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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914393/stillbirth-surveillance-and-review-in-rural-districts-in-bangladesh
#1
Abdul Halim, Mamuda Aminu, Juan Emmanuel Dewez, Animesh Biswas, A K M Fazlur Rahman, Nynke van den Broek
BACKGROUND: An estimated 2.6 million stillbirths occur every year, with the majority occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Understanding the cause of and factors associated with stillbirth is important to help inform the design and implementation of interventions aimed at reducing preventable stillbirths. METHODS: Population-based surveillance with identification of all stillbirths that occurred either at home or in a health facility was introduced in four districts in Bangladesh...
June 13, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907492/polygenic-risk-score-genome-wide-association-and-gene-set-analyses-of-cognitive-domain-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#2
Soichiro Nakahara, Sarah Medland, Jessica A Turner, Vince D Calhoun, Kelvin O Lim, Bryon A Mueller, Juan R Bustillo, Daniel S O'Leary, Jatin G Vaidya, Sarah McEwen, James Voyvodic, Aysenil Belger, Daniel H Mathalon, Judith M Ford, Guia Guffanti, Fabio Macciardi, Steven G Potkin, Theo G M van Erp
This study assessed genetic contributions to six cognitive domains, identified by the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery as relevant for schizophrenia, cognition-enhancing, clinical trials. Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Schizophrenia polygenic risk scores showed significant negative correlations with each cognitive domain. Genome-wide association analyses identified loci associated with attention/vigilance (rs830786 within HNF4G), verbal memory (rs67017972 near NDUFS4), and reasoning/problem solving (rs76872642 within HDAC9)...
June 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899782/neuropsychological-difficulties-associated-with-dopa-responsive-dystonia
#3
Dhinesh Baskaran, Arif Khan, Nahin Hussain
A young girl with L-dopa responsive dystonia showed significant improvements in motor function but had ongoing complaints of neuropsychological difficulties. A neuropsychological evaluation was undertaken to understand the nature of her difficulties. Intellectual function, attention, executive function, and academic attainment were assessed using published psychometric tests. Verbal and non-verbal reasoning was found to be age appropriate. Particular difficulties were identified with working memory, visual selective attention, dual attention, and processing speed which were having a significant impact upon the child and her family...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891406/evaluation-of-an-intervention-to-reduce-adolescent-sitting-time-during-the-school-day-the-stand-up-for-health-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Anne-Maree Parrish, Stewart G Trost, Steven J Howard, Marijka Batterham, Dylan Cliff, Jo Salmon, Anthony D Okely
OBJECTIVES: Adolescents spend large proportions of the school day sitting; potentially increasing their health risks. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a school-based intervention to reduce adolescent sitting time during the school day. DESIGN: Two-arm parallel-group randomised controlled trial. METHODS: Adolescents (13-16 years) were recruited from four private high schools in New South Wales, Australia...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890179/clinical-use-of-semantic-space-models-in-psychiatry-and-neurology-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
J N de Boer, A E Voppel, M J H Begemann, H G Schnack, F Wijnen, I E C Sommer
Verbal communication disorders are a hallmark of many neurological and psychiatric illnesses. Recent developments in computational analysis provide objective characterizations of these language abnormalities. We conducted a meta-analysis assessing semantic space models as a diagnostic or prognostic tool in psychiatric or neurological disorders. Diagnostic test accuracy analyses revealed reasonable sensitivity and specificity and high overall efficacy in differentiating between patients and controls (n=1680: Hedges' g =...
June 8, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888939/working-memory-updating-and-binding-training-bayesian-evidence-supporting-the-absence-of-transfer
#6
Carla De Simoni, Claudia C von Bastian
As working memory (WM) predicts a wide range of other abilities, it has become a popular target for training interventions. However, its effectiveness to elicit generalized cognitive benefits is still under debate. Previous research yielded inconsistent findings and focused only little on the mechanisms underlying transfer effects. To disentangle training effects on WM capacity and efficiency, we evaluated near transfer to untrained, structurally different WM tasks and far transfer to closely related abilities (i...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887301/treatment-of-post-traumatic-psychiatric-disorders-a-continuum-of-immediate-post-immediate-and-follow-up-care-mediated-by-specific-psychotherapeutic-principles-clinical-experience-in-french-speaking-countries
#7
Yann Auxéméry
BACKGROUND: People who witness a horrific event are at risk of suffering from acute psychological disorders, potentially leading to chronic post-traumatic symptoms and severe medico-psycho-social complications. Traumatised individuals suffer from psychological damage that is initially indescribable: they are often unable to ask for care in the immediate aftermath of an event. Afterwards, traumatic events and their post-traumatic consequences are still often hidden or minimised by patients for reasons linked to the disorder itself (inexpressibility, shame, depressive thoughts, fear of stigmatisation, etc...
June 7, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884891/music-playschool-enhances-children-s-linguistic-skills
#8
Tanja Linnavalli, Vesa Putkinen, Jari Lipsanen, Minna Huotilainen, Mari Tervaniemi
Several studies have suggested that intensive musical training enhances children's linguistic skills. Such training, however, is not available to all children. We studied in a community setting whether a low-cost, weekly music playschool provided to 5-6-year-old children in kindergartens could already affect their linguistic abilities. Children (N = 66) were tested four times over two school-years with Phoneme processing and Vocabulary subtests, along with tests for Perceptual reasoning skills and Inhibitory control...
June 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870776/altered-activation-and-functional-asymmetry-of-exner-s-area-but-not-the-visual-word-form-area-in-a-child-with-sudden-onset-persistent-mirror-writing
#9
Annika Linke, Elizabeth Roach-Fox, Ellen Vriezen, Asuri Narayan Prasad, Rhodri Cusack
Mirror writing is often produced by healthy children during early acquisition of literacy, and has been observed in adults following neurological disorders or insults. The neural mechanisms responsible for involuntary mirror writing remain debated, but in healthy children, it is typically attributed to the delayed development of a process of overcoming mirror invariance while learning to read and write. We present an unusual case of sudden-onset, persistent mirror writing in a previously typical seven-year-old girl...
June 2, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846679/neuropsychological-functioning-of-youth-receiving-intensive-interdisciplinary-pain-treatment
#10
Christina M Low Kapalu, John J Hall, Dustin P Wallace
Objective: Chronic pain is associated with school difficulties; however, there is limited published evidence on the cognitive or neuropsychological functioning of youth with chronic pain. Method: When beginning intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment, 94 youth (age = 10-18) with chronic pain completed neuropsychological assessment (e.g., intelligence, academic skills, learning and recall, and attention) and clinical questionnaires (e.g., pain and physical and psychological functioning)...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803989/the-intellectual-profile-of-abused-and-neglected-children-in-the-philippines-an-analysis-of-sb5-iq-scores-of-sexually-abused-physically-abused-and-neglected-children
#11
Peejay D Bengwasan
Child abuse and neglect have been associated with cognitive deficits, among other effects on child development. This study explores the prediction that child abuse and neglect has an impact on Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales 5th Edition (SB5) IQ scores, in relation to gender, age and type of abuse experienced. 300 children with experiences of abuse and neglect were included in the study, comprising 100 sexually abused, 100 physically abused and 100 neglected children. Overall, all scores on the SB5 were found to be significantly lower than the minimum average scores on the test...
May 24, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794681/acog-committee-opinion-no-739-the-late-career-obstetrician-gynecologist
#12
(no author information available yet)
The American Medical Association reported in 2015 that physicians 65 years and older currently represent 23% of the physicians in the United States. Unlike other professions such as commercial airline pilots, who by law must have regular health screenings starting at 40 years and must retire at 65 years, few health care institutions or systems have any policies regarding the late-career physician. Although there is an increase in accumulated wisdom and verbal knowledge with age, there is also an overall decline in recall memory, cognitive processing efficiency, and executive reasoning...
June 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794674/acog-committee-opinion-no-739-summary-the-late-career-obstetrician-gynecologist
#13
(no author information available yet)
The American Medical Association reported in 2015 that physicians 65 years and older currently represent 23% of the physicians in the United States. Unlike other professions such as commercial airline pilots, who by law must have regular health screenings starting at 40 years and must retire at 65 years, few health care institutions or systems have any policies regarding the late-career physician. Although there is an increase in accumulated wisdom and verbal knowledge with age, there is also an overall decline in recall memory, cognitive processing efficiency, and executive reasoning...
June 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787472/a-randomised-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-with-the-%C3%AE-2-3-5-subunit-selective-gabaa-positive-allosteric-modulator-pf-06372865-in-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain
#14
Rachel Gurrell, Pinky Dua, Gang Feng, Maria Sudworth, Mark Whitlock, David S Reynolds, Richard P Butt
The effect of PF-06372865, a subtype selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor, on chronic low back pain was investigated in a randomised, placebo and active-controlled Phase 2 clinical trial. The parallel treatment group trial consisted of a 1 week single-blind placebo run in phase, followed by 4 weeks double-blind treatment. Patients were randomised to receive either PF-06372865, naproxen or placebo BID for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was the numerical rating score (NRS) of low back pain intensity (LBPI) after 4 weeks of active treatment...
May 21, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787453/information-reception-and-expectations-among-hospitalized-elderly-patients-in-taiwan-a-pilot-study
#15
Kai-Li Chen, Chia-Ming Chang, Ching-Huey Chen, Mei-Chih Huang
BACKGROUND: Communicating with patients, especially geriatric patients, is a challenge for medical professionals. Medical message receiving and expectations among hospitalized elderly patients have not been studied. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore medical message receiving and expectations concerning medical information among hospitalized elderly patients in Taiwan. METHODS: A descriptive study design was used. Convenience sampling was applied, and the research was conducted in a geriatric ward in a medical center in southern Taiwan...
June 2018: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784417/the-use-of-la-icp-ms-databases-to-calculate-likelihood-ratios-for-the-forensic-analysis-of-glass-evidence
#16
Ruthmara Corzo, Tricia Hoffman, Peter Weis, Javier Franco-Pedroso, Daniel Ramos, Jose Almirall
Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been shown to be an excellent technique for the discrimination of glass originating from different sources and for the association of glass originating from the same source. Typically, a match criterion is used to compare the elemental profile of the known sample to a questioned sample and if the glass samples are determined to "match" this may be followed by the use of a verbal scale to report the forensic practitioner's conclusion...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772485/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-subjects-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-meta-analysis
#17
Wei Zheng, Qing-E Zhang, Dong-Bin Cai, Chee H Ng, Gabor S Ungvari, Yu-Ping Ning, Yu-Tao Xiang
Findings of neurocognitive dysfunction in subjects at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) have been controversial. This meta-analysis systematically examined studies of neurocognitive functions using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in CHR-P. An independent literature search of both English and Chinese databases was conducted by two reviewers. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated using a random effects model to evaluate the effect size of the meta-analytic results. Six case-control studies (n = 396) comparing neurocognitive functions between CHR-P subjects (n = 197) and healthy controls (n = 199) using the MCCB were identified; 4 (66...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766630/violence-committed-against-nursing-staff-by-patients-in-psychiatric-outpatient-settings
#18
REVIEW
Jenni Konttila, Hanna-Mari Pesonen, Helvi Kyngäs
Violence against nurses has increased particularly in psychiatric outpatient settings as psychiatric care shifts from being inpatient-based to being outpatient-based. Violence is a complex phenomenon that must be explored in different psychiatric nursing environments and settings. Violence in psychiatric outpatient settings should especially be explored as violence in this context has scarcely been examined. The aim of this systematic review was to elucidate violence committed against nursing staff by patients in adult psychiatric outpatient settings, based on reports from previous studies...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762677/anti-dementia-drugs-for-psychopathology-and-cognitive-impairment-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Taro Kishi, Toshikazu Ikuta, Kazuto Oya, Shinji Matsunaga, Yuki Matsuda, Nakao Iwata
Background: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of anti-dementia drugs plus antipsychotics (ADD+AP) for schizophrenia. Methods: Primary outcomes of efficacy and safety included improving overall symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores) and all-cause discontinuation, respectively. Other outcomes included psychopathology subscales (positive, negative, general, and anxiety/depressive symptoms), cognitive function (attention/vigilance, reasoning/problem solving, social cognition, speed of processing, verbal learning, visual learning, working memory, and cognitive control/executive function), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, treatment discontinuation due to adverse events and inefficacy, and individual adverse events...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752835/documentation-of-psychotropic-prn-medication-administration-an-evaluation-of-electronic-health-records-compared-with-paper-charts-and-verbal-reports
#20
Krystle Martin, Elke Ham, Zoe Hilton
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the documentation of pro re nata (PRN) medication for anxiety, and to compare documentation at two hospitals providing similar psychiatric services, one that used paper charts and another that used an electronic health record (EHR). We also assessed congruence between nursing documentation and verbal reports from staff about the PRN administration process. BACKGROUND: The ability to accurately document patients' symptoms and the care given is considered a core competency of the nursing profession (Wilkinson, 2007); however, researchers have found poor concordance between nursing notes and verbal reports or observations of events (e...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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