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Diabetes NEuromuscular junction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252982/sagittal-balance-is-more-than-just-alignment-why-pjk-remains-an-unresolved-problem
#1
Steven D Glassman, Mark P Coseo, Leah Y Carreon
BACKGROUND: The durability of adult spinal deformity surgery remains problematic. Revision rates above 20 % have been reported, with a range of causes including wound infection, nonunion and adjacent level pathology. While some of these complications have been amenable to changes in patient selection or surgical technique, Proximal Junctional Kyphosis (PJK) remains an unresolved challenge. This study examines the contributions of non-mechanical factors to the incidence of postoperative sagittal imbalance and PJK after adult deformity surgery...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27015736/serum-levels-of-c-terminal-agrin-fragment-caf-are-associated-with-sarcopenia-in-older-multimorbid-community-dwellers-results-from-the-ilsirente-study
#2
Francesco Landi, Riccardo Calvani, Maria Lorenzi, Anna Maria Martone, Matteo Tosato, Michael Drey, Emanuela D'Angelo, Ettore Capoluongo, Andrea Russo, Roberto Bernabei, Graziano Onder, Emanuele Marzetti
BACKGROUND: The C-terminal agrin fragment (CAF), a circulating byproduct of neuromuscular junction disassembly, has been proposed as a possible biomarker for sarcopenia. However, its validity in "real-world", multimorbid older persons is currently unknown. The present study was undertaken to verify if serum CAF levels were associated with sarcopenia in a population of old and very old persons living in the community. METHODS: Data were from the ilSIRENTE Aging and Longevity Study, a prospective cohort study conducted in all persons aged 80years and older residing in the Sirente geographic area (Italy; n=332)...
June 15, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884666/thymectomy-cures-diabetes-mellitus-and-ameliorates-myasthenia-gravis-in-a-patient-with-thymus-hyperplasia-and-hyperthyroidism-report-of-a-case
#3
Shiyun Feng, Yao Zhang, Youbin Cui, Yu Chen
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a devastating autoimmune disease that involves the acetylcholine receptor (AchR) in the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction. It is not uncommon for MG to accompany with other autoimmune diseases and complicate with multiple organ dysfunction. Here, we report on an 18-year-old female patient with a rare case of MG concomitant with thymus hyperplasia, diabetes mellitus, and hyperthyroidism. After full excision of the hyperplastic thymus gland, the patient's muscle weakness was greatly improved and her blood glucose level was restored to normal at the 6-month follow-up...
December 2015: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26833551/skeletal-muscle-dysfunction-in-the-db-db-mouse-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#4
Jeppe Seamus Bayley, Thomas Holm Pedersen, Ole Baekgaard Nielsen
INTRODUCTION: In this study we examined the mechanisms of motor dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Contractile force was measured in isolated nerve-muscle preparations of db/db mice using various protocols for electrical stimulation. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) adenosine triphosphatase protein (SERCA) was quantified by comparing Ca(2+) -dependent and non-specific phosphorylation. RESULTS: Compared with controls, the muscle-nerve preparations of db/db mice displayed muscle atrophy, reduced axonal excitability, and force deficit when stimulated via the nerve...
September 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25345512/gene-expression-analysis-approach-to-establish-possible-links-between-parkinson-s-disease-cancer-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#5
Sajjad Karim, Zeenat Mirza, Mohammad A Kamal, Adel M Abuzenadah, Mohammed H Al-Qahtani
Non-communicable chronic diseases have been apparently established as threat to human health, and are currently the world's main killer. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases are collectively amounting to more than 60% of non-communicable disease burden across world. Tremendous advancements in healthcare enabled us to fight several health problems primarily infectious diseases. However, this increased longevity where in many cases an individual suffers from several such chronic diseases simultaneously, making treatment complex...
2014: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24934596/myasthenia-gravis-paradox-versus-paradigm-in-autoimmunity
#6
REVIEW
Sonia Berrih-Aknin
Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a paradigm of organ-specific autoimmune disease (AID). It is mediated by antibodies that target the neuromuscular junction. The purpose of this review is to place MG in the general context of autoimmunity, to summarize the common mechanisms between MG and other AIDs, and to describe the specific mechanisms of MG. We have chosen the most common organ-specific AIDs to compare with MG: type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), multiple sclerosis (MS), some systemic AIDs (systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjogren's syndrome (SS)), as well as inflammatory diseases of the gut and liver (celiac disease (CeD), Crohn's disease (CD), and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC))...
August 2014: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24470605/mystery-case-a-63-year-old-man-with-progressive-proximal-pain-and-weakness
#7
Patricia D Scripko, Anthony A Amato, Alberto Puig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2014: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24276790/nicotinic-cholinergic-signaling-in-adipose-tissue-and-pancreatic-islets-biology-revisited-function-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Emmanuel Somm
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are membrane ligand-gated cation channels whose activation is triggered by the binding of the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine or other biologic compounds including nicotine. Their roles in synaptic transmission in the central and peripheral nervous system as well as in the neuromuscular junction have been extensively studied. Recent implications of nAChRs in intracellular signaling and their detection in peripheral nonneural cells (including epithelial cells and immune cells) have renewed the interest for this class of ionotropic receptors...
April 2014: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23949775/myelination-and-node-of-ranvier-formation-on-sensory-neurons-in-a-defined-in-vitro-system
#9
John W Rumsey, Christopher McAleer, Mainak Das, Abhijeet Bhalkikar, Kerry Wilson, Maria Stancescu, Stephen Lambert, James J Hickman
One of the most important developmental modifications of the nervous system is Schwann cell myelination of axons. Schwann cells ensheath axons to create myelin segments to provide protection to the axon as well as increase the conduction of action potentials. In vitro neuronal systems provide a unique modality to study a variety of factors influencing myelination as well as diseases associated with myelin sheath degradation. This work details the development of a patterned in vitro myelinating dorsal root ganglion culture...
September 2013: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23813975/muscle-specific-function-of-the-centronuclear-myopathy-and-charcot-marie-tooth-neuropathy-associated-dynamin-2-is-required-for-proper-lipid-metabolism-mitochondria-muscle-fibers-neuromuscular-junctions-and-peripheral-nerves
#10
Elisa Tinelli, Jorge A Pereira, Ueli Suter
The ubiquitously expressed large GTPase Dynamin 2 (DNM2) plays a critical role in the regulation of intracellular membrane trafficking through its crucial function in membrane fission, particularly in endocytosis. Autosomal-dominant mutations in DNM2 cause tissue-specific human disorders. Different sets of DNM2 mutations are linked to dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type B, a motor and sensory neuropathy affecting primarily peripheral nerves, or autosomal-dominant centronuclear myopathy (CNM) presenting with primary damage in skeletal muscles...
November 1, 2013: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23263165/syntrophin-proteins-as-santa-claus-role-s-in-cell-signal-transduction
#11
REVIEW
Hina F Bhat, Marvin E Adams, Firdous A Khanday
Syntrophins are a family of cytoplasmic membrane-associated adaptor proteins, characterized by the presence of a unique domain organization comprised of a C-terminal syntrophin unique (SU) domain and an N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that is split by insertion of a PDZ domain. Syntrophins have been recognized as an important component of many signaling events, and they seem to function more like the cell's own personal 'Santa Claus' that serves to 'gift' various signaling complexes with precise proteins that they 'wish for', and at the same time care enough for the spatial, temporal control of these signaling events, maintaining overall smooth functioning and general happiness of the cell...
July 2013: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22739110/acetylcholinesterase-deficiency-contributes-to-neuromuscular-junction-dysfunction-in-type-1-diabetic-neuropathy
#12
Carmen C Garcia, Joseph G Potian, Kormakur Hognason, Baskaran Thyagarajan, Lester G Sultatos, Nizar Souayah, Vanessa H Routh, Joseph J McArdle
Diabetic neuropathy is associated with functional and morphological changes of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) associated with muscle weakness. This study examines the effect of type 1 diabetes on NMJ function. Swiss Webster mice were made diabetic with three interdaily ip injections of streptozotocin (STZ). Mice were severely hyperglycemic within 7 days after the STZ treatment began. Whereas performance of mice on a rotating rod remained normal, the twitch tension response of the isolated extensor digitorum longus to nerve stimulation was reduced significantly at 4 wk after the onset of STZ-induced hyperglycemia...
August 15, 2012: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21487310/motor-end-plate-innervation-loss-in-diabetes-and-the-role-of-insulin
#13
George J Francis, Jose A Martinez, Wei Q Liu, Douglas W Zochodne, Leah R Hanson, William H Frey, Cory Toth
Retraction of distal sensory axons is a prominent feature in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), a process amenable to insulin therapy. Nevertheless, diabetic patients and long-term diabetic mice develop motor deficits after longer durations of DPN, a process that may be related to insulin deficiency. To compare the efficacy of intranasal delivery of insulin (IN-I) and subcutaneous insulin (Subc-I) in preventing motor deficits in a long-term mouse model of DPN, IN-I or Subc-I, 0.87 IU daily or placebo was delivered in separate cohorts of diabetic and nondiabetic CD1 mice for 8 months...
May 2011: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20726955/routine-and-specialized-laboratory-testing-for-the-diagnosis-of-neuromuscular-diseases-in-dogs-and-cats
#14
G Diane Shelton
The diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases can be challenging. The first step is recognition that the disease involves the neuromuscular system (muscle, neuromuscular junction, peripheral nerve, and ventral horn cells of the spinal cord). Many neuromuscular diseases share clinical signs and cannot be distinguished based on clinical examination. Routine laboratory screening, including a CBC, biochemical profile, and urinalysis, can identify some of the most common systemic abnormalities that cause muscle weakness and myalgia, such as hypo- and hyperglycemia, electrolyte disorders, or thyroid abnormalities, and may suggest a specific diagnosis, such as diabetes mellitus, hypo- or hyperadrenocorticism, renal failure, or hypothyroidism...
September 2010: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20637618/using-mouse-cranial-muscles-to-investigate-neuromuscular-pathology-in-vivo
#15
L M Murray, T H Gillingwater, S H Parson
Neuromuscular pathology is a classic hallmark of many diseases such as muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. It is also a feature of many congenital and acquired myopathies and neuropathies such as diabetic neuropathy and toxin-exposure. The availability of experimentally accessible nerve-muscle preparations from rodent models in which pathological events can be studied in nerve and muscle, as well as at the neuromuscular junction, is therefore of fundamental importance for investigating neuromuscular disease...
November 2010: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20074819/vas-deferens-a-model-used-to-establish-sympathetic-cotransmission
#16
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock, Alexej Verkhratsky
The vas deferens has been used as a model for many diverse studies of different aspects of autonomic neurotransmission since its introduction including, in particular, sympathetic cotransmission involving release of ATP and neuropeptide Y together with noradrenaline and prejunctional and postjunctional neuromodulation. It has also been used to study sympathetic reinnervation following vasectomy and castration, as well as the deleterious effects of diabetes, hypertension and chronic alcohol.
March 2010: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19797081/unc-108-rab-2-and-its-effector-ric-19-are-involved-in-dense-core-vesicle-maturation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Marija Sumakovic, Jan Hegermann, Ling Luo, Steven J Husson, Katrin Schwarze, Christian Olendrowitz, Liliane Schoofs, Janet Richmond, Stefan Eimer
Small guanosine triphosphatases of the Rab family regulate intracellular vesicular trafficking. Rab2 is highly expressed in the nervous system, yet its function in neurons is unknown. In Caenorhabditis elegans, unc-108/rab-2 mutants have been isolated based on their locomotory defects. We show that the locomotion defects of rab-2 mutants are not caused by defects in synaptic vesicle release but by defects in dense core vesicle (DCV) signaling. DCVs in rab-2 mutants are often enlarged and heterogeneous in size; however, their number and distribution are not affected...
September 21, 2009: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19602580/motor-unit-number-estimate-as-a-predictor-of-motor-dysfunction-in-an-animal-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#18
Nizar Souayah, Joseph G Potian, Carmen C Garcia, Natalia Krivitskaya, Christine Boone, Vanessa H Routh, Joseph J McArdle
Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes that leads to severe morbidity. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of motor unit number estimate (MUNE) to detect early motor axon dysfunction in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice. We compared the findings with in vitro changes in the morphology and electrophysiology of the neuromuscular junction. Adult Thy1-YFP and Swiss Webster mice were made diabetic following three interdaily intraperitoneal STZ injections. Splay testing and rotarod performance assessed motor activity for 6 wk...
September 2009: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19485922/cgrp-a-vasodilator-neuropeptide-that-stimulates-neuromuscular-transmission-and-ec-coupling
#19
REVIEW
Ana Victoria Vega, Guillermo Avila
Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) is a vasodilator; its plasma levels are altered in several human diseases, including migraine, hypertension and diabetes. CGRP is locally released by motor neurons, and is overexpressed in response to surgical or pharmacological blockage of neuromuscular transmission. Additionally to a brief discussion with regard to the clinical relevance of CGRP, this review focuses on the effects of CGRP on skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, as well as the corresponding pathophysiological consequences...
May 2010: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19361859/node-of-ranvier-formation-on-motoneurons-in-vitro
#20
John W Rumsey, Mainak Das, Maria Stancescu, Marga Bott, Cristina Fernandez-Valle, James J Hickman
One of the most significant interactions between Schwann cells and neurons is myelin sheath formation. Myelination is a vertebrate adaptation that enables rapid conduction of action potentials without a commensurate increase in axon diameter. In vitro neuronal systems provide a unique modality to study both factors influencing myelination and diseases associated with myelination. Currently, no in vitro system for motoneuron myelination by Schwann cells has been demonstrated. This work details the myelination of motoneuron axons by Schwann cells, with complete Node of Ranvier formation, in a defined in vitro culture system...
July 2009: Biomaterials
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