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Diana Martins, Mariana Q Mesquita, Maria G P M S Neves, Maria A F Faustino, Luís Reis, Etelvina Figueira, Adelaide Almeida
The studied cationic porphyrins formulation allows an effective photoinactivation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in kiwifruit leaves under sunlight irradiation, without damaging the plant. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is a Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium responsible for canker on kiwifruit plant. Over the last decade, this bacterium dramatically affected the production of this fruit worldwide, causing significant economic losses. In general, Psa control consists in the application of copper which are toxic and persist in the environment...
May 11, 2018: Planta
Iona Weir, Quan Shu, Nengding Wei, Chengkai Wei, Yi Zhu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Zyactinase® is an extract of green kiwifruit, formulated into the consumer healthcare products marketed as Phloe® and Kivia, used to assist in the relief of the symptoms associated with a range of digestive system dysfunction, including constipation and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was undertaken to determine the ef-fects of the kiwifruit extract on bowel movement, stool formation and IBS associated symptoms amongst a sub-ject group of generally healthy individuals experiencing a period of moderate constipation...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Peter M Bourke, Geert van Geest, Roeland E Voorrips, Johannes Jansen, Twan Kranenburg, Arwa Shahin, Richard G F Visser, Paul Arens, Marinus J M Smulders, Chris Maliepaard
Motivation: Polyploid species carry more than two copies of each chromosome, a condition found in many of the world's most important crops. Genetic mapping in polyploids is more complex than in diploid species, resulting in a lack of available software tools. These are needed if we are to realise all the opportunities offered by modern genotyping platforms for genetic research and breeding in polyploid crops. Results: polymapR is an R package for genetic linkage analysis and integrated genetic map construction from bi-parental populations of outcrossing autopolyploids...
May 2, 2018: Bioinformatics
Amanda G Y Chen, Marleen S L Offereins, Christopher J Mulder, Christopher M Frampton, Richard B Gearry
We investigated the impact of the ingestion of two green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. Hayward) and one Royal Gala apple on breath hydrogen and methane production in humans. Consumption of two green kiwifruit led to no evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption (0/20), whereas consumption of one apple was associated with carbohydrate malabsorption in 6/20 participants (P = .008). There were no significant differences in the area under the curve for hydrogen or methane breath concentrations after consumption of the two fruits...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Kate L Brookie, Georgia I Best, Tamlin S Conner
Background: Higher intakes of fruits and vegetables, rich in micronutrients, have been associated with better mental health. However, cooking or processing may reduce the availability of these important micronutrients. This study investigated the differential associations between intake of raw fruits and vegetables, compared to processed (cooked or canned) fruits and vegetables, and mental health in young adults. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey design, 422 young adults ages 18-25 (66.1% female) living in New Zealand and the United States completed an online survey that assessed typical consumption of raw vs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Diana Almeida, Diana Pinto, Joana Santos, Ana F Vinha, Josman Palmeira, Helena N Ferreira, Francisca Rodrigues, M Beatriz P P Oliveira
The present study reports for the first time the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as well as the in vitro radical scavenging activity and intestinal cell effects of A. arguta leaves extracts. Extractions were carried out under water, water:ethanol (50:50) and ethanol. The highest antioxidant activity were obtained in alcoholic extract (IC50  = 53.95 ± 3.09 μg/mL for DPPH; 6628.42 ± 382.49 µmol/mg dry weight basis for FRAP) while the phenolic profile confirmed by HPLC analysis revealed highest amounts of phenolic acids (hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) and flavonoids (flavan-3-ol and flavonols derivatives)...
September 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Dong Liang, Yanqiu Shen, Zhiyou Ni, Qin Wang, Zhi Lei, Nengqin Xu, Qunxian Deng, Lijin Lin, Jin Wang, Xiulan Lv, Hui Xia
Melatonin, a multiple signal molecule, plays important roles in delaying senescence during the development of plants. Because few species have been studied for the effect of exogenous melatonin on anti-aging, the plausible mechanism of melatonin of anti-aging effects on other plant species has remained largely unknown. In the present study, the effects of exogenous melatonin on leaf senescence in kiwifruit were examined during natural aging after melatonin (200 μM) or water (Control) pretreatment. The decreased membrane damage and lower hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) content due to the enhanced scavenging activity of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) demonstrated that melatonin effectively delayed the aging of kiwifruit leaves...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Giuseppe Firrao, Emanuela Torelli, Cesare Polano, Patrizia Ferrante, Francesca Ferrini, Marta Martini, Simone Marcelletti, Marco Scortichini, Paolo Ermacora
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) biovar 3 caused pandemic bacterial canker of Actinidia chinensis and Actinidia deliciosa since 2008. In Europe, the disease spread rapidly in the kiwifruit cultivation areas from a single introduction. In this study, we investigated the genomic diversity of Psa biovar 3 strains during the primary clonal expansion in Europe using single molecule real-time (SMRT), Illumina and Sanger sequencing technologies. We recorded evidences of frequent mobilization and loss of transposon Tn6212, large chromosome inversions, and ectopic integration of IS sequences (remarkably ISPsy31, ISPsy36, and ISPsy37)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sarah M Pilkington, Ross Crowhurst, Elena Hilario, Simona Nardozza, Lena Fraser, Yongyan Peng, Kularajathevan Gunaseelan, Robert Simpson, Jibran Tahir, Simon C Deroles, Kerry Templeton, Zhiwei Luo, Marcus Davy, Canhong Cheng, Mark McNeilage, Davide Scaglione, Yifei Liu, Qiong Zhang, Paul Datson, Nihal De Silva, Susan E Gardiner, Heather Bassett, David Chagné, John McCallum, Helge Dzierzon, Cecilia Deng, Yen-Yi Wang, Lorna Barron, Kelvina Manako, Judith Bowen, Toshi M Foster, Zoe A Erridge, Heather Tiffin, Chethi N Waite, Kevin M Davies, Ella P Grierson, William A Laing, Rebecca Kirk, Xiuyin Chen, Marion Wood, Mirco Montefiori, David A Brummell, Kathy E Schwinn, Andrew Catanach, Christina Fullerton, Dawei Li, Sathiyamoorthy Meiyalaghan, Niels Nieuwenhuizen, Nicola Read, Roneel Prakash, Don Hunter, Huaibi Zhang, Marian McKenzie, Mareike Knäbel, Alastair Harris, Andrew C Allan, Andrew Gleave, Angela Chen, Bart J Janssen, Blue Plunkett, Charles Ampomah-Dwamena, Charlotte Voogd, Davin Leif, Declan Lafferty, Edwige J F Souleyre, Erika Varkonyi-Gasic, Francesco Gambi, Jenny Hanley, Jia-Long Yao, Joey Cheung, Karine M David, Ben Warren, Ken Marsh, Kimberley C Snowden, Kui Lin-Wang, Lara Brian, Marcela Martinez-Sanchez, Mindy Wang, Nadeesha Ileperuma, Nikolai Macnee, Robert Campin, Peter McAtee, Revel S M Drummond, Richard V Espley, Hilary S Ireland, Rongmei Wu, Ross G Atkinson, Sakuntala Karunairetnam, Sean Bulley, Shayhan Chunkath, Zac Hanley, Roy Storey, Amali H Thrimawithana, Susan Thomson, Charles David, Raffaele Testolin, Hongwen Huang, Roger P Hellens, Robert J Schaffer
BACKGROUND: Most published genome sequences are drafts, and most are dominated by computational gene prediction. Draft genomes typically incorporate considerable sequence data that are not assigned to chromosomes, and predicted genes without quality confidence measures. The current Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) 'Hongyang' draft genome has 164 Mb of sequences unassigned to pseudo-chromosomes, and omissions have been identified in the gene models. RESULTS: A second genome of an A...
April 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
Min-Jung Kim, Chang-Wook Jeon, Gyongjun Cho, Da-Ran Kim, Yong-Bum Kwack, Youn-Sig Kwak
Flowers of kiwifruit are morphologically hermaphroditic and survivable binucleate pollen is produced by the male flowers. In this study, we investigated microbial diversity in kiwifruit pollens by analyzing amplicon sequences of 16S rRNA. Four pollen samples were collected: 'NZ' was imported from New Zealand, 'CN' from China in year of 2014, respectively. 'KR13' and 'KR14' were collected in 2013' and 2014' in South Korea. Most of the identified bacterial phyla in the four different pollens were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes...
April 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Céline Caseys
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2018: Plant Cell
Takashi Akagi, Isabelle Marie Henry, Haruka Ohtani, Takuya Morimoto, Kenji Beppu, Ikuo Kataoka, Ryutaro Tao
Dioecy, the presence of male and female flowers on distinct individuals, has evolved independently in multiple plant lineages and the genes involved in this differential development are just starting to be uncovered in a few species. Here, we used genomic approaches to investigate this pathway in kiwifruits (genus Actinidia). Genome-wide cataloging of male-specific subsequences, combined with transcriptome analysis, led to the identification of a type-C cytokinin response regulator as a potential sex determinant gene in this genus...
April 6, 2018: Plant Cell
Junjie Yi, Biniam Kebede, Kristiani Kristiani, Carolien Buvé, Ann Van Loey, Tara Grauwet, Marc Hendrickx
In the fruit juice industry, high pressure (HP) processing has become a commercial success. However, enzymatic browning, cloud loss, and flavor changes during storage remain challenges. The aim of this study is to combine kiwifruit puree and HP pasteurization (600 MPa/3 min) to stabilize cloudy apple juice during storage at 4 °C. A wide range of targeted and untargeted quality characteristics was evaluated using a multivariate approach. Due to high ascorbic acid content and high viscosity, kiwifruit puree allowed to prevent enzymatic browning and phase separation of an apple-kiwifruit mixed juice...
July 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
William O Asiche, Oscar W Mitalo, Yuka Kasahara, Yasuaki Tosa, Eric G Mworia, Willis O Owino, Koichiro Ushijima, Ryohei Nakano, Kentaro Yano, Yasutaka Kubo
BACKGROUND: Kiwifruit are classified as climacteric since exogenous ethylene (or its analogue propylene) induces rapid ripening accompanied by ethylene production under positive feedback regulation. However, most of the ripening-associated changes (Phase 1 ripening) in kiwifruit during storage and on-vine occur largely in the absence of any detectable ethylene. This ripening behavior is often attributed to basal levels of system I ethylene, although it is suggested to be modulated by low temperature...
March 21, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Núria Daranas, Anna Bonaterra, Jesús Francés, Jordi Cabrefiga, Emilio Montesinos, Esther Badosa
A viability quantitative PCR (v-qPCR) assay was developed for the unambiguous detection and quantification of Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 viable cells in aerial plant surfaces. A 972-bp region of a PM411 predicted prophage with mosaic architecture enabled the identification of a PM411 strain-specific molecular marker. Three primer sets with different amplicon lengths (92, 188, and 317 bp) and one TaqMan probe were designed. All the qPCR assays showed good linearity over a 4-log range and good efficiencies but differed in sensitivity...
May 15, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Christina Straub, Elena Colombi, Li Li, Hongwen Huang, Matthew D Templeton, Honour C McCann, Paul B Rainey
Interactions between commensal microbes and invading pathogens are understudied, despite their likely effects on pathogen population structure and infection processes. We describe the population structure and genetic diversity of a broad range of co-occurring Pseudomonas syringae isolated from infected and uninfected kiwifruit during an outbreak of bleeding canker disease caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) in New Zealand. Overall population structure was clonal and affected by ecological factors including infection status and cultivar...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Filippo Graziani, Nicola Discepoli, Stefano Gennai, Dimitra Karapetsa, Marco Nisi, Lea Bianchi, Nanning A Martijn Rosema, Ubele Van der Velden
BACKGROUND: To assess the nutraceutical effects of twice/daily intake of kiwifruit on periodontal parameters and systemic health before and after initial periodontal treatment (IPT). METHODS: At baseline, participants were randomly assigned to test and control group, and either consumed two kiwifruits/day for 5 months or no kiwifruit. In the first 2 months, no periodontal treatment was delivered (2 M). Subsequently, a session of full-mouth IPT within 24 hours was performed...
March 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Guangwei Li, Danyang Chen, Xiaofeng Tang, Yongsheng Liu
Constitutive expression of AchGLK from A. chinensis in transgenic tomato (S. lycopersicum) confers fruits an elevated plastid biogenesis with intensified granule thylakoid stacks and increased content of nutritional compounds. Plastid development is regulated by multiple environmental and genetic factors. Golden2-like (GLK) genes, members from GARP subfamily of the MYB transcription factors, have been shown to regulate plastid biogenesis and development in several species. In tomato (S. lycopersicum), SlGLK2 gene is expressed in the fruit in a manner of latitudinal gradient and determines the green shoulder phenotype...
June 2018: Planta
Dong Liang, Fan Gao, Zhiyou Ni, Lijin Lin, Qunxian Deng, Yi Tang, Xun Wang, Xian Luo, Hui Xia
Evidence exists to suggest that melatonin (MT) is important to abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Here, we investigated whether exogenous MT reduces heat damage on biological parameters and gene expression in kiwifruit ( Actinidia deliciosa ) seedlings. Pretreatment with MT alleviates heat-induced oxidative harm through reducing H₂O₂ content and increasing proline content. Moreover, MT application raised ascorbic acid (AsA) levels and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD)...
March 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jia Liu, Yuan Sui, Huizhen Chen, Yiqing Liu, Yongsheng Liu
Gray mold, caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea , is the most significant postharvest disease of kiwifruit. In the present study, iTRAQ with LC-ESI-MS/MS was used to identify the kiwifruit proteins associated with the response to B. cinerea . A total of 2,487 proteins in kiwifruit were identified. Among them, 292 represented differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs), with 196 DAPs having increased, and 96 DAPs having decreased in accumulation in B. cinerea -inoculated vs. water-inoculated, control kiwifruits...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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