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Social accountability

Fátima Gonçalves Cavalcante, Luciana Ferreira Lau, Gabriella Ferrarese Barbosa, Daniela Lima Gomes Berlim, Natasha Coelho Menezes, Daniela de Carvalho Braga, Annibal Coelho de Amorim, Yuri Cavalcante Amorim
The article analyzes the impact of a documentary on the daily lives of mothers and children with disabilities, exhibited at conferences, festivals, universities and schools in Brazil, Colombia and Japan. Produced by film and health professionals, social scientists and a women's network, the feature film "A special day" was awarded at Assim Vivemos VI International Disability Film Festival (2013-2014). The objective is to analyze the impact of the film and its diffusion among professionals and students from health and education areas...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Verónica Vitriol, Alfredo Cancino, Marcelo Leiva-Bianchi, Carlos Serrano, Soledad Ballesteros, Andrea Asenjo, Cristian Cáceres, Soledad Potthoff, Carolina Salgado, Francisca Orellana, Marcela Ormazábal
: Childhood trauma is associated with different psychiatric disorders during adulthood. These disorders are often presented in comorbidity with depression. OBJECTIVE: To establish the relationship between psychiatric comorbidities and childhood traumatic events in patients with depression in Chile. METHODS: Three hundred and ninety-four patients with major depression were assessed using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a screening for childhood trauma...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
A Bourret, D Garant
Quantitative genetics approaches, and particularly animal models, are widely used to assess the genetic (co)variance of key fitness related traits and infer adaptive potential of wild populations. Despite the importance of precision and accuracy of genetic variance estimates and their potential sensitivity to various ecological and population specific factors, their reliability is rarely tested explicitly. Here, we used simulations and empirical data collected from an 11-year study on tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), a species showing a high rate of extra-pair paternity and a low recruitment rate, to assess the importance of identity errors, structure and size of the pedigree on quantitative genetic estimates in our dataset...
October 26, 2016: Heredity
Eric A Friedman
The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), a proposed global treaty to be rooted in the right to health and aimed at health equity, could establish a nuanced, layered, and multi-faceted regime of compliance with, and accountability to, the right to health. In so doing, it would significantly strengthen accountability for the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which it would encompass. Legally binding, the FCGH could facilitate accountability through the courts and catalyze comprehensive domestic accountability regimes, requiring national strategies that include transparency, community and national mechanisms for accountability and participation and an enabling environment for social empowerment...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Leslie London, Helen Cox, Fons Coomans
The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress (REBSP) is a little-known but potentially valuable right that can contribute to rights-based approaches to addressing multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). We argue that better understanding of the REBSP may help to advance legal and civil society action for health rights. While the REBSP does not provide an individual entitlement to have a new drug developed for MDR-TB, it sets up entitlements to expect a state to establish a legislative and policy framework aimed at developing scientific capacity to address the most important health issues and at disseminating the outcomes of scientific research...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Sara J Marsteller, Natalya Zolotova, Kelly J Knudson
OBJECTIVES: Hypothetical models of socioeconomic organization in pre-Columbian societies generated from the rich ethnohistoric record in the New World require testing against the archaeological and bioarchaeological record. Here, we test ethnohistorian Maria Rostworowski's horizontality model of socioeconomic specialization for the Central Andean coast by reconstructing dietary practices in the Late Intermediate Period (c. AD 900-1470) Ychsma polity to evaluate complexities in social behaviors prior to Inka imperial influence...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
L Lafferty, C Treloar, J Guthrie, G M Chambers, T Butler
Prisoner populations are characterized by high rates of hepatitis C (HCV), up to thirty times that of the general population in Australia. Within Australian prisons, less than 1% of eligible inmates access treatment. Public health strategies informed by social capital could be important in addressing this inequality in access to HCV treatment. Twenty-eight male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three correctional centres in New South Wales, Australia. All participants had recently tested as HCV RNA positive or were receiving HCV treatment...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Melissa J Brown
The incorporation of niche construction theory (NCT) and epigenetics into an extended evolutionary synthesis (EES) increases the explanatory power of evolutionary analyses of human history. NCT allows identification of distinct social inheritance and cultural inheritance and can thereby account for how an existing-but-dynamic social system yields variable influences across individuals and also how these individuals' microlevel actions can feed back to alter the dynamic heterogeneously across time and space...
October 24, 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
James W N Steenberg, Andrew A Millward, David J Nowak, Pamela J Robinson, Alexis Ellis
The benefits derived from urban forest ecosystems are garnering increasing attention in ecological research and municipal planning. However, because of their location in heterogeneous and highly-altered urban landscapes, urban forests are vulnerable and commonly suffer disproportionate and varying levels of stress and disturbance. The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the spatial and temporal changes, and potential vulnerability, of the urban forest resource in Toronto, Canada. This research was conducted using a spatially-explicit, indicator-based assessment of vulnerability and i-Tree Forecast modeling of temporal changes in forest structure and function...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Management
Macario Camacho, Justin M Wei, Edward T Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Paul Kurlansky, Morley Herbert, Syma Prince, Michael Mack
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have compared coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) with percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) for coronary revascularization. There is considerable evidence that adherence to medical therapy can affect the outcomes of therapeutic interventions. However, the long-term influence of compliance with recommended medical therapy on the comparative outcomes of CABG versus PCI remains to be defined. METHODS: All non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing coronary revascularization in an 8-hospital network were followed for up to 8 years to determine medication history and major adverse cardiac events: all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and reintervention...
October 25, 2016: Circulation
Sílvia Indias García, Joaquín De Paúl Ochotorena
OBJECTIVE: To adapt into Spanish three scales measuring frequency (SWFS) and motivation for social withdrawal (CSPS and SWMS) and to develop a scale capable of assessing the five motivations for social withdrawal. METHOD: Participants were 1,112 Spanish adolescents, aged 12-17 years. The sample was randomly split into two groups in which exploratory and confirmatory (CFA) factor analyses were performed separately. A sample of adolescents in residential care (n = 128) was also used to perform discriminant validity analyses...
November 2016: Psicothema
Gabrielle Bertier, Jian Carrot-Zhang, Vassilis Ragoussis, Yann Joly
Precision medicine (PM) can be defined as a predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory healthcare service delivery model. Recent developments in molecular biology and information technology make PM a reality today through the use of massive amounts of genetic, 'omics', clinical, environmental, and lifestyle data. With cancer being one of the most prominent public health threats in developed countries, both the research community and governments have been investing significant time, money, and efforts in precision cancer medicine (PCM)...
October 24, 2016: Genome Medicine
Kerry Ard, Cynthia Colen, Marisol Becerra, Thelma Velez
This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital Benchmark Study, a national survey of individuals nested within communities in the United States, to estimate how multiple dimensions of social capital and exposure to air pollution, explain racial disparities in self-rated health. Our main findings show that when controlling for individual-confounders, and nesting within communities, our indicator of cognitive bridging, generalized trust, decreases the gap in self-rated health between African Americans and Whites by 84%, and the gap between Hispanics and Whites by 54%...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
K Nicole Jones, Melanie E Brewster
In recent history, heterosexual allies have played an integral role in promoting change for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations in the United States; however, questions have been raised as to what drives heterosexual allies to promote change via activism. To delineate factors important in engagement in activism, 207 self-identified heterosexual allies completed an online survey measuring components associated with LGBT activism using Bandura's (1986) model of triadic reciprocal determinism: personal factors (ally identity, social justice self-efficacy and outcome expectations, empathetic perspective taking, and gender) and environmental factors (social justice related supports and barriers, positive marginality, and education level) to predict behaviors (LGBT activism)...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Sarah Raz, Jamie C Piercy, Andrew M Heitzer, Brittany N Peters, Julie Bapp Newman, Angela K DeBastos, Noa Ofen, Beau Batton, Daniel G Batton
OBJECTIVES: A limited body of research is available on the relationships between multiplicity of birth and neuropsychological functioning in preterm children who were conceived in the age of assisted reproductive technology and served by the modern neonatal intensive care unit. Our chief objective was to evaluate whether, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and perinatal complications, twin birth accounted for a unique portion of developmental outcome variance in children born at-risk in the surfactant era...
October 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Sungwoo Lim, Valerie Meausoone, Christina Norman, Carol Quinlan, Cynthia R Driver
OBJECTIVE: Neighborhood-level factors such as ethnic densities and social cohesion have been negatively associated with psychological distress among Latino Americans. Yet, existing evidence is based on either specific neighborhood factors or particular Latino subgroups. The objective of the study was to assess difference in psychological distress between each of four Latino subgroups (Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, Mexicans, other Latinos) and non-Latino white adults in New York City, and quantify total neighborhood-level influence on these differences...
October 24, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Katie M Edwards, Victoria L Banyard, Elizabeth A Moschella, Katherine M Seavey
This study qualitatively examined rural emerging adults' ways of thinking (i.e., lay theories) about the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) and ideas on how to prevent IPV most effectively. Participants were 74 individuals (majority Caucasian, heterosexual, low income) between the ages of 18 and 24 who resided in one of 16 rural communities. Participants' perceptions of the causes of IPV included (a) individual-level pathology, stress, and lack of education; (b) intergenerational transmission of violence and early-life factors; (c) relationship stressors and challenges; and (d) community factors...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera
Epilepsy is a major health issue in rural areas of developing countries. However, heterogeneity of epilepsy prevalence in different studies precludes assessment of the magnitude of the problem. Using similar protocols, two population-based surveys were conducted 12 years apart (2003 and 2015) in a rural Ecuadorian village (Atahualpa). The only difference was a higher people compliance with interviewers during the second survey. Epilepsy prevalence in the 2003 survey was 13.5 per 1,000 (18/1,332) in villagers aged ≥20 years...
October 24, 2016: Epilepsia
Joachim Richter, Roya Ostovar
The functions of dance and music in human evolution are a mystery. Current research on the evolution of music has mainly focused on its melodic attribute which would have evolved alongside (proto-)language. Instead, we propose an alternative conceptual framework which focuses on the co-evolution of rhythm and dance (R&D) as intertwined aspects of a multimodal phenomenon characterized by the unity of action and perception. Reviewing the current literature from this viewpoint we propose the hypothesis that R&D have co-evolved long before other musical attributes and (proto-)language...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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