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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531645/judgment-of-moral-and-social-transgression-in-schizophrenia
#1
Jonathan McGuire, Martin Brüne, Robyn Langdon
INTRODUCTION: Despite evidence of pervasive social-cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known of moral cognition in this population. While recent research indicates that impairment of explicit moral reasoning is explained by these individuals' other cognitive deficits, their capacities for basic moral judgment are unknown. METHODS: 45 people with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls completed the Moral-Conventional Distinction Task: a classic task that assesses judgment of violations of moral or social convention on permissibility, severity, and authority-contingence...
May 4, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524326/family-planning-knowledge-and-use-among-women-in-camps-for-internally-displaced-people-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#2
Rogatien M Kisindja, Christophe Kimona, Modestine Etoy, Florby Dorme, Nerys Benfield
OBJECTIVE: To describe family planning awareness and needs among internally displaced women residing in the Mugunga camps in North Kivu, eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of women aged 14-45 years residing in the Mugunga camps was conducted during March 2014. The verbally administered survey assessed participants' obstetric history and their family planning knowledge, interest, and use. Descriptive statistics were obtained...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523673/the-function-of-language-in-parent-infant-psychotherapy
#3
Björn Salomonsson
Parent-infant psychotherapy, a rather new field in psychoanalysis, raises questions of how to conceptualize the clinical process. Previous publications have used semiotic concepts to account for the therapist's non-verbal communication and investigated the countertransference, including what the baby might grasp of its variations. The present paper focuses on another argument for using verbal interventions to a baby in therapy; they present him with a symbolic order that differs from that of the parent. The qualitative difference between the parent's and the analyst's address is conceptualized by Dolto's term parler vrai...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522283/-standardised-pain-assessment-in-cognitively-impaired-nursing-home-residents-comparing-the-use-of-assessment-tools-in-dementia-care-units-and-in-integrated-care-units
#4
Rebecca Palm, Erika Sirsch, Bernhard Holle, Sabine Bartholomeyczik
BACKGROUND: A large number of nursing home residents with cognitive impairments (CI) suffer from chronic pain, which is also discussed as a reason for challenging behavior. To assess pain in people with severe CI, the use of an observational pain instrument is recommended; for people without or with mild CI the gold standard is a self-rating instrument. It is unknown whether in German nursing homes pain assessment in residents with severe CI is actually conducted using observational instruments and which instruments are used...
May 15, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516807/neurofeedback-based-enhancement-of-single-trial-auditory-evoked-potentials-feasibility-in-healthy-subjects
#5
Kathryn Rieger, Marie-Helene Rarra, Nicolas Moor, Laura Diaz Hernandez, Anja Baenninger, Nadja Razavi, Thomas Dierks, Daniela Hubl, Thomas Koenig
Previous studies showed a global reduction of the event-related potential component N100 in patients with schizophrenia, a phenomenon that is even more pronounced during auditory verbal hallucinations. This reduction assumingly results from dysfunctional activation of the primary auditory cortex by inner speech, which reduces its responsiveness to external stimuli. With this study, we tested the feasibility of enhancing the responsiveness of the primary auditory cortex to external stimuli with an upregulation of the event-related potential component N100 in healthy control subjects...
May 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514923/object-spatial-imagery-and-verbal-cognitive-styles-in-high-school-students
#6
Erhan Selcuk Haciomeroglu, Mark LaVenia
The present study investigated object-spatial imagery and verbal cognitive styles in high school students. We analyzed the relationships between cognitive styles, object imagery ability, spatial visualization ability, verbal-logical reasoning ability, and preferred modes of processing math information. Data were collected from 348 students at six high schools in two school districts. Spatial imagery style was not correlated with object imagery style and was negatively correlated with verbal style. Object imagery style did not correlate significantly with any cognitive ability measure, whereas spatial imagery style significantly correlated with object imagery ability, spatial visualization ability, and verbal-logical reasoning ability...
June 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511685/respectful-maternity-care-in-ethiopian-public-health-facilities
#7
Ephrem D Sheferaw, Eva Bazant, Hannah Gibson, Hone B Fenta, Firew Ayalew, Tsigereda B Belay, Maria M Worku, Aelaf E Kebebu, Sintayehu A Woldie, Young-Mi Kim, T van den Akker, Jelle Stekelenburg
BACKGROUND: Disrespect and abuse of women during institutional childbirth services is one of the deterrents to utilization of maternity care services in Ethiopia and other low- and middle-income countries. This paper describes the prevalence of respectful maternity care (RMC) and mistreatment of women in hospitals and health centers, and identifies factors associated with occurrence of RMC and mistreatment of women during institutional labor and childbirth services. METHODS: This study had a cross sectional study design...
May 16, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508919/cognitive-development-of-school-age-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-survivors-a-single-center-study
#8
REVIEW
Raphael D Oberhuber, Sonja Huemer, Rudolf Mair, Eva Sames-Dolzer, Michaela Kreuzer, Gerald Tulzer
Neurological and radiologic research results show an abnormal cerebral microstructure as well as abnormal neurodevelopment in patients treated for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the varying cognitive performance these children have developed in dependence upon prenatal diagnosis, surgical techniques, surgical learning effects, anatomy, perfusion techniques, gender, pedagogic, and sociodemographic parameters in comparison to age-adjusted normative values. School-age children (6...
May 16, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505632/missed-opportunities-for-measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination-among-departing-u-s-adult-travelers-receiving-pretravel-health-consultations
#9
Emily P Hyle, Sowmya R Rao, Emily S Jentes, Amy Parker Fiebelkorn, Stefan H F Hagmann, Allison Taylor Walker, Rochelle P Walensky, Edward T Ryan, Regina C LaRocque
Background: Measles outbreaks continue to occur in the United States and are mostly due to infections in returning travelers. Objective: To describe how providers assessed the measles immunity status of departing U.S. adult travelers seeking pretravel consultation and to assess reasons given for nonvaccination among those considered eligible to receive the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine. Design: Observational study in U.S. pretravel clinics...
May 16, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489412/brief-review-of-fluid-reasoning-conceptualization-neurobasis-and-applications
#10
Tulio M Otero
In the early part of the twentieth century the value of nonverbal tests was initially recognized by Yoakum and Yerkes when they wrote how examinees could fail a verbal test of general ability because of limited skills in English. When these examinees were then tested with a nonverbal test of ability, they often performed well, and therefore this approach avoided "injustice by reason of relative unfamiliarity with English." Measuring cognitive ability with nonverbal measures that do not require verbal skills has been supported now for nearly a century...
May 10, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489140/different-outcomes-of-phonemic-verbal-fluency-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation
#11
Aline Juliane Romann, Bárbara Costa Beber, Maira Rozenfeld Olchik, Carlos R M Rieder
Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is a surgical technique to treat motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies have shown that STN-DBS may cause a decline in verbal fluency performance. We aimed to verify the effects of STN-DBS on the performance of phonemic verbal fluency in Brazilian PD patients. Sixteen participants were evaluated on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale - Part III and for phonemic fluency ("FAS" version) in the conditions of on- and off-stimulation...
April 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470886/theory-of-mind-in-sli-revisited-links-with-syntax-comparisons-with-asd
#12
Stephanie Durrleman, Morgane Burnel, Anne Reboul
BACKGROUND: According to the linguistic determinism approach, knowledge of sentential complements such as: John says that the earth is flat plays a crucial role in theory of mind (ToM) development by providing a means to represent explicitly people's mental attitudes and beliefs. This approach predicts that mastery of complements determines successful belief reasoning across explicit ToM tasks, even low-verbal ones, and across populations. AIMS: (1) To investigate the link between a low-verbal ToM-task and complements in Specific Language Impairment (SLI), (2) To determine whether this population shows similar ToM performance to that of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or those with Typical Development (TD) once these groups are matched on competency for complements, (3) To explore whether complements conveying a falsehood without jeopardizing the veracity of the entire sentence, such as complements of verbs of communication, are more crucial for belief attribution than complements which do not have this property, namely complements of verbs of perception, (?John sees that the earth is flat)...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465538/how-doctors-diagnose-diseases-and-prescribe-treatments-an-fmri-study-of-diagnostic-salience
#13
Marcio Melo, Gustavo D F Gusso, Marcelo Levites, Edson Amaro, Eduardo Massad, Paulo A Lotufo, Peter Zeidman, Cathy J Price, Karl J Friston
Understanding the brain mechanisms involved in diagnostic reasoning may contribute to the development of methods that reduce errors in medical practice. In this study we identified similar brain systems for diagnosing diseases, prescribing treatments, and naming animals and objects using written information as stimuli. Employing time resolved modeling of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses enabled time resolved (400 milliseconds epochs) analyses. With this approach it was possible to study neural processes during successive stages of decision making...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464963/modafinil-and-cognitive-enhancement-in-schizophrenia-and-healthy-volunteers-the-effects-of-test-battery-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
J Lees, P G Michalopoulou, S W Lewis, S Preston, C Bamford, T Collier, A Kalpakidou, T Wykes, R Emsley, G Pandina, S Kapur, R J Drake
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have major functional impacts. Modafinil is a cognitive enhancer whose effect in healthy volunteers is well-described, but whose effects on the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia appear to be inconsistent. Two possible reasons for this are that cognitive test batteries vary in their sensitivity, or that the phase of illness may be important, with patients early in their illness responding better. METHODS: A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled single-dose crossover study of modafinil 200 mg examined this with two cognitive batteries [MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)] in 46 participants with under 3 years' duration of DSM-IV schizophrenia, on stable antipsychotic medication...
May 3, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464403/seasonal-variation-in-child-mortality-in-rural-guinea-bissau
#15
Bibi Uhre Nielsen, Stine Byberg, Peter Aaby, Amabelia Rodrigues, Christine Stabell Benn, Ane Baerent Fisker
OBJECTIVES: In many African countries, child mortality is higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. We investigated the effect of season on child mortality by time periods, sex, and age in rural Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Bandim health project follows children under-five in a health and demographic surveillance system in rural Guinea-Bissau. We compared the mortality in the rainy season (June to November) between 1990 and 2013 with the mortality in the dry season (December to May) in Cox proportional hazards models providing rainy versus dry season mortality rate ratios (r/d-mrr)...
May 2, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454539/workplace-violence-against-nurses-in-the-gambia-mixed-methods-design
#16
Ebrima J Sisawo, Saide Yacine Y Arsène Ouédraogo, Song-Lih Huang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, perpetrators and factors associated with workplace violence against nurses in public secondary health care facilities from two health regions in the Gambia. METHODS: Data was collected from 219 nurses using self-administered questionnaire and 35 face-to-face interviews. The data collection was conducted between July and September 2014 in 14 public secondary health care facilities. RESULTS: A sizable majority of respondents (62...
April 28, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451000/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-workplace-violence-against-health-care-workers-in-emergency-department-in-ismailia-egypt
#17
Rasha Farouk Abdellah, Khaled Morsy Salama
INTRODUCTION: Emergency department is one of the high-risk areas, where violence against health care workers (HCWs) is a prevalent and serious problem. Violence has negative effects on HCWs, and therefore on the quality of care provided in emergency department. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, types, sources and risk factors of violence reported by HCWs in emergency department. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized questionnaire developed by the WHO...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437438/use-of-the-matrics-consensus-cognitive-battery-mccb-to-evaluate-cognitive-deficits-in-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Qijing Bo, Zhen Mao, Xianbin Li, Zhimin Wang, Chuanyue Wang, Xin Ma
BACKGROUND: The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition Schizophrenia Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) has also been proposed for use in clinical trials to assess cognitive deficits in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive function assessed by the MCCB in BD. METHODS: A literature search of the PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, SCI, Cochrane Library databases and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register was conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435625/developing-azeri-aphasia-screening-test-and-preliminary-validity-and-reliability
#19
Sousan Salehi, Ali Jahan, Najva Mousavi, Mazyar Hashemilar, Zohreh Razaghi, Maryam Moghadam-Salimi
Background: As there is no standard aphasia screening tool for Azeri language yet, the aim of this study was to develop an aphasia screening test with acceptable validity and reliability. Methods: The present study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, by literature search, the screening test was designed and to obtain validity it was peer reviewed by expert panel. After collecting experts' ratings and comments, appropriate modifications were applied. For test-retest reliability in the second phase, edited test was administered in 32 patients with brain injuries, then the retest was performed two weeks later...
October 7, 2016: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429909/association-between-maternal-vitamin-d-status-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-cognitive-function-during-childhood-and-adolescence
#20
Sargoor R Veena, Ghattu V Krishnaveni, Krishnamachari Srinivasan, Kotrangada P Thajna, Bhavya G Hegde, Catharine R Gale, Caroline Hd Fall
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Animal studies have demonstrated poor cognitive outcomes in offspring in relation to maternal vitamin D deficiency before and/or during pregnancy. Human studies linking maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy with offspring cognitive function are limited. We aimed to test the hypothesis that lower maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy is associated with poor offspring cognitive ability in an Indian population. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Cognitive function was assessed in children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort during childhood (age 9-10 years; n=468) and adolescence (age 13-14 years; n=472) using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring learning, long-term retrieval/ storage, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, visuo-spatial ability, and attention and concentration...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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