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Tuberculosis, HIV, antibiotics, resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407980/fluoroquinolone-derivatives-and-their-anti-tubercular-activities
#1
REVIEW
Yi-Lei Fan, Jian-Bing Wu, Xiang-Wei Cheng, Feng-Zhi Zhang, Lian-Shun Feng
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most widespread and leading deadliest diseases, around one-third of the world's population harbor a latent infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), and 5-10% eventually develop an active TB. The emergency of MTB new virulent forms as well as the co-infection between MTB and HIV alarming the serious problem in TB control and demanding the need for new drugs more potent than earlier with safe ADME profile. Fluoroquinolones are emerged as a large family of synthetic broad spectrum antibiotics, and some of them were recommended as the second-line agents for the treatment of TB mainly in cases involving resistance or intolerance to first-line anti-TB therapy by WHO...
February 25, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395080/biophysical-and-biochemical-characterization-of-rv3405c-a-tetracycline-repressor-protein-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#2
Akilandeswari Gopalan, Raghu Bhagavat, Nagasuma Chandra, Savithri Handanahal Subbarao, Alamelu Raja, Ramalingam Bethunaickan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis disease, is one among the deadliest pathogens in the world. Due to long treatment regimen, HIV co-infection, persistence of bacilli in latent form and development of XDR and TDR strains of Mtb, tuberculosis has posed serious concerns for managing the disease, and calls for discovery of new drugs and drug targets. Using a computational pipeline involving analysis of the structural models of the Mtb proteome and an analysis of the ATPome, followed by a series of filters to identify druggable proteins, solubility and length of the protein, several candidate proteins were shortlisted...
February 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357899/pediatric-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-hiv-co-infection-in-a-resource-limited-setting-a-case-report
#3
Christelle Géneviève Jouego, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Juergen Noeske, Ndo Akono Manuel, Leo Njock Ayuk
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. The diagnosis and treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in children remain a major limitation in this setting, largely due to difficulties in isolating Mycobacterium tuberculosis from pediatric specimens, management with toxic second line drugs, and practically the inexistence of contact tracing. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a standardized 9-month regimen for adults and children in zones which are highly endemic for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
January 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218501/evaluating-safety-reporting-in-paediatric-antibiotic-trials-2000-2016-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Paola Pansa, Yingfen Hsia, Julia Bielicki, Irja Lutsar, A Sarah Walker, Mike Sharland, Laura Folgori
BACKGROUND: There are very few options to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in children. A major barrier is the duration and complexity of regulatory trials of new antibiotics. Extrapolation of safety data from adult trials could facilitate drug development for children. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review on the safety of antibiotic clinical trials (CTs) in children (0-18 years) to evaluate the overall quality of safety trials conducted in children and to determine if age-specific adverse events (AEs) could be identified for specific antibiotic classes...
February 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157471/case-reports-on-integrated-management-of-tubercular-disease
#5
Kusum S Chand, Priya Kapoor
BACKGROUND: Host immunity plays an important role in prevention of disease as is evident by the increased incidence of Tuberculosis (TB) in immuno-compromised population of HIV infected, diabetes inflicted, immune-suppressant therapy and elderly people. Rising incidence of antibiotic resistance has led to resurgence of TB of epidemic proportions. Integrated treatment with add on homeopathy in addition to anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) appears to improve outcome in TB. The intervention has been integrated treatment with homeopathy regime, which is using a patient specific, disease specific and supportive medicine simultaneously, all individualized for the patient and the disease...
November 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094039/host-directed-therapeutic-strategies-for-tuberculosis
#6
REVIEW
Afsal Kolloli, Selvakumar Subbian
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Currently, the standard treatment for TB involves multiple antibiotics administered for at least 6 months. Although multiple antibiotics therapy is necessary to prevent the development of drug resistance, the prolonged duration of treatment, combined with toxicity of drugs, contributes to patient non-compliance that can leads to the development of drug-resistant Mtb (MDR and XDR) strains...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036618/unsuccessful-treatment-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-factors-and-a-consequent-predictive-model
#7
Ana Costa-Veiga, Teodoro Briz, Carla Nunes
Background: Cure is particularly valuable in pulmonary cases (PTB), as unsuccessful treatment fuels incidence and resistance to antibiotics. This study aims to identify individual factors of PTB unsuccessful treatment in Portugal and to develop a consequent predictive model. Methods: Using the Portuguese TB surveillance database (SVIG-TB), PTB cases older than 15 years notified from 2000 to 2012 in Continental Portugal were analyzed. Unsuccessful treatment included the WHO categories (failure, default, death and transferred out)...
April 1, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946393/cell-wall-a-versatile-fountain-of-drug-targets-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#8
REVIEW
Zubair Shanib Bhat, Muzafar Ahmad Rather, Mubashir Maqbool, Hafiz Ul Lah, Syed Khalid Yousuf, Zahoor Ahmad
Tuberculosis is the leading infectious disease responsible for an estimated one and a half million human deaths each year around the globe. HIV-TB coinfection and rapid increase in the emergence of drug resistant forms of TB is a dangerous scenario. This underlines the urgent need for new drugs with novel mechanism of action. A plethora of literature exist that highlight the importance of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of mycobacterial cell wall responsible for its survival, growth, permeability, virulence and resistance to antibiotics...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606053/protein-kinase-inhibitors-as-potential-antimicrobial-drugs-against-tuberculosis-malaria-and-hiv
#9
Yong Cheng, Jeffrey S Schorey, Cheng-Cai Zhang, Xuejuan Tan
Infectious diseases that are caused by pathogenic microbes such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi remain the top major cause of death across the world, particularly in low income countries, and may be transmitted from person to person, or from insects or animals. In general, infectious diseases may be treated with antimicrobial agents including antibiotics, antiviral, antifungal or antiparasitic medications. The therapeutic application of antimicrobial drugs in the 20th century substantially contributed to the global control of infectious diseases worldwide...
June 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580804/burden-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-an-era-of-decreasing-susceptibility
#10
Glenn S Tillotson, Stephen H Zinner
Antimicrobial resistance has become a global problem. Many pathogens are becoming multidrug-resistant with the attendant increased risk of failure of standard therapies and the under-recognised outcomes such as increased morbidity, mortality, length of hospitalization and costs of treatment. Areas covered: We undertook a review of the literature using standard search engines including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and internet sources. Key search terms included antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic resistance, bacterial resistance, clinical outcomes, economic consequences, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus...
June 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426273/preclinical-development-of-bcg-hiva-2auxo-int-harboring-an-integrative-expression-vector-for-a-hiv-tb-pediatric-vaccine-enhancement-of-stability-and-specific-hiv-1-t-cell-immunity
#11
Aakash Mahant, Narcís Saubi, Yoshiki Eto, Núria Guitart, Josep Ma Gatell, Tomáš Hanke, Joan Joseph
One of the critical issues that should be addressed in the development of a BCG-based HIV vaccine is genetic plasmid stability. Therefore, to address this issue we have considered using integrative vectors and the auxotrophic mutant of BCG complemented with a plasmid carrying a wild-type complementing gene. In this study, we have constructed an integrative E. coli-mycobacterial shuttle plasmid, p2auxo.HIVA(int), expressing the HIV-1 clade A immunogen HIVA. This shuttle vector uses an antibiotic resistance-free mechanism for plasmid selection and maintenance...
August 3, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056848/high-prevalence-and-low-cure-rate-of-tuberculosis-among-patients-with-hiv-in-xinjiang-china
#12
Rena Maimaiti, Yuexin Zhang, Kejun Pan, Peierdun Mijiti, Maimaitiali Wubili, Maimaitijiang Musa, Rune Andersson
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and HIV co-epidemics are problems in many parts of the world. Xinjiang is a high tuberculosis and HIV prevalence area in China. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and cure rate of tuberculosis among HIV positive patients in Xinjiang. METHODS: In a retrospective study between 2006 and 2011, clinical and laboratory data on 333 patients with HIV and tuberculosis were compared to 2668 patients with HIV only. There were 31 HIV positive patients with no data on tuberculosis...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997332/delivering-on-antimicrobial-resistance-agenda-not-possible-without-improving-fungal-diagnostic-capabilities
#13
REVIEW
David W Denning, David S Perlin, Eavan G Muldoon, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Malcolm D Richardson, Tania C Sorrell
Antimicrobial resistance, a major public health concern, largely arises from excess use of antibiotic and antifungal drugs. Lack of routine diagnostic testing for fungal diseases exacerbates the problem of antimicrobial drug empiricism, both antibiotic and antifungal. In support of this contention, we cite 4 common clinical situations that illustrate this problem: 1) inaccurate diagnosis of fungal sepsis in hospitals and intensive care units, resulting in inappropriate use of broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs in patients with invasive candidiasis; 2) failure to diagnose chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis; 3) misdiagnosis of fungal asthma, resulting in unnecessary treatment with antibacterial drugs instead of antifungal drugs and missed diagnoses of life-threatening invasive aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and 4) overtreatment and undertreatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-positive patients...
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855693/modelling-the-effect-of-short-course-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-in-karakalpakstan-uzbekistan
#14
James M Trauer, Jay Achar, Nargiza Parpieva, Atadjan Khamraev, Justin T Denholm, Dennis Falzon, Ernesto Jaramillo, Anita Mesic, Philipp du Cros, Emma S McBryde
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major threat to global TB control. MDR-TB treatment regimens typically have a high pill burden, last 20 months or more and often lead to unsatisfactory outcomes. A 9-11 month regimen with seven antibiotics has shown high success rates among selected MDR-TB patients in different settings and is conditionally recommended by the World Health Organization. METHODS: We construct a transmission-dynamic model of TB to estimate the likely impact of a shorter MDR-TB regimen when applied in a low HIV prevalence region of Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan) with high rates of drug resistance, good access to diagnostics and a well-established community-based MDR-TB treatment programme providing treatment to around 400 patients...
November 18, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795876/a-study-of-parasitic-and-bacterial-pathogens-associated-with-diarrhea-in-hiv-positive-patients
#15
Siddharth Shah, Vaishali Kongre, Varun Kumar, Renu Bharadwaj
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhea is a common complication of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), occurring in almost 90% of AIDS patients in developing countries like India. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence and microbiological profile of pathogens associated with diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients and their relation to CD4 counts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five successive HIV-positive patients, 27 with diarrhea (study group) and 18 without diarrhea (control group), were included in the three-month study...
September 27, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795387/dual-reporter-mycobacteriophages-%C3%AE-2drms-reveal-preexisting-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-persistent-cells-in-human-sputum
#16
Paras Jain, Brian C Weinrick, Eric J Kalivoda, Hui Yang, Vanisha Munsamy, Catherine Vilcheze, Torin R Weisbrod, Michelle H Larsen, Max R O'Donnell, Alexander Pym, William R Jacobs
Persisters are the minor subpopulation of bacterial cells that lack alleles conferring resistance to a specific bactericidal antibiotic but can survive otherwise lethal concentrations of that antibiotic. In infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, such persisters underlie the need for long-term antibiotic therapy and contribute to treatment failure in tuberculosis cases. Here, we demonstrate the value of dual-reporter mycobacteriophages (Φ2 DRMs) for characterizing M. tuberculosis persisters. The addition of isoniazid (INH) to exponentially growing M...
October 25, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730203/the-best-of-respiratory-infections-from-the-2015-european-respiratory-society-international-congress
#17
Eva Polverino, Graham H Bothamley, Delia Goletti, Jan Heyckendorf, Giovanni Sotgiu, Stefano Aliberti
The breadth and quality of scientific presentations on clinical and translational research into respiratory infections at the 2015 European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, establishes this area as one of the leadings fields in pulmonology. The host-pathogen relationship in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the impact of comorbidities and chronic treatment on clinical outcomes in patients with pneumonia were studied. Various communications were dedicated to bronchiectasis and, in particular, to different prognostic and clinical aspects of this disease, including chronic infection with Pseudomonas and inhaled antibiotic therapy...
July 2016: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711122/prevalence-of-drug-resistance-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-patients-seen-in-coast-provincial-general-hospital-mombasa-kenya
#18
Ida Pam Ombura, Noel Onyango, Susan Odera, Florence Mutua, Joshua Nyagol
BACKGROUND: Although prevention and control of spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains is a global challenge, there is paucity of data on the prevalence of DR-TB in patients diagnosed with TB in referral hospitals in Kenya. The present study assessed patients' characteristics and prevalence of drug resistant TB in sputa smear positive TB patients presenting to Coast Provincial General Hospital (CPGH) in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Drug resistance was evaluated in 258 randomly selected sputa smear TB positive cases between the periods of November 2011 to February 2012 at the CPGH-Mombasa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473191/surveillance-of-infectious-diseases-in-the-arctic
#19
REVIEW
M Bruce, T Zulz, A Koch
OBJECTIVES: This study reviews how social and environmental issues affect health in Arctic populations and describes infectious disease surveillance in Arctic Nations with a special focus on the activities of the International Circumpolar Surveillance (ICS) project. METHODS: We reviewed the literature over the past 2 decades looking at Arctic living conditions and their effects on health and Arctic surveillance for infectious diseases. RESULTS: In regards to other regions worldwide, the Arctic climate and environment are extreme...
August 2016: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413691/disseminated-tuberculosis-with-prostatic-abscesses-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#20
Upasana Joneja, William R Short, Amity L Roberts
We describe a case of disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mTB) with prostatic abscess in a newly diagnosed HIV patient in the United States. The patient is a 34 year-old male who presented with respiratory symptoms and was diagnosed with HIV/AIDS complicated by disseminated mTB infection of the lungs, liver, and prostate. His prostate showed abscess formation on imaging that required drainage however he did not present with any genitourinary complaints. Our literature review revealed that prostatic involvement in mTB in the form of granulomatous prostatitis is uncommon; however, abscess formation is extremely rare and only few such cases have been published...
2016: IDCases
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