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verbal reasoning

Alan D Baddeley, Graham J Hitch, Philip T Quinlan
Immediate serial recall of verbal material is highly sensitive to impairment attributable to phonological similarity. Although this has traditionally been interpreted as a within-sequence similarity effect, Engle (2007) proposed an interpretation based on interference from prior sequences, a phenomenon analogous to that found in the Peterson short-term memory (STM) task. We use the method of serial reconstruction to test this in an experiment contrasting the standard paradigm in which successive sequences are drawn from the same set of phonologically similar or dissimilar words and one in which the vowel sound on which similarity is based is switched from trial to trial, a manipulation analogous to that producing release from PI in the Peterson task...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Isabel Gómez-Veiga, José O Vila Chaves, Gonzalo Duque, Juan A García Madruga
Higher-order thinking abilities such as abstract reasoning and meaningful school learning occur sequentially. The fulfillment of these tasks demands that people activate and use all of their working memory resources in a controlled and supervised way. The aims of this work were: (a) to study the interplay between two new reasoning measures, one mathematical (Cognitive Reflection Test) and the other verbal (Deductive Reasoning Test), and a third classical visuo-spatial reasoning measure (Raven Progressive Matrices Test); and (b) to investigate the relationship between these measures and academic achievement...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Mark W Orme, Amie E Weedon, Paula M Saukko, Dale W Esliger, Mike D Morgan, Michael C Steiner, John W Downey, Lauren B Sherar, Sally J Singh
BACKGROUND: Targeting sedentary time post exacerbation may be more relevant than targeting structured exercise for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Focusing interventions on sitting less and moving more after an exacerbation may act as a stepping stone to increase uptake to pulmonary rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to conduct a randomized trial examining trial feasibility and the acceptability of an education and self-monitoring intervention using wearable technology to reduce sedentary behavior for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to hospital for an acute exacerbation...
April 11, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Amanda J Edmondson, Cathy Brennan, Allan O House
BACKGROUND: Reasons for self-harm are not well understood. One of the reasons for this is that first-hand accounts are usually elicited using traditional interview and questionnaire methods. This study aims to explore the acceptability of using an approach (photo-elicitation) that does not rely on solely verbal or written techniques, and to make a preliminary assessment of whether people can usefully employ images to support a discussion about the reasons why they self-harm. METHOD: Interviews with eight participants using photo elicitation, a method in which photographs produced by the participant are used as a stimulus and guide within the interview...
April 11, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Elizabeth S Gromisch, Jeffrey G Portnoy, Frederick W Foley
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a prevalent and often intrusive problem among persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Valid and reliable assessments, including quick screening measures, are crucial. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) was developed for this reason. While it lends itself to use in locations where formal neuropsychological resources might be limited, it does not include measures of verbal fluency or executive functioning, domains assessed as part of the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
R H C Zegers
Most physicians receive gifts from their patients during their careers, but what to think of these presents and how to react to them? For many years, generous patients led to uneasiness: they might expect special services from the physician; or other patients - who did not give anything - could feel disadvantaged over generous patients. These are good reasons not to be too keen on gifts. They still lead to uneasiness now, but the situation has nevertheless been reappraised as it goes against the general tendency to complain about everything: a token of appreciation is welcome...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Samuel J Westwood, Cristina Romani
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique used to modify cognition by modulating underlying cortical excitability via weak electric current applied through the scalp. Although many studies have reported positive effects with tDCS, a number of recent studies highlight that tDCS effects can be small and difficult to reproduce. This is especially the case when attempting to modulate performance using single applications of tDCS in healthy participants. Possible reasons may be that optimal stimulation parameters have yet to be identified, and that individual variation in cortical activity and/or level of ability confound outcomes...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
D C Jackson, J E Jones, D A Hsu, C E Stafstrom, J J Lin, D Almane, M A Koehn, M Seidenberg, B P Hermann
PURPOSE: To examine the impact of diverse syndromes of focal and generalized epilepsy on language function in children with new and recent onset epilepsy. Of special interest was the degree of shared language abnormality across epilepsy syndromes and the unique effects associated with specific epilepsy syndromes. METHODS: Participants were 136 youth with new or recent-onset (diagnosis within past 12 months) epilepsy and 107 healthy first-degree cousin controls...
March 30, 2018: Brain and Language
Molly Rosenberg, Audrey Pettifor, Mihaela Duta, Nele Demeyere, Ryan G Wagner, Amanda Selin, Catherine MacPhail, Oliver Laeyendecker, James P Hughes, Alan Stein, Stephen Tollman, Kathleen Kahn
PURPOSE: Heightened sexual risk in adolescence and young adulthood may be partially explained by deficits in executive functioning, the set of cognitive processes used to make reasoned decisions. However, the association between executive function and sexual risk is understudied among adolescent girls and young women, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: In a cohort of 853 young women age 18-25 in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa, we evaluated executive function with three non-verbal cognitive tests: I...
2018: PloS One
Nicholas M Barbaro, Mark Quigg, Mariann M Ward, Edward F Chang, Donna K Broshek, John T Langfitt, Guofen Yan, Kenneth D Laxer, Andrew J Cole, Penny K Sneed, Christopher P Hess, Wei Yu, Manjari Tripathi, Christianne N Heck, John W Miller, Paul A Garcia, Andrew McEvoy, Nathan B Fountain, Vincenta Salanova, Robert C Knowlton, Anto Bagić, Thomas Henry, Siddharth Kapoor, Guy McKhann, Adriana E Palade, Markus Reuber, Evelyn Tecoma
OBJECTIVE: To compare stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) versus anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for patients with pharmacoresistant unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). METHODS: This randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial recruited adults eligible for open surgery among 14 centers in the USA, UK, and India. Treatment was either SRS at 24 Gy to the 50% isodose targeting mesial structures, or standardized ATL. Outcomes were seizure remission (absence of disabling seizures between 25 and 36 months), verbal memory (VM), and quality of life (QOL) at 36-month follow-up...
March 30, 2018: Epilepsia
Dorien Wuyts, Bart Soenens, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Stijn Van Petegem
Although research increasingly addresses the role of parenting in fostering adolescent disclosure, most research relied on self-report measures of parenting and did not address the role of autonomy support. In the present observational study (conducted in Belgium), with 62 mother-adolescent dyads (mean age mothers = 44 years; mean age adolescents = 14 years; 77% of adolescents female), we rated mothers' provision of autonomy support during a 10-minute conversation about friendships. We found that observed maternal autonomy support was related positively to adolescents' degree of and volitional reasons for disclosure about friends...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Deborah A Levine, Virginia G Wadley, Kenneth M Langa, Frederick W Unverzagt, Mohammed U Kabeto, Bruno Giordani, George Howard, Virginia J Howard, Mary Cushman, Suzanne E Judd, Andrzej T Galecki
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Poststroke cognitive decline causes disability. Risk factors for poststroke cognitive decline independent of survivors' prestroke cognitive trajectories are uncertain. METHODS: Among 22 875 participants aged ≥45 years without baseline cognitive impairment from the REGARDS cohort (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke), enrolled from 2003 to 2007 and followed through September 2015, we measured the effect of incident stroke (n=694) on changes in cognitive functions and cognitive impairment (Six-Item Screener score <5) and tested whether patient factors modified the effect...
April 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
A Ríos, A I López-Navas, Á Sánchez, L Martinez-Alarcon, M A Ayala, G Garrido, M J Sebastián, G Ramis, A Abdo-Cuza, A Hernández, P Ramírez, P Parrilla
BACKGROUND: One of the main reasons against organ donation is the fear of apparent death due to ignorance of the brain death concept. Our aim was to assess knowledge about and acceptance of the brain death concept among the population of Havana, Cuba. METHODS: The population screened, stratified by gender and age, included those >15 years old and living in Havana, Cuba. The appraisal tool utilized was a questionnaire on attitude toward organ donation ("PCID-DTO Ríos")...
March 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Emily A Goebel, Helen Ettler, Joanna C Walsh
Intradepartmental consultations (ICs) are important for quality assurance (QA) and ensuring diagnostic accuracy in surgical pathology. Few studies have reviewed pathologist factors that influence IC rates. Our study reviews IC data and factors that influence both formal (written) and informal (verbal) consultation practices among pathologists in academic and community hospital settings. Formal IC records from the academic hospital were collected and academic and community pathologists were invited to complete a survey about their IC practices...
February 21, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Eva Wuerfel, Almuth Weddige, York Hagmayer, Rebecca Jacob, Lisa Wedekind, Wiebke Stark, Jutta Gärtner
BACKGROUND: A number of studies have investigated cognitive impairment in paediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) but deficits regarding executive functions have not been comprehensively assessed up to now. This study was meant to explore cognitive impairment in German paediatric MS patients with a focus on deficits in executive functions and relate these to clinical disease parameters. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Forty paediatric MS patients, which presented at the German centre for MS in childhood and adolescence, were assessed for cognitive deficits applying a very comprehensive battery of cognitive tests including the Wechsler Intelligence scale and subtests of the D-KEFS for executive functions...
2018: PloS One
Alessandra Moletto, Irene Bagnasco, Patrizia Dassi, Piernanda Vigliano
OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term neurocognitive changes of a right-handed girl with intractable epilepsy after late right hemispherectomy and compare them with data in the literature. METHOD: The girl was affected by an epileptic encephalopathy associated with right fronto-temporo-parietal polymicrogyria; she was submitted to right hemispherectomy at the age of 5 and examined with cognitive and neuropsychological tests at the age of 17 years. The girl took advantage of neurocognitive rehabilitation for several years; she is currently seizure-free and off therapy...
March 21, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Matteo Chiappedi, Martina Mensi, Eliana Antonaci, Elena Zavani, Livio Tronconi, Cristiano Termine, Umberto Balottin
There are few literature evidences about the intellectual profile of adolescents with headache and no study has used the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) in patients with a diagnosis of headache according to the ICHD-III-beta. We recruited 30 patients (age 11-14 years; male:female = 1:2) seen for headache in a tertiary center in Northern Italy and 30 healthy controls matched for age and sex, recruited in a public school from the same geographic area. The diagnosis of headache was done according to the ICHD-III criteria (beta version): the case group was composed of 16 patients with migraine and 14 with tension-type headache...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
J L Sanchez-Gonzalez, J I Calvo-Arenillas, J L Sanchez-Rodriguez
INTRODUCTION: Clinical evidence gathered in recent years indicates that elderly individuals more frequently display cognitive changes. These age-related changes refer, above all, to memory functions and to the speed of thinking and reasoning. A number of studies have shown that physical activity can be used as an important mechanism for protecting the cognitive functions. AIM: To test the hypothesis that physical exercise is able to bring about changes in the cognitive functions of healthy elderly adults without cognitive impairment, thereby improving their quality of life...
April 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Majed Hababeh, Wafaa Zeidan, Mariam Abdel El-Kader, Anwar Al Thaher, Nimer Kassim, Elias Habash, Hasan Arab, Ali Khader, Akihiro Seita
BACKGROUND: UNRWA introduced family planning services in 1994 as an integral part of its expanded maternal and child health-care programme. The main objective of UNRWA's family planning programme is to promote the health of mothers, children, and their families. The aim of this follow-up study was to assess contraceptive practices in the target population 5 years after the 2010 follow-up study and to identify future programme needs. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was a done by trained nurses from June 1 to Dec 31, 2015...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Liana Al-Labadi, Yazan Gammoh, Reham Shehada, Reem Shahin, Walaa Jbarah, Madleen Amro, Hanan Athamny
BACKGROUND: Access to corneal transplantation is limited worldwide because of poor knowledge. Ethical, religious, and cultural barriers contribute to low rates of corneal donation. In the occupied Palestinian territory, limited information is available on factors affecting corneal donation. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and willingness towards corneal donation in Palestinian students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included university students selected through convenience sampling in Nablus in the summer of 2016...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
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