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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232684/beyond-autism-introducing-the-dialectical-misattunement-hypothesis-and-a-bayesian-account-of-intersubjectivity
#1
Dimitris Bolis, Joshua Balsters, Nicole Wenderoth, Cristina Becchio, Leonhard Schilbach
Drawing on sociocultural theories and Bayesian accounts of brain function, in this article we construe psychiatric conditions as disorders of social interaction to fully account for their complexity and dynamicity across levels of description and temporal scales. After an introduction of the theoretical underpinnings of our integrative approach, we take autism spectrum conditions (ASC) as a paradigm example and discuss how neurocognitive hypotheses can be translated into a Bayesian formulation, i.e., in terms of predictive processing and active inference...
December 13, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230698/mode-2-knowledge-production-in-the-context-of-medical-research-a-call-for-further-clarifications
#2
Hojjat Soofi
The traditional researcher-driven environment of medical knowledge production is losing its dominance with the expansion of, for instance, community-based participatory or participant-led medical research. Over the past few decades, sociologists of science have debated a shift in the production of knowledge from traditional discipline-based (Mode 1) to more socially embedded and transdisciplinary frameworks (Mode 2). Recently, scholars have tried to show the relevance of Mode 2 knowledge production to medical research...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230674/diet-and-activity-patterns-of-arsi-geladas-in-low-elevation-disturbed-habitat-south-of-the-rift-valley-at-indetu-ethiopia
#3
Kelil Abu, Addisu Mekonnen, Afework Bekele, Peter J Fashing
Understanding the basic natural history of threatened primate taxa is crucial to developing and implementing successful conservation strategies for them. Data on feeding ecology and activity patterns are particularly important for identifying the strategies through which primates invest time and foraging effort towards survival and reproduction at a given locale. Here, we report the results of the first study of the diet and activity budget of Arsi geladas, a population of < 1000 individuals endemic to a heavily disturbed region of the southern Ethiopian Highlands and believed to represent a new taxon of geladas...
December 11, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230515/-competence-based-assessment-in-the-national-licensing-examination-in-germany
#4
REVIEW
Jana Jünger
In Germany, future physicians have to pass a national licensing examination at the end of their medical studies. Passing this examination is the requirement for the license to practice medicine. The Masterplan Medizinstudium 2020 with its 41 measures aims to shift the paradigm in medical education and medical licensing examinations.The main goals of the Masterplan include the development towards competency-based and practical medical education and examination as well as the strengthening of general medicine...
December 11, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229847/population-is-the-main-driver-of-war-group-size-and-conflict-casualties
#5
Rahul C Oka, Marc Kissel, Mark Golitko, Susan Guise Sheridan, Nam C Kim, Agustín Fuentes
The proportions of individuals involved in intergroup coalitional conflict, measured by war group size (W), conflict casualties (C), and overall group conflict deaths (G), have declined with respect to growing populations, implying that states are less violent than small-scale societies. We argue that these trends are better explained by scaling laws shared by both past and contemporary societies regardless of social organization, where group population (P) directly determines W and indirectly determines C and G...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228961/does-the-edge-effect-impact-on-the-measure-of-spatial-accessibility-to-healthcare-providers
#6
Fei Gao, Wahida Kihal, Nolwenn Le Meur, Marc Souris, Séverine Deguen
BACKGROUND: Spatial accessibility indices are increasingly applied when investigating inequalities in health. Although most studies are making mentions of potential errors caused by the edge effect, many acknowledge having neglected to consider this concern by establishing spatial analyses within a finite region, settling for hypothesizing that accessibility to facilities will be under-reported. Our study seeks to assess the effect of edge on the accuracy of defining healthcare provider access by comparing healthcare provider accessibility accounting or not for the edge effect, in a real-world application...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228917/evaluation-of-the-economic-burden-of-leprosy-among-migrant-and-resident-patients-in-guangdong-province-china
#7
Mingzhou Xiong, Ming Li, Daocheng Zheng, Xiaohua Wang, Ting Su, Yongfeng Chen, Bin Yang
BACKGROUND: A lot of time and money was needed during the diagnosis and treatment process of leprosy, the delayed leprosy would also impair the labor capability of patients as well, and these put a heavy burden for the leprosy patients. The migrant leprosy patient is a special group and need more concern. Our goal was to assess the economic burden of leprosy on migrant and resident patient populations in Guangdong province, China. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey from February to July of 2016...
December 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228865/sterilization-of-those-with-intellectual-disability-evolution-from-non-consensual-interventions-to-strict-safeguards
#8
Sam Rowlands, Jean-Jacques Amy
Non-consensual sterilization is one of the characteristic historical abuses that took place mainly in the first half of the 20th century. People with intellectual disability (ID) were a prime target as part of the ideology of negative eugenics. In certain jurisdictions, laws were in force for several decades that permitted sterilization without the need for consent or with consent from third parties. The long-term adverse effects on those sterilized against their will have only more recently been recognized...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227885/neighbourhood-social-and-physical-environment-and-general-practitioner-assessed-morbidity
#9
Peter P Groenewegen, Jan-Paul Zock, Peter Spreeuwenberg, Marco Helbich, Gerard Hoek, Annemarie Ruijsbroek, Maciej Strak, Robert Verheij, Beate Volker, Geeke Waverijn, Martin Dijst
The aim of our study was to investigate the association between health enhancing and threatening, and social and physical aspects of the neighbourhood environment and general practitioner (GP) assessed morbidity of the people living there, in order to find out whether the effects of environmental characteristics add up or modify each other. We combined GP electronic health records with environmental data on neighbourhoods in the Netherlands. Cross-classified logistic multilevel models show the importance of taking into account several environmental characteristics and confounders, as social capital effects on the prevalence of morbidity disappear when other area characteristics are taken into account...
December 8, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227841/becoming-enwinded-a-new-materialist-take-on-smoking-pleasure
#10
Simone Dennis
What might new materialist perspectives bring to our understanding of smoking pleasure? In this paper, I draw on this thinking to sketch out an alternative, non-unitary smoker who is at the mercy of the whims of the breeze - a yielding I will argue is key to smoking pleasure. With these intentions in mind, rather than thinking of what the biotechnology of cigarettes accomplishes in terms of the chemical delivery of pleasure, or adding to the multiply of social and cultural reasons anthropologists have tendered to account for it, I approach smoking pleasure in and through the medium of the smoky air...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227790/interpersonal-and-intrapersonal-emotional-processes-in-individuals-treated-for-alcohol-use-disorder-and-non-addicted-healthy-individuals
#11
Maciej Kopera, Elisa M Trucco, Andrzej Jakubczyk, Hubert Suszek, Aneta Michalska, Aleksandra Majewska, Natalia Szejko, Agata Łoczewska, Aleksandra Krasowska, Anna Klimkiewicz, Kirk J Brower, Robert A Zucker, Marcin Wojnar
INTRODUCTION: Prior work largely confirms the presence of various emotional processing deficits among individuals with an alcohol use disorder (AUD); however, their specificity and relevance still warrant investigation. The aim of the current study was to compare selected aspects of emotional processing (i.e., mental state recognition, alexithymia, and emotional intelligence) between individuals treated for an AUD and healthy individuals. METHODS: The AUD sample consisted of 92 abstinent men with AUD who were participating in an 8-week inpatient abstinence-based treatment program in Warsaw, Poland...
December 5, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227584/npas4-deficiency-and-prenatal-stress-interact-to-affect-social-recognition-in-mice
#12
Kelsey Heslin, Laurence Coutellier
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia have an expansive array of reported genetic and environmental contributing factors. However, none of these factors alone can account for a substantial proportion of cases of either disorder. Instead, many gene-by-environment interactions are responsible for neurodevelopmental disturbances that lead to these disorders. The current experiment used heterozygous knock-out mice to examine a potential interaction between two factors commonly linked to neurodevelopmental disorders and cognitive deficit: imbalanced excitatory/inhibitory signaling in the cortex and prenatal stress (PNS) exposure...
December 11, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227233/examination-of-cross-sectional-associations-of-neighborhood-deprivation-and-alcohol-outlet-density-with-hazardous-drinking-using-a-twin-design
#13
Isaac C Rhew, Rick Kosterman, Glen E Duncan, Christina Mair
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and alcohol outlet density are associated with hazardous drinking using a co-twin design to control for confounding because of genetic and shared environmental factors. METHOD: The study sample included cross-sectional data from 1,996 same-sex adult twin pairs (mean age = 36.6; 65.9% female) from the Washington State Twin Registry. The Singh Index was used to characterize neighborhood social deprivation for participants' census tract of residence...
January 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226458/communicating-risk-in-dementia-care-survey-of-health-and-social-care-professionals
#14
Brian J Taylor, Mabel Stevenson, Michelle McDowell
Supporting people to live at home in line with community care policies requires increasing attention to assessing, communicating and managing risks. There is a challenge in supporting client choices that include risk-taking while demonstrating professional accountability. Risk communication becomes increasingly important with the need to engage clients and families in meaningful shared decision-making. This presents particular challenges in dementia services. This survey of risk communication in dementia care was administered to all health and social care professionals in community dementia services in Northern Ireland: June-September 2016...
December 11, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226214/the-legacy-of-slavery-and-contemporary-declines-in-heart-disease-mortality-in-the-u-s-south
#15
Michael R Kramer, Nyesha C Black, Stephen A Matthews, Sherman A James
Background: This study aims to characterize the role of county-specific legacy of slavery in patterning temporal (i.e., 1968-2014), and geographic (i.e., Southern counties) declines in heart disease mortality. In this context, the U.S. has witnessed dramatic declines in heart disease mortality since the 1960's, which have benefitted place and race groups unevenly, with slower declines in the South, especially for the Black population. Methods: Age-adjusted race- and county-specific mortality rates from 1968-2014 for all diseases of the heart were calculated for all Southern U...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225944/biopsychosocial-factors-associated-with-chronic-low-back-pain-disability-in-rural-nigeria-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#16
Chinonso Nwamaka Igwesi-Chidobe, Bolaji Coker, Chika N Onwasigwe, Isaac O Sorinola, Emma L Godfrey
Introduction: Many people in Nigeria are living with disability due to chronic low back pain (CLBP), with the greatest burden accounted for by people living in rural Nigeria. However, factors associated with disability in rural Nigeria have not yet been established. We investigated the biomechanical and psychosocial predictors of CLBP disability in a rural Nigerian population. Methods: A cross-sectional study of adults with non-specific CLBP recruited from rural communities in Enugu State, South-eastern Nigeria...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224931/transparency-about-the-outcomes-of-mental-health-services-iapt-approach-an-analysis-of-public-data
#17
David M Clark, Lauren Canvin, John Green, Richard Layard, Stephen Pilling, Magdalena Janecka
BACKGROUND: Internationally, the clinical outcomes of routine mental health services are rarely recorded or reported; however, an exception is the English Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service, which delivers psychological therapies recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for depression and anxiety disorders to more than 537 000 patients in the UK each year. A session-by-session outcome monitoring system ensures that IAPT obtains symptom scores before and after treatment for 98% of patients...
December 7, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223695/the-role-of-space-in-patients-experience-of-an-emergency-department-a-qualitative-study
#18
Margo Annemans, Chantal Van Audenhove, Hilde Vermolen, Ann Heylighen
INTRODUCTION: Nurses are increasingly involved in the design of health care facilities. Although their experience differs from that of patients, they are often expected to represent patients in design processes. Especially in the context of an emergency department, patients' states of mind alter their experiences. Knowledge about the role of space in ED patients' experience is limited. Our study aims to gain insight into this role and thus provide ED nurses with information to better represent ED patients' perspectives in design...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222683/evaluation-of-urban-transformation-areas-in-terms-of-user-satisfaction-the-case-study-of-za%C3%A4-nos-valley-trabzon-turkey
#19
Ertan Düzgüneş, Elif Saraç
Following the Industrial Revolution, rapid urbanization brought about many socio-economic, physical, and cultural problems. The concept of urban transformation has come to the fore as a solution to these emerging troubles. Especially since 1980, in Turkey, like other developing countries, the concept of urban transformation has only been evaluated as an economic standpoint ignoring the social and spatial dimensions of that area and the quality of life of people residing in the area. Therefore, the necessity of these socially accessible areas where individuals can regenerate themselves in spiritual and physical terms has increased even more...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221504/a-social-identity-analysis-of-responses-to-economic-inequality
#20
REVIEW
Jolanda Jetten, Zhechen Wang, Niklas K Steffens, Frank Mols, Kim Peters, Maykel Verkuyten
Even though there is growing awareness that economic inequality is harmful for people's health, the way that such inequality affects social behavior and political attitudes remains poorly understood. Moving beyond a focus on the health and well-being costs of income inequality, we review research that examines how economic inequality shapes dynamics between groups within societies, addressing the questions why, when, and for whom inequality affects social behavior and political attitudes. On the basis of classic social identity theorizing, we develop five hypotheses that focus on the way inequality shapes the fit of wealth categorizations (H1), intergroup relations (H2), and stereotypes about wealth groups (H3)...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
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