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Social accountability

Barbara Fischer, Harry Telser, Peter Zweifel
Healthcare expenditure (HCE) spent during an individual's last year of life accounts for a high share of lifetime HCE. This finding is puzzling because an investment in health is unlikely to have a sufficiently long payback period. However, Becker et al. (2007) and Philipson et al. (2010) have advanced a theory designed to explain high willingness to pay (WTP) for an extension of life close to its end. Their testable implications are complemented by the concept of 'pain of risk bearing' introduced by Eeckhoudt and Schlesinger (2006)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Health Economics
Mary K Hill, Ravi R Patel, Pratibha Anand, Robert P Dellavalle
Google+ sets itself apart from other social media platforms through a number of unique features, including search engine optimization services and high user satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of dermatological entities on Google+. Searches were conducted to locate any Google+ accounts associated with the most popular dermatology journals, dermatological patient-centered organizations, and professional dermatology-related organizations on social media. Additionally, "dermatology Google+" was searched via Google, and Google+ profiles retrieved in the first page of results were assessed...
April 15, 2018: Dermatology Online Journal
Seth Frey, Dominic K Albino, Paul L Williams
There is a tendency in decision-making research to treat uncertainty only as a problem to be overcome. But it is also a feature that can be leveraged, particularly in social interaction. Comparing the behavior of profitable and unprofitable poker players, we reveal a strategic use of information processing that keeps decision makers unpredictable. To win at poker, a player must exploit public signals from others. But using public inputs makes it easier for an observer to reconstruct that player's strategy and predict his or her behavior...
June 14, 2018: Cognitive Science
Daniel Alcalá-López, Kai Vogeley, Ferdinand Binkofski, Danilo Bzdok
During the past decade, novel approaches to study social interaction have expanded and questioned long-standing knowledge about how humans understand each other. We aim to portray and reconcile the key psychological processes and neural mechanisms underlying navigation of the social environment. Theoretical accounts mostly revolved around either abstract inferences or embodied simulations, whereas experimental studies mostly focused on theory of mind or mentalizing, empathy, and action imitation. The tension between theories of and experiments on social cognition is systematically revisited to foster new theoretical and empirical studies in the fields...
May 14, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Ibrahim A Khalil, Christopher Troeger, Puja C Rao, Brigette F Blacker, Alexandria Brown, Thomas G Brewer, Danny V Colombara, Eugenio L De Hostos, Cyril Engmann, Richard L Guerrant, Rashidul Haque, Eric R Houpt, Gagandeep Kang, Poonum S Korpe, Karen L Kotloff, Aldo A M Lima, William A Petri, James A Platts-Mills, David A Shoultz, Mohammed H Forouzanfar, Simon I Hay, Robert C Reiner, Ali H Mokdad
BACKGROUND: The protozoan Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of diarrhoea morbidity and mortality in children younger than 5 years. However, the true global burden of Cryptosporidium infection in children younger than 5 years might have been underestimated in previous quantifications because it only took account of the acute effects of diarrhoea. We aimed to demonstrate whether there is a causal relation between Cryptosporidium and childhood growth and, if so, to quantify the associated additional burden...
July 2018: Lancet Global Health
Leanne Tamm, James Peugh
The most common method used to evaluate child behavior and functioning is rating scales completed by parents and/or teachers. Given that executive functioning (EF) plays a fundamental role in the developing child's cognitive, behavioral, and social-emotional development, it would be ideal if ratings of EF and performance-based EF measures assess the same construct. However, most studies report a small to negligible association between performance-based measures and ratings of EF. There are few studies investigating this association for preschoolers, and most only include parent ratings...
June 14, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Shih-Hsien Lin, Po See Chen, Lan-Ting Lee, Sheng-Yu Lee, Hsin Chun Tsai, Wei Tseng Chen, Kao Chin Chen, I Hui Lee, Ru-Band Lu, Yen Kuang Yang
BACKGROUND: Animal studies have demonstrated that oxytocin can influence addiction behaviors and might interact with the dopaminergic system, which is a key component of addiction behaviors. However, related evidence from clinical studies is scarce. The aim of our study was to explore the relationship between plasma oxytocin level and heroin craving among patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment, and to ascertain whether this relationship is moderated by novelty-seeking. METHODS: The study was conducted in a methadone maintenance therapy clinic of a medical center in Taiwan...
June 14, 2018: European Addiction Research
Eric Funk, Jeff Riddell, Felix Ankel, Daniel Cabrera
Health professions educators face multiple challenges, among them the need to adapt educational methods to new technologies. In the last decades multiple new digital platforms have appeared in the learning arena, including massive open online courses and social media-based education. The major critique of these novel methods is the lack of the ability to ascertain the origin, validity, and accountability of the knowledge that is created, shared, and acquired. Recently, a novel technology based on secured data storage and transmission, called blockchain, has emerged as a way to generate networks where validity, trust, and accountability can be created...
June 12, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Luis Pedauga, Agustín Velázquez, Manuel Bueno
A common problem in compiling and updating Social Accounting Matrices (SAM) or Input-Output tables is that of incomplete information. In the case of the submatrix 'Property Income of the Account Allocation of Primary Income', the information published by the National Bureau of Statistics of Spain (INE) is limited because it is not possible to build the set of from-whom-to-whom sub-matrix on income interest, dividends, securities and rents with only the subtotals presented in the Integrated Economic Accounts (IEA)...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Jennifer B Unger, Robert Urman, Tess Boley Cruz, Anuja Majmundar, Jessica Barrington-Trimis, Mary Ann Pentz, Rob McConnell
Tobacco-related content appears on social media in the form of advertising and messages by individuals. However, little is known about associations between posting social media messages and tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults. Self-reports of tobacco product use were obtained from the Children's Health Study of young adults in Southern California. Among the 1486 respondents in the most recent wave of the cohort (2016-2017), 284 provided tobacco product use data and their Twitter user names to access publicly available Twitter account data (mean age = 20...
June 10, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Marcus Vinicius Cunha Oliveira, Márcio Couto Henrique
The article investigates the social and environmental impacts of construction of Highway PA-458, which turned 26km of mangrove swamp into a landfill between the municipality of Bragança and Ajuruteua beach in northeastern Pará. Working with official documents, newspapers, photographs, and oral accounts, it analyzes politicians', local residents', and crab harvesters' representations of the significance of the highway. It is concluded that officials have disregarded the environmental impact both on the mangrove swamps and on the daily lives of crab harvesters...
April 2018: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Wentian Lu, Hynek Pikhart, Amanda Sacker
Purpose of the Study: Few studies have recommended the essential domains of healthy aging and their relevant measurement to assess healthy aging comprehensively. This review is to fill the gap, by conducting a literature review of domains and measures of healthy aging in epidemiological studies. Design and Methods: A literature search was conducted up to March 31, 2017, supplemented by a search of references in all relevant articles in English. We made a final selection of 50 studies across 23 countries or regions...
April 20, 2018: Gerontologist
Reilly N Grant, David Kucher, Ana M León, Jonathan F Gemmell, Daniela S Raicu, Samah J Fodeh
BACKGROUND: Suicide is an alarming public health problem accounting for a considerable number of deaths each year worldwide. Many more individuals contemplate suicide. Understanding the attributes, characteristics, and exposures correlated with suicide remains an urgent and significant problem. As social networking sites have become more common, users have adopted these sites to talk about intensely personal topics, among them their thoughts about suicide. Such data has previously been evaluated by analyzing the language features of social media posts and using factors derived by domain experts to identify at-risk users...
June 13, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Belén Martínez-Ferrer, David Moreno, Gonzalo Musitu
The problematic use of social networking sites is becoming a major public health concern. Previous research has found that adolescents who engage in a problematic use of social networking sites are likely to show maladjustment problems. However, little is known about its links with peer aggression and victimization. The main goal of this study was to analyze the relationship between problematic use of online social networking sites, peer aggression -overt vs. relational and reactive vs. instrumental-, and peer victimization -overt physical and verbal, and relational-, taking into account gender and age (in early and mid-adolescence)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Wolf H Rogowski
BACKGROUND: There is a gap between health economic evaluation methods and the value judgments of coverage decision makers, at least in Germany. Measuring preference satisfaction has been claimed to be inappropriate for allocating health care resources, e.g. because it disregards medical need. The existing methods oriented at medical need have been claimed to disregard non-consequentialist fairness concerns. The aim of this article is to propose a new, contractarian argument for justifying needs-based economic evaluation...
June 13, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Himanshu Gupta, Tina Lam, Simone Pettigrew, Robert J Tait
BACKGROUND: Alcohol marketing on social networking sites (SNS) is associated with alcohol use among young people. Alcohol companies adapt their online marketing content to specific national contexts and responses to such content differ by national settings. However, there exists very little academic work comparing the association between alcohol marketing on SNS and alcohol use among young people in different national settings and across different SNS. Therefore, we aimed to extend the limited existing work by investigating and comparing the association between self-reported exposure to alcohol marketing on three leading SNS (Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter) and alcohol use among young people in diverse national contexts (India and Australia)...
June 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ivone Jakasa, Jacob P Thyssen, Sanja Kezic
Skin diseases represent one of the most common work-related diseases and may have a detrimental effect on social, personal and occupational aspects of life. Contact dermatitis, which comprises predominately irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) accounts for vast majority of occupational skin diseases, especially in occupations associated with frequent skin contact with irritants and contact allergens. Although ICD and ACD have similar clinical manifestation, their pathophysiology and the role of the skin barrier is different...
June 12, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Alexis Lion, Anne Vuillemin, Jane S Thornton, Daniel Theisen, Saverio Stranges, Malcolm Ward
The health benefits of physical activity (PA) are acknowledged and promoted by the scientific community, especially within primary care. However, there is little evidence that such promotion is provided in any consistent or comprehensive format. Brief interventions (i.e. discussion, negotiation or encouragement) and exercise referral schemes (i.e. patients being formally referred to a PA professional) are the two dominant approaches within primary care. These cost-effective interventions can generate positive changes in health outcomes and PA levels in inactive patients who are at increased risk for non-communicable diseases...
June 8, 2018: Health Promotion International
Sarah B Epstein, Beth R Crisp
It has been claimed that effective responses to child sexual abuse (CSA) must engage with the specific cultural, social, and religious contexts of the target communities. For Jewish communities in Australia, the program J-Safe was established to raise awareness, create cultural change, and empower the Jewish community to be able to prevent, recognize, and address child sexual assault within the school setting. This paper reports on the experiences of teachers in two Jewish-day schools who had participated in the J-Safe Project's protective behaviors teacher training program...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Crystal E Brown, Ruth A Engelberg, Rashmi Sharma, Lois Downey, James A Fausto, James Sibley, William Lober, Nita Khandelwal, Elizabeth T Loggers, J Randall Curtis
BACKGROUND: Although racial/ethnic minorities receive more intense, nonbeneficial healthcare at the end of life, the role of race/ethnicity independent of other social determinants of health is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: Examine the association between race/ethnicity, other key social determinants of health, and healthcare intensity in the last 30 days of life for those with chronic, life-limiting illness. SUBJECTS: We identified 22,068 decedents with chronic illness cared for at a single healthcare system in Washington State who died between 2010 and 2015 and linked electronic health records to death certificate data...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
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