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Shinobu Tsuchiaka, Yuki Naoi, Ryo Imai, Tsuneyuki Masuda, Mika Ito, Masataka Akagami, Yoshinao Ouchi, Kazuo Ishii, Shoichi Sakaguchi, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yukie Katayama, Mami Oba, Junsuke Shirai, Yuki Satani, Yasuhiro Takashima, Yuji Taniguchi, Masaki Takasu, Hiroo Madarame, Fujiko Sunaga, Hiroshi Aoki, Shinji Makino, Tetsuya Mizutani, Makoto Nagai
To study the genetic diversity of enterovirus G (EV-G) among Japanese pigs, metagenomics sequencing was performed on fecal samples from pigs with or without diarrhea, collected between 2014 and 2016. Fifty-nine EV-G sequences, which were >5,000 nucleotides long, were obtained. By complete VP1 sequence analysis, Japanese EV-G isolates were classified into G1 (17 strains), G2 (four strains), G3 (22 strains), G4 (two strains), G6 (two strains), G9 (six strains), G10 (five strains), and a new genotype (one strain)...
2018: PloS One
Zhi Zou, Qixing Huang, Guishui Xie, Lifu Yang
Papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) are a class of proteolytic enzymes involved in many plant processes. Compared with the extensive research in Arabidopsis thaliana, little is known in castor bean (Ricinus communis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas), two Euphorbiaceous plants without any recent whole-genome duplication. In this study, a total of 26 or 23 PLCP genes were identified from the genomes of castor bean and physic nut respectively, which can be divided into nine subfamilies based on the phylogenetic analysis: RD21, CEP, XCP, XBCP3, THI, SAG12, RD19, ALP and CTB...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael D Newton, Samantha E Hartner, Karissa Gawronski, Erik J Davenport, Shannon C Timmons, Kevin C Baker, Tristan Maerz
Mechanical characterization of the intervertebral disc involves labor-intensive and destructive experimental methodology. Contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography is a nondestructive imaging modality for high-resolution visualization and glycosaminoglycan quantification of cartilaginous tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine whether anionic and cationic contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography of the intervertebral disc can be used to indirectly assess disc mechanical properties in an ex vivo model of disc degeneration...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Juan Liu, Anupma Sharma, Marie Jamille Niewiara, Ratnesh Singh, Ray Ming, Qingyi Yu
BACKGROUND: Papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs), a large group of cysteine proteases structurally related to papain, play important roles in plant development, senescence, and defense responses. Papain, the first cysteine protease whose structure was determined by X-ray crystallography, plays a crucial role in protecting papaya from herbivorous insects. Except the four major PLCPs purified and characterized in papaya latex, the rest of the PLCPs in papaya genome are largely unknown...
January 6, 2018: BMC Genomics
Haijiao Yan, Jianmin Yun, Duiyuan Ai, Wenwei Zhang, Jie Bai, Juan Guo
Public concern for food safety and environmental issues and the increase in fungicide-resistant pathogen have enhanced the interest in developing alternative methods to fungicides to control postharvest fruit decay. In this study, a bacterial strain isolated from stale potato vermicelli was identified as Bacillus pumilus HN-10 based on morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Furthermore, two novel cationic antifungal peptides named P-1 and P-2 were purified from B. pumilus HN-10 using macroporous adsorbent resin AB-8, Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography...
January 4, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Min-Han Lin, David C Moses, Chih-Hua Hsieh, Shu-Chun Cheng, Yau-Hung Chen, Chiao-Yin Sun, Chi-Yuan Chou
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in southern China in late 2002 and caused a global outbreak with a fatality rate around 10% in 2003. Ten years later, a second highly pathogenic human CoV, MERS-CoV, emerged in the Middle East and has spread to other countries in Europe, North Africa, North America and Asia. As of November 2017, MERS-CoV had infected at least 2102 people with a fatality rate of about 35% globally, and hence there is an urgent need to identify antiviral drugs that are active against MERS-CoV...
December 28, 2017: Antiviral Research
Qian Sun, Fusheng Chen, Fang Geng, Yongkang Luo, Siyi Gong, Zhengqiang Jiang
A novel aspartic protease gene (RmproA) was cloned from the thermophilic fungus Rhizomucor miehei CAU432 and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The RmproA was successfully expressed in P. pastoris as an active extracellular protease. High protease activity of 3480.4 U/mL was obtained by high cell-density fermentation. The protease was purified by the two step protocols to homogeneity. The molecular mass of the RmproA was estimated to be 52.4 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 50.6 kDa by gel filtration. The purified enzyme was optimally active at pH 5...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Marien Havé, Thierry Balliau, Betty Cottyn-Boitte, Emeline Dérond, Gwendal Cueff, Fabienne Soulay, Aurélia Lornac, Pavel Reichman, Nico Dissmeyer, Jean-Christophe Avice, Patrick Gallois, Loïc Rajjou, Michel Zivy, Céline Masclaux-Daubresse
Autophagy is essential for protein degradation, nutrient recycling and nitrogen remobilization. Autophagy is induced during leaf ageing and in response to nitrogen starvation and was shown to play a fundamental role in nutrient recycling for remobilization and seed filling. Accordingly, ageing leaves of Arabidopsis autophagy mutants (atg) were shown to over-accumulate proteins and peptides, possibly because of a reduced protein degradation capacity. Surprisingly, atg leaves also displayed higher protease activities...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Keziban Atacan, Münteha Özacar, Mahmut Özacar
The non-toxic CuFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been solvothermally synthesized, characterized and used as an efficient magnetic precursor for papain immobilization and then investigated antibacterial properties. For increasing the antibacterial activity, the silver nanoparticles were doped on CuFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles. All prepared samples exhibited stronger antibacterial properties against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphyloccocus aureus) than Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). However, it was determined that the Ag/CuFe2O4 had a more vigorous antibacterial property against the Staphyloccocus aureus bacteria by calculating the inhibition diameter of 25±0...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Hongping Tang, Shiwei Miao, Xintao Zhang, Li Fan, Xuping Liu, Wen-Song Tan, Liang Zhao
Charge variation is one of the most important heterogeneities during monoclonal antibody (mAb) manufacturing and this study presents insights into the generation of acidic charge variants during cell culture processes. Since acidic variants generate both intracellularly and extracellularly, main charge fraction collected by weak cation exchange chromatography (WCX) was incubated in harvested cell supernatant (HCS) to simulate and investigate the extracellular process firstly. It is found that the main fraction was degraded rapidly into acidic variants rather than basic variants extracellularly, and the degradation sites were located in both Fab and Fc fragments indicated by papain digestion...
December 13, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jana Ilgová, Lucie Jedličková, Hana Dvořáková, Michal Benovics, Libor Mikeš, Lubomír Janda, Jiří Vorel, Pavel Roudnický, David Potěšil, Zbyněk Zdráhal, Milan Gelnar, Martin Kašný
Parasite inhibitors of cysteine peptidases are known to influence a vast range of processes linked to a degradation of either the parasites' own proteins or proteins native to their hosts. We characterise a novel type I cystatin (stefin) found in a sanguinivorous fish parasite Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea). We have identified a transcript of its coding gene in the transcriptome of adult worms. Its amino acid sequence is similar to other stefins except for containing a legumain-binding domain, which is in this type of cystatins rather unusual...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nadezhda E Ustyuzhanina, Maria I Bilan, Andrey S Dmitrenok, Elizaveta Yu Borodina, Nikolay E Nifantiev, Anatolii I Usov
A highly regular fucan sulfate SHFS was isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus horrens by extraction of the body walls in the presence of papain followed by ion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography. SHFS had MW of about 140 kDa and contained fucose and sulfate in the molar ratio of about 1:1. Chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods were applied for the structural characterization of the polysaccharide. SHFS was shown to have linear molecules built up of 3-linked α-l-fucopyranose 2-sulfate residues...
December 7, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Stephen Bleakley, Maria Hayes, Nora O' Shea, Eimear Gallagher, Tomas Lafarga
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in regulating hypertension by controlling vasoconstriction and intravascular fluid volume. RAAS itself is largely regulated by the actions of renin (EC and the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I; EC The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV; EC also plays a role in the development of type-2 diabetes. The inhibition of the renin, ACE-I, and DPP-IV enzymes has therefore become a key therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension and diabetes...
December 4, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Xiaoliang Hu, Jin Tian, Hongtao Kang, Dongchun Guo, Jiasen Liu, Dafei Liu, Qian Jiang, Zhijie Li, Juanjuan Qu, Liandong Qu
Coronaviruses (CoVs), such as human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), murine hepatitis virus (MHV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), encode papain-like (PL) proteases that inhibit Sendai virus- (SeV-) induced interferon (IFN-β) production. Recently, the crystal structure of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) PL1 has been solved, which was similar to that of SARS-CoV PL2pro, which may antagonize host innate immunity...
2017: BioMed Research International
Sung-Hwan Kang, Osama O Atallah, Yong-Duo Sun, Svetlana Y Folimonova
Viruses from the family Closteroviridae show an example of intra-genome duplications of more than one gene. In addition to the hallmark coat protein gene duplication, several members possess a tandem duplication of papain-like leader proteases. In this study, we demonstrate that domains encoding the L1 and L2 proteases in the Citrus tristeza virus genome underwent a significant functional divergence at the RNA and protein levels. We show that the L1 protease is crucial for viral accumulation and establishment of initial infection, whereas its coding region is vital for virus transport...
November 30, 2017: Virology
Natsuki Hannya, Hiromi Ogita-Nakanishi, Ryuji Kato, Yoshio Ijiri, Tetsuya Hayashi, Kazuhiko Tanaka, Ryo Kawata, Hiroshi Takenaka, Takahiro Kubota, Ryotaro Yoshida
There was a significant amount of non-specific, but not of allergen (e.g., papain, mite feces, and 4 kinds of pollen)-specific, IgE antibodies (Abs) in the serum of normal mice. An intranasal (i.n.) injection of each allergen without adjuvant into mice caused an increase in total IgE Ab titers with a similar time course in the serum; but the stage in the initiation of allergy varied from allergen to allergen. Submandibular lymph node cells from normal mice contained papain-, but not mite feces- or pollen-specific IgE+ cells; and an i...
November 29, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
Julaiti Maitirouzi, Li Yanna, Adinaer Abulizi, Aizezi Aihemaitiniyazi, Shataer Kuerban, Huang Shaojun
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Uygur sand therapy on the mechanical properties of the femur bone of osteoarthritic rabbits. METHODS: Sixteen rabbits were injected with papain in the right posterior femoral articular cavity on the first, fourth and seventh day to establish the osteoarthritis (OA) rabbit model. Animals were divided into the experimental group and control group (8 rabbits each). The experimental group was treated with sand therapy, and the control group received no sand therapy treatment...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Chihiro Tohda, Michihisa Tohda
OBJECTIVE: Cathepsin L, a lysosomal endopeptidase expressed in most eukaryotic cells, is a member of the papain-like family of cysteine proteases. Although commonly recognized as a lysosomal protease, cathepsin L is also secreted and involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins. Previous studies demonstrated that the secretion of cathepsin L was stimulated by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and bFGF-enhanced axonal terminal sprouting of motor neurons. Based on these results, although it has never been directly investigated, we hypothesized that extracellular cathepsin L may induce axonal growth...
November 23, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Hsin-Chieh Lin, Adeola M Alashi, Rotimi E Aluko, Bonnie Sun Pan, Yu-Wei Chang
Proteins from tilapia frame and skin can potentially be precursors of antihypertensive peptides according to the result of BIOPEP analyses. The aim was to generate peptides with inhibitory effects against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and renin from tilapia frame and skin protein isolates (FPI and SPI). The most active hydrolysate was then tested for blood pressure-lowering ability in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Tilapia frame and skin protein hydrolysates (FPHs and SPHs) were respectively produced from FPI and SPI hydrolysis using pepsin, papain, or bromelain...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
Abeer Khattab, Samia Shalaby
The aims of our investigation were to develop and optimize ciclopirox (CPX) nail lacquer using nonbiodegradable Eudragit RLPO (E-RLPO) as a film former and to assess its penetration efficiency across the human nail plate. Preliminary trials such as hydration enhancement factor (HEF), a retained drug in the nail plate, and SEM were studied to select the optimized permeation enhancer to be incorporated in the optimized lacquer formulation. A 3(3) full factorial design was built up to study the effect of three different factors, concentration of E-RLPO (10, 20, and 30%), Tween 80 (0...
November 14, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
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