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Tuberculosis, HIV, antibiotics, resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855693/modelling-the-effect-of-short-course-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-in-karakalpakstan-uzbekistan
#1
James M Trauer, Jay Achar, Nargiza Parpieva, Atadjan Khamraev, Justin T Denholm, Dennis Falzon, Ernesto Jaramillo, Anita Mesic, Philipp du Cros, Emma S McBryde
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major threat to global TB control. MDR-TB treatment regimens typically have a high pill burden, last 20 months or more and often lead to unsatisfactory outcomes. A 9-11 month regimen with seven antibiotics has shown high success rates among selected MDR-TB patients in different settings and is conditionally recommended by the World Health Organization. METHODS: We construct a transmission-dynamic model of TB to estimate the likely impact of a shorter MDR-TB regimen when applied in a low HIV prevalence region of Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan) with high rates of drug resistance, good access to diagnostics and a well-established community-based MDR-TB treatment programme providing treatment to around 400 patients...
November 18, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795876/a-study-of-parasitic-and-bacterial-pathogens-associated-with-diarrhea-in-hiv-positive-patients
#2
Siddharth Shah, Vaishali Kongre, Varun Kumar, Renu Bharadwaj
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhea is a common complication of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), occurring in almost 90% of AIDS patients in developing countries like India. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence and microbiological profile of pathogens associated with diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients and their relation to CD4 counts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five successive HIV-positive patients, 27 with diarrhea (study group) and 18 without diarrhea (control group), were included in the three-month study...
September 27, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795387/dual-reporter-mycobacteriophages-%C3%AE-2drms-reveal-preexisting-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-persistent-cells-in-human-sputum
#3
Paras Jain, Brian C Weinrick, Eric J Kalivoda, Hui Yang, Vanisha Munsamy, Catherine Vilcheze, Torin R Weisbrod, Michelle H Larsen, Max R O'Donnell, Alexander Pym, William R Jacobs
: Persisters are the minor subpopulation of bacterial cells that lack alleles conferring resistance to a specific bactericidal antibiotic but can survive otherwise lethal concentrations of that antibiotic. In infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, such persisters underlie the need for long-term antibiotic therapy and contribute to treatment failure in tuberculosis cases. Here, we demonstrate the value of dual-reporter mycobacteriophages (Φ(2)DRMs) for characterizing M. tuberculosis persisters...
October 25, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730203/the-best-of-respiratory-infections-from-the-2015-european-respiratory-society-international-congress
#4
Eva Polverino, Graham H Bothamley, Delia Goletti, Jan Heyckendorf, Giovanni Sotgiu, Stefano Aliberti
The breadth and quality of scientific presentations on clinical and translational research into respiratory infections at the 2015 European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, establishes this area as one of the leadings fields in pulmonology. The host-pathogen relationship in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the impact of comorbidities and chronic treatment on clinical outcomes in patients with pneumonia were studied. Various communications were dedicated to bronchiectasis and, in particular, to different prognostic and clinical aspects of this disease, including chronic infection with Pseudomonas and inhaled antibiotic therapy...
July 2016: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711122/prevalence-of-drug-resistance-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-patients-seen-in-coast-provincial-general-hospital-mombasa-kenya
#5
Ida Pam Ombura, Noel Onyango, Susan Odera, Florence Mutua, Joshua Nyagol
BACKGROUND: Although prevention and control of spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains is a global challenge, there is paucity of data on the prevalence of DR-TB in patients diagnosed with TB in referral hospitals in Kenya. The present study assessed patients' characteristics and prevalence of drug resistant TB in sputa smear positive TB patients presenting to Coast Provincial General Hospital (CPGH) in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Drug resistance was evaluated in 258 randomly selected sputa smear TB positive cases between the periods of November 2011 to February 2012 at the CPGH-Mombasa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473191/surveillance-of-infectious-diseases-in-the-arctic
#6
REVIEW
M Bruce, T Zulz, A Koch
OBJECTIVES: This study reviews how social and environmental issues affect health in Arctic populations and describes infectious disease surveillance in Arctic Nations with a special focus on the activities of the International Circumpolar Surveillance (ICS) project. METHODS: We reviewed the literature over the past 2 decades looking at Arctic living conditions and their effects on health and Arctic surveillance for infectious diseases. RESULTS: In regards to other regions worldwide, the Arctic climate and environment are extreme...
August 2016: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413691/disseminated-tuberculosis-with-prostatic-abscesses-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#7
Upasana Joneja, William R Short, Amity L Roberts
We describe a case of disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mTB) with prostatic abscess in a newly diagnosed HIV patient in the United States. The patient is a 34 year-old male who presented with respiratory symptoms and was diagnosed with HIV/AIDS complicated by disseminated mTB infection of the lungs, liver, and prostate. His prostate showed abscess formation on imaging that required drainage however he did not present with any genitourinary complaints. Our literature review revealed that prostatic involvement in mTB in the form of granulomatous prostatitis is uncommon; however, abscess formation is extremely rare and only few such cases have been published...
2016: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235189/antimicrobial-peptides-as-novel-anti-tuberculosis-therapeutics
#8
REVIEW
João P Silva, Rui Appelberg, Francisco Miguel Gama
Tuberculosis (TB), a disease caused by the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has recently joined HIV/AIDS as the world's deadliest infectious disease, affecting around 9.6 million people worldwide in 2014. Of those, about 1.2 million died from the disease. Resistance acquisition to existing antibiotics, with the subsequent emergence of Multi-Drug Resistant mycobacteria strains, together with an increasing economic burden, has urged the development of new anti-TB drugs. In this scope, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are small, cationic and amphipathic peptides that make part of the innate immune system, now arise as promising candidates for TB treatment...
September 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26818871/opportunities-and-challenges-for-host-directed-therapies-in-tuberculosis
#9
Madhur Sachan, Ashish Srivastava, Rajeev Ranjan, Anuradha Gupta, Sanketkumar Pandya, Amit Misra
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) ranks alongside the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as cause of death due to an infectious disease. Recently, host-targeted therapies (HDT) have gained attention as a means to shorten the course of treatment of drug-sensitive TB, improve treatment outcomes of drug-resistant TB and generally improve the efficacy and preserve or restore lung architecture of TB patients. It has been suggested that supplementing anti-TB therapy with host response modulators will augment standard TB treatment by overcoming antibiotic resistance in pathogenic strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and related species, thus aiding in killing non-replicating bacilli...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779783/skeletal-manifestations-of-tuberculosis-in-modern-human-remains
#10
Maryna Steyn, Jenifer Buskes
Paleopathologists study the presence of diseases in the past and as such have a vast knowledge of skeletal changes associated with different conditions. Tuberculosis is one of the most studied diseases and still remains a major health problem today. Its manifestations in past populations have been extensively described, but less is known about its bony involvement in the post-antibiotic era. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and manifestations of skeletal lesions in the post-antibiotic era in a South African sample and compare it to that found before the introduction of antibiotics...
October 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26735610/nordihydroguaiaretic-acid-ndga-and-%C3%AE-mangostin-inhibit-the-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-inducing-autophagy
#11
Silvia Guzmán-Beltrán, Miguel Ángel Rubio-Badillo, Esmeralda Juárez, Fernando Hernández-Sánchez, Martha Torres
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as a global health problem. The prevalence of this infection is related to the association with other diseases, such as HIV, neglect treatment and misuse of antibiotics. Hence, the identification of new drugs is required to eradicate TB. Possible alternatives to existing antibiotics include pure compounds extracted from medicinal plants, which are an important source of antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and α-mangostin on Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth and bacterial survival in infected macrophages derived from the human THP-1 cell line and monocytes...
February 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26616847/cutaneous-tuberculosis-overview-and-current-treatment-regimens
#12
REVIEW
Lindi van Zyl, Jeanetta du Plessis, Joe Viljoen
Tuberculosis is one of the oldest diseases known to humankind and it is currently a worldwide threat with 8-9 million new active disease being reported every year. Among patients with co-infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis is ultimately responsible for the most deaths. Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is uncommon, comprising 1-1.5% of all extra-pulmonary tuberculosis manifestations, which manifests only in 8.4-13.7% of all tuberculosis cases. A more accurate classification of CTB includes inoculation tuberculosis, tuberculosis from an endogenous source and haematogenous tuberculosis...
December 2015: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26526482/-vi-symposium-some-global-health-problems-with-local-impact-great-challenges-for-public-health
#13
(no author information available yet)
The objective of the symposium was to emphasize the great public health challenges that we are facing today; such is the case of dementia, which is one of the main causes of disability and dependence among older adults. Another important issue is antibiotic resistance; even though it has played a key role in the health of humanity, its indiscriminate use has resulted in increased bacterial resistance. Therefore, health regulations in the rational use of prescribed drugs in our country are part of the actions taken in order to not only control the use of such drugs, but also regulate different areas related to health in order to avoid health risks...
September 2015: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26505682/the-anti-tuberculosis-agents-under-development-and-the-challenges-ahead
#14
Deepak Kumar, Beena Negi, Diwan S Rawat
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious health problem causing 1.5 million deaths worldwide. After the discovery of first-line anti-TB drugs, the mortality rate declined sharply, however, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and HIV co-infection have led to increased incidence of this disease. A number of new potential antitubercular drug candidates with novel modes of action have entered clinical trials in recent years. Compounds such as gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and linezolid, the already known antibiotics are currently being evaluated for their anti-TB activity...
2015: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26418737/evolution-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-over-four-decades-whole-genome-sequencing-and-dating-analysis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-kwazulu-natal
#15
Keira A Cohen, Thomas Abeel, Abigail Manson McGuire, Christopher A Desjardins, Vanisha Munsamy, Terrance P Shea, Bruce J Walker, Nonkqubela Bantubani, Deepak V Almeida, Lucia Alvarado, Sinéad B Chapman, Nomonde R Mvelase, Eamon Y Duffy, Michael G Fitzgerald, Pamla Govender, Sharvari Gujja, Susanna Hamilton, Clinton Howarth, Jeffrey D Larimer, Kashmeel Maharaj, Matthew D Pearson, Margaret E Priest, Qiandong Zeng, Nesri Padayatchi, Jacques Grosset, Sarah K Young, Jennifer Wortman, Koleka P Mlisana, Max R O'Donnell, Bruce W Birren, William R Bishai, Alexander S Pym, Ashlee M Earl
BACKGROUND: The continued advance of antibiotic resistance threatens the treatment and control of many infectious diseases. This is exemplified by the largest global outbreak of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) identified in Tugela Ferry, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in 2005 that continues today. It is unclear whether the emergence of XDR-TB in KwaZulu-Natal was due to recent inadequacies in TB control in conjunction with HIV or other factors. Understanding the origins of drug resistance in this fatal outbreak of XDR will inform the control and prevention of drug-resistant TB in other settings...
September 2015: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26408070/antibiotics-for-preventing-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-high-risk-children-aged-12-years-and-under
#16
REVIEW
Igho J Onakpoya, Gail Hayward, Carl J Heneghan
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in young children account for 1.4 million deaths annually worldwide. Antibiotics could be beneficial in preventing LRTIs in high-risk children, and may also help prevent school absenteeism and work days missed by children and/or carers. While it is well documented that the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for RTIs decreases over time, there are no reviews that describe the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent LRTIs in high-risk children aged 12 years and under...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26381238/deploying-aptameric-sensing-technology-for-rapid-pandemic-monitoring
#17
Caleb Acquah, Michael K Danquah, Dominic Agyei, Charles K S Moy, Amandeep Sidhu, Clarence M Ongkudon
The genome of virulent strains may possess the ability to mutate by means of antigenic shift and/or antigenic drift as well as being resistant to antibiotics with time. The outbreak and spread of these virulent diseases including avian influenza (H1N1), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-Corona virus), cholera (Vibrio cholera), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola Virus) and AIDS (HIV-1) necessitate urgent attention to develop diagnostic protocols and assays for rapid detection and screening...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26351762/-pulmonary-tuberculosis-is-surgery-still-necessary
#18
REVIEW
L V Klotz, M Lindner, R A Hatz
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is still one of the most common infectious diseases along with HIV and malaria and therefore represents a serious problem in the health sector. Due to immigrants and refugees, the disease is also present in Europe. The global increase of multidrug resistant tuberculosis leads to a highly significant and current importance of sufficient therapeutic measures. In recent years, this fact has led to a reevaluation of surgical therapy in the context of an interdisciplinary and multimodal treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis...
October 2015: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26242648/practical-solutions-to-the-antibiotic-resistance-crisis
#19
EDITORIAL
Marc Mendelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26046766/patient-characteristics-associated-with-tuberculosis-treatment-default-a-cohort-study-in-a-high-incidence-area-of-lima-peru
#20
Brian Lackey, Carlos Seas, Patrick Van der Stuyft, Larissa Otero
BACKGROUND: Although tuberculosis (TB) is usually curable with antibiotics, poor adherence to medication can lead to increased transmission, drug resistance, and death. Prior research has shown several factors to be associated with poor adherence, but this problem remains a substantial barrier to global TB control. We studied patients in a high-incidence district of Lima, Peru to identify factors associated with premature termination of treatment (treatment default). METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of adult smear-positive TB patients enrolled between January 2010 and December 2011 with no history of TB disease...
2015: PloS One
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