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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335458/in-vitro-antioxidant-activity-and-in-vivo-anti-fatigue-effect-of-sea-horse-hippocampus-peptides
#1
Zebin Guo, Duanquan Lin, Juanjuan Guo, Yi Zhang, Baodong Zheng
This study investigated changes the in vitro antioxidant activity of Hippocampus polypeptides during enzymatic hydrolysis, including the effects of enzyme species, enzyme concentration, material-liquid ratio, hydrolysis time, pH, and temperature of the reaction system. Its in vivo anti-fatigue activity was also studied. Hippocampus peptide prepared by papain digestion exhibited the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging rate (71.89% ± 1.50%) and strong hydroxyl radical scavenging rate (75...
March 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317180/anti-acsa-2-defines-a-novel-monoclonal-antibody-for-prospective-isolation-of-living-neonatal-and-adult-astrocytes
#2
Christina G Kantzer, Camille Boutin, Ina D Herzig, Carolina Wittwer, Sandy Reiß, Marie Catherine Tiveron, Jan Drewes, Thomas D Rockel, Stefanie Ohlig, Jovica Ninkovic, Harold Cremer, Sandra Pennartz, Melanie Jungblut, Andreas Bosio
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type of the central nervous system and cover a broad range of functionalities. We report here the generation of a novel monoclonal antibody, anti-astrocyte cell surface antigen-2 (Anti-ACSA-2). Flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry revealed that Anti-ACSA-2 reacted specifically with a not yet identified glycosylated surface molecule of murine astrocytes at all developmental stages. It did not show any labeling of non-astroglial cells such as neurons, oligodendrocytes, NG2(+) cells, microglia, endothelial cells, leukocytes, or erythrocytes...
March 20, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316013/the-papain-like-protease-of-avian-infectious-bronchitis-virus-has-deubiquitinating-activity
#3
Liping Yu, Xiaorong Zhang, Tianqi Wu, Yuyang Wang, Jie Meng, Qian Liu, Xiaosai Niu, Yantao Wu
Coronavirus papain-like proteases (PLPs) can act as proteases that process virus-encoded large replicase polyproteins and also as deubiquitinating (DUB) enzymes. Like the PLPs of other coronaviruses (CoVs), the avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) PLP catalyzes proteolysis of Gly-Gly dipeptide bonds to release mature cleavage products. However, the other functions of the IBV PLP are not well understood. In this study, we found that IBV exhibits strong global DUB activity with significant reductions of the levels of ubiquitin (Ub)-, K48-, and K63-conjugated proteins...
March 18, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295446/a-recombinant-cystatin-from-ascaris-lumbricoides-attenuates-inflammation-of-dss-induced-colitis
#4
Sandra Coronado, Luis Barrios, Josefina Zakzuk, Ronald Regino, Velky Ahumada, Luis Franco, Yanet Ocampo, Luis Caraballo
Helminthiasis may ameliorate inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and asthma. Information about immunomodulators from Ascaris lumbricoides is scarce, but could be important considering the co-evolutionary relationships between helminths and humans. We evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of a recombinant cystatin from A. lumbricoides on an acute model of Dextran Sodium Sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. From an A. lumbricoides cDNA library we obtained a recombinant cystatin (rAl-CPI)...
March 10, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284305/autodisplay-of-the-la-ssb-protein-on-lps-free-e-coli-for-the-diagnosis-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#5
Gu Yoo, Carina Dilkaute, Ji-Hong Bong, Hyun-Woo Song, Misu Lee, Min-Jung Kang, Joachim Jose, Jae-Chul Pyun
The objective of this study was to present an immunoassay for the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome based on the autodisplayed La/SSB protein on the outer membrane of intact E. coli (strain UT-5600) and LPS-free E. coli (ClearColi™). As the first step, an autodisplay vector (pCK002) was transfected into intact E. coli and LPS-free E. coli for comparison of efficiency of autdisplay of La/SSB. The maximal level of La/SSB expression was estimated to be similar for LPS-free E. coli and intact E. coli at different optimal induction periods...
May 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275135/nk-cells-alleviate-lung-inflammation-by-negatively-regulating-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#6
Jiacheng Bi, Lulu Cui, Guang Yu, Xiaolu Yang, Youhai Chen, Xiaochun Wan
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play an important role in orchestrating type II immune responses. However, the cellular mechanisms of group 2 innate lymphoid cell regulation remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that activated NK cells inhibited the proliferation of, as well as IL-5 and IL-13 production by, ILC2s in vitro via IFN-γ. In addition, in a murine model of ILC2 expansion in the liver, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, an NK cell-activating agent, inhibited ILC2 proliferation, IL-5 and IL-13 production, and eosinophil recruitment...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258196/downregulation-of-e-protein-activity-augments-an-ilc2-differentiation-program-in-the-thymus
#7
Hong-Cheng Wang, Liangyue Qian, Ying Zhao, Joni Mengarelli, Indra Adrianto, Courtney G Montgomery, Joseph F Urban, Kar-Ming Fung, Xiao-Hong Sun
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are important regulators in various immune responses. The current paradigm states that all newly made ILCs originate from common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow. Id2, an inhibitor of E protein transcription factors, is indispensable for ILC differentiation. Unexpectedly, we found that ectopically expressing Id1 or deleting two E protein genes in the thymus drastically increased ILC2 counts in the thymus and other organs where ILC2 normally reside. Further evidence suggests a thymic origin of these mutant ILC2s...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250277/molecular-dynamic-studies-of-interferon-and-innate-immunity-resistance-in-mers-cov-non-structural-protein-3
#8
Manal Alfuwaires, Abdallah Altaher, Mahmoud Kandeel
The new emerging Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS CoV) encodes several resistance proteins against the innate immune response of the host, including interferon (IFN) resistance. Monitoring of the status of such proteins will be important to track viral pathogenicity. In this study, molecular dynamics approaches were used to investigate MERS CoV Non-Structural Protein 3 (NSP3) specific proteins that resist host innate immunity. MERS CoV papain-like protease (Plpro) was more conformationally flexible than Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV (SARS) CoV Plpro...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242948/optimization-of-process-parameters-for-the-production-of-collagen-peptides-from-fish-skin-epinephelus-malabaricus-using-response-surface-methodology-and-its-characterization
#9
G S Hema, C G Joshy, K Shyni, Niladri S Chatterjee, George Ninan, Suseela Mathew
The study optimized the hydrolysis conditions for the production of fish collagen peptides from skin of Malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus) using response surface methodology. The hydrolysis was done with enzymes pepsin, papain and protease from bovine pancreas. Effects of process parameters viz: pH, temperature, enzyme substrate ratio and hydrolysis time of the three different enzymes on degree of hydrolysis were investigated. The optimum response of degree of hydrolysis was estimated to be 10, 20 and 28% respectively for pepsin, papain and protease...
February 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238440/the-proteolytic-system-of-pineapple-stems-revisited-purification-and-characterization-of-multiple-catalytically-active-forms
#10
André Matagne, Laetitia Bolle, Rachida El Mahyaoui, Danielle Baeyens-Volant, Mohamed Azarkan
Crude pineapple proteases extract (aka stem bromelain; EC 3.4.22.4) is an important proteolytic mixture that contains enzymes belonging to the cysteine proteases of the papain family. Numerous studies have been reported aiming at the fractionation and characterization of the many molecular species present in the extract, but more efforts are still required to obtain sufficient quantities of the various purified protease forms for detailed physicochemical, enzymatic and structural characterization. In this work, we describe an efficient strategy towards the purification of at least eight enzymatic forms...
February 23, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231319/development-of-a-keratinase-activity-assay-using-recombinant-chicken-feather-keratin-substrates
#11
Hyeon-Su Jin, Seon Yeong Park, Kyungmin Kim, Yong-Jik Lee, Gae-Won Nam, Nam Joo Kang, Dong-Woo Lee
Poultry feathers consist mainly of the protein keratin, which is rich in β-pleated sheets and consequently resistant to proteolysis. Although many keratinases have been identified, the reasons for their substrate specificity towards β-keratin remain unclear due to difficulties in preparing a soluble feather keratin substrate for use in activity assays. In the present study, we overexpressed Gallus gallus chromosomes 2 and 27 β-keratin-encoding genes in Escherichia coli, purified denatured recombinant proteins by Ni2+ affinity chromatography, and refolded by stepwise dialysis to yield soluble keratins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223134/investigation-of-activity-and-stability-of-papain-by-adsorption-on-multi-wall-carbon-nanotubes
#12
Ahmad Homaei, Fayezeh Samari
Papain was non- covalently immobilized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Its stabilities and catalytic activity for casein degradation were comprehensively investigated. Compared to free papain, the nano- enzyme exhibited significantly improved thermal, pH and recycling stability. Comparisons of the kinetic parameters between free papain and the heterogeneous enzyme revealed that the Km value of the immobilized papain experienced a slight increase, which suggested that the MWCNTs did not significantly hinder papain's access to substrate or release of product...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215677/pyridoxine-supplementation-during-oocyte-maturation-improves-the-development-and-quality-of-bovine-preimplantation-embryos
#13
Mansour Aboelenain, Ahmed Zaky Balboula, Manabu Kawahara, Abd El-Monem Montaser, Samy Moawad Zaabel, Sung-Woo Kim, Masashi Nagano, Masashi Takahashi
Recently, inhibition of cathepsin B (CTSB) activity during in vitro maturation (IVM) and culture (IVC) improved the developmental competence and quality of bovine oocytes and embryos. E-64 is a widely used inhibitor to inhibit CTSB activity, however, E-64 inhibits not only CTSB activity but also the activities of other proteases including cathepsin L (CTSL), papain, calpain, and trypsin. Pyridoxine, the catalytically active form of vitamin B6, plays a crucial role in several cellular processes and has the ability to inhibit CTSB activity...
March 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215327/enzymes-in-fermented-fish
#14
Giyatmi, H E Irianto
Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214581/oxadiargyl-induced-conformational-transition-of-cystatin-isolated-from-yellow-mustard-seeds-biophysical-and-biochemical-approach
#15
Azaj Ahmed, Anas Shamsi, Bilqees Bano
Phytocystatins are thiol proteinase inhibitors crucial due to their inhibitory activity in plants. These play important roles in improving crop yield, protection against insects and pathogens and modulation of apoptosis. In this chemical era, various pesticides are being used globally to increase the crop biomass. These pesticides accumulate in plant body and produce harmful effects on plants itself by interacting with essential proteins. In this present study, we have monitored the interaction of a herbicide; oxadiargyl, with phytocystatin isolated from yellow mustard seeds (YMP) by employing spectroscopic techniques viz...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212929/structural-analysis-of-a-homogeneous-polysaccharide-from-achatina-fulica
#16
Jie Liu, Feineng Shang, Zengming Yang, Mingyi Wu, Jinhua Zhao
Edible snails have been widely used as a health food and medicine in many countries. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (AF-1) was isolated and purified from Achatina fulica by papain enzymolysis, alcohol precipitation and strong anion exchange chromatography. Structureof the polysaccharide was analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, analysis of monosaccharide composition, methylation analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC)...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209036/-primary-culture-and-functional-identification-of-distal-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-in-mice
#17
M C Li, Y Q Chen, C T Zhang, Q Jiang, W J Lu, J Wang
Objective: To establish a method of isolation and primary culture of mice distal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and identify the functional properties. Methods: PASMCs were harvested from the distal pulmonary artery (PA) tissue of mice by enzymatic digestion of collagenaseⅠand papain; and the growth characteristics were observed under inverted microscope and identified by Immunofluorescence technique. Effects on the intracellular calcium ion concentration of distal PASMCs were detected by Fura-2-AM fluorescent probe tracer under a fluorescence microscope in Krebs solution containing clopiazonic acid (CPA) and nifedipin (Nif)...
February 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188928/the-papain-like-cysteine-proteinases-nbcysp6-and-nbcysp7-are-highly-processive-enzymes-with-substrate-specificities-complementary-to-nicotiana-benthamiana-cathepsin-b
#18
Melanie Paireder, Stefan Tholen, Andreas Porodko, Martin L Biniossek, Bettina Mayer, Marko Novinec, Oliver Schilling, Lukas Mach
The tobacco-related plant Nicotiana benthamiana is gaining interest as a versatile host for the production of monoclonal antibodies and other protein therapeutics. However, the susceptibility of plant-derived recombinant proteins to endogenous proteolytic enzymes limits their use as biopharmaceuticals. We have now identified two previously uncharacterized N. benthamiana proteases with high antibody-degrading activity, the papain-like cysteine proteinases NbCysP6 and NbCysP7. Both enzymes are capable of hydrolysing a wide range of synthetic substrates, although only NbCysP6 tolerates basic amino acids in its specificity-determining S2 subsite...
April 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165668/plant-life-needs-cell-death-but-does-plant-cell-death-need-cys-proteases
#19
REVIEW
Daniela J Sueldo, Renier A L van der Hoorn
Caspases are key regulators of apoptosis in animals. This correlation has driven plant researchers for decades to look for caspases regulating programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. These studies revealed caspase-like activities, caspase-related proteases, and cysteine (Cys) proteases regulating PCD in plants, but identified no caspases and no conserved, apoptosis-like death pathway. Here, we critically review the evidence for Cys proteases implicated in PCD in plants. We discuss the role of papain-like Cys proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and metacaspases in PCD during the development of tracheary elements, seed coat, suspensor, and tapetum, and during the hypersensitive response...
February 6, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157418/whitening-efficacy-of-whitening-mouth-rinses-used-alone-or-in-conjunction-with-carbamide-peroxide-home-whitening
#20
Jbs Oliveira, R S Sarlo, E Bresciani, Tmf Caneppele
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of whitening mouth rinses on teeth previously whitened or not, exposed to food dyes. METHODS AND MATERIALS: One hundred twenty enamel-dentin specimens, 3 mm in diameter, were obtained from bovine incisors. The specimens were stained for 14 days in staining broth. After staining, the initial color reading was performed via a spectrophotometer CM-2600d (Konica Minolta). Half of specimens were submitted to whitening (10% carbamide peroxide [CP]) for 14 days...
February 3, 2017: Operative Dentistry
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