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Paweł Paśko, Tomasz Rodacki, Renata Domagała-Rodacka, Danuta Owczarek
Background Overactive bladder syndrome is a condition where one or more of the symptoms such as pollakiuria, urgent need to urinate, nocturia and urinary incontinence is observed. Its prevalence ranges between 7 and 27 % in men and 9-43 % in women. The role of a pharmacist is to educate the patient on medications administration scheme, and drug interactions with particular food or food components. Aim of the review To assess a potential impact of food and fruit juice on the pharmacokinetic and therapeutic effects of medications used in treating overactive bladder syndrome...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Delfina Salinas-Vargas, Ma Teresa Santillán-Galicia, Ariel W Guzmán-Franco, Antonio Hernández-López, Laura D Ortega-Arenas, Gustavo Mora-Aguilera
We studied species diversity and genetic variation among populations of Brevipalpus mites from four species of citrus host plants. We sampled mites on orange, lime, grapefruit and mandarin trees from orchards at six localities distributed in the five most important citrus producing states in Mexico. Genetic variation among citrus host plants and localities were assessed by analysis of nucleotide sequence data from fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Both Brevipalpus yothersi and B...
2016: PloS One
Sidra Ishaq, Muhammad Adil Rasheed, Muhammad Ashraf, Imran Altaf, Saima Rehmat, Ghulam Fatima
Disinfectants are chemical agents used to eradicate, deactivate or kill microorganisms. Chemical disinfectants especially chlorine compound are extensively used for water sanitization. Among these calcium hypochlorite and chloramines are commonly used now a day. Large number of chemical compounds, drugs and endogenous substances are metabolized by hepatic enzymes known as cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Many chemicals are capable of enzyme induction. Enzyme induction may change the metabolism of other drugs and endogenous substances which may alter the plasma concentration of these chemicals...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
D G Bailey
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Grapefruit juice interacts with a number of drugs. This commentary provides feedback on a previously proposed approach for predicting clinically relevant interactions with grapefruit juice based on the average inherent oral bioavailability (F) and magnitude of increase in bioavailability with other CYP3A inhibitors of the drug. COMMENT: Additional factors such as variability of the magnitude of the pharmacokinetic interaction among individuals, product monograph cautionary statements and vulnerability of the patient population should be considered...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Marina Pekmezovic, Ivana Aleksic, Aleksandra Barac, Valentina Arsic-Arsenijevic, Branka Vasiljevic, Jasmina Nikodinovic-Runic, Lidija Senerovic
Mixed microbial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and pathogenic fungi are commonly found in patients with chronic infections and constitute a significant health care burden. The aim of this study was to address the potential polymicrobial antibiofilm activity of pompia and grapefruit essential oils (EOs). The mechanism of antimicrobial activity of EOs was analysed. EOs of pompia and grapefruit inhibited fungal growth with MIC concentrations between 50 and 250 mg L(-1), whereas no effect on P. aeruginosa growth was observed...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Stéphane Mouly, Célia Lloret-Linares, Pierre-Olivier Sellier, Damien Sene, J-F Bergmann
An interaction of drug with food, herbs, and dietary supplements is usually the consequence of a physical, chemical or physiologic relationship between a drug and a product consumed as food, nutritional supplement or over-the-counter medicinal plant. The current educational review aims at reminding to the prescribing physicians that the most clinically relevant drug-food interactions may not be strictly limited to those with grapefruit juice and with the Saint John's Wort herbal extract and may be responsible for changes in drug plasma concentrations, which in turn decrease efficacy or led to sometimes life-threatening toxicity...
September 28, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Shih-Chieh Chang, Wen-Ling Deng, Hsiou-Chen Huang, Kuang-Ren Chung, Kuo-Ching Tzeng
Bacterial canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus. The pectolytic enzymes produced by phytobacteria are important virulence factors involved in tissue maceration, electrolyte loss and cell death of host plants. In this study, the promoter activity of the pectolytic enzyme genes pel1, pel2, pel3, pglA, and peh-1 were investigated in Xcc XW19 strain using the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene as a reporter. GUS activity expressed under the control of the pel1, pel3, pglA, and peh-1 gene promoters positively correlated with bacterial growth...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Mohamed Yassine Sayah, Rachida Chabir, Hamid Benyahia, Youssef Rodi Kandri, Fouad Ouazzani Chahdi, Hanan Touzani, Faouzi Errachidi
Orange (Citrus sinensis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradise) peels were used as a source of pectin, which was extracted under different conditions. The peels are used under two states: fresh and residual (after essential oil extraction). Organic acid (citric acid) and mineral acid (sulfuric acid) were used in the pectin extraction. The aim of this study is the evaluation the effect of extraction conditions on pectin yield, degree of esterification "DE" and on molecular weight "Mw". Results showed that the pectin yield was higher using the residual peels...
2016: PloS One
Jungha Park, Kyoung Hoon Jeong, Won-Ho Shin, Young-Seuk Bae, Un Ju Jung, Sang Ryong Kim
Granule cell dispersion (GCD) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is a morphological alteration characteristic of temporal lobe epilepsy. Recently, we reported that treatment with naringin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and citrus fruits, reduced spontaneous recurrent seizures by inhibiting kainic acid (KA)-induced GCD and neuronal cell death in mouse hippocampus, suggesting that naringin might have beneficial effects for preventing epileptic events in the adult brain. However, it is still unclear whether the beneficial effects of naringin treatment are mediated by the metabolism of naringin into naringenin in the KA-treated hippocampus...
October 19, 2016: Neuroreport
Adam Perczak, Krzysztof Juś, Katarzyna Marchwińska, Daniela Gwiazdowska, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Piotr Goliński
Essential oils are volatile compounds, extracted from plants, which have a strong odor. These compounds are known for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, data concerning degradation of mycotoxins by these metabolites are very limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of essential oils (cedarwood, cinnamon leaf, cinnamon bark, white grapefruit, pink grapefruit, lemon, eucalyptus, palmarosa, mint, thymic, and rosemary) on zearalenone (ZEA) reduction under various in vitro conditions, including the influence of temperature, pH, incubation time and mycotoxin and essential oil concentrations...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Filippo Giarratana, Daniele Muscolino, Chiara Beninati, Graziella Ziino, Alessandro Giuffrida, Antonio Panebianco
R(+)limonene (LMN) is the major aromatic compound in essential oils obtained from oranges, grapefruits, and lemons. The improvement of preservation techniques to reduce the growth and activity of spoilage microorganisms in foods is crucial to increase their shelf life and to reduce the losses due to spoilage. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of LMN on the shelf life of fish fillets. Its effectiveness was preliminarily investigated in vitro against 60 strains of Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs) and then on gilt-head sea bream fillets stored at 2±0...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Paweł Paśko, Tomasz Rodacki, Renata Domagała-Rodacka, Danuta Owczarek
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common disease in elderly men. BPH symptoms include frequent urination, urgent tenesmus and urination at night, a weak and interrupted urine flow and a sense of incomplete emptying of the bladder. Alpha- 1 adrenergic receptor antagonists and 5 α-reductase inhibitors form the most important groups of medications employed in BPH. Appropriately managed BPH patients shall be subject to counselling on interactions between agents belonging to these groups, and on particular components of the food they have...
August 20, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kawthar Ae Diab
BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been considerable research on recycling of agroindustrial waste for production of bioactive compounds. The food processing industry produces large amounts of citrus peels that may be an inexpensive source of useful agents. OBJECTIVE: The present work aimed to explore the phytochemical content, antioxidant, anticancer, antiproliferation, and antigenotxic activities of lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin peels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peels were extracted using 98% ethanol and the three crude extracts were assessed for their total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity using DPPH (1, 1diphenyl2picrylhydrazyl)...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Tadaharu Ueda, Takashi Okumura, Yukino Tanaka, Saki Akase, Tomoko Shimamura, Hiroyuki Ukeda
A new method was developed to evaluate antioxidant activity based on the redox properties of polyoxometalates, which are partially reduced by antioxidants to generate a limiting potential. The polyoxometalates [PMo12O40](3-), [PVW11O40](4-) and [SV2W10O40]4- formed in situ were used as electrochemical probes for the new evaluation method, and their formation conditions were optimized to evaluate the antioxidant activities of gallic acid, ellagic acid, catechin, quercetin, morin, trans-ferulic acid, sesamol, α-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol and L-ascorbic acid...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Marina Kawaguchi-Suzuki, Negar Nasiri-Kenari, Jonathan Shuster, Fred Gmitter, Paul Cancalon, Felipe de Oliveria, Jennifer Kight, Eileen Handberg, Carl Pepine, Reginald F Frye, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of grapefruit juice low in furanocoumarins on CYP3A activity and to summarize previous findings of enzyme inhibition measured by the metabolism of midazolam after intake of grapefruit juice. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, three-way crossover clinical study to determine the effect of regular grapefruit juice (RGJ) and a novel, low furanocoumarin hybrid grapefruit juice (HGJ) on the metabolism of oral midazolam, used as a probe for in vivo CYP3A activity, compared with water as a control...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Sanelisiwe Nzuza, Duduzile E Ndwandwe, Peter M O Owira
INTRODUCTION: The protective effects of grapefruit-derived naringin against HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors (PIs)-associated oxidative damage to pancreatic β-cells and apoptosis were investigated in RIN-5F cells in culture. METHODS: Cells in culture medium were challenged with 11-25 mM glucose with or without nelfinavir (1-10 μM), saquinavir (1-10 μM) and atazanavir (5-20 μM), respectively for 24 h to determine insulin secretion. The cells were further treated with nelfinavir (10 μM), saquinavir (10 μM), atazanavir (20 μM) with and without naringin or glibenclamide (10 μM) for 24 h to determine insulin secretion, lipid peroxidation, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) levels, ATP production and caspase-3 and-9 activities, respectively...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
D W Waite, R Griffin, R Taylor, S George
: Citrus canker is an economically important disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). This organism targets a wide range of citrus plants, including sweet orange, grapefruit, lemon and lime. As Xcc is spread by environmental factors such as wind and rain, it is difficult to control its movement once the disease has established. In order to facilitate monitoring of citrus canker we sought to design a novel diagnostic protocol based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for identification of bacterial cells directly from canker pustules without cultivation or DNA extraction...
November 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Domenico Taverna, Leonardo Di Donna, Fabio Mazzotti, Antonio Tagarelli, Anna Napoli, Emilia Furia, Giovanni Sindona
A novel approach for the rapid discrimination of bergamot essential oil from other citrus fruits oils is presented. The method was developed using paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) allowing for a rapid molecular profiling coupled with a statistic tool for a precise and reliable discrimination between the bergamot complex matrix and other similar matrices, commonly used for its reconstitution. Ambient mass spectrometry possesses the ability to record mass spectra of ordinary samples, in their native environment, without sample preparation or pre-separation by creating ions outside the instrument...
September 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Kang Liu, Lianguo Wu, Xiaolin Shi, Fengqing Wu
Naringin is an abundant flavanone in pomelo, grapefruit as well as lime and its variants, has been shown to exhibit certain antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and hypoglycemic effects. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the protective effects of naringin against ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to elucidate the potential underlying mechanism. Firstly, a mouse model of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was established. Next, osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and triglyceride (TG) activity values, inflammatory factor and oxidative stress were evaluated in the AS mice...
August 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yunsheng Wang, Lijuan Zhou, Xiaoyue Yu, Ed Stover, Feng Luo, Yongping Duan
Huanglongbing (HLB) is currently the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. Although there is no immune cultivar, field tolerance to HLB within citrus and citrus relatives has been observed at the USDA Picos farm at Ft. Pierce, Florida, where plants have been exposed to a very high level of HLB pressure since 2006. In this study, we used RNA-Seq to evaluate expression differences between two closely related cultivars after HLB infection: HLB-tolerant "Jackson" grapefruit-like-hybrid trees and HLB susceptible "Marsh" grapefruit trees...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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