Read by QxMD icon Read


Arturo Figueroa, Alexei Wong, Salvador J Jaime, Joaquin U Gonzales
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: L-Citrulline, either synthetic or in watermelon, may improve vascular function through increased L-arginine bioavailability and nitric oxide synthesis. This article analyses potential vascular benefits of L-citrulline and watermelon supplementation at rest and during exercise. RECENT FINDINGS: There is clear evidence that acute L-citrulline ingestion increases plasma L-arginine, the substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. However, the subsequent acute improvement in nitric oxide production and mediated vasodilation is inconsistent, which likely explains the inability of acute L-citrulline or watermelon to improve exercise tolerance...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
N M A Rahman, H T Fu, S M Sun, H Qiao, S Jin, H K Bai, W Y Zhang, G X Liang, Y S Gong, Y W Xiong, Y Wu
Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) produces nitric oxide (NO) by catalyzing the conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline, with the concomitant oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Recently, various studies have verified the importance of NOS invertebrates and invertebrates. However, the NOS gene family in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense is poorly understood. In this study, we cloned the full-length NOS complementary DNA from M. nipponense (MnNOS) and characterized its expression pattern in different tissues and at different developmental stages...
August 29, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Takashi Suzuki, Masahiko Morita, Toshio Hayashi, Ayako Kamimura
We investigated the effects of combining 1 g of l-citrulline and 1 g of l-arginine as oral supplementation on plasma l-arginine levels in healthy males. Oral l-citrulline plus l-arginine supplementation more efficiently increased plasma l-arginine levels than 2 g of l-citrulline or l-arginine, suggesting that oral l-citrulline and l-arginine increase plasma l-arginine levels more effectively in humans when combined.
September 26, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Morteza Safi, Mohammad Parsa Mahjoob, Saeed Nateghi, Isa Khaheshi, Mohammad Ali Akbarzadeh, Mohammadreza Naderian
BACKGROUND: The recent studies have confirmed the essential and paramount role of the L-Citrulline on the nitric oxide regulation and the endothelial function improvement. METHODS: In this cross-over clinical trial, thirty patients, diagnosed with coronary artery disease (CAD) and flow mediated dilation to nitroglycerin dependent vasodilation (FMD/NMD) ratio less than 1, were included. The patients were randomly divided in two groups of 15 patients and underwent treatment by L-Citrulline or placebo for 15 days, in 2 step protocol...
September 18, 2016: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
Hugo Huisman, Aletta Schutte, Johannes Van Rooyen, Carla Fourie, Ruan Kruger, Wayne Smith, Leandi Lammertyn, Leone Malan, Shani Botha, Carina Mels
OBJECTIVE: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a cofactor for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and may be a critical agent in endothelial function by improving nitric oxide (NO) mediated effects. It is reported that the NO synthesis capacity seems favourable in blacks despite their adverse cardiovascular profile. We therefore compared the concentrations of BH4, as well as blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness between black and white teachers. Furthermore, we tested the associations of BH4 with a product and inhibitor of NO synthesis, namely L-citrulline, and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) respectively, in both ethnic groups...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rajesh G Mishra, Tzu-Ling Tseng, Mei-Fang Chen, Po-Yi Chen, Tony J-F Lee
Nitric oxide (NO) overproduction via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is implicated in vasodilatory shock in sepsis, leading to septic encephalopathy and accelerating cerebral ischemic injury. An abbreviated urea-cycle (L-citrulline-L-arginine-NO cycle) has been demonstrated in cerebral perivascular nitrergic nerves and endothelial cells but not in normal cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell (CVSMC). This cycle indicates that argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) catalyzes L-citrulline (L-cit) conversion to form argininosuccinate (AS), and subsequent AS cleavage by argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) forms L-arginine (L-arg), the substrate for NO synthesis...
September 7, 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
Kenichi Tanaka, Kimitoshi Nakamura, Shirou Matsumoto, Jun Kido, Hiroshi Mitsubuchi, Toshihiro Ohura, Fumio Endo
BACKGROUND: The amino acid L-citrulline is used as a therapeutic agent for urea cycle disorders (UCDs) including ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency (CPSD), and N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) deficiency. However, there are few reports with regard to the use of L-citrulline in Japan and little consensus regarding the effects of L-citrulline administration. METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire survey of patients undergoing L-citrulline treatment for a UCD to evaluate the current status of this therapy...
September 10, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Nhat-Thang Tran, Valerie Amarger, Aurelie Bourdon, Emilie Misbert, Isabelle Grit, Norbert Winer, Dominique Darmaun
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of maternal citrulline supplementation on fetal growth and placental efficiency in a rat model of IUGR induced by maternal protein restriction. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: NP (receiving a control 20% protein diet), LP (a 4% protein diet), or LP-CIT (an LP diet along with L-citrulline, 2 g/kg/d in drinking water). On the 15(th) and 21(st) day of gestation (GD15 and GD21, respectively), dams underwent a C-section, by which fetuses and placentas were extracted...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
D Winnica, L G Que, C Baffi, H Grasemann, K Fiedler, Z Yang, E Etling, K Wasil, S E Wenzel, B Freeman, F Holguin
BACKGROUND: Asthma is associated with reduced systemic levels of l-arginine and increased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). This imbalance leads to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) uncoupling with reduced nitric oxide (NO) formation and greater oxidative and nitrosative stress. Whether this imbalance also occurs in bronchial epitheliumof asthmatics is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We used primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) from asthmatics and healthy controls to evaluate: (i) ADMA-mediated NOS uncoupling reduces epithelial production of NO and increases oxygen and nitrogen reactive species, and (ii) l-citrulline can reverse this mechanism by recoupling NOS, restoring NO production and reducing oxidative and nitrosative stress...
August 26, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
R Andrew Shanely, David C Nieman, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Dru A Henson, Mary P Meaney, Amy M Knab, Lynn Cialdell-Kam
Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM) contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years) participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study...
2016: Nutrients
P Liu, Y Jing, N D Collie, B Dean, D K Bilkey, H Zhang
Previous research implicates altered metabolism of l-arginine, a versatile amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites, in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study, for we believe the first time, systematically compared the metabolic profile of l-arginine in the frontal cortex (Brodmann's area 8) obtained post-mortem from schizophrenic individuals and age- and gender-matched non-psychiatric controls (n=20 per group). The enzyme assays revealed no change in total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, but significantly increased arginase activity in the schizophrenia group...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Cathrin Sellmann, Cheng Jun Jin, Anna Janina Engstler, Jean-Pascal De Bandt, Ina Bergheim
PURPOSE: Impairments of intestinal barrier function are discussed as risk factors for the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Studies suggest an association between arginine/citrulline homeostasis and the development of liver damages. Here, the effect of an oral L-citrulline (Cit) supplement on the development of a Western-style diet (WSD)-induced NAFLD was determined in mice. METHODS: Female 6- to 8-week-old C57BL/6J mice were either pair-fed a liquid Western-style or control diet (C) ± 2...
August 5, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Oleg A Shchelochkov, Klara Dickinson, Bruce F Scharschmidt, Brendan Lee, Miguel Marino, Cynthia Le Mons
UNLABELLED: Patients and families living with metabolic disorders face challenging dietary and drug treatment regimens. On the hypothesis that poor palatability, volume and frequency of drug/formula administration contribute to treatment non-adherence and hyperammonemic episodes, a survey was conducted of patient, caregiver (CG) and physician perspectives on treatments used in urea cycle disorders (UCD). METHODS: A paper and online survey assessed experience with UCD medications, medical foods and dietary supplements...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Patricia Hafner, Ulrike Bonati, Daniela Rubino, Vanya Gocheva, Thomas Zumbrunn, Nuri Gueven, Dirk Fischer
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disease that affects 1 in 3500-6000 male births. Despite broad research aiming to improve muscle function as well as heart and brain function, sufficient therapeutic efficacy has not yet been achieved and current therapeutic management is still supportive. In a recent pilot trial, oral treatment with L-arginine and metformin showed consistent changes of muscular metabolism both in vitro and in vivo by raising NO levels and expression of mitochondrial proteins in the skeletal muscle tissue of patients with DMD...
2016: Trials
Stephen J Bailey, Jamie R Blackwell, Ewan Williams, Anni Vanhatalo, Lee J Wylie, Paul G Winyard, Andrew M Jones
This study tested the hypothesis that watermelon juice supplementation would improve nitric oxide bioavailability and exercise performance. Eight healthy recreationally-active adult males reported to the laboratory on two occasions for initial testing without dietary supplementation (control condition). Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned, in a cross-over experimental design, to receive 16 days of supplementation with 300 mL·day(-1) of a watermelon juice concentrate, which provided ∼3.4 g l-citrulline·day(-1) and an apple juice concentrate as a placebo...
September 30, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Raquel Pérez-Míguez, María Luisa Marina, María Castro-Puyana
New analytical methodologies enabling the enantiomeric separation of a group of non-protein amino acids of interest in the pharmaceutical and food analysis fields were developed in this work using Electrokinetic Chromatography. The use of FMOC as derivatization reagent and the subsequent separation using acidic conditions (formate buffer at pH 2.0) and anionic cyclodextrins as chiral selectors allowed the chiral separation of eight from the ten non-protein amino acids studied. Pyroglutamic acid, norvaline, norleucine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenilalanine, 2-aminoadipic acid, and selenomethionine were enantiomericaly separated using sulfated-α-CD while sulfated-γ-CD enabled the enantiomeric separation of norvaline, 3,4-dihydroxyphenilalanine, 2-aminoadipic acid, selenomethionie, citrulline, and pipecolic acid...
June 18, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Juliano Casonatto, João Vagner Cavalari, Diego Destro Christofaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
D V Franskevych, I I Grynyuk, S V Prylutska, G V Pasichnyk, D M Petukhov, L B Drobot, O P Matyshevska, U Ritter
AIM: To estimate the combined action of C60 fullerene and light irradiation on viability of L1210 leukemic cells, nitric oxide (NO) generation, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and cell cycle distribution. METHODS: Cell viability was assessed by MTT test. Light-emitting diode lamp (λ = 410-700 nm, 2.45 J/cm(2) ) was used for C60 fullerene photoexcitation. Nitrite level and NO-synthase activity were measured by Griess reaction and by conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline, respectively...
June 2016: Experimental Oncology
Alexei Wong, Oksana Chernykh, Arturo Figueroa
The present study evaluated the impact of chronic l-citrulline (L-cit) supplementation on resting heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure (BP) in obese postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assign to either an L-cit group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). HRV and BP were measured before and after 8weeks. There were significant decreases (P<0.05) in nLF (sympathetic activity), LnLF/LnHF (sympathovagal balance), and BP as well as a significant increase (P<0.05) in nHF (vagal tone) following L-cit compared with no changes after control...
July 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Dorit Lubitz, João M P Jorge, Fernando Pérez-García, Hironori Taniguchi, Volker F Wendisch
L-arginine is a semi-essential amino acid with application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Metabolic engineering strategies have been applied for overproduction of L-arginine by Corynebacterium glutamicum. LysE was the only known L-arginine exporter of this bacterium. However, an L-arginine-producing strain carrying a deletion of lysE still accumulated about 10 mM L-arginine in the growth medium. Overexpression of the putative putrescine and cadaverine export permease gene cgmA was shown to compensate for the lack of lysE with regard to L-arginine export...
October 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"