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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755833/serum-antibody-response-to-moraxella-catarrhalis-proteins-in-stringently-defined-otitis-prone-children
#1
Dabin Ren, Anthony L Almudevar, Timothy F Murphy, Eric R Lafontaine, Anthony A Campagnari, Nicole Luke-Marshall, Michael E Pichichero
BACKGROUND: Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) is a frequent pathogen of acute otitis media (AOM) in young children. Here we prospectively assessed naturally-induced serum antibodies to four Mcat vaccine candidate proteins in stringently defined otitis prone (sOP) and non-otitis prone (NOP) children age 6-36months old following nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization, at onset of AOM and convalescence from AOM. METHODS: Serum IgG and IgM antibody against recombinant Mcat proteins, oligopeptide permease A (OppA), outer membrane protein (OMP) CD, hemagglutinin (Hag), and PilA clade 2 (PilA2), were quantitated by ELISA...
July 26, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689630/using-a-structural-competency-framework-to-teach-structural-racism-in-pre-health-education
#2
Jonathan M Metzl, JuLeigh Petty, Oluwatunmise V Olowojoba
The inclusion of structural competency training in pre-health undergraduate programs may offer significant benefits to future healthcare professionals. This paper presents the results of a comparative study of an interdisciplinary pre-health curriculum based in structural competency with a traditional premedical curriculum. The authors describe the interdisciplinary pre-health curriculum, titled Medicine, Health, and Society (MHS) at Vanderbilt University. The authors then use a new survey tool, the Structural Foundations of Health Survey, to evaluate structural skills and sensibilities...
June 22, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688550/a-quality-study-of-family-centered-care-coordination-to-improve-care-for-children-undergoing-tracheostomy-and-the-quality-of-life-for-their-caregivers
#3
Christopher Hartnick, Gillian Diercks, Vanessa De Guzman, Elizabeth Hartnick, Jeanne Van Cleave, Kevin Callans
IMPORTANCE: Approximately 4000 U.S. children undergo tracheostomy yearly [1], and these surgeries often result in hospital re-admissions that have definite cost and caregiver burdens due to complications that are avoidable with proper training and support. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a Family-Centered Care Coordination (FCCC) program on the quality of care received by children undergoing tracheostomy and their caregivers. DESIGN: Caregivers of children undergoing tracheostomies from January 2012 to January 2013 and then a different set of caregivers of children undergoing tracheostomies from January 2015 to January 2016 completed both the Pediatric Tracheostomy Health Status Instrument (PTHSI) 1 month after discharge and the Medical Complications Associated with Pediatric Tracheostomy (MCAT) questionnaire 6 months after initial tracheostomy...
August 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684630/sirt3-impairment-and-sod2-hyperacetylation-in-vascular-oxidative-stress-and-hypertension
#4
Anna E Dikalova, Hana A Itani, Rafal R Nazarewicz, William G McMaster, Charles R Flynn, Roman V Uzhachenko, Joshua P Fessel, Jorge L Gamboa, David G Harrison, Sergey I Dikalov
Rationale: Clinical studies have shown that Sirt3 expression declines by 40% by age 65 paralleling the increased incidence of hypertension and metabolic conditions further inactivate Sirt3 due to increased NADH and acetyl-CoA levels. Sirt3 impairment reduces the activity of a key mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), due to hyperacetylation. Objective: In this study we examined if loss of Sirt3 activity increases vascular oxidative stress due to SOD2 hyperacetylation and promotes endothelial dysfunction and hypertension...
July 6, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678099/shifting-the-curve-fostering-academic-success-in-a-diverse-student-body
#5
Martha L Elks, Janice Herbert-Carter, Marjorie Smith, Brenda Klement, Brandi Brandon Knight, Ngozi F Anachebe
PROBLEM: Diversity in the health care workforce is key to achieving health equity. Although U.S. medical schools have worked to increase the matriculation and academic success of underrepresented minority (URM) students (African Americans, Latinos, others), they have had only limited success. Lower standardized test scores, including on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), have been a barrier to matriculation for many URM applicants. Lower subsequent standardized exam scores, including on the United States Medical Licensing Exam Step 1, also have been an impediment to students' progress, with mean scores for URM students lagging behind those for others...
July 3, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646374/item-usage-in-a-multidimensional-computerized-adaptive-test-mcat-measuring-health-related-quality-of-life
#6
Muirne C S Paap, Karel A Kroeze, Caroline B Terwee, Job van der Palen, Bernard P Veldkamp
PURPOSE: Examining item usage is an important step in evaluating the performance of a computerized adaptive test (CAT). We study item usage for a newly developed multidimensional CAT which draws items from three PROMIS domains, as well as a disease-specific one. METHODS: The multidimensional item bank used in the current study contained 194 items from four domains: the PROMIS domains fatigue, physical function, and ability to participate in social roles and activities, and a disease-specific domain (the COPD-SIB)...
June 23, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596373/mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-promotes-atherosclerosis-and-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-aged-mice
#7
Ying Wang, Wei Wang, Nan Wang, Alan R Tall, Ira Tabas
RATIONALE: Mitochondrial oxidative stress (mitoOS) has been shown to be increased in various cell types in human atherosclerosis and with aging. However, the role of cell type-specific mitoOS in atherosclerosis in the setting of advanced age and the molecular mechanisms remains to be determined in vivo. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the role of myeloid cell mitoOS in atherosclerosis in aged mice. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Lethally irradiated low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice (Ldlr(-/-)) were reconstituted with bone marrow from either wild-type or mitochondrial catalase (mCAT) mice...
August 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573595/developing-and-evaluating-an-innovative-structural-competency-curriculum-for-pre-health-students
#8
JuLeigh Petty, Jonathan M Metzl, Mia R Keeys
The inclusion of structural competency training in pre-health undergraduate programs may offer significant benefits to future healthcare professionals. This paper presents the results of a comparative study of an interdisciplinary pre-health curriculum based in structural competency with a traditional premedical curriculum. The authors describe a new evaluation tool, the Structural Foundations of Health Survey © (2016), developed to evaluate structural skills and sensibilities. The authors use the survey to evaluate two groups of graduating seniors at Vanderbilt University-majors in an interdisciplinary pre-health curriculum titled Medicine, Health, and Society (MHS), and premed science majors-with particular attention to understanding how political, cultural, economic, and social factors shape health...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526873/role-of-s-palmitoylation-by-zdhhc13-in-mitochondrial-function-and-metabolism-in-liver
#9
Li-Fen Shen, Yi-Ju Chen, Kai-Ming Liu, Amir N Saleem Haddad, I-Wen Song, Hsiao-Yuh Roan, Li-Ying Chen, Jeffrey J Y Yen, Yu-Ju Chen, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Yuan-Tsong Chen
Palmitoyltransferase (PAT) catalyses protein S-palmitoylation which adds 16-carbon palmitate to specific cysteines and contributes to various biological functions. We previously reported that in mice, deficiency of Zdhhc13, a member of the PAT family, causes severe phenotypes including amyloidosis, alopecia, and osteoporosis. Here, we show that Zdhhc13 deficiency results in abnormal liver function, lipid abnormalities, and hypermetabolism. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying these disease phenotypes, we applied a site-specific quantitative approach integrating an alkylating resin-assisted capture and mass spectrometry-based label-free strategy for studying the liver S-palmitoylome...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501933/the-influence-of-mcat-and-gpa-preadmission-academic-metrics-on-interview-scores
#10
Steven E Gay, Sally A Santen, Rajesh S Mangrulkar, Thomas H Sisson, Paula T Ross, Nikki L Bibler Zaidi
Medical school admissions interviews are used to assess applicants' nonacademic characteristics as advocated by the Association of American Medical Colleges' Advancing Holistic Review Initiative. The objective of this study is to determine whether academic metrics continue to significantly influence interviewers' scores in holistic processes by blinding interviewers to applicants' undergraduate grade point averages (uGPA) and Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). This study examines academic and demographic predictors of interview scores for two applicant cohorts at the University of Michigan Medical School...
May 13, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476930/mitochondrial-targeted-catalase-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-muscle-insulin-resistance-by-decreasing-intramuscular-lipid-accumulation
#11
Hui-Young Lee, Jae Sung Lee, Tiago Alves, Warren Ladiges, Peter S Rabinovitch, Michael J Jurczak, Cheol Soo Choi, Gerald I Shulman, Varman T Samuel
We explored the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of muscle insulin resistance. We assessed insulin action in vivo with a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in mice expressing a mitochondrial-targeted catalase (MCAT) that were fed regular chow (RC) or a high-fat diet (HFD) or underwent an acute infusion of a lipid emulsion. RC-fed MCAT mice were similar to littermate wild-type (WT) mice. However, HFD-fed MCAT mice were protected from diet-induced insulin resistance. In contrast, an acute lipid infusion caused muscle insulin resistance in both MCAT and WT mice...
August 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444397/advancing-the-efficiency-and-efficacy-of-patient-reported-outcomes-with-multivariate-computer-adaptive-testing
#12
Scott Morris, Mike Bass, Mirinae Lee, Richard E Neapolitan
Objective: The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative developed an array of patient reported outcome (PRO) measures. To reduce the number of questions administered, PROMIS utilizes unidimensional item response theory and unidimensional computer adaptive testing (UCAT), which means a separate set of questions is administered for each measured trait. Multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) and multidimensional computer adaptive testing (MCAT) simultaneously assess correlated traits...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428174/klotho-an-antiaging-molecule-attenuates-oxidant-induced-alveolar-epithelial-cell-mtdna-damage-and-apoptosis
#13
Seok-Jo Kim, Paul Cheresh, Mesut Eren, Renea P Jablonski, Anjana Yeldandi, Karen M Ridge, G R Scott Budinger, Dong-Hyun Kim, Myles Wolf, Douglas E Vaughan, David W Kamp
Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis and inadequate repair resulting from "exaggerated" lung aging and mitochondrial dysfunction are critical determinants promoting lung fibrosis. α-Klotho, which is an antiaging molecule that is expressed predominantly in the kidney and secreted in the blood, can protect lung epithelial cells against hyperoxia-induced apoptosis. We reasoned that Klotho protects AEC exposed to oxidative stress in part by maintaining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and mitigating apoptosis...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412081/nasopharyngeal-polymicrobial-colonization-during-health-viral-upper-respiratory-infection-and-upper-respiratory-bacterial-infection
#14
Qingfu Xu, Jareth Wischmeyer, Eduardo Gonzalez, Michael E Pichichero
OBJECTIVES: We sought to understand how polymicrobial colonization varies during health, viral upper respiratory infection (URI) and acute upper respiratory bacterial infection to understand differences in infection-prone vs. non-prone patients. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal (NP) samples were collected from 74 acute otitis media (AOM) infection-prone and 754 non-prone children during 2094 healthy visits, 673 viral URI visits and 631 AOM visits. Three otopathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) were identified by culture...
July 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405943/myocardial-oxidative-stress-correlates-with-left-ventricular-dysfunction-on-strain-echocardiography-in-a-rodent-model-of-sepsis
#15
Bereketeab Haileselassie, Erik Su, Iraklis Pozios, Diego F Niño, Hongyun Liu, Dai-Yin Lu, Ioannis Ventoulis, William B Fulton, Chhinder P Sodhi, David Hackam, Brian O'Rourke, Theodore Abraham
BACKGROUND: Recognition of cardiomyopathy in sepsis can be challenging due to the limitations of conventional measures such as ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS) in the context of variable preload and afterload conditions. This study correlates myocardial function using strain echocardiography (SE) with cardiomyocyte oxidative stress in a murine model of sepsis. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were randomized into control (n = 10), sham (n = 25), and a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) (n = 33) model of sepsis...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389429/integrating-concepts-in-biology-textbook-increases-learning-assessment-triangulation-using-concept-inventory-card-sorting-and-mcat-instruments-followed-by-longitudinal-tracking
#16
Douglas B Luckie, Anne-Marie Hoskinson, Caleigh E Griffin, Andrea L Hess, Katrina J Price, Alex Tawa, Samantha M Thacker
The purpose of this study was to examine the educational impact of an intervention, the inquiry-focused textbook Integrating Concepts in Biology (ICB), when used in a yearlong introductory biology course sequence. Student learning was evaluated using three published instruments: 1) The Biology Concept Inventory probed depth of student mastery of fundamental concepts in organismal and cellular topics when confronting misconceptions as distractors. ICB students had higher gains in all six topic categories (+43% vs...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365122/derivation-and-genome-wide-association-study-of-a-principal-component-based-measure-of-heat-tolerance-in-dairy-cattle
#17
N P P Macciotta, S Biffani, U Bernabucci, N Lacetera, A Vitali, P Ajmone-Marsan, A Nardone
Heat stress represents a key factor that negatively affects the productive and reproductive performance of farm animals. In the present work, a new measure of tolerance to heat stress for dairy cattle was developed using principal component analysis. Data were from 590,174 test-day records for milk yield, fat and protein percentages, and somatic cell score of 39,261 Italian Holstein cows. Test-day records adjusted for main systematic factors were grouped into 11 temperature-humidity index (THI) classes. Daughter trait deviations (DTD) were calculated for 1,540 bulls as means of the adjusted test-day records for each THI class...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343349/modernizing-quality-of-life-assessment-development-of-a-multidimensional-computerized-adaptive-questionnaire-for-patients-with-schizophrenia
#18
Pierre Michel, Karine Baumstarck, Christophe Lancon, Badih Ghattas, Anderson Loundou, Pascal Auquier, Laurent Boyer
OBJECTIVE: Quality of life (QoL) is still assessed using paper-based and fixed-length questionnaires, which is one reason why QoL measurements have not been routinely implemented in clinical practice. Providing new QoL measures that combine computer technology with modern measurement theory may enhance their clinical use. The aim of this study was to develop a QoL multidimensional computerized adaptive test (MCAT), the SQoL-MCAT, from the fixed-length SQoL questionnaire for patients with schizophrenia...
March 25, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253986/mitochondrial-targeted-catalase-extended-longevity-and-the-roles-in-various-disease-models
#19
D-F Dai, Y-A Chiao, G M Martin, D J Marcinek, N Basisty, E K Quarles, P S Rabinovitch
The free-radical theory of aging was proposed more than 50 years ago. As one of the most popular mechanisms explaining the aging process, it has been extensively studied in several model organisms. However, the results remain controversial. The mitochondrial version of free-radical theory of aging proposes that mitochondria are both the primary sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the primary targets of ROS-induced damage. One critical ROS is hydrogen peroxide, which is naturally degraded by catalase in peroxisomes or glutathione peroxidase within mitochondria...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178916/development-of-an-interdisciplinary-pre-matriculation-program-designed-to-promote-medical-students-self-efficacy
#20
Anna Wirta Kosobuski, Abigail Whitney, Andrew Skildum, Amy Prunuske
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A four-week interdisciplinary pre-matriculation program for Native American and rural medical students was created and its impact on students' transition to medical school was assessed. The program extends the goals of many pre-matriculation programs by aiming to increase not only students' understanding of basic science knowledge, but also to build student self-efficacy through practice with medical school curricular elements while developing their academic support networks...
2017: Medical Education Online
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