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parathyroid gcm2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745835/gcm2-activating-mutations-in-familial-isolated-hyperparathyroidism
#1
Bin Guan, James M Welch, Julie C Sapp, Hua Ling, Yulong Li, Jennifer J Johnston, Electron Kebebew, Leslie G Biesecker, William F Simonds, Stephen J Marx, Sunita K Agarwal
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disease characterized by parathyroid hormone excess and hypercalcemia and caused by hypersecreting parathyroid glands. Familial PHPT occurs in an isolated nonsyndromal form, termed familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP), or as part of a syndrome, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. The specific genetic or other cause(s) of FIHP are unknown. We performed exome sequencing on germline DNA of eight index-case individuals from eight unrelated kindreds with FIHP...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679579/calcium-sensing-receptor-gene-regulation-of-expression
#2
REVIEW
Geoffrey N Hendy, Lucie Canaff
The human calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR) has 8 exons, and localizes to chromosome 3q. Exons 1A and 1B encode alternative 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) that splice to exon 2 encoding the AUG initiation codon. Exons 2-7 encode the CaSR protein of 1078 amino acids. Promoter P1 has TATA and CCAAT boxes upstream of exon 1A, and promoter P2 has Sp1/3 motifs at the start site of exon 1B. Exon 1A transcripts from the P1 promoter are reduced in parathyroid tumors and colon carcinomas. Studies of colon carcinomas and neuroblastomas have emphasized the importance of epigenetic changes-promoter methylation of the GC-rich P2 promoter, histone acetylation-as well as involvement of microRNAs in bringing about CASR gene silencing and reduced CaSR expression...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633995/tissue-specific-roles-for-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-establishing-thymus-and-parathyroid-organ-fate
#3
Virginia E Bain, Julie Gordon, John D O'Neil, Isaias Ramos, Ellen R Richie, Nancy R Manley
The thymus and parathyroids develop from shared organ primordia derived from third pharyngeal pouch (3(rd) pp) endoderm. Our previous studies show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) null mutants have smaller, aparathyroid primordia in which thymus fate specification extends into the pharynx. SHH signaling is active in both dorsal pouch endoderm and neighboring neural crest mesenchyme, but it is unclear which target tissue of SHH signaling is required for the patterning defects seen in Shh mutants. We have taken a genetic approach to this question by ectopically activating or deleting the SHH signal transducer Smoothened (Smo) in either pharyngeal pouch endoderm or neural crest (NC) mesenchyme...
September 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544844/notch-and-hedgehog-in-the-thymus-parathyroid-common-primordium-crosstalk-in-organ-formation
#4
Marta Figueiredo, Joana Clara Silva, Ana Sofia Santos, Vitor Proa, Isabel Alcobia, Rita Zilhão, António Cidadão, Hélia Neves
The avian thymus and parathyroids (T/PT) common primordium derives from the endoderm of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches (3/4PP). The molecular mechanisms that govern T/PT development are not fully understood. Here we study the effects of Notch and Hedgehog (Hh) signalling modulation during common primordium development using in vitro, in vivo and in ovo approaches. The impairment of Notch activity reduced Foxn1/thymus-fated and Gcm2/Pth/parathyroid-fated domains in the 3/4PP and further compromised the development of the parathyroid glands...
October 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25917456/gata3-cooperates-with-gcm2-and-mafb-to-activate-parathyroid-hormone-gene-expression-by-interacting-with-sp1
#5
Song-Iee Han, Yukino Tsunekage, Kohsuke Kataoka
Haploinsufficiency of the Gata3 gene, which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor, is associated with the disorder hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome in humans. However, the roles of Gata3 in transcriptional regulation in the parathyroid glands are not well-understood. In this study, we show that Gata3 activates transcription of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is secreted from parathyroid glands and is critical for regulating serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Gata3 interacted with Gcm2 and MafB, two known transcriptional regulators of parathyroid development, and synergistically stimulated the PTH promoter...
August 15, 2015: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25872007/an-essential-role-for-parathyroid-hormone-in-gill-formation-and-differentiation-of-ion-transporting-cells-in-developing-zebrafish
#6
Raymond W M Kwong, Steve F Perry
In vertebrates, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is important for skeletogenesis and Ca(2+) homeostasis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which PTH regulates skeleton formation and Ca(2+) balance during early development. Using larval zebrafish as an in vivo model system, we determined that PTH1 regulates the differentiation of epithelial cells and the development of craniofacial cartilage. We demonstrated that translational gene knockdown of PTH1 decreased Ca(2+) uptake at 4 days after fertilization...
July 2015: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25279501/increased-prevalence-of-the-gcm2-polymorphism-y282d-in-primary-hyperparathyroidism-analysis-of-three-italian-cohorts
#7
Leonardo D'Agruma, Michela Coco, Vito Guarnieri, Claudia Battista, Lucie Canaff, Antonio S Salcuni, Sabrina Corbetta, Filomena Cetani, Salvatore Minisola, Iacopo Chiodini, Cristina Eller-Vainicher, Anna Spada, Claudio Marcocci, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Michele Zini, Rosanna Clemente, Betty Y L Wong, Danilo de Martino, Alfredo Scillitani, Geoffrey N Hendy, David E C Cole
CONTEXT: Glial cells missing-2 (GCM2) is key for parathyroid gland organogenesis. Its persistent expression in the adult parathyroid raises the possibility that overactive forms play a role in the evolution of parathyroid hyperactivity or tumorigenesis. A GCM2 c.844T → G; p.Y282D missense variant has been described within a transactivation inhibitory domain (amino acids 263-352). OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were to 1) assess the frequency of Y282D in Italian primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and control (C) populations, 2) test for association of 282D with PHPT and its phenotypic features, and 3) compare the transactivation potency of GCM2 282D relative to wild-type Y282...
December 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25249461/multiple-roles-for-hoxa3-in-regulating-thymus-and-parathyroid-differentiation-and-morphogenesis-in-mouse
#8
Jena L Chojnowski, Kyoko Masuda, Heidi A Trau, Kirk Thomas, Mario Capecchi, Nancy R Manley
Hoxa3 was the first Hox gene to be mutated by gene targeting in mice and is required for the development of multiple endoderm and neural crest cell (NCC)-derived structures in the pharyngeal region. Previous studies have shown that the Hoxa3 null mutant lacks third pharyngeal pouch derivatives, the thymus and parathyroids by E18.5, and organ-specific markers are absent or downregulated during initial organogenesis. Our current analysis of the Hoxa3 null mutant shows that organ-specific domains did undergo initial patterning, but the location and timing of key regional markers within the pouch, including Tbx1, Bmp4 and Fgf8, were altered...
October 2014: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25053428/ectopic-tbx1-suppresses-thymic-epithelial-cell-differentiation-and-proliferation-during-thymus-organogenesis
#9
Kaitlin A G Reeh, Kim T Cardenas, Virginia E Bain, Zhijie Liu, Micheline Laurent, Nancy R Manley, Ellen R Richie
The thymus and parathyroid glands arise from a shared endodermal primordium in the third pharyngeal pouch (3rd pp). Thymus fate is specified in the ventral 3rd pp between E9.5 and E11, whereas parathyroid fate is specified in the dorsal domain. The molecular mechanisms that specify fate and regulate thymus and parathyroid development are not fully delineated. Previous reports suggested that Tbx1 is required for thymus organogenesis because loss of Tbx1 in individuals with DiGeorge syndrome and in experimental Tbx1 deletion mutants is associated with thymus aplasia or hypoplasia...
August 2014: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24823460/autosomal-dominant-hypoparathyroidism-caused-by-germline-mutation-in-gna11-phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization
#10
Dong Li, Evan E Opas, Florin Tuluc, Daniel L Metzger, Cuiping Hou, Hakon Hakonarson, Michael A Levine
CONTEXT: Most cases of autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism (ADH) are caused by gain-of-function mutations in CASR or dominant inhibitor mutations in GCM2 or PTH. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to identify the genetic basis for ADH in a multigenerational family and define the underlying disease mechanism. SUBJECTS: Here we evaluated a multigenerational family with ADH in which affected subjects had normal sequences in these genes and were shorter than unaffected family members...
September 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24736975/generation-of-mice-encoding-a-conditional-null-allele-of-gcm2
#11
Ziqiang Yuan, Evan E Opas, Chakravarthy Vrikshajanani, Steven K Libutti, Michael A Levine
Glial cells missing homolog 2 (GCM2) is a transcription factor that is expressed predominately in the pharyngeal pouches and, at later stages, in the developing and mature parathyroid glands. In humans, loss of GCM2 function, either through recessive apomorphic mutations or dominant inhibitor mutations in the human GCM2 gene, leads to isolated hypoparathyroidism. In mice, homozygous disruption of Gcm2 by conventional gene targeting results in parathyroid aplasia and hypoparathyroidism. In this study, we report the generation and functional characterization of mice encoding a conditional null allele of Gcm2...
August 2014: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24140714/calcium-regulates-fgf-23-expression-in-bone
#12
Valentin David, Bing Dai, Aline Martin, Jinsong Huang, Xiaobin Han, L Darryl Quarles
Calcium has recently been shown to regulate fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), a bone-derived phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone. To better understand the regulation of FGF-23 by calcium, phosphorus, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D], and PTH, we examined FGF-23 expression under basal conditions and in response to PTH, doxercalciferol, or high-calcium diet treatment in Gcm2(-/-) and Cyp27b1(-/-) mutant mice. Gcm2(-/-) mice exhibited low serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia, whereas Cyp27b1(-/-) mice had high PTH, undetectable 1,25(OH)2D, hypocalcemia, and hypophosphatemia...
December 2013: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22082362/transcription-factors-in-parathyroid-development-lessons-from-hypoparathyroid-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Irina V Grigorieva, Rajesh V Thakker
Parathyroid developmental anomalies, which result in hypoparathyroidism, are common and may occur in one in 4,000 live births. Parathyroids, in man, develop from the endodermal cells of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, whereas, in the mouse they develop solely from the endoderm of the third pharyngeal pouches. In addition, neural crest cells that arise from the embryonic mid- and hindbrain also contribute to parathyroid gland development. The molecular signaling pathways that are involved in determining the differentiation of the pharyngeal pouch endoderm into parathyroid cells are being elucidated by studies of patients with hypoparathyroidism and appropriate mouse models...
November 2011: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22057081/modulation-of-bmp4-signalling-in-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-interactions-that-take-place-in-early-thymus-and-parathyroid-development-in-avian-embryos
#14
Hélia Neves, Elisabeth Dupin, Leonor Parreira, Nicole M Le Douarin
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are crucial for the development of the endoderm of the pharyngeal pouches into the epithelia of thymus and parathyroid glands. Here we investigated the dynamics of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that take place at the earliest stages of thymic and parathyroid organogenesis using the quail-chick model together with a co-culture system capable of reproducing these early events in vitro. The presumptive territories of thymus and parathyroid epithelia were identified in three-dimensionally preserved pharyngeal endoderm of embryonic day 4...
January 15, 2012: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21858216/acquisition-of-glial-cells-missing-2-enhancers-contributes-to-a-diversity-of-ionocytes-in-zebrafish
#15
Takanori Shono, Daisuke Kurokawa, Tsutomu Miyake, Masataka Okabe
Glial cells missing 2 (gcm2) encoding a GCM-motif transcription factor is expressed in the parathyroid in amniotes. In contrast, gcm2 is expressed in pharyngeal pouches (a homologous site of the parathyroid), gills, and H(+)-ATPase-rich cells (HRCs), a subset of ionocytes on the skin surface of the teleost fish zebrafish. Ionocytes are specialized cells that are involved in osmotic homeostasis in aquatic vertebrates. Here, we showed that gcm2 is essential for the development of HRCs and Na(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter-rich cells (NCCCs), another subset of ionocytes in zebrafish...
2011: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21797755/directed-trans-differentiation-of-thymus-cells-into-parathyroid-like-cells-without-genetic-manipulation
#16
Kathleen M Woods Ignatoski, Evangeline L Bingham, Lauren K Frome, Gerard M Doherty
Replacement of a diseased organ with an autologously derived tissue is an ideal therapy for some medical problems. However, it is difficult to recreate many adult human tissues in vitro due to the functionally necessary architecture of most organs and the lack of understanding of methods to direct the development of the organ of interest. The parathyroid gland is ideal for in vitro organ development because this gland is relatively simple, is transplantable, and is commonly affected by a surgical complication rather than an autoimmune disease...
November 2011: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21713993/mafb-interacts-with-gcm2-and-regulates-parathyroid-hormone-expression-and-parathyroid-development
#17
Akiyo Kamitani-Kawamoto, Michito Hamada, Takashi Moriguchi, Masashi Miyai, Fumie Saji, Ikuji Hatamura, Keizo Nishikawa, Hiroshi Takayanagi, Seiji Hitoshi, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Toshihiko Hosoya, Yoshiki Hotta, Satoru Takahashi, Kohsuke Kataoka
Serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis is critically regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) secreted by the parathyroid glands. Parathyroid glands develop from the bilateral parathyroid-thymus common primordia. In mice, the expression of transcription factor Glial cell missing 2 (Gcm2) begins in the dorsal/anterior part of the primordium on embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5), specifying the parathyroid domain. The parathyroid primordium then separates from the thymus primordium and migrates to its adult location beside the thyroid gland by E15...
October 2011: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21393447/regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-5-is-highly-expressed-in-parathyroid-tumors-and-inhibits-signaling-by-the-calcium-sensing-receptor
#18
James Koh, Moahad Dar, Brian R Untch, Darshana Dixit, Yuhong Shi, Zhao Yang, Mohamed Abdelgadir Adam, Holly Dressman, Xiaojuan Wang, Diane Gesty-Palmer, Jeffrey R Marks, Robert Spurney, Kirk M Druey, John A Olson
The molecular mechanisms responsible for aberrant calcium signaling in parathyroid disease are poorly understood. The loss of appropriate calcium-responsive modulation of PTH secretion observed in parathyroid disease is commonly attributed to decreased expression of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G protein-coupled receptor. However, CaSR expression is highly variable in parathyroid adenomas, and the lack of correlation between CaSR abundance and calcium-responsive PTH kinetics indicates that mechanisms independent of CaSR expression may contribute to aberrant calcium sensing in parathyroid disease...
May 2011: Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21349263/shh-signalling-restricts-the-expression-of-gcm2-and-controls-the-position-of-the-developing-parathyroids
#19
Armelle Grevellec, Anthony Graham, Abigail S Tucker
The parathyroid glands originate from the endoderm of the caudal pharyngeal pouches. How these parathyroids are restricted to developing in the caudal pouches is unclear. In this paper we investigate the role of Shh signalling in patterning the vertebrate pharyngeal pouches, and show that Hh signalling may be involved in restricting the expression of the parathyroid marker Gcm2 in the pharyngeal epithelium. In the chick and mouse, Shh signalling is excluded or highly reduced in the posterior/caudal pouches, where the parathyroid marker Gcm2 is expressed, while remaining at high levels in the more anterior pouches...
May 15, 2011: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21203493/thymus-associated-parathyroid-hormone-has-two-cellular-origins-with-distinct-endocrine-and-immunological-functions
#20
Zhijie Liu, Alison Farley, Lizhen Chen, Beth J Kirby, Christopher S Kovacs, C Clare Blackburn, Nancy R Manley
In mammals, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a key regulator of extracellular calcium and inorganic phosphorus homeostasis. Although the parathyroid glands were thought to be the only source of PTH, extra-parathyroid PTH production in the thymus, which shares a common origin with parathyroids during organogenesis, has been proposed to provide an auxiliary source of PTH, resulting in a higher than expected survival rate for aparathyroid Gcm2⁻/⁻ mutants. However, the developmental ontogeny and cellular identity of these "thymic" PTH-expressing cells is unknown...
2010: PLoS Genetics
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