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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698111/phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-maclura-moraceae-and-the-origin-of-an-anachronistic-fruit
#1
Elliot M Gardner, Paya Sarraf, Evelyn W Williams, Nyree J C Zerega
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Maclura (ca. 12 spp., Moraceae) is a widespread genus of trees and woody climbers found on five continents. Maclura pomifera, the Osage orange, is considered a classic example of an anachronistic fruit. Native to the central USA, the grapefruit-sized Osage oranges are unpalatable and have no known extant native dispersers, leading to speculation that the fruits were adapted to extinct megafauna. Our aim was to reconstruct the phylogeny, estimate divergence dates, and infer ancestral ranges of Maclura in order to test the monophyly of subgeneric classifications and to understand evolution and dispersal patterns in this globally distributed group...
July 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640225/herb-drug-interaction-between-the-traditional-hepatoprotective-formulation-and-sorafenib-on-hepatotoxicity-histopathology-and-pharmacokinetics-in-rats
#2
Chin-Tsung Ting, Yung-Yi Cheng, Tung-Hu Tsai
Sorafenib has been used as a standard therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In Asia, patients with HCC are potentially treated with the combination of sorafenib and Chinese herbal medicines to improve the efficiency and reduce the side effects of sorafenib. However, limited information about the herb-drug interactions is available. We hypothesize that the Chinese herbal medicine may exert hepatoprotective effects on the sorafenib-treated group. The aim of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetic mechanism of drug-drug interactions of sorafenib including interacting with hepatoprotective formulation, Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang formulation (LDXGT) and with two cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors, grapefruit juice and ketoconazole...
June 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631804/mandarin-fruit-quality-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Livnat Goldenberg, Yossi Yaniv, Ron Porat, Nir Carmi
During the last decade, there has been a continuous rise in consumption and global marketing of fresh, easy-to-peel mandarins, with current annual production of nearly 29 million tons. Nevertheless, most of the existing knowledge on quality traits of citrus fruit comes from research conducted on oranges and grapefruit, which are the main products for the citrus juice manufacturing industry; relatively little is yet known regarding the unique fruit quality traits of mandarins, nor about the great diversity in these traits among the various natural sub-groups and varieties of mandarins...
June 20, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622592/second-generation-h1-antihistamines-interaction-with-food-and-alcohol-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Paweł Paśko, Tomasz Rodacki, Renata Domagała-Rodacka, Krzysztof Palimonka, Monika Marcinkowska, Danuta Owczarek
Histamine is a mediator of many physiological processes. It plays an important role in modulating allergy reactions and immune system responses. H1 receptor is a therapeutic target for drugs applied in allergic diseases such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, urticarial, or atopic dermatitis. H1-antihistamines display different chemical structures, pharmacokinetics and a potential for drug-drug and drug-food interactions. Drug-food interactions are known to reduce therapeutic effects of the medicine, as well as to induce a potent adverse drug reactions...
June 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606222/association-of-flavonoid-rich-foods-and-flavonoids-with-risk-of-all-cause-mortality
#5
Kerry L Ivey, Majken K Jensen, Jonathan M Hodgson, A Heather Eliassen, Aedín Cassidy, Eric B Rimm
Flavonoids are bioactive compounds found in foods such as tea, red wine, fruits and vegetables. Higher intakes of specific flavonoids, and flavonoid-rich foods, have been linked to reduced mortality from specific vascular diseases and cancers. However, the importance of flavonoid-rich foods, and flavonoids, in preventing all-cause mortality remains uncertain. As such, we examined the association of intake of flavonoid-rich foods and flavonoids with subsequent mortality among 93 145 young and middle-aged women in the Nurses' Health Study II...
May 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597655/identification-and-characterization-of-3-epi-rotundone-a-novel-stereoisomer-of-rotundone-in-several-kinds-of-fruits
#6
Akira Nakanishi, Makiko Ito, Keisuke Yoshikawa, Tomoko Maeda, Susumu Ishizaki, Yoshiko Kurobayashi
A novel stereoisomer of rotundone, 3-epi-rotundone, was identified in the aroma of grapefruit, orange, apple, and mango. 3-epi-Rotundone was prepared by the isomerization of rotundone, and its structural elucidation was confirmed by comparing the 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy spectra with those of rotundone. The odor thresholds of rotundone and 3-epi-rotundone in water were determined by a triangle test as 5 and 19100 ng/kg, respectively. The odor of 3-epi-rotundone was evaluated as woody, spicy, peppery, citrus, grapefruit-like, powdery, and celery-like, which was a greater range of odor characteristics than that for rotundone...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596796/hesperidin-protects-against-acute-alcoholic-injury-through-improving-lipid-metabolism-and-cell-damage-in-zebrafish-larvae
#7
Zhenting Zhou, Weichao Zhong, Haiyan Lin, Peng Huang, Ning Ma, Yuqing Zhang, Chuying Zhou, Yuling Lai, Shaohui Huang, Shiying Huang, Lei Gao, Zhiping Lv
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a series of abnormalities of liver function, including alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis. Hesperidin, the major constituent of flavanone in grapefruit, is proved to play a role in antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and reducing multiple organs damage in various animal experiments. However, the underlying mechanism of resistance to alcoholic liver injury is still unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of hesperidin against ALD and its molecular mechanism in this study...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581738/identification-and-quantitation-of-furocoumarins-in-popularly-consumed-foods-in-the-u-s-using-quechers-extraction-coupled-with-uplc-ms-ms-analysis
#8
Melissa M Melough, Sang Gil Lee, Eunyoung Cho, Kijoon Kim, Anthony A Provatas, Christopher Perkins, Min Kyung Park, Abrar Qureshi, Ock K Chun
Furocoumarins are a class of photoactive compounds found in several plant species and may be responsible for the observed association between consumption of citrus products and the risk of skin cancer. Furocoumarin contents of several foods have been reported previously, but no comprehensive database of furocoumarin content of foods is currently available. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the distribution of furocoumarins in popularly consumed foods in the U.S. Samples of three varieties of each of 29 foods known or suspected to contain furocoumarins were purchased, prepared for analysis using a solid phase extraction method, and analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS for the presence of seven major furocoumarins...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579821/opioid-analgesics-related-pharmacokinetic-drug-interactions-from-the-perspectives-of-evidence-based-on-randomized-controlled-trials-and-clinical-risk-management
#9
REVIEW
Xiu-Qin Feng, Ling-Ling Zhu, Quan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity results in complex polypharmacy which may bear a risk of drug interactions. A better understanding of opioid analgesics combination therapy used for pain management could help warrant medication safety, efficacy, and economic relevance. Until now there has been no review summarizing the opioid analgesics-related pharmacokinetic drug interactions from the perspective of evidence based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHOD: A literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library, using a PRISMA flowchart...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572940/influence-of-storage-temperature-and-low-temperature-conditioning-on-the-levels-of-health-promoting-compounds-in-rio-red-grapefruit
#10
Priyanka R Chaudhary, Xiang Yu, Guddadarangavvanahally K Jayaprakasha, Bhimanagouda S Patil
Commercial operations use low-temperature conditioning of citrus fruits to reduce the incidence of chilling injury (CI) during cold storage and quarantine treatments. Rio Red grapefruits (Citrus paradisi Macf) were stored for 12 weeks at 11°C or 5°C; an additional set was temperature conditioned at 16°C for 7 days before storing at 5°C (CD). Every 3 weeks, samples were assessed for chilling injury (CI) and health-promoting compounds such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, limonoids, flavonoids, and furocoumarins...
May 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566583/bergamottin-promotes-adipocyte-differentiation-and-inhibits-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-inflammatory-cytokines-induction-in-3t3-l1-cells
#11
Hideya Mizuno, Tomoko Hatano, Ayako Taketomi, Mami Kawabata, Toshikatsu Nakabayashi
 Nowadays, a lot of food ingredients are marketed as dietary supplements for health. Because the effectiveness and mechanisms of these compounds have not been fully characterized, they might have unknown functions. Therefore, we investigated the effect of several food ingredients (Bergamottin, Chrysin, L-Citrulline and β-Carotene) known as health foods on adipocyte differentiation by using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In this study, we found that Bergamottin, a furanocoumarin isolated from grapefruit juice, promotes adipocyte differentiation...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562184/in-silico-probe-based-detection-of-citrus-viruses-in-ngs-data
#12
T L Jooste, M Visser, G Cook, J T Burger, H J Maree
The conservation of plant biosecurity relies on the rapid identification of pathogenic organisms, including viruses. With next-generation sequencing (NGS), it is possible to identify multiple viruses within a metagenomic sample. In this study, we explored the use of electronic probes (e-probes) for the simultaneous detection of 11 recognized citrus viruses. E-probes were designed and screened against raw sequencing data to minimize the bioinformatic processing time required. The e-probes were able to accurately detect their cognate viruses in simulated datasets, without any false negatives or positives...
August 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560869/quantitation-of-rotundone-in-grapefruit-citrus-paradisi-peel-and-juice-by-stable-isotope-dilution-assay
#13
Akira Nakanishi, Yusuke Fukushima, Norio Miyazawa, Keisuke Yoshikawa, Tomoko Maeda, Yoshiko Kurobayashi
Aroma extract dilution analyses of the aromas of peels and juices of white and pink grapefruits revealed that rotundone, responsible for peppery, spicy, and woody odors, was detected for the first time at high flavor dilution factors of 256-1024. In both juices, rotundone was detected at the highest flavor dilution factor of 1024. Rotundone in grapefruits was quantitated by a stable isotope dilution assay with a newly synthesized deuterium-labeled internal standard, rotundone-d2,3: its levels were 2180 and 1920 ng/kg in white and pink grapefruit peels and 29...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532150/synephrine-as-a-specific-marker-for-orange-consumption
#14
Matthias Bader, Tatjana Lang, Roman Lang, Thomas Hofmann
To validate the suitability of synephrine, known to be a highly abundant alkaloid in oranges, as a dietary biomarker for orange consumption, a highly sensitive and robust stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) as well as an ECHO method, using the analyte itself as a pseudointernal standard injected into the analysis run to provide an "echo peak" of the analyte, was developed to quantitate synephrine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in citrus juices and human urine before and after the ingestion of orange juice...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529700/effect-of-citrus-based-products-on-urine-profile-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Fakhri Rahman, Ponco Birowo, Indah S Widyahening, Nur Rasyid
Background. Urolithiasis is a disease with high recurrence rate, 30-50% within 5 years. The aim of the present study was to learn the effects of citrus-based products on the urine profile in healthy persons and people with urolithiasis compared to control diet and potassium citrate.  Methods. A systematic review was performed, which included interventional, prospective observational and retrospective studies, comparing citrus-based therapy with standard diet therapy, mineral water, or potassium citrate. A literature search was conducted using PUBMED, COCHRANE, and Google Scholar with "citrus or lemonade or orange or grapefruit or lime or juice" and "urolithiasis" as search terms...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516769/identification-of-rotundone-as-a-potent-odor-active-compound-of-several-kinds-of-fruits
#16
Akira Nakanishi, Yusuke Fukushima, Norio Miyazawa, Keisuke Yoshikawa, Tomoko Maeda, Yoshiko Kurobayashi
An investigation of the aromas of grapefruit, orange, apple, and mango revealed the presence of an odor-active compound that gave off a strong woody odor when assessed by gas chromatography-olfactometry. We isolated the compound from a high-boiling fraction of an orange essential oil, and subsequent nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of the isolated compound identified it as rotundone. Mass spectra and retention indices obtained from aroma concentrates of grapefruit, apple, and mango were identical to those of rotundone, which was therefore determined to be the common woody compound in these fruits...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509871/nutraceutical-value-of-citrus-flavanones-and-their-implications-in-cardiovascular-disease
#17
REVIEW
Lara Testai, Vincenzo Calderone
Background- Cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, dyslipidaemia and coronary artery pathology, are a major cause of illness and death in Western countries. Therefore, identifying effective therapeutic approaches and their cellular signalling pathways is a challenging goal for medicine. In this regard, several epidemiological studies demonstrate a relationship between the intake of flavonoid-rich foods and the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and mortality. In particular, flavonoids present in citrus fruits, such as oranges, bergamots, lemons and grapefruit (95% from flavanones), are emerging for their considerable nutraceutical value...
May 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504483/comparison-of-a-new-intranasal-naloxone-formulation-to-intramuscular-naloxone-results-from-hypothesis-generating-small-clinical-studies
#18
B T Gufford, G R Ainslie, J R White, M E Layton, J M Padowski, G M Pollack, M F Paine
Easy-to-use naloxone formulations are needed to help address the opioid overdose epidemic. The pharmacokinetics of i.v., i.m., and a new i.n. naloxone formulation (2 mg) were compared in six healthy volunteers. Relative to i.m. naloxone, geometric mean (90% confidence interval [CI]) absolute bioavailability of i.n. naloxone was modestly lower (55%; 90% CI, 43-70% vs. 41%; 90% CI, 27-62%), whereas average (±SE) mean absorption time was substantially shorter (74 ± 8.8 vs. 6.7 ± 4.9 min). The opioid-attenuating effects of i...
May 15, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502388/the-grapefruit-an-alternative-arthroscopic-tool-skill-platform
#19
David A Molho, Stephen M Sylvia, Daniel L Schwartz, Sara L Merwin, I Martin Levy
PURPOSE: To establish the construct validity of an arthroscopic training model that teaches arthroscopic tool skills including triangulation, grasping, precision biting, implant delivery and ambidexterity and uses a whole grapefruit for its training platform. METHODS: For the grapefruit training model (GTM), an arthroscope and arthroscopic instruments were introduced through portals cut in the grapefruit skin of a whole prepared grapefruit. After institutional review board approval, participants performed a set of tasks inside the grapefruit...
May 11, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500980/serum-metabolomics-reveals-the-mechanistic-role-of-functional-foods-and-exercise-for-obesity-management-in-rats
#20
Naglaa M Ammar, Mohamed A Farag, Tahani E Kholeif, Nadia S Metwally, Nora M El-Sheikh, Abdel Nasser El Gendy, Abdel-Hamid Z Abdel-Hamid
Obesity is one of the independent risk factors for several health problems, leading to metabolic perturbations and for which analytical approaches i.e., "metabolomics" is needed to monitor the underlying metabolic changes. In this study, obesity associated changes were assessed via serum metabolites analysis of obese rats fed on high fat diet. Obese rats were subsequently treated with different functional foods used for obesity management including pomegranate, grapefruit, and red cabbage in parallel to swimming exercise...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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