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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923082/characterization-of-a-secreted-cystatin-of-the-parasitic-nematode-haemonchus-contortus-and-its-immune-modulatory-effect-on-goat-monocytes
#1
Yujian Wang, Lingyan Wu, Xinchao Liu, Shuai Wang, Muhammad Ehsan, RuoFeng Yan, XiaoKai Song, LiXin Xu, XiangRui Li
BACKGROUND: Haemonchosis is a disease of the small ruminant caused by a nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus, and it is most important and alarming challenges to the small ruminant's production. The infection of the H. contortus could cause high economic losses worldwide. H. contortus is a blood feeding parasite which penetrates into the abomasal mucosa to feed the blood of the host and causing the anemia and decreased total plasma protein. Modulation and suppression of the immune response of the host by nematode parasites have been reported extensively, and the cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin) is identified as one of the major immunomodulators...
September 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917871/inhibition-of-gelatinized-rice-starch-retrogradation-by-rice-bran-protein-hydrolysates
#2
Liya Niu, Leiyan Wu, Jianhui Xiao
The retrogradation of gelatinized rice starch (GRS) during the shelf life of a product is the biggest barrier related to starch-containing foods. The objective of this study was to produce rice bran protein hydrolysate (RBPH) using proteolytic enzymes (alcalase, flavourzyme, protamex, neutrase, bromelain, papain and trypsin) to suppress the retrogradation of GRS and understand the physical phenomena underlying the reduced retrogradation of GRS by RBPH during short- and long-term storage. Mixtures of GRS incorporated with Protamex-hydrolyzed rice bran protein at 1h (PRBPH-1) at a degree of hydrolysis of 15...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887189/fluorescence-spectroscopic-analysis-of-the-interaction-of-papain-and-bromelain-with-l-ascorbic-acid-%C3%AE-tocopherol-%C3%AE-carotene-and-astaxanthin
#3
Xiangrong Li, Zhenhua Yang, Yulin Bai
In this study, the interaction between four classic dietary antioxidants (including L-ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and astaxanthin) and papain/bromelain was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The results show that the quenching mechanisms are all static quenching at lower concentrations of antioxidants, but at higher concentrations of antioxidants, predominantly by the "sphere of action" quenching mechanisms. The binding processes of the four antioxidants to papain/bromelain are all synergistically driven by enthalpy and entropy, and the major driving forces are electrostatic effect and hydrophobic interactions...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880066/environmentally-safe-mercury-ii-ions-aided-zero-background-and-ultrasensitive-sers-detection-of-dipicolinic-acid
#4
Xiang-Ru Bai, Yi Zeng, Xiao-Dong Zhou, Xiao-Hua Wang, Ai-Guo Shen, Ji-Ming Hu
Field, reliable, and ultrasensitive detection of dipicolinic acid (DPA), a general biomarker of bacterial spores and especially Bacillus anthracis, is highly desirable but still challenging in current biometric security emergency response system. Herein we report an environmentally safe mercury(II) ions-mediated and competitive coordination interaction based approach for rationally designed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), enabling rapid, ultrasensitive and zero-background detection of DPA without the pretreatment of samples...
September 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875196/preparation-and-antithrombotic-activity-identification-of-perinereis-aibuhitensis-extract-a-high-temperature-and-wide-ph-range-stable-biological-agent
#5
Yang Li, Jing Li, Tianhong Liu, Ying Wang, Zhongzheng Zhou, Feng Cheng, Chao Feng, Xiaojie Cheng, Hongjun Liu, Xiguang Chen
In this work, a thermal and wide pH range (from 1 to 13) stable biological agent was extracted from Perinereis aibuhitensis (P. aibuhitensis), and the antithrombotic activity of this P. aibuhitensis extract (PaE) was investigated. In vitro antithrombotic activity test indicated that PaE could significantly extend the clotting time of recalcified rabbit blood: the clotting time of the 10 mg mL(-1), 20 mg mL(-1) and 40 mg mL(-1) PaE groups increased by 24.24%, 68.64% and 130.76%, respectively. Further platelet poor plasma (PPP) coagulation study proved that PaE could obviously inhibit the intrinsic coagulation pathway and slightly inhibit the extrinsic coagulation pathway...
September 6, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867503/a-generic-approach-for-simultaneous-measurements-of-total-antibody-and-cleavable-antibody-conjugated-drug-by-lc-ms-ms
#6
Ling Xu, Laura E Packer, Chao Li, Kojo Abdul-Hadi, Petter Veiby
The current industry practice for antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) bioanalysis includes quantification of total antibody and antibody-conjugated drug. Here, we report a novel 2-in-1 approach for measuring total antibody and protease-cleavable conjugated drug Monomethyl Auristatin E (MMAE) concurrently. This allows for the determination of the DAR (Drug Antibody Ratio) for in vivo samples, with a 3-orders linear range based on total antibody concentration from 0.1 to 100 μg/mL. Our generic, concurrent method has been cross-validated with the previously established methods in an animal study...
September 1, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864390/protease-functionalized-mucus-penetrating-microparticles-in-vivo-evidence-for-their-potential
#7
Arshad Mahmood, Flavia Laffleur, Gintare Leonaviciute, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
The focus of the current study was to explore whether immobilization of proteases to microparticles could result in their enhanced penetration into mucus. The proteases papain (PAP) and bromelain (BROM) were covalently attached to a polyacrylate (PAA; Carbopol 971P) via amide bond formation based on carbodiimide reaction. Microparticles containing these conjugates were generated via ionic gelation with calcium chloride and were characterized regarding size, surface charge, enzymatic activity and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) loading efficiency...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859880/cathepsin-o-is-involved-in-the-innate-immune-response-and-metamorphosis-of-antheraea-pernyi
#8
Yu-Xuan Sun, Bao-Jian Zhu, Lin Tang, Yu Sun, Chen Chen, Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Lei Wang, Cen Qian, Guo-Qing Wei, Chao-Liang Liu
Cathepsins are key members of mammalian papain-like cysteine proteases that play an important role in the immune response. In this study, a fragment of cDNA encoding cathepsin O proteinase (ApCathepsin O) was cloned from Antheraea pernyi. It contains an open reading frame of 1170bp and encodes a protein with 390 amino acid residues, including a conserved I29 inhibitor domain and a peptidase C1A (clan CA of cysteine proteases, papain family C1 subfamily) domain. Comparison with other previously reported cathepsin O proteins showed identity ranging from 45% to 79%...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846731/involvement-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-endoplasmic-reticulum-kdel-tailed-cysteine-endopeptidase-1-atcep1-in-powdery-mildew-induced-and-atcpr5-controlled-cell-death
#9
Timo Höwing, Marcel Dann, Caroline Hoefle, Ralph Hückelhoven, Christine Gietl
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a prerequisite for successful development and it limits the spread of biotrophic pathogens in a rapid hypersensitive response at the site of infection. KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidases (KDEL CysEP) are a subgroup of papain-type cysteine endopeptidases expressed in tissues undergoing PCD. In Arabidopsis, three KDEL CysEPs (AtCEP1, AtCEP2, and AtCEP3) are expressed. We have previously shown that AtCEP1 is a factor of basal resistance to powdery mildew caused by the biotrophic ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum, and is expressed in spatiotemporal association with the late fungal development on Arabidopsis leaves...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805498/gingiskhan%C3%A2-protease-cleavage-allows-a-high-throughput-antibody-to-fab-conversion-enabling-direct-functional-assessment-during-lead-identification-of-human-monoclonal-and-bispecific-igg1-antibodies
#10
Jörg Moelleken, Manuel Endesfelder, Christian Gassner, Sabine Lingke, Simone Tomaschek, Oksana Tyshchuk, Stefan Lorenz, Ulrike Reiff, Michael Mølhøj
The determination of the binding strength of immunoglobulins (IgGs) to targets can be influenced by avidity when the targets are soluble di- or multimeric proteins, or associated to cell surfaces, including surfaces introduced from heterogeneous assays. However, for the understanding of the contribution of a second drug-to-target binding site in molecular design, or for ranking of monovalent binders during lead identification, affinity-based assessment of the binding strength is required. Typically, monovalent binders like antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) are generated by proteolytic cleavage with papain, which often results in a combination of under- and over-digestion, and requires specific optimization and chromatographic purification of the desired Fabs...
August 14, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800544/protease-loaded-permeation-enhancer-liposomes-for-treatment-of-skin-fibrosis-arisen-from-second-degree-burn
#11
Kamini Sahu, Monika Kaurav, Ravi Shankar Pandey
Cysteine protease (papain) is a plant derived enzyme and due to its collagenolytic activity has potential in fibrosis reduction. However, a major hurdle in its use as fibrosis reducing agent is to overcome stratum corneum skin barrier via topical application, owing to its hydrophilic and high molecular weight and protein nature which is prone to degradation. The aim of the present study was to develop a penetration enhancer incorporated drug delivery system, i.e. propylene glycol (PG) liposomes, loaded with papain for application in fibrosis therapy...
October 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799505/single-molecular-level-probing-of-structure-and-dynamics-of-papain-under-denaturation
#12
Bhaswati Sengupta, Apala Chaudhury, Nilimesh Das, Pratik Sen
INTRODUCTION: Papain is a cysteine protease enzyme present in papaya and known to help in digesting peptide. Thus the structure and function of the active site of papain is of interest. OBJECTIVE: The objective of present study is to unveil the overall structural transformation and the local structural change around the active site of papain as a function of chemical denaturant. METHODS: Papain has been tagged at Cys-25 with a thiol specific fluorescence probe N-(7-dimethylamino-4-methylcoumarin-3-yl) iodoacetamide (DACIA)...
August 11, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791512/purification-of-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-ace-inhibitory-peptides-from-casein-hydrolysate-by-imac-ni-2
#13
Shanguang Wu, Xuezhen Feng, Yuan Lu, Yuting Lu, Saisai Liu, Yuhong Tian
Casein proteins were hydrolyzed by papain to identify inhibitory peptides of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). The hydrolysate was fractionized by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC-Ni(2+)). The fraction with high ACE inhibitory activity was enriched and further chromatographed on a reverse-phase column to yield four fractions. Among the fractions, the L4 fraction exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity and was identified by sequence analysis as Trp-Tyr-Leu-His-Tyr-Ala (WYLHYA), with IC50 value of 16...
August 8, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782582/development-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-a-papain-loaded-mucolytic-self-emulsifying-drug-delivery-system-sedds
#14
Christina Leichner, Claudia Menzel, Flavia Laffleur, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
The aim of the study was to create a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) with mucolytic properties based on incorporated papain for improved mucus permeation. In order to increase the lipophilicity of the enzyme and to dissolve it in SEDDS, hydrophobic ion pairing with sodium deoxycholate in a molar ratio of 20:1 (surfactant: enzyme) was performed. The yield of precipitated papain was 86.8±2.7% and the ion pair was loaded into the formulations to 1% (m/m). Suitable formulations were chosen according to their properties to dissolve the ion pair and characterized regarding droplet size and polydispersity index...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771551/computational-investigation-of-conformational-variability-and-allostery-in-cathepsin-k-and-other-related-peptidases
#15
Marko Novinec
Allosteric targeting is progressively gaining ground as a strategy in drug design. Its success, however, depends on our knowledge of the investigated system. In the case of the papain-like cysteine peptidase cathepsin K, a major obstacle in our understanding of allostery is represented by the lack of observable conformational change at the active site. This makes it difficult to understand how binding of effectors at known allosteric sites translates into modified enzyme activity. Herein, we address this issue by a computational approach based on experimental data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754039/nanodiamond-chymotrypsin-and-nanodiamond-papain-conjugates-their-synthesis-and-activity-and-visualization-of-their-interaction-with-cells-using-optical-and-electron-microscopy
#16
Sergey A Golyshev, Anna K Berkovich, Ruslan Yu Yakovlev, Dmitry M Bystrov, Nikita M Ivanov, Galina N Balandina, Galina N Rudenskaya
Two novel conjugates of detonation nanodiamonds (dNDs) with the proteolytic enzymes chymotrypsin and papain were synthesized. The synthesis was performed via functionalization of the dNDs' surface with acidic/alkali treatment followed by carbodiimide-mediated protein binding. Covalent binding of the enzymes was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectrographic analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) amino acid analysis. HPLC also proved the preservation of the enzymes' composition during synthesis...
July 28, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752264/papain-like-cysteine-protease-encoding-genes-in-rubber-hevea-brasiliensis-comparative-genomics-phylogenetic-and-transcriptional-profiling-analysis
#17
Zhi Zou, Guishui Xie, Lifu Yang
43 HbPLCPs representing nine subfamilies or 20 orthologous groups were found in rubber, where paralogs were resulted from the recent WGD and local duplication. Several senescence-associated genes were also identified. Papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) comprise a large family of proteolytic enzymes involved in plant growth and development, seed germination, organ senescence, immunity, and stress response. Despite their importance and the extensive research in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, little information is available on rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), a rubber-producing plant of the Euphorbiaceae family...
July 27, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731389/protease-hydrolysates-of-filefish-thamnaconus-modestus-byproducts-effectively-inhibit-foodborne-pathogens
#18
Shaimaa Hatab, Mei-Ling Chen, Wenhua Miao, Jiheng Lin, Dandan Wu, Changyu Wang, Pengxiang Yuan, Shanggui Deng
In this study, novel antimicrobial peptides had been derived by enzymatic hydrolysis of filefish (Thamnaconus modestus) byproduct (HFBP). Different proteases, (papain [P], trypsin [T], neutrase [N], pepsin [PE], and the mixture I [PN] and mixture II [PT]) and different hydrolysis time (60, 120, 180, and 240 min), have been used to generate peptides with different lengths and amino acid sequences. The antimicrobial properties of HFBPs were tested, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using disc diffusion method...
July 21, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730605/contributions-of-interleukin-33-and-tslp-in-a-papain-soaked-contact-lens-induced-mouse-conjunctival-inflammation-model
#19
Jobu Sugita, Yosuke Asada, Waka Ishida, Satoshi Iwamoto, Katsuko Sudo, Hajime Suto, Toru Matsunaga, Ken Fukuda, Atsuki Fukushima, Norihiko Yokoi, Tatsukuni Ohno, Miyuki Azuma, Nobuyuki Ebihara, Hirohisa Saito, Masato Kubo, Susumu Nakae, Akira Matsuda
INTRODUCTION: Pathological changes of severe chronic allergic conjunctivitis are driven not only via acquired immunity but also via innate immunity. Type 2 immune response-initiating cytokines may play some roles as innate immunity-dependent components of the ocular surface inflammation. To investigate the involvement of type 2 immune response-initiating cytokines in innate immunity-dependent, papain-induced conjunctival inflammation model using IL-25-, IL-33-, and TSLP receptor (TSLPR)-knockout (KO) mice with reference to basophils and ILC2...
July 20, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720947/reduction-of-whey-protein-concentrate-antigenicity-by-using-a-combined-enzymatic-digestion-and-ultrafiltration-approach
#20
Laura Quintieri, Linda Monaci, Federico Baruzzi, Maria Gabriella Giuffrida, Silvia de Candia, Leonardo Caputo
The global interest in saving food resources is leading to recycle wasted-food materials to extract useful nutrients. In dairy industry, the recycling of whey proteins determines their utilization in the healthy-addressed foods, which, however, can cause immunological responses in allergic subjects. In this work, a whey protein concentrate (WPC) was alternatively hydrolyzed with pepsin, papain, trypsin and rennin in order to attenuate or abolish the β-lactoglobulin (BLG) antigenicity. The electrophoretic profiles of both pepsin and papain WPC hydrolysates proved the disappearance of the BLG band, even though a slight antigenicity was still found by ELISA...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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