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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734946/impaired-rhodopsin-generation-in-the-rat-model-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#1
Volha V Malechka, Gennadiy Moiseyev, Yusuke Takahashi, Younghwa Shin, Jian-Xing Ma
Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients experience functional deficits in dark adaptation, contrast sensitivity, and color perception before microvascular pathologies become apparent. Here, we evaluated early changes in neural retinal function and in retinoid metabolism in the eye in diabetes. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed decreased a-wave and b-wave amplitudes of scotopic and photopic electroretinography responses four months after diabetes induction compared to nondiabetic controls...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733999/retinyl-propionate-and-climbazole-combination-demonstrates-clinical-improvement-to-the-appearance-of-hyperpigmentation-and-deep-wrinkling-with-minimal-irritation
#2
Stacy Hawkins, Jean Adamus, Chung-Yi Chiang, Edwin Covell, Jaime O'Leary, Jian-Ming Lee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a combination of retinyl propionate and climbazole (RPC) compared to 0.1% retinol for its efficacy, tolerance and aging appearance. METHOD: Forty-five healthy Caucasian females, ages 40-70, with moderately photodamaged facial skin, were recruited for a 16 week randomized, double-blind, IRB approved facial study. The efficacy of RPC treatment was compared to 0.1% retinol, in the same product base formulation, with twice daily, split-face product application...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733465/the-retinol-binding-protein-receptor-stra6-regulates-diurnal-insulin-responses
#3
Christy M Gliniak, J Mark Brown, Noa Noy
It has long been appreciated that insulin action is closely tied to circadian rhythms. However, mechanisms that dictate diurnal insulin sensitivity in metabolic tissues are not well understood. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been implicated as a driver of insulin resistance in rodents and humans, and has become an attractive drug target in type 2 diabetes. RBP4 is synthesized primarily in the liver where it binds retinol and transports it to tissues throughout the body. The retinol-RBP4 complex (holo-RBP) can be recognized by a cell surface receptor known as stimulated by retinoic acid 6 (STRA6) which transports retinol into cells...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732729/crystal-structures-of-an-atypical-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-having-bidirectional-oxidizing-and-reducing-activities
#4
Kyoungho Jung, Seung-Hye Hong, Ho-Phuong-Thuy Ngo, Thien-Hoang Ho, Yeh-Jin Ahn, Deok-Kun Oh, Lin-Woo Kang
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are NAD(P)(+)-dependent oxidoreductases that catalyze the oxidation of a variety of aldehydes to their acid forms. In this study, we determined the crystal structures of ALDH from Bacillus cereus (BcALDH), alone, and in complex with NAD(+) and NADP(+). This enzyme can oxidize all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinoic acid using either NAD(+) or NADP(+) with equal efficiency, and atypically, as a minor activity, can reduce all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol using NADPH. BcALDH accommodated the additional 2'-phosphate of NADP(+) by expanding the cofactor-binding pocket and upshifting the AMP moiety in NADP(+)...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730424/possible-immunomodulating-effect-of-retinol-on-cytokines-secretion-in-patients-with-recurrent-furunculosis
#5
Danuta Nowicka, Ewelina Grywalska, Anna Hymos, Michał Mielnik, Jacek Roliński
Recurrent furunculosis is an infection of hair follicles which results in formation of abscesses. Previous studies showed that the pathogenesis of the disease may include an immune-mediated component as the proliferative response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to staphylococcal antigen is depressed. The aim of our study was to evaluate cytokines concentration in the plasma of patients with recurrent furunculosis and to determine whether retinol affects the secretion of those cytokines in patients with recurrent furunculosis and healthy subjects...
July 20, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727775/adolescent-health-in-rural-ghana-a-cross-sectional-study-on-the-co-occurrence-of-infectious-diseases-malnutrition-and-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors
#6
Marie Alicke, Justice K Boakye-Appiah, Inusah Abdul-Jalil, Andrea Henze, Markus van der Giet, Matthias B Schulze, Florian J Schweigert, Frank P Mockenhaupt, George Bedu-Addo, Ina Danquah
In sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diseases and malnutrition constitute the main health problems in children, while adolescents and adults are increasingly facing cardio-metabolic conditions. Among adolescents as the largest population group in this region, we investigated the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors (CRFs), and evaluated demographic, socio-economic and medical risk factors for these entities. In a cross-sectional study among 188 adolescents in rural Ghana, malarial infection, common infectious diseases and Body Mass Index were assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720593/vitamin-a-endocrine-tissues-and-hormones-interplay-and-interactions
#7
Julie Brossaud, Veronique Pallet, Jean-Benoit Corcuff
Vitamin A (retinol) is a micronutrient critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. In adults, vitamin A and metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA) play major roles in vision, immune and brain functions, and tissue remodelling and metabolism. This review presents the physiological interactions of retinoids and endocrine tissues and hormonal systems. Two endocrine systems have been particularly studied. In the pituitary, retinoids targets the corticotrophs with a possible therapeutic use in corticotropinomas...
July 18, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718514/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1-a1-regulates-energy-metabolism-in-adipocytes-from-different-species
#8
Kefeng Yang, Christopher Adin, Qiwen Shen, Ly James Lee, Lianbo Yu, Paolo Fadda, Arpad Samogyi, Kathleen Ham, Lu Xu, Chen Gilor, Ouliana Ziouzenkova
BACKGROUND: Survival and longevity of xenotransplants depend on immune function and ability to integrate energy metabolism between cells from different species. However, mechanisms for interspecies cross talk in energy metabolism are not well understood. White adipose tissue stores energy and is capable of mobilization and dissipation of energy as heat (thermogenesis) by adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Both pathways are under the control of vitamin A metabolizing enzymes...
July 17, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715808/retinoic-acid-facilitates-toll-like-receptor-4-expression-to-improve-intestinal-barrier-function-through-retinoic-acid-receptor-beta
#9
Yingying Li, Yuan Gao, Ting Cui, Ting Yang, Lan Liu, Tingyu Li, Jie Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vitamin A (VA) protects the intestinal epithelial barrier by improving cell migration and proliferation. Our previous studies demonstrated that VA deficiency (VAD) during pregnancy suppresses the systemic and mucosal immune responses in the intestines of offspring and that VA supplementation (VAS) during early life can increase immune cell counts. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which VA regulates intestinal epithelial barrier function. METHODS: Caco-2 cells were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 24 hours to determine the optimum ATRA concentration to which the cells in question respond...
July 17, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713076/prospective-relation-of-circulating-adipokines-to-incident-metabolic-syndrome-the-framingham-heart-study
#10
Justin P Zachariah, Rene Quiroz, Kerrie P Nelson, Zhaoyang Teng, John F Keaney, Lisa M Sullivan, Ramachandran S Vasan
BACKGROUND: Adipokines are elaborated by adipose tissue and are associated with glycemic, lipid, and vascular traits. We hypothesized that in a cross-sectional analysis circulating adipokines are altered among subsets of obesity stratified by presence versus absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prospectively predict the incidence of MetS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants in the community-based Framingham Third Generation Cohort who attended examination cycle 1 were included in the study (2002-2005; N=3777, mean age, 40 years; 59% women)...
July 16, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713075/association-of-parental-obesity-and-diabetes-mellitus-with-circulating-adipokines-in-nonobese-nondiabetic-offspring
#11
Justin P Zachariah, Rene Quiroz, Danielle Enserro, Charlotte Andersson, John F Keaney, Lisa M Sullivan, Ramachandran S Vasan
BACKGROUND: Adipokines are implicated in the development of obesity-related traits. We hypothesized that nonobese participants without diabetes mellitus (DM) whose parents were obese or had DM would have altered circulating adipokines compared with those without parental history of these conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants in the community-based Framingham Third Generation cohort who were not obese (body mass index <30) and not diabetic with both parents in the Framingham Offspring cohort were included in this analysis (n=2034, mean age 40 years, 54% women)...
July 16, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707553/ziram-inhibits-rat-neurosteroidogenic-5%C3%AE-reductase-1-and-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase
#12
Ying Su, Huitao Li, Xiaomin Chen, Yiyan Wang, Xiaoheng Li, Jianliang Sun, Ren-Shan Ge
The neurotoxicity of ziram is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the direct inhibitions of ziram on rat neurosteroid synthetic and metabolizing enzymes, 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1), 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C14), and retinol dehydrogenase 2 (RDH2). Rat SRD5A1, AKR1C14, and RDH2 were cloned and transiently expressed in COS1 cells, and the effects of ziram on these enzymes were measured. Ziram inhibited rat SRD5A1 and AKR1C14 with IC50 values of 1.556 ± 0.078 and 1.017 ± 0.072 μM, respectively, when 1000 nM steroid substrates were used...
July 14, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701464/human-mitochondrial-cytochrome-p450-27c1-is-localized-in-skin-and-preferentially-desaturates-trans-retinol-to-3-4-dehydroretinol
#13
Kevin M Johnson, Thanh T N Phan, Matthew E Albertolle, F Peter Guengerich
Recently zebrafish and human cytochrome P450 (P450) 27C1 enzymes have been shown to be retinoid 3,4-desaturases. The enzyme is unusual among mammalian P450s in that the predominant oxidation is a desaturation and that hydroxylation represents only a minor pathway. We show by proteomic analysis that P450 27C1 is localized to human skin, with two proteins of different sizes present, one being a cleavage product of the full-length form. P450 27C1 oxidized alltrans-retinol to 3,4-dehydroretinol, 4-hydroxy (OH) retinol, and 3-OH retinol in a 100:3:2 ratio...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701388/should-we-restrict-vitamin-a-intake-a-minor-contributor-to-plasma-retinol-turnover-when-using-retinol-isotope-dilution-equations-to-estimate-an-individual-s-vitamin-a-status-or-should-vitamin-a-balance-be-maintained
#14
Jennifer Lynn Ford, Joanne Balmer Green, Michael H Green
We discuss whether dietary vitamin A intake should be restricted or maintained at balance when retinol isotope dilution equations are applied to estimate an individual's vitamin A total body stores (TBS) after oral administration of a labeled dose of vitamin A. Although, at first glance, restriction makes sense as a way to prevent dilution of tracer in plasma, further investigation of the assumptions underlying the widely used isotope dilution equation presented by Olson's laboratory in 1989, as well as the compartmental modeling results presented in this article, indicate that, in fact, restriction leads to an incorrect prediction of TBS if steady state retinol isotope dilution equations are applied at the traditional time (21 d)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694687/efficacy-and-safety-of-retinol-palmitate-ophthalmic-solution-in-the-treatment-of-dry-eye-a-japanese-phase-ii-clinical-trial
#15
Hiroshi Toshida, Toshinari Funaki, Koichi Ono, Nobuhito Tabuchi, Sota Watanabe, Tamotsu Seki, Hiroshi Otake, Takuji Kato, Nobuyuki Ebihara, Akira Murakami
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the administration of retinol palmitate (VApal) ophthalmic solution (500 IU/mL) for the treatment of patients with dry eye. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 66 patients with dry eye. After a 2-week washout period, patients were randomized (1:1) into either a VApal ophthalmic solution or a placebo group, and a single drop of either solution was administered six times daily for 4 weeks...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689994/rbp4-stra6-pathway-drives-cancer-stem-cell-maintenance-and-mediates-high-fat-diet-induced-colon-carcinogenesis
#16
Sheelarani Karunanithi, Liraz Levi, Jennifer DeVecchio, George Karagkounis, Ofer Reizes, Justin D Lathia, Matthew F Kalady, Noa Noy
The transmembrane protein, STRA6, functions as a vitamin A transporter and a cytokine receptor when activated by vitamin A-bound serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4). STRA6 activation transduces a JAK2-STAT3 signaling cascade and promotes tumorigenesis in a xenograft mouse model of colon cancer. We show here that RBP4 and STRA6 expression is associated with poor oncologic prognosis. Downregulating STRA6 or RBP4 in colon cancer cells decreased the fraction of cancer stem cells and their sphere and tumor initiation frequency...
July 3, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689802/comparison-of-phenotypic-and-global-gene-expression-changes-in-xenopus-tropicalis-embryos-induced-by-agonists-of-rar-and-rxr
#17
Jingmin Zhu, Lingling Hu, Lingyun Li, Xiao Huang, Huahong Shi
Retinoic acid functions through two classes of receptors, i.e., the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR). The difference in the role between RAR and RXR, however, are not well clarified. In the present study, we comparatively investigated the phenotypic and global gene expression changes in Xenopus tropicalis embryos induced by three different agonists, including a RAR selective ligand (all-trans retinoic acid, at-RA), a RXR selective ligand (fluorobexarotene, FBA) and their common ligand (9-cis retinoic acid, 9c-RA)...
July 6, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688921/plasma-retinol-concentration-is-mainly-driven-by-transthyretin-in-hemodialysis-patients
#18
Stanislas Bataille, Jean-François Landrier, Julien Astier, Sylvie Cado, Jérôme Sallette, Marianne Serveaux, Stéphane Burtey, Julien Cohen, Charlène Tournier, Franck Tourniaire, Patrice Darmon
OBJECTIVE: Micronutrients deficiencies in hemodialysis patients are due to low dietary intakes and intradialytic losses for hydrophilic micronutrients. Conversely, lipophilic nondialyzable compounds might accumulate because of a lack of elimination through renal metabolism or dialysis. Other compounds have complex metabolism: their concentration is not explained by these phenomenons. The aim of this study was to report plasma concentrations of lipophilic micronutrients in hemodialysis patients and to analyze if these concentrations were predictive of mortality...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688110/rapid-determination-of-lipophilic-vitamins-in-human-serum-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-using-a-fluorinated-column-and-high-throughput-miniaturized-liquid-liquid-extraction
#19
Barbora Cervinkova, Lenka Kujovska Krcmova, Sava Klabackova, Dagmar Solichova, Petr Solich
A high-throughput miniaturized liquid-liquid extraction procedure followed by a simple ultra high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with fluorescence detection for bioanalytical analysis of all tocopherol isomers and retinol in human serum has been developed and validated. In extraction procedure, a synthetic internal standard tocol was used, which does not occur in the human body. The separation of structurally related vitamins was achieved using a new generation of pentafluorophenyl propyl core-shell stationary phase with elution using methanol and an aqueous solution of ammonium acetate...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687611/vitamin-a-regulates-akt-signaling-through-the-phospholipid-fatty-acid-composition
#20
Helmut Pein, Solveigh C Koeberle, Maria Voelkel, Freya Schneider, Antonietta Rossi, Maria Thürmer, Konstantin Loeser, Lidia Sautebin, Helen Morrison, Oliver Werz, Andreas Koeberle
Protein kinases, including the serine/threonine kinase Akt, mediate manifold bioactivities of vitamin A, although the mechanisms behind the sustained kinase activation are diffuse. To investigate the role of cellular lipids as targetable factors in Akt signaling, we combined mass spectrometry-based lipidomics with immunologic detection of Akt (Ser473) phosphorylation. A screening campaign revealed retinol (vitamin A alcohol) and all-trans retinoic acid (vitamin A acid) (RA) as hits that time-dependently (≥24 h) deplete phosphatidylcholine-bound polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-PCs) from NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblasts while inducing Akt activation (EC50 ≈ 0...
July 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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