiong Hu, Xiang Wang, Srinivasan Balamurugan, Adili Alimujiang, Wei-Dong Yang, Jie-Sheng Liu, Hong-Ye Li
Oleaginous microalgae hold great promises for biofuel production. However, commercialization of microalgal biofuels remains impracticable due to lack of suitable industrial strain with high growth rate and lipid productivity. Engineering of metabolic pathways is a potential strategy for the improvement of microalgal strains for the production of lipids and also value-added products in microalgae. Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT) has been reported to be involved in fatty acid biosynthesis...
August 30, 2016: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Michael E Pichichero, Anthony Almudevar
We sought to determine if inflammatory cytokines are induced during asymptomatic nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization by the common respiratory bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat). 85 serum samples were studied from 85 children 6-36 months of age when children were healthy and potentially NP colonized with Spn, NTHi or Mcat. Immunoassays were used to quantitate serum sICAM-1, IL-10 and S100A12 levels. Logistic regression was used to develop a predictive model for NP colonization probability for causative bacterial pathogen presence...
2016: Pathogens and Disease
Won-Sang Cho, Jeong Eun Kim, Jin Chul Paeng, Minseok Suh, Yong-Il Kim, Hyun-Seung Kang, Young Je Son, Jae Seung Bang, Chang Wan Oh
BACKGROUND: Patients with moyamoya disease are frequently encountered with improved symptoms related to anterior cerebral artery territory (ACAt) and middle cerebral artery territory (MCAt) after bypass surgery at MCAt. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hemodynamic changes in MCAt and ACAt after bypass surgery in adult moyamoya disease. METHODS: Combined bypass surgery was performed on 140 hemispheres in 126 patients with MCAt symptoms. Among them, 87 hemispheres (62...
July 25, 2016: Neurosurgery
Raluca Cosgarea, Raluca Juncar, Nicole Arweiler, Liana Lascu, Anton Sculean
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a new porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) for the treatment of Miller Class I, II, and III multiple gingival recessions using the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT). METHOD AND MATERIALS: Twelve nonsmoking, systemically healthy patients presenting at least two adjacent Miller Class I, II, or III gingival recessions (GR), with a minimal depth of 2 mm, were treated consecutively with MCAT in conjunction with PADM...
2016: Quintessence International
Anton Sculean, Raluca Cosgarea, Alexana Stähli, Christos Katsaros, Nicole Birgit Arweiler, Richard John Miron, Herbert Deppe
OBJECTIVE: To clinically evaluate the healing of multiple adjacent maxillary Miller Class I, II, and III gingival recessions (MAGR) treated with the modified coronally advanced tunnel (MCAT) in conjunction with an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG). METHOD AND MATERIALS: Twelve systemically healthy patients (6 females) with a total of 54 adjacent maxillary Miller Class I, II, or III MAGR were consecutively treated with MCAT in conjunction with EMD and SCTG...
2016: Quintessence International
Terence E Ryan, Cameron A Schmidt, Thomas D Green, Espen E Spangenburg, P Darrell Neufer, Joseph M McClung
Patients with type 2 diabetes respond poorly to treatments for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and are more likely to present with the most severe manifestation of the disease, critical limb ischemia. The underlying mechanisms linking type 2 diabetes and the severity of PAD manifestation are not well understood. We sought to test whether diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress would increase the susceptibility of the peripheral limb to hindlimb ischemia (HLI). Six weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) in C57BL/6 mice was insufficient to alter skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and respiratory function or the size of ischemic lesion after HLI, despite reducing blood flow...
September 2016: Diabetes
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