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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230502/-acceptance-of-post-mortem-organ-donation-in-germany-representative-cross-sectional-study
#1
E Tackmann, S Dettmer
BACKGROUND: The German post-mortem organ donation rate has dropped by one third since 2010. Furthermore, 958 patients died in 2015 in Germany while waiting for an organ. To decrease organ shortage, an amendment of the transplantation law was established in 2012. An information package including an organ donor card is sent to all German citizens via the postal service. A voluntary national transplantation register was introduced in 2016 to improve transparency in the organ donation process...
December 11, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227959/cyberbullying-among-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities-some-preliminary-data
#2
Cristina Jenaro, Noelia Flores, Vanessa Vega, Maribel Cruz, Ma Carmen Pérez, Víctor A Torres
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show that youth with disabilities are at risk of experiencing cyberbullying. Nevertheless, the nature of this phenomenon among adults with intellectual disabilities has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the frequency and characteristics of cyberbullying and its correlates in individuals with intellectual disabilities attending training centers for adults with intellectual disabilities. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A convenience sample of 269 participants (54...
December 8, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224581/executive-function-and-other-cognitive-deficits-are-distal-risk-factors-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-9-years-later
#3
Nur Hani Zainal, Michelle G Newman
OBJECTIVE: The cognitive model (Hirsch & Mathews, 2012) and attentional control theory (Eysenck & Derakshan, 2011) postulate that compromised executive function (EF) and other cognitive constructs are negatively linked to increased excessive and uncontrollable worry, the core symptom of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). However, the prospective link between neuropsychological constructs and GAD are not well understood. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 2605 community-dwelling adults whose average age was 55...
December 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223583/the-global-burden-of-tuberculosis-results-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#4
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: An understanding of the trends in tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and mortality is crucial to tracking of the success of tuberculosis control programmes and identification of remaining challenges. We assessed trends in the fatal and non-fatal burden of tuberculosis over the past 25 years for 195 countries and territories. METHODS: We analysed 10 691 site-years of vital registration data, 768 site-years of verbal autopsy data, and 361 site-years of mortality surveillance data using the Cause of Death Ensemble model to estimate tuberculosis mortality rates...
December 6, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214222/reasons-to-pursue-a-career-in-medicine-a-qualitative-study-in-sierra-leone
#5
Aniek Woodward, Suzanne Thomas, Mohamed Bella Jalloh, John Rees, Andrew Leather
Background: Many low-income and crises-affected countries like Sierra Leone struggle with the recruitment and retention of their health professionals, particularly nurses and doctors. There are multiple factors that influence the 'recruitment to retention' pipeline. The first stage of an exploration into the issues influencing the availability of qualified health care workers may focus on the aspects which influence their entry into relevant educational programmes. This paper explores the reasons given by junior doctors in Sierra Leone for wanting to become a doctor...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214014/influence-of-perceived-difficulty-of-cases-on-student-osteopaths-diagnostic-reasoning-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Aurelien L Noyer, Jorge E Esteves, Oliver P Thomson
Background: Diagnostic reasoning refers to the cognitive processes by which clinicians formulate diagnoses. Despite the implications for patient safety and professional identity, research on diagnostic reasoning in osteopathy remains largely theoretical. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of perceived task difficulty on the diagnostic reasoning of students osteopaths. Methods: Using a single-blinded, cross sectional study design, sixteen final year pre-registration osteopathy students diagnosed two standardized cases under two context conditions (complex versus control)...
2017: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210077/estimating-verbal-fluency-and-naming-ability-from-the-test-of-premorbid-functioning-and-demographic-variables-regression-equations-derived-from-a-regional-uk-sample
#7
Toni-Marie Jenkinson, Steven Muncer, Miranda Wheeler, Don Brechin, Stephen Evans
OBJECTIVES: Neuropsychological assessment requires accurate estimation of an individual's premorbid cognitive abilities. Oral word reading tests, such as the test of premorbid functioning (TOPF), and demographic variables, such as age, sex, and level of education, provide a reasonable indication of premorbid intelligence, but their ability to predict other related cognitive abilities is less well understood. This study aimed to develop regression equations, based on the TOPF and demographic variables, to predict scores on tests of verbal fluency and naming ability...
December 6, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209183/cognitive-flexibility-training-a-large-scale-multimodal-adaptive-active-control-intervention-study-in-healthy-older-adults
#8
Jessika I V Buitenweg, Renate M van de Ven, Sam Prinssen, Jaap M J Murre, K Richard Ridderinkhof
As aging is associated with cognitive decline, particularly in the executive functions, it is essential to effectively improve cognition in older adults. Online cognitive training is currently a popular, though controversial method. Although some changes seem possible in older adults through training, far transfer, and longitudinal maintenance are rarely seen. Based on previous literature we created a unique, state-of-the-art intervention study by incorporating frequent sessions and flexible, novel, adaptive training tasks, along with an active control group...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208070/neuropsychological-outcomes-in-chd-beyond-childhood-a-meta-analysis
#9
Rónán Mills, Christopher G McCusker, Chris Tennyson, Donncha Hanna
BACKGROUND: Risk for neurodevelopmental delay in infants and children with CHD is well established, but longer-term outcomes are equivocal. A meta-analysis was conducted to establish whether cognitive deficits remain beyond childhood - into teenage and young adult years. Methods and results A total of 18 unique samples, involving adolescents, teenagers, and adults with CHD significant enough to require invasive intervention, and sourced through searches of Web of Science, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, and PsychInfo, met the inclusion criteria...
December 6, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194102/neurocognitive-profiling-of-adult-treatment-seekers-enrolled-in-a-clinical-trial-of-a-web-delivered-intervention-for-substance-use-disorders
#10
Efrat Aharonovich, Aimee N C Campbell, Matisyahu Shulman, Mei-Chen Hu, Tiffany Kyle, Theresa Winhusen, Edward V Nunes
OBJECTIVE: This study is a secondary descriptive analysis that explores and compares the cognitive profiles of adults entering treatment at geographically diverse community-based substance use disorder treatment facilities. METHODS: Performance on cognitive measures at baseline was compared across 5 primary substance subgroups of individuals (alcohol = 104; cocaine = 102; stimulants = 69; opioids = 108; marijuana = 114) enrolled in a web-based psychosocial treatment study conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193776/bayesian-statistical-approaches-to-evaluating-cognitive-models
#11
REVIEW
Jeffrey Annis, Thomas J Palmeri
Cognitive models aim to explain complex human behavior in terms of hypothesized mechanisms of the mind. These mechanisms can be formalized in terms of mathematical structures containing parameters that are theoretically meaningful. For example, in the case of perceptual decision making, model parameters might correspond to theoretical constructs like response bias, evidence quality, response caution, and the like. Formal cognitive models go beyond verbal models in that cognitive mechanisms are instantiated in terms of mathematics and they go beyond statistical models in that cognitive model parameters are psychologically interpretable...
November 28, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192526/intelligence-assessment-instruments-in-adult-prison-populations-a-systematic-review
#12
A Y M van Esch, A D Denzel, E J A Scherder, E D M Masthoff
Detection of intellectual disability (ID) in the penitentiary system is important for the following reasons: (a) to provide assistance to people with ID in understanding their legal rights and court proceedings; (b) to facilitate rehabilitation programs tailored to ID patients, which improves the enhancement of their quality of life and reduces their risk of reoffending; and (c) to provide a reliable estimate of the risk of offence recidivism. It requires a short assessment instrument that provides a reliable estimation of a person's intellectual functioning at the earliest possible stage of this process...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189302/sex-differences-in-neuropsychological-test-performance-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-the-influence-of-the-apoe-genotype
#13
Maria Tensil, Johannes B Hessler, Maria Gutsmiedl, Lina Riedl, Timo Grimmer, Janine Diehl-Schmid
BACKGROUND: Only few studies exist reporting sex differences in the Alzheimer disease (AD) patients regarding cognitive profile, brain damage, and risk factors. The present study investigated the influence of sex in combination with the Alzheimer risk allele, ε4-allele of apolipoprotein E, on cognitive performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the effect of sex and ApoE genotype on a range of neuropsychological markers from the German version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry in Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Battery in a monocentric study of 399 AD patients...
November 17, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184280/change-in-hand-dexterity-and-habitual-gait-speed-reflects-cognitive-decline-over-time-in-healthy-older-adults-a-longitudinal-study
#14
Takumi Abe, Yuki Soma, Naruki Kitano, Takashi Jindo, Ayane Sato, Kenji Tsunoda, Taishi Tsuji, Tomohiro Okura
[Purpose] There is a relationship between physical and cognitive functions; therefore, impairment of physical function would mean cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the association between change in physical and cognitive functions. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were 169 healthy community-dwelling older adults who attend the survey after three years from baseline (mean age, 72.4 ± 4.8 years). Grip strength, one-leg standing balance, five-times-sit-to-stand test, timed up and go, 5-m habitual walk, and a peg-moving task were used to evaluate physical performance...
October 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182012/validating-online-measures-of-cognitive-ability-in-genes-for-good-a-genetic-study-of-health-and-behavior
#15
MengZhen Liu, Gianna Rea-Sandin, Johanna Foerster, Lars Fritsche, Katharine Brieger, Christopher Clark, Kevin Li, Anita Pandit, Gregory Zajac, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Scott Vrieze
Genetic association studies routinely require many thousands of participants to achieve sufficient power, yet accumulation of large well-assessed samples is costly. We describe here an effort to efficiently measure cognitive ability and personality in an online genetic study, Genes for Good. We report on the first 21,550 participants with relevant phenotypic data, 7,458 of whom have been genotyped genome-wide. Measures of crystallized and fluid intelligence reflected a two-dimensional latent ability space, with items demonstrating adequate item-level characteristics...
November 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177988/early-life-characteristics-and-neurodevelopmental-phenotypes-in-the-mount-sinai-children-s-environmental-health-center
#16
Melissa Furlong, Amy H Herring, Barbara D Goldman, Julie L Daniels, Mary S Wolff, Lawrence S Engel, Stephanie M Engel
Neurodevelopmental outcomes including behavior, executive functioning, and IQ exhibit complex correlational structures, although they are often treated as independent in etiologic studies. We performed a principal components analysis of the behavioral assessment system for children, the behavior rating inventory of executive functioning, and the Wechsler scales of intelligence in a prospective birth cohort, and estimated associations with early life characteristics. We identified seven factors: (1) impulsivity and externalizing, (2) executive functioning, (3) internalizing, (4) perceptual reasoning, (5) adaptability, (6) processing speed, and (7) verbal intelligence...
November 24, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176725/distinct-neural-substrates-of-visuospatial-and-verbal-analytic-reasoning-as-assessed-by-raven-s-advanced-progressive-matrices
#17
Zhencai Chen, Alain De Beuckelaer, Xu Wang, Jia Liu
Recent studies revealed spontaneous neural activity to be associated with fluid intelligence (gF) which is commonly assessed by Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, and embeds two types of reasoning: visuospatial and verbal-analytic reasoning. With resting-state fMRI data, using global brain connectivity (GBC) analysis which averages functional connectivity of a voxel in relation to all other voxels in the brain, distinct neural correlates of these two reasoning types were found. For visuospatial reasoning, negative correlations were observed in both the primary visual cortex (PVC) and the precuneus, and positive correlations were observed in the temporal lobe...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174630/is-the-adjustable-transobturator-system-atoms%C3%A2-useful-for-the-treatment-of-male-urinary-incontinence-in-low-to-medium-volume-urological-centers
#18
M Manso, B Alexandre, T Antunes-Lopes, C Martins-da-Silva, F Cruz
INTRODUCTION: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a complication of radical prostatectomy (RP) and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). The gold-standard treatment is the artificial urinary sphincter, however, new treatments have been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To examine the outcome of an adjustable transobturator male system (ATOMS®) in men with UI after prostatic surgery in a low to medium volume continence center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five men with UI were implanted with ATOMS® system between 2012 and 2014...
November 21, 2017: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139161/cognitive-abilities-brain-white-matter-hyperintensity-volume-and-structural-network-connectivity-in-older-age
#19
Stewart J Wiseman, Tom Booth, Stuart J Ritchie, Simon R Cox, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, David Alexander Dickie, Natalie A Royle, John M Starr, Ian J Deary, Joanna M Wardlaw, Mark E Bastin
OBJECTIVE: To assess brain structural connectivity in relation to cognitive abilities in healthy ageing, and the mediating effects of white matter hyper-intensity (WMH) volume. METHODS: MRI data were analysed in 558 members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Brains were segmented into 85 regions and combined with tractography to generate structural connectomes. WMH volume was quantified. Relationships between whole-brain connectivity, assessed using graph theory metrics, and four major domains of cognitive ability (visuospatial reasoning, verbal memory, information processing speed and crystallized ability) were investigated, as was the mediating effects of WMH volume on these relationships...
November 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121238/structural-social-relations-and-cognitive-ageing-trajectories-evidence-from-the-whitehall-ii-cohort-study
#20
Marko Elovainio, Andrew Sommerlad, Christian Hakulinen, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Marianna Virtanen, Mika Kivimäki, Archana Singh-Manoux
Background: Social relations are important for health, particularly at older ages. We examined the salience of frequency of social contacts and marital status for cognitive ageing trajectories over 21 years, from midlife to early old age. Methods: Data are from the Whitehall II cohort study, including 4290 men and 1776 women aged 35-55 years at baseline (1985-88). Frequency of social contacts and marital status were measured in 1985-88 and 1989-90. Assessment of cognitive function on five occasions (1991-94, 1997-99, 2003-04, 2007-09 and 2012-13) included the following tests: short-term memory, inductive reasoning, verbal fluency (phonemic and semantic) and a combined global score...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
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