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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921450/oral-pharmacokinetic-interaction-of-ester-rich-fruit-juices-and-pharmaceutical-excipients-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-in-male-wistar-rats
#1
Joseph Shailender, Punna Rao Ravi, Paramita Saha, Srividya Myneni
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of intestinal esterases on the absorption process of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). The esterase inhibition capacity of fruit juices (FJs) rich in ester linkages and pharmaceutical excipients (having ester) was performed in vitro by incubating TDF with each FJ and excipient in the intestinal washings. The ex vivo everted gut sac model was also used to evaluate the absorption enhancement capacity of these FJs and excipients. Single dose oral pharmacokinetic studies were performed by concomitant administration of TDF with each of the selected FJs and excipients...
December 6, 2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904048/inhibitory-effect-of-hesperetin-and-naringenin-on-human-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-enzymes-implications-for-herb-drug-interactions
#2
Dan Liu, Jie Wu, Hongbo Xie, Mingyi Liu, Isaiah Takau, Hong Zhang, Yuqing Xiong, Chunhua Xia
Hesperetin (HET) and naringenin (NGR) are flavanones found in citrus (oranges and grapefruit) and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus. The present study aims to investigate the inhibition potential of HET and NGR derivatives towards one of the most important phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes-uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). We used trifluoperazine as a probe substrate to test UGT1A4 activity, and recombinant UGT-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation was used as a probe reaction for other UGT isoforms...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890698/clementine-juice-has-the-potential-for-drug-interactions-in-vitro-comparison-with-grapefruit-and-mandarin-juice
#3
Dirk Theile, Nicolas Hohmann, Dominik Kiemel, Giuseppe Gattuso, Davide Barreca, Gerd Mikus, Walter Emil Haefeli, Vedat Schwenger, Johanna Weiss
Adverse drug interactions due to grapefruit juice are well known prompting warnings even in drug labels. Similar issues have not been reported for clementines and available data is scarce, despite of genetic descent. We observed substantially increased tacrolimus trough concentrations in a renal transplant patient consuming high clementine amounts and, thus, scrutinised the effects of clementine juice on drug metabolism and drug transporters in vitro and compared it to the effects of mandarin and grapefruit juice...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890083/anticoccidial-efficacy-of-naringenin-and-a-grapefruit-peel-extract-in-growing-lambs-naturally-infected-with-eimeria-spp
#4
Agustín Pérez-Fonseca, Yazmin Alcala-Canto, Abdelfattah Z M Salem, Aldo B Alberti-Navarro
The current study aimed to determine the anti-Eimeria efficacy of an extract of grapefruit peels (GF) and commercial naringenin (NAR) in naturally-infected lambs, as well as the influence of these flavonoids on the oxidative status during ovine coccidiosis. Pharmacokinetic profiles were also determined. Extracts were administered per os to Eimeria naturally infected growing lambs during 90 consecutive days. The commercial anticoccidial drug toltrazuril (TTZ) was included in this trial as a standard. Twenty-four lambs were divided into four groups: NAR, lambs given a daily dose of 5mg of a commercial naringenin extract of 98% higher purity per kg body weight; GF, lambs that recived a daily dose of 5mg of ethanolic extract of grapefruit peels per kg body weight; TTZ, lambs treated with 20mg of toltrazuril/kg body weight on days 0 and 15 of the experiment; and CTRL, untreated lambs that received daily dose of 30ml of water...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845763/the-chemistry-and-pharmacology-of-citrus-limonoids
#5
REVIEW
Roberta Gualdani, Maria Maddalena Cavalluzzi, Giovanni Lentini, Solomon Habtemariam
Citrus limonoids (CLs) are a group of highly oxygenated terpenoid secondary metabolites found mostly in the seeds, fruits and peel tissues of citrus fruits such as lemons, limes, oranges, pumellos, grapefruits, bergamots, and mandarins. Represented by limonin, the aglycones and glycosides of CLs have shown to display numerous pharmacological activities including anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic and insecticidal among others. In this review, the chemistry and pharmacology of CLs are systematically scrutinised through the use of medicinal chemistry tools and structure-activity relationship approach...
November 13, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842496/proteomics-analysis-reveals-novel-host-molecular-mechanisms-associated-with-thermotherapy-of-ca-liberibacter-asiaticus-infected-citrus-plants
#6
Chika C Nwugo, Melissa S Doud, Yong-Ping Duan, Hong Lin
BACKGROUND: Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), which is linked to the bacterial pathogen 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las), is the most devastating disease of citrus plants, and longer-term control measures via breeding or genetic engineering have been unwieldy because all cultivated citrus species are susceptible to the disease. However, the degree of susceptibility varies among citrus species, which has prompted efforts to identify potential Las resistance/tolerance-related genes in citrus plants for application in breeding or genetic engineering programs...
November 14, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836465/naringin-regulates-glutamate-nitric-oxide-cgmp-pathway-in-ammonium-chloride-induced-neurotoxicity
#7
Arumugam Ramakrishnan, Natesan Vijayakumar, Mani Renuka
Naringin, plant bioflavonoid extracted mainly from grapefruit and other related citrus species. This study was designed to assess the neuroprotective effect of naringin on ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) induced hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced by intraperitonial injection (i.p) of NH4Cl (100mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) thrice a week for 8 consecutive weeks. Hyperammonemic rats were treated with naringin (80mg/kg b.w.) via oral gavage. Naringin administration drastically restored the levels of blood ammonia, plasma urea, nitric oxide (NO), glutamate, glutamine, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, activities of liver marker enzymes, antioxidant status and sodium/potassium-ATPase (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase)...
November 8, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828408/all-fiber-mode-locked-laser-via-short-single-wall-carbon-nanotubes-interacting-with-evanescent-wave-in-photonic-crystal-fiber
#8
Yujia Li, Lei Gao, Wei Huang, Cong Gao, Min Liu, Tao Zhu
We report an all-fiber passively mode-locked laser based on a saturable absorber fabricated by filling short single-wall carbon nanotubes into cladding holes of grapefruit-type photonic crystal fiber. The single-wall carbon nanotube is insensitive to polarization of light for its one-dimensional structure, which suppresses the polarization dependence loss. Carbon nanotubes interact with photonic crystal fiber with ultra-weak evanescent field, which enhances the damage threshold of the saturable absorber and improves the operating stability...
October 3, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808514/variation-in-key-flavonoid-biosynthetic-enzymes-and-phytochemicals-in-rio-red-grapefruit-citrus-paradisi-macf-during-fruit-development
#9
Priyanka R Chaudhary, Haejeen Bang, Guddadarangavvanahally K Jayaprakasha, Bhimanagouda S Patil
In the current study, phytochemical contents and expression of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in Rio Red grapefruit were studied at different developmental and maturity stages for the first time. Grapefruit were harvested in June, August, November, January, and April and analyzed for the levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, limonoids, flavonoids, and furocoumarins by HPLC. In addition, genes encoding for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI) and 1, 2-rhamnosyltransferase (2RT) were isolated and their expression in grapefruit juice vesicles was studied...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771936/auraptene-and-its-role-in-chronic-diseases
#10
Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Auraptene (7-geranyloxycoumarin) is the best known and most abundant prenyloxycoumarin present in nature. It is synthesized by various plant species, mainly those of the Rutaceae and Umbeliferae (Apiaceae) families, comprising many edible fruits and vegetables such as lemons, grapefruit and orange. Auraptene has shown a remarkable effect in the prevention of degenerative diseases, in particular it has been reported to be one the most promising known natural chemopreventive agents against several types of cancer...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738922/a-short-review-of-drug-food-interactions-of-medicines-treating-overactive-bladder-syndrome
#11
Paweł Paśko, Tomasz Rodacki, Renata Domagała-Rodacka, Danuta Owczarek
Background Overactive bladder syndrome is a condition where one or more of the symptoms such as pollakiuria, urgent need to urinate, nocturia and urinary incontinence is observed. Its prevalence ranges between 7 and 27 % in men and 9-43 % in women. The role of a pharmacist is to educate the patient on medications administration scheme, and drug interactions with particular food or food components. Aim of the review To assess a potential impact of food and fruit juice on the pharmacokinetic and therapeutic effects of medications used in treating overactive bladder syndrome...
December 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736923/analysis-of-genetic-variation-in-brevipalpus-yothersi-acari-tenuipalpidae-populations-from-four-species-of-citrus-host-plants
#12
Delfina Salinas-Vargas, Ma Teresa Santillán-Galicia, Ariel W Guzmán-Franco, Antonio Hernández-López, Laura D Ortega-Arenas, Gustavo Mora-Aguilera
We studied species diversity and genetic variation among populations of Brevipalpus mites from four species of citrus host plants. We sampled mites on orange, lime, grapefruit and mandarin trees from orchards at six localities distributed in the five most important citrus producing states in Mexico. Genetic variation among citrus host plants and localities were assessed by analysis of nucleotide sequence data from fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Both Brevipalpus yothersi and B...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731822/effect-of-calcium-hypochlorite-and-chloramine-on-blood-biochemistry-and-sodium-pentobarbital-induced-sleeping-time-in-mice
#13
Sidra Ishaq, Muhammad Adil Rasheed, Muhammad Ashraf, Imran Altaf, Saima Rehmat, Ghulam Fatima
Disinfectants are chemical agents used to eradicate, deactivate or kill microorganisms. Chemical disinfectants especially chlorine compound are extensively used for water sanitization. Among these calcium hypochlorite and chloramines are commonly used now a day. Large number of chemical compounds, drugs and endogenous substances are metabolized by hepatic enzymes known as cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Many chemicals are capable of enzyme induction. Enzyme induction may change the metabolism of other drugs and endogenous substances which may alter the plasma concentration of these chemicals...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709656/predicting-clinical-relevance-of-grapefruit-drug-interactions-a-complicated-process
#14
D G Bailey
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Grapefruit juice interacts with a number of drugs. This commentary provides feedback on a previously proposed approach for predicting clinically relevant interactions with grapefruit juice based on the average inherent oral bioavailability (F) and magnitude of increase in bioavailability with other CYP3A inhibitors of the drug. COMMENT: Additional factors such as variability of the magnitude of the pharmacokinetic interaction among individuals, product monograph cautionary statements and vulnerability of the patient population should be considered...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702795/prevention-of-polymicrobial-biofilms-composed-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-pathogenic-fungi-by-essential-oils-from-selected-citrus-species
#15
Marina Pekmezovic, Ivana Aleksic, Aleksandra Barac, Valentina Arsic-Arsenijevic, Branka Vasiljevic, Jasmina Nikodinovic-Runic, Lidija Senerovic
Mixed microbial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and pathogenic fungi are commonly found in patients with chronic infections and constitute a significant health care burden. The aim of this study was to address the potential polymicrobial antibiofilm activity of pompia and grapefruit essential oils (EOs). The mechanism of antimicrobial activity of EOs was analysed. EOs of pompia and grapefruit inhibited fungal growth with MIC concentrations between 50 and 250 mg L(-1), whereas no effect on P. aeruginosa growth was observed...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693910/is-the-clinical-relevance-of-drug-food-and-drug-herb-interactions-limited-to-grapefruit-juice-and-saint-john-s-wort
#16
Stéphane Mouly, Célia Lloret-Linares, Pierre-Olivier Sellier, Damien Sene, J-F Bergmann
An interaction of drug with food, herbs, and dietary supplements is usually the consequence of a physical, chemical or physiologic relationship between a drug and a product consumed as food, nutritional supplement or over-the-counter medicinal plant. The current educational review aims at reminding to the prescribing physicians that the most clinically relevant drug-food interactions may not be strictly limited to those with grapefruit juice and with the Saint John's Wort herbal extract and may be responsible for changes in drug plasma concentrations, which in turn decrease efficacy or led to sometimes life-threatening toxicity...
September 28, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664718/differential-expression-of-pectolytic-enzyme-genes-in-xanthomonas-citri-subsp-citri-and-demonstration-that-pectate-lyase-pel3-is-required-for-the-formation-of-citrus-canker
#17
Shih-Chieh Chang, Wen-Ling Deng, Hsiou-Chen Huang, Kuang-Ren Chung, Kuo-Ching Tzeng
Bacterial canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus. The pectolytic enzymes produced by phytobacteria are important virulence factors involved in tissue maceration, electrolyte loss and cell death of host plants. In this study, the promoter activity of the pectolytic enzyme genes pel1, pel2, pel3, pglA, and peh-1 were investigated in Xcc XW19 strain using the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene as a reporter. GUS activity expressed under the control of the pel1, pel3, pglA, and peh-1 gene promoters positively correlated with bacterial growth...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644093/yield-esterification-degree-and-molecular-weight-evaluation-of-pectins-isolated-from-orange-and-grapefruit-peels-under-different-conditions
#18
Mohamed Yassine Sayah, Rachida Chabir, Hamid Benyahia, Youssef Rodi Kandri, Fouad Ouazzani Chahdi, Hanan Touzani, Faouzi Errachidi
Orange (Citrus sinensis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradise) peels were used as a source of pectin, which was extracted under different conditions. The peels are used under two states: fresh and residual (after essential oil extraction). Organic acid (citric acid) and mineral acid (sulfuric acid) were used in the pectin extraction. The aim of this study is the evaluation the effect of extraction conditions on pectin yield, degree of esterification "DE" and on molecular weight "Mw". Results showed that the pectin yield was higher using the residual peels...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584687/naringenin-ameliorates-kainic-acid-induced-morphological-alterations-in-the-dentate-gyrus-in-a-mouse-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#19
Jungha Park, Kyoung Hoon Jeong, Won-Ho Shin, Young-Seuk Bae, Un Ju Jung, Sang Ryong Kim
Granule cell dispersion (GCD) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is a morphological alteration characteristic of temporal lobe epilepsy. Recently, we reported that treatment with naringin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and citrus fruits, reduced spontaneous recurrent seizures by inhibiting kainic acid (KA)-induced GCD and neuronal cell death in mouse hippocampus, suggesting that naringin might have beneficial effects for preventing epileptic events in the adult brain. However, it is still unclear whether the beneficial effects of naringin treatment are mediated by the metabolism of naringin into naringenin in the KA-treated hippocampus...
October 19, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563298/degradation-of-zearalenone-by-essential-oils-under-in-vitro-conditions
#20
Adam Perczak, Krzysztof Juś, Katarzyna Marchwińska, Daniela Gwiazdowska, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Piotr Goliński
Essential oils are volatile compounds, extracted from plants, which have a strong odor. These compounds are known for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, data concerning degradation of mycotoxins by these metabolites are very limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of essential oils (cedarwood, cinnamon leaf, cinnamon bark, white grapefruit, pink grapefruit, lemon, eucalyptus, palmarosa, mint, thymic, and rosemary) on zearalenone (ZEA) reduction under various in vitro conditions, including the influence of temperature, pH, incubation time and mycotoxin and essential oil concentrations...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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