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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438633/structural-insights-into-the-interaction-of-coronavirus-papain-like-proteases-and-interferon-stimulated-gene-product-15-from-different-species
#1
Courtney M Daczkowski, John V Dzimianski, Jozlyn R Clasman, Octavia Goodwin, Andrew D Mesecar, Scott D Pegan
Severe Acute and Middle East Respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV) encode multifunctional papain-like proteases (PLPs) that have the ability to process the viral polyprotein to facilitate RNA replication as well as antagonize the host innate-immune response. The latter function involves reversing post-translational modification of cellular proteins conjugated with either ubiquitin (Ub) or Ub-like interferon stimulated gene product 15 (ISG15). Ubiquitin is known to be highly conserved among eukaryotes but surprisingly ISG15 is highly divergent among animals...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420819/synonymous-and-biased-codon-usage-by-mers-cov-papain-like-and-3cl-proteases
#2
Mahmoud Kandeel, Abdallah Altaher
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV) is a recently evolved fatal respiratory disease that poses a concern for a global epidemic. MERS CoV encodes 2 proteases, 3C-like protease (3CLpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro). These proteases share in processing MERS CoV polyproteins at different sites to yield 16 nonstructural proteins. In this work, we provide evidence that MERS CoV 3CLpro and PLpro are subject to different genetic and evolutionary influences that shape the protein sequence, codon usage pattern, and codon usage bias...
April 18, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414040/sars-coronavirus-papain-like-protease-up-regulates-the-collagen-expression-through-non-samd-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling
#3
Ching-Ying Wang, Chien-Yi Lu, Shih-Wen Li, Chien-Chen Lai, Chun-Hung Hua, Su-Hua Huang, Ying-Ju Lin, Mann-Jen Hour, Cheng-Wen Lin
SARS coronavirus (CoV) papain-like protease (PLpro) reportedly induced the production of TGF-β1 through p38 MAPK/STAT3-meidated Egr-1-dependent activation (Sci. Rep. 6, 25754). This study investigated the correlation of PLpro-induced TGF-β1 with the expression of Type I collagen in human lung epithelial cells and mouse pulmonary tissues. Specific inhibitors for TGF-βRI, p38 MAPK, MEK, and STAT3 proved that SARS-CoV PLpro induced TGF-β1-dependent up-regulation of Type I collagen in vitro and in vivo. Subcellular localization analysis of SMAD3 and SMAD7 indicated that non-SMAD pathways in TGF-β1 signaling involved in the production of Type I collagen in transfected cells with pSARS-PLpro...
April 13, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402938/cathepsins-in-digestive-cancers
#4
REVIEW
Siyuan Chen, Hui Dong, Shiming Yang, Hong Guo
Cathepsins are lysosomal peptidases belonging to the papain family, and based on their catalytic sites, these enzymes can be divided into serine, cysteine and aspartic proteases. The studies conducted to date have identified, 15 types of cathepsins that are widely distributed in intracellular and extracellular spaces. These proteases participate in various pathological activities, including the occurrence and development of human cancers. Several recent studies suggest that cathepsins, particularly cathepsins B, D, E and L, contribute to digestive tumorigenesis...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402172/rational-design-and-synthesis-of-affinity-matrices-based-on-proteases-immobilized-onto-cellulose-membranes
#5
Alberto Del Monte-Martínez, Jorge González-Bacerio, Bessy Cutiño-Avila, Jorge Rojas, Mae Chappé, Emir Salas-Sarduy, Isel Pascual, José M Guisán
Discovery of new protease inhibitors may result in potential therapeutic agents or useful biotechnological tools. Obtainment of these molecules from natural sources requires simple, economic and highly efficient purification protocols. The aim of this work was the obtainment of affinity matrices by the covalent immobilization of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and papain onto cellulose membranes, previously activated with formyl (FCM) or glyoxyl groups (GCM). GCM showed the highest activation grade (10.2 µmol aldehyde/cm(2))...
April 12, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399445/sensitive-detection-of-alkaline-phosphatase-by-switching-on-gold-nanoclusters-fluorescence-quenched-by-pyridoxal-phosphate
#6
Mohamed Ibrahim Halawa, Wenyue Gao, Muhammad Saqib, Shimeles Addisu Kitte, Fengxia Wu, Guobao Xu
In this work, we designed highly sensitive and selective luminescent detection method for alkaline phosphatase using bovine serum albumin functionalized gold nanoclusters (BSA-AuNCs) as the nanosensor probe and pyridoxal phosphate as the substrate of alkaline phosphatase. We found that pyridoxal phosphate can quench the fluorescence of BSA-AuNCs and pyridoxal has little effect on the fluorescence of BSA-AuNCs. The proposed mechanism of fluorescence quenching by PLP was explored on the basis of data obtained from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-vis spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence decay time measurements and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy...
April 6, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399085/-the-development-of-the-method-for-enzymatic-hydrolysis-for-the-extraction-of-toxic-substances-from-the-hair-samples
#7
Yu V Slustovskaya, M V Krys'ko, O Yu Strelova
The objective of the present study was to develop and validate the method for the extraction of toxic substances from the hair samples as exemplified by enzymatic hydrolysis of barbituric acid derivatives. The experiments were carried out with the use of laboratory animals (white female rats and albino guinea pigs) that had been daily given a phenobarbital solution per os during 4 months preceding the study. The hairs obtained from the experimental animals were subjected to acid hydrolysis with a 6 mole hydrochloric acid and enzymatic hydrolysis with the use of chymopsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and papain solutions...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394630/plant-proteases-for-bioactive-peptides-release-a-review
#8
M A Mazorra-Manzano, J C Ramírez-Suarez, R Y Yada
Proteins are a potential source of health promoting biomolecules with medical, nutraceutical and food applications. Nowadays, bioactive peptides production, its isolation, characterization and strategies for its delivery to target sites are a matter of intensive research. In vitro and in vivo studies regarding the bioactivity of peptides has generated strong evidence of their health benefits. Dairy proteins are considered the richest source of bioactive peptides, however proteins from animal and vegetable origin also have been shown to be important sources...
April 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392381/the-light-subunit-of-mushroom-agaricus-bisporus-tyrosinase-its-biological-characteristics-and-implications
#9
Wangsa T Ismaya, Olivia M Tandrasasmita, Syaripah Sundari, Diana, Xuelei Lai, Debbie S Retnoningrum, Bauke W Dijkstra, Raymond R Tjandrawinata, Heni Rachmawati
The light subunit of mushroom Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase (LSMT) is a protein of unknown function that was discovered serendipitously during the elucidation of the crystal structure of the enzyme. The protein is non-immunogenic and can penetrate the intestinal epithelial cell barrier, and thus, similar to its structural homologue HA-33 from Clostridium botulinum, may be potentially absorbable by the intestine. LSMT also shares high structural homology with the ricin-B-like lectin from the mushroom Clitocybe nebularis (CNL), which has been shown to display biological activity against leukemic cancer cells and dendritic cells...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389401/expression-in-escherichia-coli-of-cysteine-protease-inhibitors-from-cowpea-vigna-unguiculata-the-crystal-structure-of-a-single-domain-cystatin-gives-insights-on-its-thermal-and-ph-stability
#10
José Edvar Monteiro Júnior, Napoleão Fonseca Valadares, Humberto D'Muniz Pereira, Fábio Henrique Dyszy, Antônio José da Costa Filho, Adriana Ferreira Uchôa, Adeliana Silva de Oliveira, Cristina Paiva da Silveira Carvalho, Thalles Barbosa Grangeiro
Two cysteine proteinase inhibitors from cowpea, VuCys1 and VuCys2, were produced in E. coli ArcticExpress (DE3). The recombinant products strongly inhibited papain and chymopapain as well as the midgut proteases from Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, a bruchid that uses cysteine proteases as major digestive enzymes. Heat treatment at 100°C for up to 60min or incubation at various pH values caused little reduction in the papain inhibitory activity of both inhibitors. Moreover, minor conformational variations, as probed by circular dichroism spectroscopy, were observed after VuCys1 and VuCys2 were subjected to these treatments...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384562/overexpression-of-mpcys4-a-phytocystatin-gene-from-malus-prunifolia-willd-borkh-delays-natural-and-stress-induced-leaf-senescence-in-apple
#11
Yanxiao Tan, Yingli Yang, Chao Li, Bowen Liang, Mingjun Li, Fengwang Ma
Phytocystatins are a well-characterized class of naturally occurring protease inhibitors that prevent the catalysis of papain-like cysteine proteases. The action of cystatins in stress tolerance has been studied intensively, but relatively little is known about their functions in plants during leaf senescence. Here, we examined the potential roles of the apple cystatin, MpCYS4, in leaf photosynthesis as well as the concentrations and composition of leaf proteins when plants encounter natural or stress-induced senescence...
March 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380118/in-vitro-efficacy-of-latex-and-purified-papain-from-carica-papaya-against-strongyloides-venezuelensis-eggs-and-larvae
#12
Dayane Moraes, Marcelo Arantes Levenhagen, Julia Maria Costa-Cruz, Antônio Paulino da Costa, Rosângela Maria Rodrigues
Latex from Carica papaya is rich in bioactive compounds, especially papain, which may help to control parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the efficacy of latex from C. papaya and purified papain against Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Egg Hatching Test (EHT) and the Larval Motility Test (LMT) using fresh and frozen latex (250mg/mL), lyophilized latex (34mg/mL), and purified papain (2.8 mg/mL) were performed. Albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and ivermectin (316 ppm) were used as positive controls. EHT and LMT were carried out through the incubation of each solution with S...
April 3, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352547/evaluation-of-the-composition-of-carica-papaya-l-seed-oil-extracted-with-supercritical-co2
#13
Pedro T W Barroso, Pedro P de Carvalho, Thiago B Rocha, Fernando L P Pessoa, Debora A Azevedo, Marisa F Mendes
Among the most important tropical fruit grown in the world today and in Brazil, papaya occupies a prominent place. Native to tropical America, papaya has spread to several regions of the world, and Brazil accounts for 12.74% of the world production, followed by Mexico, Nigeria and India. The culture reached a harvested area of 441,042 ha and production of 12,420,585 t worldwide. The largest interest in this fruit relies on its main constituent compounds, like vitamins A, B and C, alkaloids (carpaine and pseudocarpaine), proteolytic enzymes (papain and quimiopapain) and benzyl isothiocyanate, more known as BITC, which has anthelmintic activity...
September 2016: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352546/bioactivities-of-fish-protein-hydrolysates-from-defatted-salmon-backbones
#14
Rasa Slizyte, Katariina Rommi, Revilija Mozuraityte, Peter Eck, Kathrine Five, Turid Rustad
Bioactivities of bulk fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) from defatted salmon backbones obtained with eight different commercial enzymes and their combinations were tested. All FPH showed antioxidative activity in vitro. DPPH scavenging activity increased, while iron chelating ability decreased with increasing time of hydrolysis. All FPH showed ACE inhibiting effect which depended on type of enzyme and increased with time of hydrolysis. The highest effect was found for FPH produced with Trypsin. Bromelain + Papain hydrolysates reduced the uptake of radiolabelled glucose into CaCo-2 cells, a model of human enterocytes, indicating a potential antidiabetic effect of FPH...
September 2016: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344489/utilization-of-gel-electrophoreses-for-the-quantitative-estimation-of-digestive-enzyme-papain
#15
Magdy M Muharram, Maged S Abdel-Kader
SDS-PAGE densitometric method for analysis of papain in pharmaceutical formulations was developed and validated for the first time. Standard and samples were mixed with SDS sample buffer and denatured at 95 °C for 5 min and the gel was run at 20 mA and 200 V for 30-40 min in SDS-PAGE buffer. Gels were stained in Coomassie blue solution and distained by 5% methanol and 10% acetic acid. Destained gels were imaged and analyzed using the ChemiDoc™ XRS+ System. Bands of papain appeared at Rf value 0.78 ± 0...
March 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335973/papain-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles-as-heterogeneous-biocatalyst-for-bioanalysis-and-biopharmaceuticals-analysis
#16
Siyao Liu, Markus Höldrich, Adrian Sievers-Engler, Jeannie Horak, Michael Lämmerhofer
Surface-modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were synthesized via layer-by-layer process with alternating cationic polyallylamine and anionic poly(acrylic acid) polyelectrolyte layers leading to a highly hydrophilic biocompatible shell supporting colloidal stability. Afterwards, papain was covalently immobilized on the modified GNPs via amide coupling between the amino groups on papain and the terminal carboxylic groups of the modified GNPs by using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide sodium as coupling agents...
April 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335458/in-vitro-antioxidant-activity-and-in-vivo-anti-fatigue-effect-of-sea-horse-hippocampus-peptides
#17
Zebin Guo, Duanquan Lin, Juanjuan Guo, Yi Zhang, Baodong Zheng
This study investigated changes the in vitro antioxidant activity of Hippocampus polypeptides during enzymatic hydrolysis, including the effects of enzyme species, enzyme concentration, material-liquid ratio, hydrolysis time, pH, and temperature of the reaction system. Its in vivo anti-fatigue activity was also studied. Hippocampus peptide prepared by papain digestion exhibited the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging rate (71.89% ± 1.50%) and strong hydroxyl radical scavenging rate (75...
March 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317180/anti-acsa-2-defines-a-novel-monoclonal-antibody-for-prospective-isolation-of-living-neonatal-and-adult-astrocytes
#18
Christina G Kantzer, Camille Boutin, Ina D Herzig, Carolina Wittwer, Sandy Reiß, Marie Catherine Tiveron, Jan Drewes, Thomas D Rockel, Stefanie Ohlig, Jovica Ninkovic, Harold Cremer, Sandra Pennartz, Melanie Jungblut, Andreas Bosio
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type of the central nervous system and cover a broad range of functionalities. We report here the generation of a novel monoclonal antibody, anti-astrocyte cell surface antigen-2 (Anti-ACSA-2). Flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry revealed that Anti-ACSA-2 reacted specifically with a not yet identified glycosylated surface molecule of murine astrocytes at all developmental stages. It did not show any labeling of non-astroglial cells such as neurons, oligodendrocytes, NG2(+) cells, microglia, endothelial cells, leukocytes, or erythrocytes...
March 20, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316013/the-papain-like-protease-of-avian-infectious-bronchitis-virus-has-deubiquitinating-activity
#19
Liping Yu, Xiaorong Zhang, Tianqi Wu, Yuyang Wang, Jie Meng, Qian Liu, Xiaosai Niu, Yantao Wu
Coronavirus papain-like proteases (PLPs) can act as proteases that process virus-encoded large replicase polyproteins and also as deubiquitinating (DUB) enzymes. Like the PLPs of other coronaviruses (CoVs), the avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) PLP catalyzes proteolysis of Gly-Gly dipeptide bonds to release mature cleavage products. However, the other functions of the IBV PLP are not well understood. In this study, we found that IBV exhibits strong global DUB activity with significant reductions of the levels of ubiquitin (Ub)-, K48-, and K63-conjugated proteins...
March 18, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295446/a-recombinant-cystatin-from-ascaris-lumbricoides-attenuates-inflammation-of-dss-induced-colitis
#20
S Coronado, L Barrios, J Zakzuk, R Regino, V Ahumada, L Franco, Y Ocampo, L Caraballo
Helminthiasis may ameliorate inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and asthma. Information about immunomodulators from Ascaris lumbricoides is scarce, but could be important considering the co-evolutionary relationships between helminths and humans. We evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of a recombinant cystatin from A. lumbricoides on an acute model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. From an A. lumbricoides cDNA library, we obtained a recombinant cystatin (rAl-CPI)...
March 10, 2017: Parasite Immunology
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