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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155136/adipose-tissue-and-reproductive-health
#1
REVIEW
Hannah Mathew, V Daniel Castracane, Christos Mantzoros
The understanding of adipose tissue role has evolved from that of a depot energy storage organ to a dynamic endocrine organ. While genetics, sexual phenotype and sex steroids can impact the mass and distribution of adipose tissue, there is a counter-influence of white adipocytes on reproduction. This primarily occurs via the secretion of adipokines, the most studied of which- leptin and adiponectin- are highlighted in this article. Leptin, the "satiety hormone" primarily acts on the hypothalamus via pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) NPY neurons to translate acute changes in nutrition and energy expenditure, as well as chronic adipose accumulation into changes in appetite and potentially mediate insulin resistance via shared pathway and notably impacting reproductive health via influence on GnRH secreting neurons...
November 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150947/levels-of-serum-retinol-binding-protein-4-before-and-after-non-surgical-periodontal-treatment-in-lean-and-obese-subjects-an-interventional-study
#2
Mayte Martínez-Herrera, Francisco Javier Silvestre, Javier Silvestre-Rangil, Sandra López-Domènech, Celia Bañuls, Milagros Rocha
AIM: We aimed to evaluate serum RBP4 levels before and after periodontal therapy in lean and obese subjects with chronic periodontitis (CP) in order to determine its possible association with periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an interventional study for which a total of 112 lean and 119 obese subjects were recruited. Patients with CP were evaluated before and after three months of non-surgical periodontal treatment. Periodontal, anthropometric, biochemical parameters and serum levels of TNFα, IL-6, hsCRP and RBP4 were assessed...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140274/an-efficient-approach-for-lipase-catalyzed-synthesis-of-retinyl-laurate-nutraceutical-by-combining-ultrasound-assistance-and-artificial-neural-network-optimization
#3
Shang-Ming Huang, Hsin-Ju Li, Yung-Chuan Liu, Chia-Hung Kuo, Chwen-Jen Shieh
Although retinol is an important nutrient, retinol is highly sensitive to oxidation. At present, some ester forms of retinol are generally used in nutritional supplements because of its stability and bioavailability. However, such esters are commonly synthesized by chemical procedures which are harmful to the environment. Thus, this study utilized a green method using lipase as a catalyst with sonication assistance to produce a retinol derivative named retinyl laurate. Moreover, the process was optimized by an artificial neural network (ANN)...
November 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131337/effect-of-farming-system-on-donkey-milk-composition
#4
Emanuela Valle, Luisa Pozzo, Marzia Giribaldi, Domenico Bergero, Maria Silvia Gennero, Daniela Dezzutto, Amy McLean, Giorgio Borreani, Mauro Coppa, Laura Cavallarin
BACKGROUND: Donkey milk is considered a functional food for sensitive consumers, such as children allergic to cow milk. No information is available regarding the effect of farming systems on the quality of donkey milk. The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the farming system and lactation stage on gross composition, fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids (FA) in donkey milk. RESULTS: Individual milk samples were collected from lactating jennies (n=53) on the six of the largest farms located in North West Italy...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125179/the-impact-of-sociodemography-diet-and-body-size-on-serum-retinol-in-women-16-35-years-of-age-sanhanes-1
#5
Whadi-Ah Parker, Zandile J Mchiza, Ronel Sewpaul, Nophiwe Job, Lumbwe Chola, Moses Sithole, Demetre Labadarios
To determine the current vitamin A status of a nationally representative sample of women aged 16-35 years, compare it with previous national data, and determine the impact of sociodemography, diet, and body size on vitamin A status, we performed secondary analysis of data on South African women who participated in the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1). Vitamin A status was assessed by serum retinol, and the findings are reported as means and prevalences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals...
November 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122693/vitamin-a-improves-the-symptoms-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-decreases-5-hydroxytryptamine-5-ht-a-pilot-study
#6
Min Guo, Jiang Zhu, Ting Yang, Xi Lai, Xiao Liu, Juan Liu, Jie Chen, Tingyu Li
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complicated neurodevelopmental disorders. Many studies have demonstrated that children with autism have multiple nutritional deficiencies and increased serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels. In our previous study, 77.9% of autistic children were found to have vitamin A deficiency, and the concentration of vitamin A was negatively associated with the CARS score. In the present study, we sought to test whether vitamin A supplementation could improve autistic symptoms and decrease serum 5-HT levels...
November 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120992/lower-eyelid-retraction-associated-with-topical-retinol-use
#7
LETTER
Kathryn P Winkler, Evan H Black, Javier Servat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120147/the-association-between-retinol-binding-protein-4-and-cardiovascular-risk-score-is-mediated-by-waist-circumference-in-overweight-obese-adolescent-girls
#8
Aleksandra Klisić, Nebojša Kavarić, Bojko Bjelaković, Ivan Soldatović, Milica Martinović, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević
Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an emerging risk factor for atherosclerotic disease in adults. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies examining the relationship between RBP4 and cardiovascular risk in young population. Therefore, we aimed to estimate this potential relationship in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Seventy overweight/obese adolescent girls, mean age 17.6±1.20 years, were included. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. Cardiovascular risk score (CVRS) was calculated by adding points for each risk factor (e...
March 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117188/potential-of-golden-potatoes-to-improve-vitamin-a-and-vitamin-e-status-in-developing-countries
#9
Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai, Gianfranco Diretto, Bruno Parisi, Giovanni Giuliano, Mark L Failla
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the third most widely consumed plant food by humans. Its tubers are rich in starch and vitamin C, but have low or null levels of essential nutrients such as provitamin A and vitamin E. Transformation of potato with a bacterial mini-pathway for β-carotene in a tuber-specific manner results in a "golden" potato (GP) tuber phenotype resulting from accumulation of provitamin A carotenoids (α- and β-carotene) and xanthophylls. Here, we investigated the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and vitamin E as α-tocopherol (αTC) in boiled wild type and golden tubers using in vitro digestion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115374/metabolic-profiles-of-adipose-derived-and-bone-marrow-derived-stromal-cells-from-elderly-coronary-heart-disease-patients-by-capillary-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#10
Jian-Zhong Li, Hui Qu, Jian Wu, Fan Zhang, Zhi-Bo Jia, Jian-Yong Sun, Bo Lv, Yue Kang, Shu-Lin Jiang, Kai Kang
Adipose-tissue derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC)-based therapy is a promising option for patients with atherosclerotic conditions, including coronary artery disease. However, the potential differences in the metabolic characteristics between bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and ADSCs have remained to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to compare the metabolic profiles of BMSCs and ADSCs via liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. BMSCs and ADSCs obtained from elderly coronary heart disease patients were cultured, and after three passages, supernatants of each cell type were collected and systematically analysed...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112449/an-average-solvent-electrostatic-configuration-protocol-for-qm-mm-free-energy-optimization-implementation-and-application-to-rhodopsin-systems
#11
Yoelvis Orozco-Gonzalez, Madushanka Manathunga, María Del Carmen Marín, Damianos Agathangelou, Kwang-Hwan Jung, Federico Melaccio, Nicolas Ferré, Stefan Haacke, Kaline Coutinho, Sylvio Canuto, Massimo Olivucci
A novel atomistic methodology to perform free energy geometry optimization of a retinal chromophore covalently bound to any rhodopsin-like protein cavity is presented and benchmarked by computing the absorption maxima wavelengths (λmax) of distant rhodopsin systems. The optimization is achieved by computing the Nagaoka's Free Energy Gradient (FEG) within an Average Solvent Electrostatic Configuration (ASEC) atomistic representation of the thermodynamic equilibrium and minimizing such quantity via an iterative procedure based on sequential classical MD and constrained QM/MM geometry optimization steps...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109151/peropsin-modulates-transit-of-vitamin-a-from-retina-to-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#12
Jeremy D Cook, Sze Yin Ng, Marcia Lloyd, Shannon Eddington, Hui Sun, Jeremy Nathans, Dean Bok, Roxana A Radu, Gabriel H Travis
Peropsin is a nonvisual opsin in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. In mammals, peropsin is present in the apical microvilli of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. These structures interdigitate with the outer segments (OS) of rod and cone photoreceptor cells. RPE cells play critical roles in the maintenance of photoreceptors, including the recycling of visual chromophore for the opsin visual pigments. Here, we sought to identify the function of peropsin in the mouse eye. To this end, we generated mice with a null mutation in the peropsin gene (Rrh)...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106966/single-step-preparation-of-selected-biological-fluids-for-the-high-performance-liquid-chromatographic-analysis-of-fat-soluble-vitamins-and-antioxidants
#13
Giacomo Lazzarino, Salvatore Longo, Angela Maria Amorini, Valentina Di Pietro, Serafina D'Urso, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Antonio Belli, Barbara Tavazzi
Fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants are of relevance in health and disease. Current methods to extract these compounds from biological fluids mainly need use of multi-steps and multi organic solvents. They are time-consuming and difficult to apply to treat simultaneously large sample number. We here describe a single-step, one solvent extraction of fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants from biological fluids, and the chromatographic separation of all-trans-retinoic acid, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, all-trans-retinol, astaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, trans-β-apo-8'-carotenal, γ-tocopherol, β-cryptoxanthin, α-tocopherol, phylloquinone, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene and coenzyme Q10...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095919/raldh1-promotes-adiposity-during-adolescence-independently-of-retinal-signaling
#14
Di Yang, Charles R Krois, Priscilla Huang, Jinshan Wang, Jin Min, Hong Sik Yoo, Yinghua Deng, Joseph L Napoli
All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) inhibits adipogenesis in established preadipocyte cell lines. Dosing pharmacological amounts of RA reduces weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet, i.e. counteracts diet-induced obesity (DIO). The aldehyde dehydrogenase Raldh1 (Aldh1a1) functions as one of three enzymes that converts the retinol metabolite retinal into RA, and one of many proteins that contribute to RA homeostasis. Female Raldh1-ablated mice resist DIO. This phenotype contrasts with ablations of other enzymes and binding-proteins that maintain RA homeostasis, which gain adiposity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094729/chinese-herbal-formula-fuzheng-huayu-alleviates-ccl4-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-rats-a-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-analysis
#15
Shu Dong, Fei-Fei Cai, Qi-Long Chen, Ya-Nan Song, Yang Sun, Bin Wei, Xiao-Yan Li, Yi-Yang Hu, Ping Liu, Shi-Bing Su
Liver fibrosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease that can progress to liver cirrhosis or even hepatocarcinoma. Fuzheng Huayu (FZHY), a Chinese herbal formula, has been shown to exert anti-fibrotic effects. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-fibrotic effects of FZHY, we analyzed transcriptomic and proteomic combination profiles in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats, which were treated with extracted FZHY powder (0.35 g/kg/d, ig) for 3 weeks. We showed that FZHY administration significantly improved liver function, alleviated hepatic inflammatory and fibrotic changes, and decreased the hydroxyproline content in the livers of CCl4-treated rats...
November 2, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092879/eggs-early-in-complementary-feeding-increase-choline-pathway-biomarkers-and-dha-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-ecuador
#16
Lora L Iannotti, Chessa K Lutter, William F Waters, Carlos Andres Gallegos Riofrío, Carla Malo, Gregory Reinhart, Ana Palacios, Celia Karp, Melissa Chapnick, Katherine Cox, Santiago Aguirre, Luis Narvaez, Fernando López, Rohini Sidhu, Pamela Kell, Xuntian Jiang, Hideji Fujiwara, Daniel S Ory, Rebecca Young, Christine P Stewart
Background: Choline status has been associated with stunting among young children. Findings from this study showed that an egg intervention improved linear growth by a length-for-age z score of 0.63.Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of eggs introduced early in complementary feeding on plasma concentrations of biomarkers in choline pathways, vitamins B-12 and A, and essential fatty acids.Design: A randomized controlled trial, the Lulun ("egg" in Kichwa) Project, was conducted in a rural indigenous population of Ecuador...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092075/corrigendum-for-elevated-retinol-binding-protein-4-induces-apolipoprotein-b-production-and-associates-with-hypertriglyceridemia
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077207/a-plug-n-play-modular-metabolic-system-for-the-production-of-apocarotenoids
#18
Congqiang Zhang, Xixian Chen, Nic D Lindley, Heng-Phon Too
Apocarotenoids, such as α-, β-ionone and retinol, have high commercial values in the food and cosmetic industries. The demand for natural ingredients has been increasing dramatically in recent years. However, attempts to overproduce β-ionone in microorganisms have been limited by the complexity of the biosynthetic pathway. Here, an Escherichia coli-based modular system was developed to produce various apocarotenoids. Incorporation of enzyme engineering approaches (N-terminal truncation and protein fusion) into modular metabolic engineering strategy significantly improved α-ionone production from 0...
October 27, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073082/transcription-factor-isx-mediates-the-cross-talk-between-diet-and-immunity
#19
Made Airanthi K Widjaja-Adhi, Grzegorz Palczewski, Kali Dale, Elizabeth A Knauss, Mary E Kelly, Marcin Golczak, Alan D Levine, Johannes von Lintig
The intestinal epithelium is a major site for the conversion of dietary β-carotene to retinaldehyde by the enzyme BCO1. The majority of retinaldehyde is further metabolized to retinol (vitamin A), esterified and packaged into triacylglycerol-rich chylomicrons for bodily distribution. Some serve on-site for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone-like compound, which exerts pleiotropic and dominant effects on gastrointestinal immunity. We report here that the intestine-specific homeobox protein ISX is critical to control the metabolic flow of β-carotene through this important branching point of vitamin A metabolism...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067349/serum-concentrations-of-vitamin-e-and-carotenoids-are-altered-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-case-control-study
#20
Kathryn Mullan, Michael A Williams, Chris R Cardwell, Bernadette McGuinness, Peter Passmore, Giuliana Silvestri, Jayne V Woodside, Gareth J McKay
INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated associations between serum levels of lipophilic antioxidants and AD. METHODS: Serum concentrations of retinol, two forms of vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol) and six carotenoids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography from patients with AD (n = 251) and cognitively intact controls (n = 308) and assessed by regression analyses...
September 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
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