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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310238/electro-driven-extraction-of-polar-compounds-using-agarose-gel-as-a-new-membrane-determination-of-amino-acids-in-fruit-juice-and-human-plasma-samples
#1
Samira Sedehi, Hadi Tabani, Saeed Nojavan
In this work, polypropylene hollow fiber was replaced by agarose gel in conventional electro membrane extraction (EME) to develop a novel approach. The proposed EME method was then employed to extract two amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine) as model polar analytes, followed by HPLC-UV. The method showed acceptable results under optimized conditions. This green methodology outperformed conventional EME, and required neither organic solvents nor carriers. The effective parameters such as the pH values of the acceptor and the donor solutions, the thickness and pH of the gel, the extraction voltage, the stirring rate, and the extraction time were optimized...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303038/isomerization-of-feruloylputrescine-in-orange-juice-by-light-exposure
#2
Kayako Ogi, Takako Otsuka, Hidenobu Sumitani
Exposure to light may adversely affect the quality of foods. This investigation of how light exposure affects citrus (orange and mandarin blend) juice in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles demonstrated that the isomeric form of a compound in the juice changed during storage. This compound was identified as feruloylputrescine (FP; CAS: 501-13-3; C14H20N2O3) using LC/MS (Q-TOF). LC/MS and NMR measurements showed that the content of the original form, trans-FP, decreased as it isomerized to cis-FP during storage...
January 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301493/pacbio-sequencing-of-copper-tolerant-xanthomonas-citri-reveals-presence-of-a-chimeric-plasmid-structure-and-provides-insights-into-reassortment-and-shuffling-of-transcription-activator-like-effectors-among-x-citri-strains
#3
Alberto M Gochez, Jose C Huguet-Tapia, Gerald V Minsavage, Deepak Shantaraj, Neha Jalan, Annett Strauß, Thomas Lahaye, Nian Wang, Blanca I Canteros, Jeffrey B Jones, Neha Potnis
BACKGROUND: Xanthomonas citri, a causal agent of citrus canker, has been a well-studied model system due to recent availability of whole genome sequences of multiple strains from different geographical regions. Major limitations in our understanding of the evolution of pathogenicity factors in X. citri strains sequenced by short-read sequencing methods have been tracking plasmid reshuffling among strains due to inability to accurately assign reads to plasmids, and analyzing repeat regions among strains...
January 4, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298479/gastric-emptying-and-small-bowel-water-content-after-administration-of-grapefruit-juice-compared-to-water-and-iso-caloric-solutions-of-glucose-and-fructose-a-four-way-crossover-mri-pilot-study-in-healthy-subjects
#4
Michael Grimm, Mirko Koziolek, Marwa Saleh, Felix Schneider, Grzegorz Garbacz, Jens Peter Kuhn, Werner Weitschies
Grapefruit juice (GFJ) is known to affect the bioavailability of drugs in different ways. Despite the influence on gastrointestinal enzymes and transporters, the influence on gastrointestinal fluid kinetics is regarded to be relevant for the absorption of several drugs. Thus, it was the aim of this pilot study to investigate the gastric and intestinal volumes after intake of GFJ compared to isocaloric fructose and glucose solutions and water. The gastric and small intestinal volume kinetics after intake of 240 mL of GFJ, 10...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284137/grapefruit-and-its-biomedical-antigenotoxic-and-chemopreventive-properties
#5
REVIEW
José Melesio Cristóbal-Luna, Isela Álvarez-González, Eduardo Madrigal-Bujaidar, Germán Chamorro Cevallos
Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Mcfad) is a perenifolium tree 5-6 m high with a fruit of about 15 cm in diameter, protected by the peel we can find about 11-14 segments (carpels), each of which is surrounded by a membrane and each containing the juice sacs, as well as the seeds. The fruit is made up of numerous compounds, and is known to have nutritive value because of the presence of various vitamins and minerals, among other chemicals. The fruit is also used in the field of gastronomy. Information has been accumulated regarding the participation of the fruit structures in a variety of biomedical, antigenotoxic and chemopreventive effects, surely related with the presence of the numerous chemicals that have been determined to constitute the fruit...
December 25, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250798/effects-of-microwave-assisted-hot-water-treatments-designed-against-mexican-fruit-fly-anastrepha-ludens-on-grapefruit-citrus-paradisi-quality
#6
Nohemi Soto-Reyes, Aurelio Lopez-Malo, Roberto Rojas-Laguna, Julián Andrés Gómez-Salazar, María Elena Sosa-Morales
BACKGROUND: Hot water treatment (HWT) against Anastrepha ludens were developed achieving 48°C in the core of grapefruits and holding it for 6 min. After heating, the grapefruits were hydro-cooled and stored at 23°C and analyzed for 16 days. The effect of microwave-assisted hot water treatment (MW-HWT) on grapefruit quality was analyzed and compared with the quality of fruits treated with HWT and control fruits (without treatment). The physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of essential oil were analyzed...
December 18, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248449/interactions-between-crude-drug-extracts-used-in-japanese-traditional-kampo-medicines-and-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptide-2b1
#7
Rie Iijima, Tomoki Watanabe, Kan'ichiro Ishiuchi, Takashi Matsumoto, Junko Watanabe, Toshiaki Makino
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The use of herbal medicines has become popular worldwide, and the information on drug interactions between herbal medicines and chemical drugs is needed. AIM OF THE STUDY: We screened the inhibitory effects of crude drugs used in Kampo medicines used in Japan on organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 2B1 to predict potential interactions between Kampo medicines and chemical drugs used together. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We chose 98 kinds of crude drugs frequently used as ingredients of Kampo formulations in Japan and prepared their boiling water extracts...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227543/edible-coating-using-a-chitosan-based-colloid-incorporating-grapefruit-seed-extract-for-cherry-tomato-safety-and-preservation
#8
Jin Sung Won, Seung Jo Lee, Hyeon Hwa Park, Kyung Bin Song, Sea C Min
Grapefruit seed extract (GSE)-containing chitosan-based coating was developed and applied to cherry tomatoes to protect them from Salmonella invasion and improve their storability. The coating colloids were produced by mixing a chitosan colloid (1% [w/w] chitosan) with GSE at various concentrations (0.5%, 0.7%, 1.0%, and 1.2% [w/w]) using high-shear mixing (10000 rpm, 2 min). Coatings with chitosan colloids containing GSE at 0.0%, 0.5%, 0.7%, and 1.0% (w/w) inactivated Salmonella on cherry tomatoes by 1.0 ± 0...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198205/do-mothers-really-know-best-complexities-in-testing-the-preference-performance-hypothesis-in-polyphagous-frugivorous-fruit-flies
#9
A Birke, M Aluja
The preference-performance hypothesis (PPH) has widely been used to explain host exploitation patterns by phytophagous insects. However, this hypothesis often fails in the case of polyphagous species when compared with specialists. One explanation, validated by the information-processing hypothesis (IPH), considers that polyphagous insects are unable to process a large array of cues, which hinders females from distinguishing between high- and low- quality hosts. Here we analyzed Anastrepha ludens female host preference and offspring performance, and tested if neuronal limitations could possibly play a role in the incapacity of the polyphagous A...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195928/acoustic-cavitation-assisted-extraction-of-pectin-from-waste-grapefruit-peels-a-green-two-stage-approach-and-its-general-mechanism
#10
Wenjun Wang, Xingzhu Wu, Thunthacha Chantapakul, Danli Wang, Song Zhang, Xiaobin Ma, Tian Ding, Xingqian Ye, Donghong Liu
In the present study, acoustic cavitation assisted extraction (ACAE) which is a green approach was used for two-stage extraction of pectin from waste grapefruit peels regarding the specific two stages and different peel particle sizes. The yields, physicochemical properties and structure prediction of pectin from different peel particle sizes and different stages by two methods were compared. Highest pectin yield of 23.49% was achieved at the peel size of 0.9mm and was slightly higher than the yield of 23.44% at finer particle size...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194637/antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-freeze-dried-grapefruit-phenolics-as-affected-by-gum-arabic-and-bamboo-fibre-addition-and-microwave-pretreatment
#11
Eva García-Martínez, Isabel Andújar, Alberto Yuste Del Carmen, Jaime Prohens, Nuria Martínez-Navarrete
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that phenolic compounds present in grapefruit play an important role in the bioactive properties of this fruit. However, the consumption of fresh grapefruit is low. Freeze dried powdered grapefruit can be an alternative to promote this fruit consumption. To improve the quality and stability of the powdered fruit, the addition of encapsulating and anticaking agents can be used. In this work, different grapefruit powders obtained by freeze drying with addition of gum arabic (1...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163154/biotransformation-of-flavonoid-conjugates-with-fatty-acids-and-evaluations-of-their-functionalities
#12
Cynthia Q Sun, Keryn D Johnson, Herbert Wong, L Y Foo
Enzymatic conjugation with fatty acids including omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) derived from fish oil to three citrus fruit-derived flavonoids: grapefruit extract, naringin, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone were investigated. The conversions were achieved over 85% under the catalysis of lipase Novozyme 435 in acetone at 45°C at semi-preparative scale. The conjugates were purified via solvent partition and silica gel chromatography and achieved 90-98% in purity. The NMR analysis of the conjugates confirmed that the fatty acid carbon chain was linked onto the primary -OH group on the glucose moiety of the flavonoids...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148926/identification-of-gene-candidates-associated-with-huanglongbing-tolerance-using-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-flagellin-22-as-a-proxy-to-challenge-citrus
#13
Qingchun Shi, Vicente J Febres, Shujian Zhang, Fahong Yu, Greg McCollum, David G Hall, Gloria A Moore, Ed Stover
The 22-amino acid (flg22) pathogen-associated molecular pattern from the flagellin of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri has been shown to induce defense responses correlated with citrus canker resistance. Here, flg22 of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', the putative causal agent of Huanglongbing (HLB), elicited differential defense responses that were weaker than those from Xcc-flg22, between those of the HLB-tolerant mandarin cultivar Sun Chu Sha and susceptible grapefruit cultivar Duncan. Transcriptomics was used to compare the effect of CLas-flg22 and Xcc-flg22 between the citrus genotypes and identified 86 genes induced only by CLas-flg22 in the tolerant mandarin...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140707/grapefruit-flavonoid-naringenin-regulates-the-expression-of-lxr%C3%AE-in-thp-1-macrophages-by-modulating-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#14
Javier Saenz, Consuelo Santa-María, Maria Edith Reyes-Quiroz, Isabel Geniz, Juan Jiménez, Francisco Sobrino, Gonzalo Alba
The present work investigates the modulation of grapefruit flavonoid naringenin over Liver X Receptor alpha (LXRα) and its target genes in THP-1 macrophages, focusing on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) implication. Naringenin induced LXRα at mRNA and protein levels besides influencing the expression of LXRα target genes ABCA1, ABCG1 (ATP-binding cassette A1 and G1), and SREBP1c (sterol response element binding protein 1c) in THP-1 macrophages. The increased LXRα mRNA and protein expression was reverted when AMPK was inhibited by its chemical inhibitor, compound C or by transfection with AMPK α1 and α2 siRNA...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121676/naringin-prevents-hiv-1-protease-inhibitors-induced-metabolic-complications-in-vivo
#15
Sanelisiwe Nzuza, Sindiswa Zondi, Peter M O Owira
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and overt diabetes are known metabolic complications associated with chronic use of HIV-Protease Inhibitors. Naringin is a grapefruit-derived flavonoid with anti-diabetic, anti-dyslipidemia, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the protective effects of naringin on glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion and signaling in vivo. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 6) and were daily orally treated with distilled water {3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109957/-gold-pressed-essential-oil-an-essay-on-the-volatile-fragment-from-citrus-juice-industry-by-products-chemistry-and-bioactivity
#16
V N Kapsaski-Kanelli, E Evergetis, A Michaelakis, D P Papachristos, E D Myrtsi, S D Koulocheri, S A Haroutounian
Present essay explores the potentials of Citrus juice industry's by-products as alternative bioactive natural products resources. Four crude Cold Pressed Essential Oils (CPEOs), derived from orange, lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin, were studied. All CPEOs were subjected to water distillation, in order to obtain the volatile fragment, which was further fractionated with respect to distillation period in two parts, concluding to eight samples. These samples along with the four original CPEOs were assessed in relation to their phytochemical content and their repellent and larvicidal properties against Asian Tiger Mosquito...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109044/target-vs-non-target-analysis-to-determine-pesticide-residues-in-fruits-from-saudi-arabia-and-influence-in-potential-risk-associated-with-exposure
#17
Yolanda Picó, Mohamed A El-Sheikh, Ahmed H Alfarhan, Damià Barceló
The occurrence of pesticide residues in fruits was determined by a target method for 62 analytes and a wide scope screening method against a database of 500 pesticides. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were from 0.5 to 6.3 μg kg(-1) for the target method and from 0.5 to 119 μg kg(-1) for the non-target. Thirty samples: dates, apples, oranges, tangerines, lemons and grapefruits were selected because their high consumption, except lemons and grapefruits that were to cover all citrus fruits. Using the target method, 15 compounds (mostly insecticides and fungicides) out of 62 pesticides (organophosphorus, carbamates, pyrethroids, chloroacetanilides, triazines, triazoles, imidazoles, etc...
November 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105297/recent-advances-in-understanding-xanthomonas-citri-subsp-citri-pathogenesis-and-citrus-canker-disease-management
#18
Christopher M Ference, Alberto M Gochez, Franklin Behlau, Nian Wang, James H Graham, Jeffrey B Jones
Taxonomic status: Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Order Xanthomonadles; Family Xanthomonadaceae; Genus Xanthomonas; Species Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). Host range: Compatible hosts vary in their susceptibility to CC, with grapefruit, lime, and lemon being most susceptible, sweet orange being moderately susceptible, and kumquat and calamondin being among the least susceptible (Gottwald et al., 1993). Microbiological properties: Xcc is a rod-shaped (1.5 - 2.0 X 0.5 - 0.75 µm) gram-negative, aerobic bacterium with a single polar flagellum...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058618/in-silico-analysis-of-the-grapefruit-srnaome-transcriptome-and-gene-regulation-in-response-to-ctv-cdvd-co-infection
#19
Marike Visser, Glynnis Cook, Johan T Burger, Hans J Maree
BACKGROUND: Small RNA (sRNA) associated gene regulation has been shown to play a significant role during plant-pathogen interaction. In commercial citrus orchards co-infection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and viroids occur naturally. METHODS: A next-generation sequencing-based approach was used to study the sRNA and transcriptional response in grapefruit to the co-infection of CTV and Citrus dwarfing viroid. RESULTS: The co-infection resulted in a difference in the expression of a number of sRNA species when comparing healthy and infected plants; the majority of these were derived from transcripts processed in a phased manner...
October 23, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048675/naringenin-inhibits-alcoholic-injury-by-improving-lipid-metabolism-and-reducing-apoptosis-in-zebrafish-larvae
#20
Haiyan Lin, Zhenting Zhou, Weichao Zhong, Peng Huang, Ning Ma, Yuqing Zhang, Chuying Zhou, Yuling Lai, Shaohui Huang, Haiyan An, Xuegang Sun, Lei Gao, Zhiping Lv
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) includes a spectrum of hepatic abnormalities that range from isolated alcoholic steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Naringenin, a predominant flavanone in grapefruit, increases resistance to oxidative stress and inflammation and protects against multiple organ injury in various animal models. However, the specific mechanisms responsible for protection against alcoholic injury are poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of naringenin on alcoholic events and the molecular regulatory mechanisms of naringenin in the liver and whole body of zebrafish larvae following exposure to 350 mmol/l ethanol for 32 h...
September 19, 2017: Oncology Reports
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