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Christine Lehmann, Michele Ser Ying Tan, Laura E de Vries, Ilaria Russo, Mateo Isidrio Sanchez, Daniel E Goldberg, Edgar Deu
Parasite egress from infected erythrocytes and invasion of new red blood cells are essential processes for the exponential asexual replication of the malaria parasite. These two tightly coordinated events take place in less than a minute and are in part regulated and mediated by proteases. Dipeptidyl aminopeptidases (DPAPs) are papain-fold cysteine proteases that cleave dipeptides from the N-terminus of protein substrates. DPAP3 was previously suggested to play an essential role in parasite egress. However, little is known about its enzymatic activity, intracellular localization, or biological function...
May 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Wei Wang, Xue-Mei Zhou, Han-Xian Xiong, Wan-Ying Mao, Peng Zhao, Meng-Xiang Sun
BACKGROUND: Papain-like and legumain-like proteases are proteolytic enzymes which play key roles in plant development, senescence and defense. The activities of proteases in both families could be inhibited by a group of small proteins called cystatin. Cystatin family genes have been well characterized both in tobacco and rice, suggesting their potential roles in seed development. However, their potential targets, papain-like and legumain-like proteases, have not been well characterized in plants, especially in rice, a model plant for cereal biology...
May 15, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Feng Xue, Shenyan Wang, Haozhen Liu, Chen Li
BACKGROUND: In order to improve the functional properties of plum seed protein isolate (PSPI), the effects of high-intensity ultrasound (20 kHz) at different levels of power output (200, 400 and 600 W) on the water/oil holding, solubility, emulsifying, foaming, gel, film formation capacity and hydrolysis degrees of PSPI were investigated. RESULTS: Compared with untreated PSPI, ultrasound treatment improved water holding capacity, solubility, emulsifying properties, foaming capacity of PSPI...
May 8, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Yuanzi Wu, Zhen Cai, Shuigen Wu, Wenli Xiong, Shanyun Ma
A recoverable and thermoresponsive polymer-protein bioconjugate is synthesized and employed in the purification of protein with free sulfhydryl groups. Initiator with disulphide was modified on the cysteine residue of the target protein. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) exhibiting a lower critical solution temperature was grown from the protein. The resulting protein-polymer conjugate was successfully thermoprecipitated and separated from other proteins. The approach was demonstrated with bovine serum albumin with the recycling yield of 76...
May 6, 2018: Biopolymers
Sung Sil Moon
The effects of proteolytic enzymes (bromelain and bromelain+papain) and a ginger extract were assessed on collagen content and solubility, thermal shrinkage temperature of connective tissue, pH, cooking loss, drip loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of M. pectoralis profundus isolated from the beef brisket cut. Both proteolytic enzymes and ginger extract led to a significant increase in cooking loss and collagen solubility compared with untreated controls. On the other hand, the peak ( T p ) thermal shrinkage temperature markedly decreased in all treatments compared with those in controls...
February 2018: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Victoria Rojas-Mandujano, Kitzia González-Juárez, Cecilia Hernández-Fernández, Patricia María O'Farrill-Romanillos, Leonel Del Rivero, Diana Andrea Herrera-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Latex-fruit syndrome (LFS) is characterized by allergy to latex and plants. Papain, chymopapain, caricaine and class I chitinases are papaya's most allergenic proteins. The similarity between latex hevein epitopes and papaya class I chitinases might explain the latex-papaya syndrome (LPS). OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of patients with LPS. METHODS: Cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study where 11 patients diagnosed with latex allergy by skin prick test and clinically diagnosed with papaya-induced anaphylaxis were included...
January 2018: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
Mayuri B Bagul, Sachin K Sonawane, Shalini S Arya
Tamarind seed has been a source of valuable nutrients such as protein (contains high amount of many essential amino acids), essential fatty acids, and minerals which are recognized as additive to develop perfect balanced functional foods. The objective of present work was to optimize the process parameters for extraction and hydrolysis of protein from tamarind seeds. Papain-derived hydrolysates showed a maximum degree of hydrolysis (39.49%) and radical scavenging activity (42.92 ± 2.83%) at optimized conditions such as enzyme-to-substrate ratio (1:5), hydrolysis time (3 h), hydrolysis temperature (65 °C), and pH 6...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
Kelley Clark, Jessica Yvette Franco, Simon Schwizer, Zhiqian Pang, Eva Hawara, Thomas W H Liebrand, Deborah Pagliaccia, Liping Zeng, Fatta B Gurung, Pengcheng Wang, Jinxia Shi, Yinsheng Wang, Veronica Ancona, Renier A L van der Hoorn, Nian Wang, Gitta Coaker, Wenbo Ma
The citrus industry is facing an unprecedented challenge from Huanglongbing (HLB). All cultivars can be affected by the HLB-associated bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) and there is no known resistance. Insight into HLB pathogenesis is urgently needed in order to develop effective management strategies. Here, we use Sec-delivered effector 1 (SDE1), which is conserved in all CLas isolates, as a molecular probe to understand CLas virulence. We show that SDE1 directly interacts with citrus papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) and inhibits protease activity...
April 30, 2018: Nature Communications
Yong Fu, Shutao Chen, Jiaona Mao, Yi Pan, Chao Huang, Jun Xiong, Chunchuan Yan, Xiaodong Huang, Haifeng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the impacts of thermosensitive moxibustion (TSM) on the expressions of nitric oxide (NO), typeⅠdisintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-4 (ADAMTS-4), typeⅡcollagen and proteoglycan (PG) in the rabbit models of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and explore the mechanism of TSM on KOA. METHODS: A total of 42 Japanese long-eared male rabbits were divided into a blank group (6 rabbits), a model group (6 rabbits), a moxibustion group (24 rabbits) and a sham-operation group (6 rabbits) according to the random number table...
March 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Vaisakh Mohan, Pratik Sen
In this study, steady state, solvation dynamics and rotational dynamics experiments have been carried out on a system of DACIA-tagged papain in bulk water and inside the water pool of cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) and anionic (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate, AOT) reverse micelles with varying water contents (W0  = 20 to 50). While the absorption and emission maxima and the excited state lifetime did not show any noticeable change with the variation of the size of the reverse micelle, the change in solvation time, Stokes shift, rotational correlation time and residual anisotropy with the change in reverse micellar size were quite revealing...
April 17, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Linlin Dong, Chao Li, Charles Locuson, Susan Chen, Mark G Qian
Plasma stability assessment under physiological temperature is an essential step for developing and optimizing antibody drug conjugate (ADC) molecules, especially those with cleavable linkers. The assessment of plasma stability often requires monitoring multiple analytes using a combination of bioanalytical assays for free payloads, conjugated payloads (or conjugated antibodies), total antibodies, and payloads that have migrated from antibodies to plasma constituent proteins. Bioanalytical assays are needed in early drug discovery to quickly screen diverse ADC candidates of different antibody constructs, linker variants, and antibody anchor sites...
April 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Guan-Qun Chen, Di Zhang, Xiao-Hui Shen
Plant cystatins are involved in the regulation of protein turnover and play important roles in defense mechanisms. We cloned the ApCystatin gene from Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis, a famous ornamental and medical plant. The complete cDNA sequence of ApCystatin is comprised of 1446 nucleotides with a 420 bp ORF encoding 140 amino acids. The mRNA level of ApCystatin was significantly up-regulated under various abiotic stress, such as salt, osmosis, oxidative and cold stresses, which suggested that ApCystatin participated in the plant's resistance to stress...
April 20, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Mariano E Ascencio, Monica Florin-Christensen, Choukri B Mamoun, William Weir, Brian Shiels, Leonhard Schnittger
Piroplasmid parasites comprising of Babesia , Theileria , and Cytauxzoon are transmitted by ticks to farm and pet animals and have a significant impact on livestock industries and animal health in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In addition, diverse Babesia spp. infect humans as opportunistic hosts. Molecular phylogeny has demonstrated at least six piroplasmid lineages exemplified by B. microti , B. duncani , C. felis , T. equi , Theileria sensu stricto ( T. annulata , T. parva , and T. orientalis ) and Babesia sensu stricto ( B...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Valeria Maselli, Fenglian Xu, Naweed I Syed, Gianluca Polese, Anna Di Cosmo
Octopus vulgaris is a unique model system for studying complex behaviors in animals. It has a large and centralized nervous system made up of lobes that are involved in controlling various sophisticated behaviors. As such, it may be considered as a model organism for untangling the neuronal mechanisms underlying behaviors-including learning and memory. However, despite considerable efforts, Octopus lags behind its other counterparts vis-à-vis its utility in deciphering the cellular, molecular and synaptic mechanisms underlying various behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Asao Yamauchi, Kiyoshi Yamauchi
Asian scalp hair fibers were made thin by treatment with papain or sliced along the longitudinal axis or randomly cut by mechanical means. Optical microscopic observations of the resulting specimens indicated that (i) the medulla (M) consisted of two types of the M-surrounding cells which were linearly linked one another to form a tubular structure running through the fiber and (ii) the drum-shaped vesicles containing small proteinous granules were neatly or sparsely stored within the tube. On the other hand, H+ and OH- ions were able to move spontaneously from one end to another through the M tube...
January 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Science
Hui Hong, Bimol C Roy, Meram Chalamaiah, Heather L Bruce, Jianping Wu
Small collagen peptides are associated with various benefits, such as bone and skin health. However, preparation of small collagen peptides from terrestrial vertebrate origins remains a challenge. Here, we show that pretreatment with formic acid enhanced the production of small collagen peptides from spent hen skin. After pretreatment with formic acid, the percentage of small peptides below 2 kDa increased to 48.92% and 43.34% from 33.79% and 36.32% for heat-soluble collagen (HSC) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC), respectively...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Ting Cai, Jinxin Qiu, Yan Ji, Wenjing Li, Zhaoyun Ding, Caixia Suo, Jiali Chang, Jingjing Wang, Rui He, Youcun Qian, Xiaohuan Guo, Liang Zhou, Huiming Sheng, Lei Shen, Ju Qiu
BACKGROUND: IL-17 plays a pathogenic role in asthma. ST2- iILC2s (inflammatory group 2 innate lymphoid cells) driven by IL-25 can produce IL-17, while ST2+ nILC2s (natural ILC2s) produce few IL-17. OBJECTIVE: We characterized the ST2+ IL-17+ ILC2s during lung inflammation and determined the pathogenesis and molecular regulation of ST2+ IL-17+ ILC2s. METHODS: Lung inflammation was induced by papain or IL-33. IL-17 production by lung ILC2s from wild-type, Rag1-/- , Rorcgfp/gfp and Ahr-/- mice was examined by flow cytometry...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Yu Fu, Jing Liu, Erik T Hansen, Wender L P Bredie, René Lametsch
The aim of this study was to use different enzyme mixtures to investigate the influence of peptide characteristics and taste of protein hydrolysates from bovine muscle and porcine plasma. Minced beef and porcine plasma were hydrolysed using 10 food-grade enzymes, including Protease A, Protease P, ProteAX, Flavourzyme, Alcalase, Papain, Bromelain, Protamex, Neutrase and Sumizyme BNP-L. The relationship between degree of hydrolysis (DH), molecular weight (MW) distribution, enzyme specificity, and sensory characteristics of hydrolysates were investigated...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Qubo Ni, Kaihang Lu, Jing Li, Yang Tan, Jun Qin, Jacques Magdalou, Liaobin Chen, Hui Wang
Background: Based on our previous findings that prenatal ethanol exposure in offspring increased susceptibility to adult osteoarthritis (OA), this study aimed to further investigate the direct toxicity of ethanol on fetal articular cartilage development. Methods: Rat bone marrow-derived stroma cells (BMSCs) were capsulated in alginate beads, incubated in a chondrogenic differentiation medium, and cultured for 4 weeks with ethanol treatment at concentrations of 0, 4, 20, and 100 mM...
March 29, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Hui Jiang, Jian Liu, Xiu-Juan Qin, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Jia-Rong Gao, Mei Meng, Yuan Wang, Ting Wang
The aim of the present study was to explore changes in the urinary metabolic spectrum in rats with knee osteoarthritis, using gas chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) to determine the metabonomic disease pathogenesis. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the control and model groups (n=8/group), and 20 µl of 4% papain and 0.03 M L-cysteine was injected into the right knee on days 1, 3 and 7 to establish the knee osteoarthritis model. Following 14 days, urine was collected over 12 h and cartilage ultrastructural damage was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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