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Kidney biomarker

Paul Glendenning, S A Paul Chubb, Samuel Vasikaran
Bone turnover marker (BTM's) concentrations in blood and urine reflect bone-remodelling activity, and may be useful adjuncts in the diagnosis and management of metabolic bone diseases. Newer biomarkers, mainly bone regulatory proteins, are currently being investigated to elucidate their role in bone metabolism and disease and may in future be useful in clinical diagnosis and management of metabolic bone disease. BTM concentrations increase around menopause in women, and at a population level the degree of increase in BTM's reflect bone loss...
March 12, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Michael J Fay, Lauren A C Alt, Dominika Ryba, Ribhi Salamah, Ryan Peach, Alexander Papaeliou, Sabina Zawadzka, Andrew Weiss, Nil Patel, Asad Rahman, Zyaria Stubbs-Russell, Peter C Lamar, Joshua R Edwards, Walter C Prozialeck
Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule characterized by polyuria and proteinuria. Even though the effects of Cd on the kidney have been well-characterized, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects have not been fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate cellular and physiologic function by modulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The goal of the present study was to determine if Cd affects renal cortex miRNA expression in a well-established animal model of Cd-induced kidney injury...
March 15, 2018: Toxics
Sebastian J Klein, Anna K Brandtner, Georg F Lehner, Hanno Ulmer, Sean M Bagshaw, Christian J Wiedermann, Michael Joannidis
PURPOSE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently occurs in critically ill patients and often precipitates use of renal replacement therapy (RRT). However, the ideal circumstances for whether and when to start RRT remain unclear. We performed evidence synthesis of the available literature to evaluate the value of biomarkers to predict receipt of RRT for AKI. METHODS: We conducted a PRISMA-guided systematic review and meta-analysis including all trials evaluating biomarker performance for prediction of RRT in AKI...
March 14, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Yanting Yu, Feng Bai, Nan Qin, Wenjin Liu, Qi Sun, Yang Zhou, Junwei Yang
BACKGROUND: Renal fibrosis is a common outcome of nearly all kinds of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and eventually progresses to end-stage renal disease. The identification of an optimal biomarker of renal fibrosis to replace the invasive renal biopsy will have important clinical implications. METHODS: We isolated urinary exosomes from 50 participants and examined the exosomal protein content and particle number in 38 CKD patients with different degrees of renal fibrosis and in 12 normal individuals...
March 14, 2018: Nephron
Irfanullah Khan, Amer Hayat Khan, Azreen Syazril Adnan, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Azhar Bin Amir Hamzah, Nafees Ahmed, Amjad Khan
PURPOSE: Creatinine is normally used to evaluate kidney function among elderly patients in clinical practice, which has been reported to be affected by socio-demographic factors like BMI and age. Cystatin C a newly introduced biomarker may be more efficient in identifying kidney function in obese and aged CKD patients. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of BMI on endogenous biomarkers (cystatin C and creatinine) among elderly CKD patients in Malaysia, a first such study in the country...
March 13, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Bin Bai, Jiadela Teliewubai, Yuyan Lu, Shikai Yu, Jing Xiong, Chen Chi, Yiwu Zhou, Hongwei Ji, Ximin Fan, Jacques Blacher, Jue Li, Yi Zhang, Yawei Xu
This study aimed to investigate the discrepancy between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure amplification (PPA) in association with hypertensive target organ damage (TOD) in the elderly. From June 2014 to August 2015, 1599 participants aged >65 years old from communities located in northern Shanghai were recruited. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), peripheral blood pressure (BP), central BP and other TOD indicators, including the ratio of the early ventricular filling velocity (E) to the peak velocity of the tissue Doppler velocity of septal mitral annulus (E/Ea), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), carotid intima-medium thickness (CIMT), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR), were determined for each participant...
March 13, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Mohamed S El Shahawy, Mahmoud H Hemida, Hafez A Abdel-Hafez, Tarek Z El-Baz, Abdel-Wahab M Lotfy, Tarek M Emran
The neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been emerging as a novel biomarker of acute kidney injury while its value in lupus nephritis is uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess urinary NGAL levels as a marker for disease activity in patients with lupus nephritis.This study included 70 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients; 50 with active lupus nephritis (LN) and 20 without as well as 20 matched controls. The neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in both serum and urine samples was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
March 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Wei Fang, Ziying Wang, Quanxin Li, Xiaojie Wang, Yan Zhang, Yu Sun, Wei Tang, Chunhong Ma, Jinpeng Sun, Ningjun Li, Fan Yi
Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) participate in a variety of physiologic functions, and several GPCRs have critical physiologic and pathophysiologic roles in the regulation of renal function. We investigated the role of Gpr97, a newly identified member of the adhesion GPCR family, in AKI. Methods AKI was induced by ischemia-reperfusion or cisplatin treatment in Gpr97-deficient mice. We assessed renal injury in these models and in patients with acute tubular necrosis by histologic examination, and we conducted microarray analysis and in vitro assays to determine the molecular mechanisms of Gpr97 function...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Ling Sun, Xuejun Zhou, Jianguang Jiang, Xuan Zang, Xin Chen, Haiyan Li, Haitao Cao, Qingjie Wang
BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is an emerging biomarker for risk stratification in cardiovascular disease. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this retrospectively observational study, we aimed to determine the role of GDF-15 and the risk of AKI in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. METHODS: The medical records of 1195 patients with AMI were reviewed...
2018: PloS One
Katja M Gist, David S Cooper, Julia Wrona, Sarah Faubel, Christopher Altmann, Zhiqian Gao, Bradley S Marino, Jeffrey Alten, Kristal M Hock, Tomoyuki Mizuno, Alexander A Vinks, Melanie S Joy, Michael F Wempe, Michael R Bennett, Stuart L Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Milrinone, an inotropic agent used ubiquitously in children after cardiac surgery, accumulates in acute kidney injury (AKI). We assessed if urinary AKI biomarkers are predictive of an increase in milrinone concentrations in infants after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Multicenter prospective pilot study of infants undergoing cardiac surgery. Urinary AKI biomarkers were measured in the urine at specific time intervals after cardiopulmonary bypass initiation...
April 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Luis J Jara, Gabriela Medina, Miguel A Saavedra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update about the interactions between infections and autoimmune diseases (AIDs), from the molecular perspective to the clinical spectrum and the differentiation between infection and disease activity. RECENT FINDINGS: Any kind of infection may modify the innate and adaptive immune response through the following mechanisms: molecular mimicry, superantigens, epitope spreading and B-cell activation. The consequence is the overproduction of antibodies shared with those found in AIDs...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Amany M El-Saeed, Ghada F El-Mohasseb
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a progressive kidney disease. Previous studies reported that microalbuminuria might not be a sufficient marker to identify diabetic patients at risk of kidney disease progression. Fibroblast growth factors 21 (FGF21) and 23 (FGF23) may play an important role in the DN development and progression. We aimed to assess levels of FGF21 and FGF23 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with normoalbuminurea, to determine their association with other biochemical parameters and to verify their role as contributing factors to development of DN...
June 2017: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
Moomal Tasneem, Carly Mannix, Annette Wong, Jennifer Zhang, Gopala Rangan
The availability of disease-modifying drugs for the management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has accelerated the need to accurately predict renal prognosis and/or treatment response in this condition. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a critical determinant of postnatal kidney cyst growth in ADPKD. Copeptin (the C-terminal glycoprotein of the precursor AVP peptide) is an accurate surrogate marker of AVP release that is stable and easily measured by immunoassay. Cohort studies show that serum copeptin is correlated with disease severity in ADPKD, and predicts future renal events [decline in renal function and increase in total kidney volume (TKV)]...
March 6, 2018: World Journal of Nephrology
Bryan D Hinck, Ricardo Miyaoka, James E Lingeman, Dean G Assimos, Brian R Matlaga, Rocky Pramanik, John Asplin, Benjamin Cohen, Manoj Monga
INTRODUCTION: To determine if markers of kidney injury correlate with urinary oxalate excretion. If so, such biomarkers might be early predictors of oxalate nephropathy. Gastric bypass surgery for obesity is known to be associated with postoperative hyperoxaluria, which can lead to urolithiasis and kidney damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were recruited from four large academic centers > 6 months following completion of gastric bypass surgery. Patients provided a spot urine sample for analysis of three markers of kidney injury: 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2 α, N-acetyl- β -D-Glucosaminidase, and Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin...
February 2018: Canadian Journal of Urology
Mindi Zhao, Jianqiang Wu, Xundou Li, Youhe Gao
Urine is a better source than plasma for biomarker studies, as it can accumulate all changes in the body. Various candidate urinary biomarkers of physiological condition, kidney disease and even brain dysfunction, have been detected in urine; however, urine has rarely been used to reflect cardiac diseases. In this study, urine at day 0, 14, 21 and 28 were collected from the myosin-induced autoimmune myocarditis rat models. The candidate urinary biomarkers were then characterized using the isobaric tandem mass tag labeling approach coupled with offline two-dimensional reverse-phase liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
K Johanna R Hoyer, Sebastian Dittrich, Malte P Bartram, Markus M Rinschen
Renal diseases are driven by alterations in the entity of proteins within the kidney, at the level of single cells, nephron subunits (such as glomerulus and tubule), tissues and body fluids. Histologically, kidney diseases are extremely heterogeneous. Mass-spectrometry based proteomics provides a unique opportunity to interrogate heterogeneity and dynamics of various proteome layers within the kidney to better understand physiology and pathophysiology, and to translate signaling networks into therapies. Yet, the success of this endeavor will largely depend on improving proteomic data acquisition methods toward increased reproducibility...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Georgina P Ossani, Diego J Martino, Jorge E Toblli
Lithium has been approved for the treatment of bipolar disorder since the 1970s and even today it is considered a first-line drug for the treatment of this disease. As bipolar disorder often begins between 15-35 years of age and requires long-term treatment, the assessment of the adverse effects of the drugs used is critical. Recently, there has been renewed interest on the risk of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure induced by lithium, with findings suggesting that both complications could be more frequent than previously considered...
September 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Alma L Saucedo-Yanez, Marlene M Perales-Quintana, David Paniagua-Vega, Concepcion Sanchez-Martinez, Paula Cordero-Perez, Noemi Waskman Minsky
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive condition characterized by a permanent and irreversible loss of renal function. In accordance to international guidelines, CKD clinical diagnosis methods are based on creatinine and albumin levels and glomerular filtration rate. Unfortunately, these parameters are scarcely affected in early stages, and its inherent intrinsic variability only allows for the identification of intermediate and advanced stages, when life expectancy has become shorter and treatment poses a significant financial investment...
March 6, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Helen M Colhoun, M Loredana Marcovecchio
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains one of the leading causes of reduced lifespan in diabetes. The quest for both prognostic and surrogate endpoint biomarkers for advanced DKD and end-stage renal disease has received major investment and interest in recent years. However, at present no novel biomarkers are in routine use in the clinic or in trials. This review focuses on the current status of prognostic biomarkers. First, we emphasise that albuminuria and eGFR, with other routine clinical data, show at least modest prediction of future renal status if properly used...
March 8, 2018: Diabetologia
Li Wen, Ye-Fang Liu, Cen Jiang, Shao-Qian Zeng, Yue Su, Wen-Jun Wu, Xi-Yang Liu, Jian Wang, Ying Liu, Chen Su, Bai-Xue Li, Quan-Sheng Feng
Given the challenges in exploring lifelong therapy with little side effect for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) cases, there is increasing interest in developing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments based on specific TCM syndrome. However, there are few objective and biological evidences for classification and diagnosis of HIV/AIDS TCM syndromes to date. In this study, iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS coupled with bioinformatics were firstly employed for comparative proteomic profiling of top popular TCM syndromes of HIV/AIDS: accumulation of heat-toxicity (AHT) and Yang deficiency of spleen and kidney (YDSK)...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
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