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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729828/working-memory-profiles-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-hiv-infected-children-a-comparison-with-neurotypical-controls
#1
Robyn Milligan, Kate Cockcroft
This study compared the working memory profiles of three groups of children, namely HIV-infected (HIV-I; n = 95), HIV-exposed, uninfected (HIV-EU; n = 86) and an HIV-unexposed, uninfected, (HIV-UU; n = 92) neurotypical control group. Working memory, an executive function, plays an important role in frontal lobe-controlled behaviors, such as motivation, planning, decision making, and social interaction, and is a strong predictor of academic success in school children. Memory impairments have been identified in HIV-I children, particularly in visuospatial processing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726544/evaluating-wais-iv-structure-through-a-different-psychometric-lens-structural-causal-model-discovery-as-an-alternative-to-confirmatory-factor-analysis
#2
Marjolein J A M van Dijk, Tom Claassen, Christiany Suwartono, William M van der Veld, Paul T van der Heijden, Marc P H Hendriks
OBJECTIVE: Since the publication of the WAIS-IV in the U.S. in 2008, efforts have been made to explore the structural validity by applying factor analysis to various samples. This study aims to achieve a more fine-grained understanding of the structure of the Dutch language version of the WAIS-IV (WAIS-IV-NL) by applying an alternative analysis based on causal modeling in addition to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The Bayesian Constraint-based Causal Discovery (BCCD) algorithm learns underlying network structures directly from data and assesses more complex structures than is possible with factor analysis...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725547/spatial-working-memory-in-neurofibromatosis-1-altered-neural-activity-and-functional-connectivity
#3
Amira F A Ibrahim, Caroline A Montojo, Kristen M Haut, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Laura Hansen, Eliza Congdon, Tena Rosser, Robert M Bilder, Alcino J Silva, Carrie E Bearden
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder that disrupts central nervous system development and neuronal function. Cognitively, NF1 is characterized by difficulties with executive control and visuospatial abilities. Little is known about the neural substrates underlying these deficits. The current study utilized Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) to explore the neural correlates of spatial working memory (WM) deficits in patients with NF1. METHODS: BOLD images were acquired from 23 adults with NF1 (age M = 32...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711986/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-associated-with-reading-ability-show-connection-to-socio-economic-outcomes
#4
Michelle Luciano, Saskia P Hagenaars, Simon R Cox, William David Hill, Gail Davies, Sarah E Harris, Ian J Deary, David M Evans, Nicholas G Martin, Margaret J Wright, Timothy C Bates
Impairments in reading and in language have negative consequences on life outcomes, but it is not known to what extent genetic effects influence this association. We constructed polygenic scores for difficulties with language and learning to read from genome-wide data in ~6,600 children, adolescents and young adults, and tested their association with health, socioeconomic outcomes and brain structure measures collected in adults (maximal N = 111,749). Polygenic risk of reading difficulties was associated with reduced income, educational attainment, self-rated health and verbal-numerical reasoning (p < 0...
July 15, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701080/neurocognitive-outcomes-in-children-with-unilateral-basal-ganglia-arterial-ischemic-stroke-and-secondary-hemidystonia
#5
Robyn Westmacott, Kyla P McDonald, Gabrielle deVeber, Daune MacGregor, Mahendranath Moharir, Nomazulu Dlamini, Rand Askalan, Tricia S Williams
Dystonia is a movement disorder that involves excessive, involuntary muscle contractions resulting in repetitive movements and/or abnormal posturing. One common cause of unilateral dystonia in childhood is ischemic stroke involving the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. Virtually nothing is known about neuropsychological outcomes in children who have dystonia following basal ganglia stroke. The present study explored whether or not children with secondary dystonia experience additional cognitive challenges when compared to children with similar patterns of brain injury, but no dystonia...
July 12, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698034/exploring-physicians-verbal-and-nonverbal-responses-to-cues-concerns-learning-from-incongruent-communication
#6
R Gorawara-Bhat, L Hafskjold, P Gulbrandsen, H Eide
OBJECTIVES: Explore physicians' verbal and nonverbal responses to cues/concerns in consultations with older-patients. METHODS: Two teams independently coded a sample of Norwegian consultations (n=24) on verbal and nonverbal dimensions of communication using VR-CoDES and NDEPT instruments. Consultations exploring older-patients' verbal emotional expressions were labeled 'Acknowledging of patients' emotional expressions', and 'Distancing from patients' emotional expressions...
June 27, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693755/unraveling-interrelationships-among-psychopathology-symptoms-cognitive-domains-and-insight-dimensions-in-chronic-schizophrenia
#7
Rose Mary Xavier, Wei Pan, Jennifer R Dungan, Richard S E Keefe, Allison Vorderstrasse
INTRODUCTION: Insight in schizophrenia is long known to have a complex relationship with psychopathology symptoms and cognition. However, very few studies have examined models that explain these interrelationships. METHODS: In a large sample derived from the NIMH Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial (N=1391), we interrogated these interrelationships for potential causal pathways using structural equation modeling...
July 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692948/parenting-children-with-down-syndrome-an-analysis-of-parenting-styles-parenting-dimensions-and-parental-stress
#8
B Allyson Phillips, Frances Conners, Mary Elizabeth Curtner-Smith
BACKGROUND: Effective parenting is vital for a child's development. Although much work has been conducted on parenting typically developing children, little work has examined parenting children with Down syndrome. AIMS: The purpose of the current study was to compare the parenting styles and dimensions in mothers of children with DS and mothers of TD children. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Thirty-five mothers of children with DS and 47 mothers of TD children completed questionnaires about parenting, parental stress, child behavior problems, and child executive function...
July 7, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689687/the-effect-of-the-muscarinic-m1-receptor-antagonist-biperiden-on-cognition-in-medication-free-subjects-with-psychosis
#9
Claudia Vingerhoets, Geor Bakker, Jelske van Dijk, Oswald J N Bloemen, Ya Wang, Raymond C K Chan, Jan Booij, Therese A M J van Amelsvoort
The acetylcholine muscarinic M1 receptor has been implicated in both psychosis and cognition. Post-mortem research has shown reduced muscarinic M1 receptor density in 25% of chronic patients with schizophrenia. It is unknown whether reduced M1 receptor density is related to cognitive symptoms of psychosis. We investigated the role of the M1 receptor in separate cognitive domains in subjects with a psychotic disorder using a muscarinic M1 antagonist as an acute pharmacological challenge. 33 young subjects with a psychotic disorder and 30 gender, age and IQ matched healthy controls were enrolled...
July 6, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683588/auditory-pitch-perception-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-associated-with-nonverbal-abilities
#10
Rakhee Chowdhury, Megha Sharda, Nicholas E V Foster, Esther Germain, Ana Tryfon, Krissy Doyle-Thomas, Evdokia Anagnostou, Krista L Hyde
Atypical sensory perception and heterogeneous cognitive profiles are common features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, previous findings on auditory sensory processing in ASD are mixed. Accordingly, auditory perception and its relation to cognitive abilities in ASD remain poorly understood. Here, children with ASD, and age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched typically developing children, were tested on a low- and a higher level pitch processing task. Verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities were measured using the Wechsler's Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683424/prenatal-phenolic-compounds-exposure-and-neurobehavioral-development-at-2-and-7years-of-age
#11
Ching-Chun Lin, Chun-Ju Chien, Meng-Shan Tsai, Chia-Jung Hsieh, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Pau-Chung Chen
BACKGROUND: Phenolic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), and octylphenol (OP) are known as endocrine-disrupting compounds and are commonly used. Their impacts on the neurodevelopment of children are inconclusive. The current study aims to investigate the association between umbilical cord blood levels of BPA, NP, OP and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 and 7years of age. METHODS: The study was based on the Taiwan Birth Panel Study, a prospective birth cohort...
July 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676906/tacit-to-explicit-knowledge-conversion
#12
Osvaldo Cairó Battistutti, Dominik Bork
The ability to create, use and transfer knowledge may allow the creation or improvement of new products or services. But knowledge is often tacit: It lives in the minds of individuals, and therefore, it is difficult to transfer it to another person by means of the written word or verbal expression. This paper addresses this important problem by introducing a methodology, consisting of a four-step process that facilitates tacit to explicit knowledge conversion. The methodology utilizes conceptual modeling, thus enabling understanding and reasoning through visual knowledge representation...
July 4, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676048/how-clinicians-analyze-movement-quality-in-patients-with-non-specific-low-back-pain-a-cross-sectional-survey-study-with-dutch-allied-health-care-professionals
#13
Margriet van Dijk, Nienke Smorenburg, Bart Visser, Yvonne F Heerkens, Maria W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden
BACKGROUND: Observation of movement quality (MQ) is an indelible element in the process of clinical reasoning for patients with non-specific low back pain (NS-LBP). However, the observation and evaluation of MQ in common daily activities are not standardized within allied health care. This study aims to describe how Dutch allied health care professionals (AHCPs) observe and assess MQ in patients with NS-LBP and whether AHCPs feel the need to have a specific outcome measure for assessing MQ in patients with NS-LBP...
July 4, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670123/intelligence-profiles-of-chinese-school-aged-boys-with-high-functioning-asd-and-adhd
#14
Gaizhi Li, Wenqing Jiang, Yasong Du, Kathryn Rossbach
PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the intelligence profiles of Chinese school-aged boys with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Additionally, differences in intelligence quotient (IQ) between the HFASD group and the ADHD group were examined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-two boys with HFASD, 58 boys with ADHD, and 39 typically developing (TD) boys aged 6-16 years participated in this study. The ADHD group was divided into subgroups: ADHD-I (predominantly inattentive) and ADHD-C (combined type)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655480/associations-of-suicidality-with-cognitive-ability-and-cognitive-insight-in-outpatients-with-schizophrenia
#15
Jennifer Villa, Jennifer Choi, Julie L Kangas, Christopher N Kaufmann, Philip D Harvey, Colin A Depp
BACKGROUND: Previous literature suggests that better cognitive ability and insight are associated with greater lifetime risk of suicide attempts in schizophrenia, counter to the direction of association in the general population. However, the conjoint association between distinct cognitive domains, insight, and suicidality has not been assessed. METHOD: In a cross-sectional study, 162 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed cognitive testing via the MATRICS battery, symptom and cognitive insight assessments, along with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale...
June 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652070/peer-victimisation-and-academic-performance-in-primary-school-children
#16
Lisa K Mundy, Louise Canterford, Silja Kosola, Louisa Degenhardt, Nicholas B Allen, George C Patton
OBJECTIVE: Peer victimisation is a common antecedent of poor social and emotional adjustment. Its relationship with objectively measured academic performance is unclear. This study aimed to quantify the cross-sectional associations between peer victimisation and academic performance in a large population sample of children. METHODS: Eight-nine year olds were recruited from a stratified random sample of primary schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test (one year of learning equals 40 points)...
June 23, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647719/a-cross-sectional-study-on-the-prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-for-workplace-violence-against-chinese-nurses
#17
Lei Shi, Danyang Zhang, Chenyu Zhou, Libin Yang, Tao Sun, Tianjun Hao, Xiangwen Peng, Lei Gao, Wenhui Liu, Yi Mu, Yuzhen Han, Lihua Fan
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to explore the characteristics of workplace violence that Chinese nurses at tertiary and county-level hospitals encountered in the 12 months from December 2014 to January 2016, to identify and analyse risk factors for workplace violence, and to establish the basis for future preventive strategies. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A total of 44 tertiary hospitals and 90 county-level hospitals in 16 provinces (municipalities or autonomous regions) in China...
June 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645229/cognitive-function-in-early-psychosis-patients-from-a-lower-middle-income-country
#18
Muhammed Omair Husain, Imran B Chaudhry, Rachel Thomasson, Tayyeba Kiran, Paul Bassett, Muhammad I Husain, Farooq Naeem, Nusrat Husain
OBJECTIVES: To establish evidence of cognitive changes in early psychosis (EP) patients compared to healthy controls (HC) in Pakistan. METHODS: Fifty-one participants with EP were recruited from psychiatric units in Karachi and Rawalpindi, Pakistan and matched with 51 HC. Neurocognitive domains were assessed using standardised neuropsychological tests [the Stroop test, block design, Matrix Reasoning, picture completion, object assembly, oral fluency, memory for design, Coughlan learning task (verbal and visual)]...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#19
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632521/verbal-and-figural-fluency-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-does-hippocampal-sclerosis-affect-performance
#20
Ioannis Zalonis, Foteini Christidi, Artemios Artemiadis, Constantinos Psarros, George Papadopoulos, George Tsivgoulis, Stergios Gatzonis, Anna Siatouni, Georgios Velonakis, Efstratios Karavasilis, Evangelia Kararizou, Nikolaos Triantafyllou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Clinicians commonly use verbal and nonverbal measures to test fluency in patients with epilepsy, either during routine cognitive assessment or as part of pre- and postsurgical evaluation. We hypothesized that patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis would perform worse than patients with lateral TLE in both verbal and design fluency. METHODS: We assessed semantic, phonemic, and nonverbal fluency in 49 patients with TLE: 31 with lateral TLE and 18 with mesial TLE plus hippocampal sclerosis...
June 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
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