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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099855/primary-cell-culture-of-live-neurosurgically-resected-aged-adult-human-brain-cells-and-single-cell-transcriptomics
#1
Jennifer M Spaethling, Young-Ji Na, Jaehee Lee, Alexandra V Ulyanova, Gordon H Baltuch, Thomas J Bell, Steven Brem, H Isaac Chen, Hannah Dueck, Stephen A Fisher, Marcela P Garcia, Mugdha Khaladkar, David K Kung, Timothy H Lucas, Donald M O'Rourke, Derek Stefanik, Jinhui Wang, John A Wolf, Tamas Bartfai, M Sean Grady, Jai-Yoon Sul, Junhyong Kim, James H Eberwine
Investigation of human CNS disease and drug effects has been hampered by the lack of a system that enables single-cell analysis of live adult patient brain cells. We developed a culturing system, based on a papain-aided procedure, for resected adult human brain tissue removed during neurosurgery. We performed single-cell transcriptomics on over 300 cells, permitting identification of oligodendrocytes, microglia, neurons, endothelial cells, and astrocytes after 3 weeks in culture. Using deep sequencing, we detected over 12,000 expressed genes, including hundreds of cell-type-enriched mRNAs, lncRNAs and pri-miRNAs...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088749/dual-channel-probe-of-carbon-dots-cooperating-with-gold-nanoclusters-employed-for-assaying-multiple-targets
#2
Kuncheng Yang, Shanshan Wang, Yingyi Wang, Hong Miao, Xiaoming Yang
Herein, carbon dots (CD@Papain) from papain have been originally synthesized in aqueous solution along with a quantum yield of 6.2%, and showed cyan fluorescence at 435nm. Meanwhile, papain-templated Au nanoclusters (AuNCs@Papain) were prepared with the same precursor. On the basis of the two types of nanomaterials, CD@Papain and AuNCs@Papain have been designed to assemble as one nanosensor (termed as CD-AuNCs@Papain) through a typical cross-linking reaction. Significantly, it not only emitted the dual-emission fluorescent signals with the same excitation, but also can assay multiple targets through exhibiting cyan, yellow, and red emission respectively...
January 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079137/x-ray-structure-and-enzymatic-activity-profile-of-a-core-papain-like-protease-of-mers-coronavirus-with-utility-for-structure-based-drug-design
#3
Jozlyn R Clasman, Yahira M Báez-Santos, Robert C Mettelman, Amornrat O'Brien, Susan C Baker, Andrew D Mesecar
Ubiquitin-like domain 2 (Ubl2) is immediately adjacent to the N-terminus of the papain-like protease (PLpro) domain in coronavirus polyproteins, and it may play a critical role in protease regulation and stability as well as in viral infection. However, our recent cellular studies reveal that removing the Ubl2 domain from MERS PLpro has no effect on its ability to process the viral polyprotein or act as an interferon antagonist, which involves deubiquitinating and deISGylating cellular proteins. Here, we test the hypothesis that the Ubl2 domain is not required for the catalytic function of MERS PLpro in vitro...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062237/physico-chemical-characterization-and-pharmacological-activities-of-sulfated-polysaccharide-from-sea-urchin-paracentrotus-lividus
#4
Yosra Ben Salem, Safa Amri, Khaoula Mkadmini Hammi, Amal Abdelhamid, Didier Le Cerf, Abderrahman Bouraoui, Hatem Majdoub
Sulfated polysaccharide (SP) from the eggs of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, extracted by papain digestion, was characterized by size exclusion chromatography coupling on-line with light scattering and viscosity detectors (SEC/MALS/VD/DRI), gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (GC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The native molecular mass of the extracted polysaccharide is high (≥22 000 KDa) and it is composed mainly of arabinose, accompanied by other monosaccharides (mostly galactose, glucose and fucose), significant amounts of uronic acids (18...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061816/major-cys-protease-activities-are-not-essential-for-senescence-in-individually-darkened-arabidopsis-leaves
#5
Adriana Pružinská, Takayuki Shindo, Sherry Niessen, Farnusch Kaschani, Réka Tóth, A Harvey Millar, Renier A L van der Hoorn
BACKGROUND: Papain-like Cys Proteases (PLCPs) and Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VPEs) are amongst the most highly expressed proteases during leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. Using activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), a method that enables detection of active enzymes within a complex sample using chemical probes, the activities of PLCPs and VPEs were investigated in individually darkened leaves of Arabidopsis, and their role in senescence was tested in null mutants. RESULTS: ABPP and mass spectrometry revealed an increased activity of several PLCPs, particularly RD21A and AALP...
January 6, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054451/structure-function-relationship-of-chikungunya-nsp2-protease-a-comparative-study-with-papain
#6
Chandrasekaran Ramakrishnan, Nidamarthi H V Kutumbarao, Sivasubramanian Suhitha, Devadasan Velmurugan
Chikungunya virus is a growing human pathogen transmitted by mosquito bite. It causes fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, headache, and swelling in the joints. Its replication and propagation depend on the protease activity of the Chikungunya virus-nsP2 protein, which cleaves the nsP1234 polyprotein replication complex into individual functional units. The N-terminal segment of papain is structurally identical with the Chikungunya virus-nsP2 protease. Hence, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to compare molecular mechanism of these proteases...
November 7, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053107/domain-organization-and-evolution-of-the-highly-divergent-5-coding-region-of-genomes-of-arteriviruses-including-the-novel-possum-nidovirus
#7
Anastasia Gulyaeva, Magdalena Dunowska, Erik Hoogendoorn, Julia Giles, Dmitry Samborskiy, Alexander E Gorbalenya
: In five experimentally characterized arterivirus species, the 5' -end genome coding region comprises most divergent nonstructural proteins (nsp) 1 and 2 that include papain-like proteases (PLPs) and other poorly characterized domains. They are involved in regulation of transcription, polyprotein processing, and virus-host interaction. Here, we present results of bioinformatics analysis of this region of 14 arterivirus species, including that of the most distantly related wobbly possum disease virus (WPDV), determined by a modified 5' RACE protocol...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052208/microleakage-evaluation-of-composite-restorations-following-papain-based-chemo-mechanical-caries-removal-in-primary-teeth
#8
Marwa Abdel Hafez, Mona Elkateb, Sonia El Shabrawy, Amel Mahmoud, Omar El Meligy
AIM: To evaluate the microleakage of composite restorations following Papain-based chemo-mechanical caries removal compared to the conventional drilling method. The characteristic of the hybrid layer was also studied using scanning electron microscopy. STUDY DESIGN: The sample included thirty freshly extracted and exfoliated primary molars with open proximal carious dentin lesions. Teeth were divided into two equal groups, according to method of caries removal. Following caries removal, cavity preparations were restored with composite resin...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042854/in-vitro-anti-thrombotic-activity-of-extracts-from-blacklip-abalone-haliotis-rubra-processing-waste
#9
Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria, Barney M Hines, Rama Addepalli, Wei Chen, Paul Masci, Glenda Gobe, Simone A Osborne
Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity...
December 31, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040601/a-novel-elastic-liposome-for-skin-delivery-of-papain-and-its-application-on-hypertrophic-scar
#10
Yan-Yan Chen, Ye-Hui Lu, Chun-Hua Ma, Wei-Wei Tao, Jing-Juan Zhu, Xu Zhang
This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of papain elastic liposomes (PEL) on hypertrophic scar through topical application. PEL were prepared using the reverse-phase evaporation method and optimized by response surface methodology. The transdermal absorption of optimized PEL was tested by vertical Franz diffusion cells in vitro. The effects of PEL were investigated in rabbit model of hypertrophic scar in vivo, histological analysis and scar-related proteins were detected to reveal potential scar repair mechanism...
December 29, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018000/development-of-protein-fortified-mango-based-ready-to-serve-beverage
#11
Deep N Yadav, R K Vishwakarma, Sanket Borad, Sangita Bansal, Arvind K Jaiswal, Monika Sharma
Fruit drinks contain negligible amount of protein as nutritional component. Fortification of fruit drinks with protein is a challenge due to protein stability in acidic and ionic environment. Mango ready-to-serve (RTS) beverage was fortified with modified whey protein and its rheological properties were studied. Whey protein was hydrolysed with papain to improve its stability in acidic medium. The water holding capacity of whey protein increased about two times after hydrolysis. Hydrolysed and native whey protein was used at 2, 3 and 4% levels for fortification of mango based RTS beverage...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003005/targeting-cysteine-proteases-from-plasmodium-falciparum-a-general-overview-rational-drug-design-and-computational-approaches-for-drug-discovery
#12
Boris D Bekono, Fidele Ntie-Kang, Luc C Owono Owono, Eugene Megnassan
The Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteases, also known as falcipains, are involved in different erythrocytic cycle processes of the malaria parasite, e.g. hydrolysis of host haemoglobin, erythrocyte invasion, and erythrocyte rupture. With the biochemical characterization of four falcipains so far, FP-2 (falcipain-2) and FP-3 (falcipain-3), members of the papain-like CAC1 family, are essential haemoglobinases. They could therefore be referred to as potential anti-malarial drug targets in the search for novel therapies, which could ease the burden caused by the increasing resistance to current anti-malarial drugs...
December 21, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992368/early-detection-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-rats-and-humans-with-99mtc-3prgd2-scintigraphy-imaging-synovial-neoangiogenesis
#13
Yu Wu, Guojian Zhang, Xiangcheng Wang, Zhenfang Zhao, Tao Wang, Xuemei Wang, Xiao-Feng Li
OBJECTIVES: To validate 99mTc-labeled arginylglycylaspartic acid (99mTc-3PRGD2) scintigraphy as a means to image synovial neoangiogenesis in joints afflicted by rheumatoid arthritis and to investigate its potential in the early detection and management of rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis were generated in Sprague Dawley rats by type II collagen immunization and papain injection, respectively. Rats were imaged with 99mTc-3PRGD2 and 99mTc- methyl diphosphonate (99mTc MDP)...
December 15, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989861/identification-and-activity-of-a-paralog-of-cathepsin-s-from-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-involved-in-immune-response
#14
Yun Wang, Xin Liu, Shuai Lv, Jinnan Ren, Fei Ke
Cathepsin S, a papain-like cysteine peptidase, is an important regulator and signaling molecule with diverse biological actions in addition to immune presentation. However, our understanding of its structure and properties remains limited. Herein, a full-length cathepsin Sa from yellow catfish was cloned and named PfCTSSa. It contained 1366 bp, including a 981 bp ORF flanked by a 123 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 262 bp 3'-UTR. This ORF encoded a 36.5 kD cysteine protease with the deduced amino acid sequence having a 76% sequence identity with Ictalurus punctatus ctssa...
December 15, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984825/colloid-adhesive-and-release-properties-of-nanoparticular-ternary-complexes-between-cationic-and-anionic-polysaccharides-and-basic-proteins-like-bone-morphogenetic-protein-bmp-2
#15
R Petzold, D Vehlow, B Urban, A L Grab, E A Cavalcanti-Adam, V Alt, M Müller
Herein we describe an interfacial local drug delivery system for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) based on coatings of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles (NP). The application horizon is the functionalization of bone substituting materials (BSM) used for the therapy of systemic bone diseases. Nanoparticular ternary complexes of cationic and anionic polysaccharides and BMP-2 or two further model proteins, respectively, were prepared in dependence of the molar mixing ratio, pH value and of the cationic polysaccharide...
November 24, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984146/deciphering-the-interaction-of-bovine-heart-cystatin-with-zno-nanoparticles-spectroscopic-and-thermodynamic-approach
#16
Aamir Sohail, Mohd Faraz, Hussain Arif, Sheraz Ahmad Bhat, Azad Alam Siddiqui, Bilqees Bano
ZnO-NPs have been widely used in biomedical fields such as therapeutics, cellular imaging, and drug delivery. However, the risk of exposure of nanoparticles to the biological system is not well understood. Nanoparticle-protein interaction is pivotal to understand their biological behavior and predict nanoparticle toxicity that is crucial for its safer applications. In the present study zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were synthesized and subjected to interact with buffalo heart cystatin (BHC), purified from buffalo heart, to assess the effect(s) of ZnO-NPs on the structure and function of BHC...
February 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984139/fc-fragments-of-immunoglobulin-g-are-an-inductor-of-regulatory-rheumatoid-factor-and-a-promising-therapeutic-agent-for-rheumatic-diseases
#17
Alexandr Sidorov, Liubov Beduleva, Igor Menshikov, Alexey Terentiev, Elena Stolyarova, Nadezhda Abisheva
We recently identified rheumatoid factor, the production of which neither predicts nor exacerbates experimental autoimmune disease, but the opposite, namely it is associated with autoimmune disease resistance and remission. We have named it regulatory rheumatoid factor (regRF). The aim of this study was to determine whether rat Fc fragments and human Fc fragments are an antigen for regRF, and to determine the conditions for obtaining them. The presence of an antigenic determinant for regRF on IgG fragments was inferred from the fragments' ability to inhibit the agglutination caused by regRF and to induce regRF production in vivo...
February 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979728/temsirolimus-induced-structural-transition-of-cancerous-renal-cystatin-to-normal-form-in-rats-in-vitro-mechanistic-approach-underlying-renal-cancer-prevention
#18
Anas Shamsi, Azaj Ahmed, Bilqees Bano
Globally, renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) represent a major portion of patients suffering from cancer. Temsirolimus is an anti-renal cancer drug that has already been approved in poor-risk metastatic RCC (mRCC) patients. In our present study, we have evaluated the in vitro effect of varying concentrations of temsirolimus on cancerous rat kidney cystatin; renal cancer was induced in rats making use of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). It has already been reported that cancerous rat kidney cystatin performs its activity in an efficacious manner as compared to normal rat kidney cystatin, so here an attempt was made to see the effect of temsirolimus on this increased activity of cystatin in renal cancers...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957760/isolation-and-characterization-of-anti-proliferative-peptides-from-chinese-three-striped-box-turtle-cuora-trifasciata
#19
Xinliang Mao, Shengjie He, Ting Zhang, Xiaolei Guo, Yazhong Ge, Chungwah Ma, Xuewu Zhang
In this study, the whole proteins from Chinese three-striped box turtle (Cuora trifasciata) were extracted, and hydrolyzed using three proteases (alcalase, papain and protamex). By orthogonal experiments, the optimal hydrolysis conditions for producing peptides with the highest cancer cells growth inhibition activity were determined. Such as, the maximum inhibition on MCF-7 cancer cells (92.37% at 1 mg/mL) was achieved by papain hydrolysis (pH 8, 37 ℃, enzyme to substrate ratio (E/S) 1.5%), and the maximum inhibition on HepG2 cancer cells (94...
December 13, 2016: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939307/papain-wound-dressings-obtained-from-poly-vinyl-alcohol-calcium-alginate-blends-as-new-pharmaceutical-dosage-form-preparation-and-preliminary-evaluation
#20
J A P Dutra, S G Carvalho, A C D Zampirolli, R D Daltoé, R M Teixeira, F P Careta, M A P Cotrim, R L Oréfice, J C O Villanova
Transparent, soft, flexible, mechanically resistant films, which are ideal for use as wound dressings were prepared in the presence of 2% papain, a proteolytic enzyme that can play a role in the chemical debridement of the skin and can accelerate the healing process. The films, based on poly(vinyl alcohol):calcium alginate blends with increasing concentrations of polysaccharide (10, 20, and 30% v/v), were obtained by casting method. FTIR and DSC analyses were performed to assess the composition and miscibility of blends...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
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