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chondroitin sulfate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102426/improved-anticoagulant-effect-of-fucosylated-chondroitin-sulfate-orally-administered-as-gastro-resistant-tablets
#1
Roberto J C Fonseca, Isabela D Sucupira, Stephan Nicollas M C G Oliveira, Gustavo R Santos, Paulo A S Mourão
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is a potent anticoagulant polysaccharide extracted from sea cucumber. Its anticoagulant activity is attributed to the presence of unique branches of sulfated fucose. Although this glycosaminoglycan exerts an antithrombotic effect following oral administration, high doses are necessary to achieve the maximum effect. The diminished activity of FucCS following oral administration is likely due to its degradation in the gastrointestinal tract and its limited ability to cross the intestinal cell membranes...
January 19, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101951/rigidity-and-flexibility-in-the-tetrasaccharide-linker-of-proteoglycans-from-atomic-resolution-molecular-simulation
#2
Cathy Ng, Padmavathy Nandha Premnath, Olgun Guvench
Proteoglycans (PGs) are covalent conjugates between protein and carbohydrate (glycosaminoglycans). Certain classes of glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate utilize a specific tetrasaccharide linker for attachment to the protein component: GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-3Galβ1-4Xylβ1-O-Ser. Toward understanding the conformational preferences of this linker, the present work used all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with Adaptive Biasing Force (ABF) sampling to determine high-resolution, high-precision conformational free energy maps ΔG(φ, ψ) for each glycosidic linkage between constituent disaccharides, including the variant where GlcA is substituted with IdoA...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101734/chondroitin-sulfates-and-their-binding-molecules-in-the-central-nervous-system
#3
REVIEW
L Djerbal, H Lortat-Jacob, Jcf Kwok
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is the most abundant glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in the central nervous system (CNS) matrix. Its sulfation and epimerization patterns give rise to different forms of CS, which enables it to interact specifically and with a significant affinity with various signalling molecules in the matrix including growth factors, receptors and guidance molecules. These interactions control numerous biological and pathological processes, during development and in adulthood. In this review, we describe the specific interactions of different families of proteins involved in various physiological and cognitive mechanisms with CSs in CNS matrix...
January 18, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098860/chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycan-protein-is-stimulated-by-interleukin%C3%A2-11-and-promotes-endometrial-epithelial-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-migration
#4
Amy Winship, Michelle Van Sinderen, Ariella Heffernan-Marks, Eva Dimitriadis
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer. We identified interleukin 11 (IL11) as a critical mediator of endometrial tumourigenesis and demonstrated that IL11 regulates chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG4) in human placental trophoblasts. CSPG4 is a cell membrane protein overexpressed in numerous human cancers, although its role in endometrial cancer has not been investigated. We examined CSPG4 expression and localization in primary human type I endometrioid grade (G) 1-3 tumours by qPCR and immunohistochemistry and determined whether IL11 stimulated CSPG4...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091940/purification-and-sequence-characterization-of-chondroitin-sulfate-and-dermatan-sulfate-from-fishes
#5
Na Lin, Xiaoli Mo, Yang Yang, Hong Zhang
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) were extracted and purified from skins or bones of salmon (Salmo salar), snakehead (Channa argus), monkfish (Lophius litulon) and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). Size, structural sequences and sulfate groups of oligosaccharides in the purified CS and DS could be characterized and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with Orbitrap mass spectrometry. CS and DS chain structure varies depending on origin, but motif structure appears consistent...
January 14, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087981/humanized-chondroitinase-abc-sensitizes-glioblastoma-cells-to-temozolomide
#6
Alena Cristina Jaime-Ramirez, Nina Dmitrieva, Ji Young Yoo, Yeshavanth Banasavadi-Siddegowda, Jianying Zhang, Theresa Relation, Chelsea Bolyard-Blessing, Jeffrey Wojton, Balveen Kaur
INTRODUCTION: Malignant gliomas (GBMs) are extremely aggressive and have a median survival of approximately 15 months. Current treatment modalities, which include surgical resection, radiation and chemotherapy, have done little to prolong the lives of GBM patients. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) are critical for cell-cell and cell-extra cellular matrix (ECM) interactions and are implicated in glioma growth and invasion. Chondroitinase (Chase) ABC is a bacterial enzyme that cleaves chondroitin sulfate disaccharide chains from CSPGs in the tumor ECM...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078503/efficacy-of-pulsed-nd-yag-laser-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Mohamed Salaheldien Mohamed Alayat, Tarek Helmy Ahmed Aly, Aly Elsayed Mohamed Elsayed, Ammar Suliman Mohamed Fadil
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pulsed Nd:YAG laser plus glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate (GCS) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) by examining changes in pain and knee function, as well as synovial thickness (ST) and femoral cartilage thickness (FCT). Sixty-seven male patients participated, with a mean (SD) age of 53.85 (4.39) years, weight of 84.01 (4.70) kg, height of 171.51 (3.96) cm, and BMI of 28.56 (1.22). Group 1 was treated with high-intensity laser therapy (HILT), GCS, and exercises (HILT + GCS + EX)...
January 11, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073063/self-assembled-micelles-based-on-chondroitin-sulfate-poly-d-l-lactideco-glycolide-block-copolymers-for-doxorubicin-delivery
#8
Hui Zhang, Jiangkang Xu, Liang Xing, Jianbo Ji, Aihua Yu, Guangxi Zhai
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most common chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of various cancers, but its clinical usage is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. We have recently synthesized a series of Chondroitin sulfate/poly (d,l-lactideco-glycolide) block copolymers (Chs-b-PLGA) with different length of hydrophobic block by an end-to-end coupling strategy. The structure of the amphiphilic block copolymers with low critical micelle concentration (∼28mg/L) were confirmed by (1)H NMR. The copolymers could self-assemble into stable micelles in aqueous environment with homogeneous size distribution and negative zeta potential...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064322/-zinc-induced-interactions-of-the-metal-binding-domain-of-beta-amyloid-with-nucleic-acids-and-glycosaminoglycans
#9
S A Khmeleva, S A Kozin, Y Y Kiseleva, V A Mitkevich, A A Makarov, S P Radko
Zinc ions form complexes with β-amyloid peptides and play an important role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. It has been demonstrated by turbidimetry and correlation spectroscopy that synthetic peptide Aβ16 representing the metal-binding domain of β-amyloid is able to interact with nucleic acids, chondroitin polysulfate, and dextran sulfates in the presence of zinc ions. The amino acid D7H substitution enhanced the peptide binding to polyanions, whereas the H6R and H6A-H13A substitutions abolished this interaction...
November 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053085/inhibition-of-mammalian-glycoprotein-ykl-40-identification-of-the-physiological-ligand
#10
Abhishek A Kognole, Christina M Payne
YKL-40 is a mammalian glycoprotein associated with progression, severity, and prognosis of chronic inflammatory diseases and a multitude of cancers. Despite this well-documented association, identification of the lectin's physiological ligand, and accordingly, biological function, has proven experimentally difficult. YKL-40 has been shown to bind chito-oligosaccharides; however, the production of chitin by the human body has not yet been documented. Possible alternative ligands include proteoglycans, polysaccharides, and fibers like collagen, all of which makeup the extracellular matrix...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049392/chondroitin-sulfate-cs-lyases-structure-function-and-application-in-therapeutics
#11
Aruna Rani, Seema Patel, Arun Goyal
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) are the chief natural polysaccharides which reside in biological tissues mainly in extracellular matrix. These CS along with adhesion molecules and growth factors are involved in central nervous system (CNS) development, cell progression and pathogenesis. The chondroitin lyases are the enzyme that degrade and alter the CS chains and hence modify various signalling pathways involving CS chains. These CS lyases are substrate specific, can precisely manipulate the CS polysaccharides and have various biotechnological, medical and therapeutic applications...
January 2, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043182/biocompatible-complex-coated-with-glycosaminoglycan-for-gene-delivery
#12
Marie Iwanaga, Yukinobu Kodama, Takahiro Muro, Hiroo Nakagawa, Tomoaki Kurosaki, Kayoko Sato, Tadahiro Nakamura, Takashi Kitahara, Hitoshi Sasaki
The purpose of this study was to develop a ternary complex of plasmid DNA (pDNA) electrostatically assembled with dendrigraft poly-L-lysine (DGL) and biodegradable glycosaminoglycan for effective and secure gene delivery. High gene expression of pDNA/DGL complex was confirmed with slight cytotoxicity and erythrocyte agglutination. Anionic ternary complexes of 55.4-223.8 nm were formed by the addition of a glycosaminoglycan such as chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A), chondroitin sulfate B (CS-B), chondroitin sulfate C (CS-C), or hyaluronic acid (HA)...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040662/development-and-application-of-micro-polysaccharide-drug-carriers-incorporating-doxorubicin-and-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-for-bimodality-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Sung-Ling Tang, Meng-Yi Bai, Jyun-Yi Wang, Po-Da Hong
In this study, we demonstrated a novel polyelectrolyte microparticle, doxorubicin(DOX)-superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-chondroitin sulfate (CS)/chitosan (CHI)microparticles (MPs), as a drug delivery system for hepatic cancer treatment. We also investigated the properties of these microparticles through composition determination, formulation tests, in vitro study, and in vivo study. The results showed that our DOX-SPIO-CS/CHI MPs had an average diameter of 1.43±0.54μm and exhibited a spherical shape. The encapsulation efficiency of this drug carrier was approximately 31±8...
December 23, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038750/a-tracheal-scaffold-of-gelatin-chondroitin-sulfate-hyaluronan-polyvinyl-alcohol-with-orientated-porous-structure
#14
Xueping Yu, Guowen Qian, Si Chen, Dong Xu, Xiujuan Zhao, Chang Du
Scaffold of gelatin-chondroitin sulfate-hyaluronan-polyvinyl alcohol (GCH-PVA) with orientated microtubule structure and good hydrophilicity was fabricated by unidirectional freeze-drying method mimicking the composition and structure of tracheal cartilage extracellular matrix. PVA was incorporated to improve flexibility and viscoelasticity of GCH scaffold. All wet scaffolds showed similar compressive elastic modulus with native cartilage. GCH-PVA scaffolds showed high relative remaining stress during relaxation indicating good mechanical stability...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034806/targeting-the-extracellular-matrix-of-ovarian-cancer-using-functionalized-drug-loaded-lyophilisomes
#15
Sophieke C H A van der Steen, René Raavé, Sjoerd Langerak, Laurens van Houdt, Sander M J van Duijnhoven, Sanne A M van Lith, Leon F A G Massuger, Willeke F Daamen, William P Leenders, Toin H van Kuppevelt
Epithelial ovarian cancer is characterized by a high mortality rate and is in need for novel therapeutic avenues to improve patient outcome. The tumor's extracellular matrix ("stroma") offers new possibilities for targeted drug-delivery. Recently we identified highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate (CS-E) as a component abundantly present in the ovarian cancer extracellular matrix, and as an novel target for anti-cancer therapy. Here, we report on the functionalization of drug-loaded lyophilisomes (albumin-based biocapsules) to specifically target the stroma of ovarian carcinomas with the potential to eliminate cancer cells...
December 26, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024617/development-characterization-and-biocompatibility-of-chondroitin-sulfate-poly-vinyl-alcohol-bovine-bone-powder-porous-biocomposite
#16
Gabriela T da Silva, Guilherme T Voss, Vanessa Kaplum, Celso V Nakamura, Ethel A Wilhelm, Cristiane Luchese, André R Fajardo
Chondroitin sulfate (ChS), a sulfated glycosaminoglycan, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and bovine bone powder (BBP) were blended to form a novel eco-friendly biocomposite through cyclic freeze-thawing under mild conditions. The systematic investigation reveals that the content of BBP has a remarkable effect on the pore size, porosity, mechanical and liquid uptake properties and biodegradability. At 10wt.% BBP the biocomposite exhibited enhanced mechanical properties and biodegradability rate as compared to the pristine sample...
March 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011936/the-mhc-class-ii-immunopeptidome-of-lymph-nodes-in-health-and-in-chemically-induced-colitis
#17
Tim Fugmann, Adriana Sofron, Danilo Ritz, Franziska Bootz, Dario Neri
We recently described a mass spectrometry-based methodology that enables the confident identification of hundreds of peptides bound to murine MHC class II (MHCII) molecules. In this article, we describe its application to the characterization of MHCII-bound peptides isolated from lymph nodes (LNs) of C57BL/6 mice. More than 1000 peptides could be identified in individual analyses, allowing a direct comparison of the MHCII peptidome in different types of normal LNs or in animals with colitis. The peptide length distribution and consensus sequences in axillary, brachial, inguinal, and mesenteric LNs were virtually identical, and a substantial portion of identified peptides corresponded to proteins found in all LNs...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011196/isolating-subpopulations-of-human-epidermal-basal-cells-based-on-polyclonal-serum-against-trypsin-resistant-cspg4-epitopes
#18
Anders Patrik Gunnarsson, Rikke Christensen, Jeppe Praetorius, Uffe Birk Jensen
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is highly expressed by human epidermal keratinocytes located at the tip of the dermal papilla where keratinocytes show characteristics of stem cells. However, since available antibodies to CSPG4 are directed against trypsin-sensitive epitopes we have been unable to study these keratinocytes isolated directly from skin samples by flow cytometry. By choosing epitopes of CSPG4 relatively close to the cell membrane we were able to generate a polyclonal antibody that successfully detects CSPG4 on keratinocytes after trypsinization...
December 21, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009067/prioritization-of-polysaccharide-utilization-and-control-of-regulator-activation-in-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron
#19
Nathan D Schwalm, Guy E Townsend, Eduardo A Groisman
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is a human gut symbiotic bacterium that utilizes a myriad of host dietary and mucosal polysaccharides. The proteins responsible for the uptake and break down of many of these polysaccharides are transcriptionally regulated by hybrid two-component systems (HTCSs). These systems consist of a single polypeptide harboring the domains of sensor kinases and response regulators, and thus, are thought to autophosphorylate in response to specific signals. We now report that the HTCS BT0366 is phosphorylated in vivo when B...
December 23, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998482/hyaluronidase-reaction-kinetics-evaluated-by-capillary-electrophoresis-with-uv-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-hrms-detection
#20
Syntia Fayad, Reine Nehmé, Monika Langmajerová, Benjamin Ayela, Cyril Colas, Benoit Maunit, Jean-Claude Jacquinet, Aude Vibert, Chrystel Lopin-Bon, Glatz Zdeněk, Philippe Morin
The biology of hyaluronidase activity on age related turnover of the hyaluronic acid (HA) in skin dermis and epidermis has not been established. Elucidation of this phenomenon enables discovery of novel compounds for skin health. As a simple and green technique, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used for the first time for the determination of the kinetic constants (Km, Vmax and IC50) of the enzymatic degradation of HA. Reaction products were identified using CE/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) after appropriate optimization...
January 25, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
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