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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433150/production-of-prebiotic-xylooligosaccharides-from-alkali-pretreated-mahogany-and-mango-wood-sawdust-by-using-purified-xylanase-of-clostridium-strain-boh3
#1
Gobinath Rajagopalan, Kavitha Shanmugavelu, Kun-Lin Yang
Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are emerging prebiotics which can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass including agro-residues and hardwood. In this study, we report the production of XOS from thermal-alkali pretreated hardwood such as mahogany and mango by using a purified xylanase from Clostridium strain BOH3. In the first approach, pure xylan is extracted from mahogany and mango hardwood and then the pure xylan is hydrolyzed by using the xylanase. In this case, 572 and 504mg XOS/g pure xylan were obtained from mahogany and mango woods, respectively...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410921/a-randomized-trial-to-determine-the-impact-of-a-digestion-resistant-starch-composition-on-the-gut-microbiome-in-older-and-mid-age-adults
#2
Michelle J Alfa, David Strang, Paramjit S Tappia, Morag Graham, Gary Van Domselaar, Jessica D Forbes, Vanessa Laminman, Nancy Olson, Pat DeGagne, David Bray, Brenda-Lee Murray, Brenden Dufault, Lisa M Lix
BACKGROUND: The elderly often have a diet lacking resistant starch (RS) which is thought to lead to gut microbiome dysbiosis that may result in deterioration of gut colonocytes. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to assess if elderly (ELD; ≥ 70 years age) had microbiome dysbiosis compared to mid-age (MID; 30-50 years age) adults and then determine the impact of daily consumption of MSPrebiotic(®) (a RS) or placebo over 3 months on gut microbiome composition...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404159/a-microbiota-centric-view-of-diseases-of-the-upper-gastrointestinal-tract
#3
REVIEW
Gerardo Nardone, Debora Compare, Alba Rocco
The distinctive anatomy and physiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the difficulty of obtaining samples led to the theory that it was bacteria free. However, multiomics studies are indicating otherwise. Although influenced by both oral and gastric bacteria, the resident microbial ecosystem in the oesophagus is dominated by Streptococcus. A shift from Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria occurs in oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus, and this shift might be involved in the pathogenesis of oesophageal adenocarcinoma...
April 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400010/exploitation-of-grape-marc-as-functional-substrate-for-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-bifidobacteria-growth-and-enhanced-antioxidant-activity
#4
Daniela Campanella, Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello, Cristina Fasciano, Giuseppe Gambacorta, Daniela Pinto, Barbara Marzani, Nicola Scarano, Maria De Angelis, Marco Gobbetti
This study aimed at using grape marc for the growth of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient having antioxidant activity. Lactobacillus plantarum 12A and PU1, Lactobacillus paracasei 14A, and Bifidobacterium breve 15A showed the ability to grow on grape marc (GM) based media. The highest bacterial cell density (>9.0 CFU/g) was found in GM added of 1% of glucose (GMG). Compared to un-inoculated and incubated control fermented GMG showed a decrease of carbohydrates and citric acid together with an increase of lactic acid...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397382/immunotropic-aspect-of-the-bacillus-coagulans-probiotic-action
#5
Tatiana V Bomko, Tatiana N Nosalskaya, Tatiana V Kabluchko, Yury V Lisnyak, Artur V Martynov
OBJECTIVES: Currently, probiotics are increasingly used as the alternative to antibiotics as well as the preventive measures in humans. In particular, probiotics occupy a key position in the treatment of antibiotics-associated intestinal dysbiosis. A spore-forming microorganism lactobacillus Bacillus coagulans is one of the most promising probiotics. However, some of its pharmacological effects remain poorly understood. This study was aimed at investigation of the effect of B. coagulans (Laktovit Forte) on the intestinal dysbiosis syndrome in mice caused by streptomycin against the background of cyclophosphamide-induced cellular immunodeficiency...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396144/supplementation-of-diet-with-galacto-oligosaccharides-increases-bifidobacteria-but-not-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-prediabetic-individuals
#6
Emanuel E Canfora, Christina M van der Beek, Gerben D A Hermes, Gijs H Goossens, Johan W E Jocken, Jens J Holst, Hans M van Eijk, Koen Venema, Hauke Smidt, Erwin G Zoetendal, Cornelis H C Dejong, Kaatje Lenaerts, Ellen E Blaak
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut microbiota affects host lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety, and chronic low-grade inflammation to contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fermentation end products, in particular the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) acetate, are believed to be involved in these processes. We investigate the long-term effects of supplementation with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), an acetogenic fiber, on the composition of the human gut microbiota and human metabolism. METHODS: We performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel intervention study of 44 overweight or obese (body mass index, 28-40 kg/m2) prediabetic men and women (ages, 45-70 years) from October 2014 through October 2015 in Maastricht, The Netherlands...
April 7, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394924/microscale-spatial-analysis-provides-evidence-for-adhesive-monopolization-of-dietary-nutrients-by-specific-intestinal-bacteria
#7
Yusuke Nagara, Toshihiko Takada, Yuriko Nagata, Shoichi Kado, Akira Kushiro
Each species of intestinal bacteria requires a nutritional source to maintain its population in the intestine. Dietary factors are considered to be major nutrients; however, evidence directly explaining the in situ utilization of dietary factors is limited. Microscale bacterial distribution would provide clues to understand bacterial lifestyle and nutrient utilization. However, the detailed bacterial localization around dietary factors in the intestine remains uninvestigated. Therefore, we explored microscale habitats in the murine intestine by using histology and fluorescent in situ hybridization, focusing on dietary factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392148/molecular-insight-into-evolution-of-symbiosis-between-breast-fed-infants-and-a-member-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-bifidobacterium-longum
#8
Chihaya Yamada, Aina Gotoh, Mikiyasu Sakanaka, Mitchell Hattie, Keith A Stubbs, Ayako Katayama-Ikegami, Junko Hirose, Shin Kurihara, Takatoshi Arakawa, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Shujiro Okuda, Takane Katayama, Shinya Fushinobu
Breast-fed infants generally have a bifidobacteria-rich microbiota with recent studies indicating that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) selectively promote bifidobacterial growth. Bifidobacterium bifidum possesses a glycoside hydrolase family 20 lacto-N-biosidase for liberating lacto-N-biose I from lacto-N-tetraose, an abundant HMO unique to human milk, while Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum has a non-classified enzyme (LnbX). Here, we determined the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of LnbX and provide evidence for creation of a novel glycoside hydrolase family, GH136...
April 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386472/comprehensive-survey-of-intestinal-microbiota-changes-in-offspring-of-human-microbiota-associated-mice
#9
Eliane von Klitzing, Fulya Öz, Ira Ekmekciu, Ulrike Escher, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
Secondary abiotic mice generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment provide a valuable tool for association studies with microbiota derived from different vertebrate hosts. We here generated human microbiota-associated (hma) mice by human fecal microbiota transplantation of secondary abiotic mice and performed a comprehensive survey of the intestinal microbiota dynamics in offspring of hma mice over 18 weeks following weaning as compared to their mothers applying both cultural and molecular methods. Mice were maintained under standard hygienic conditions with open cages, handled under aseptic conditions, and fed autoclaved chow and water...
March 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386467/microbiota-composition-and-immune-responses-during-campylobacter-jejuni-infection-in-conventionally-colonized-il-10-mice-lacking-nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2
#10
Markus M Heimesaat, Ursula Grundmann, Marie E Alutis, André Fischer, Stefan Bereswill
Host immune responses are pivotal for combating enteropathogenic infections. We here assessed the impact of the innate receptor nucleotide oligomerization domain protein 2 (NOD2) in murine Campylobacter jejuni-infection. Conventionally colonized IL-10(-/-) mice lacking NOD2 and IL-10(-/-) controls were perorally challenged with C. jejuni strain 81-176 and displayed comparable pathogenic colonization of intestines until day 14 postinfection (p.i.). Whereas overall intestinal microbiota compositions were comparable in naive mice, NOD2(-/-) IL-10(-/-) mice exhibited less fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli than IL-10(-/-) counterparts after infection...
March 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382342/impact-of-whey-proteins-on-the-systemic-and-local-intestinal-level-of-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#11
D Swiątecka, D Złotkowska, L H Markiewicz, A M Szyc, B Wróblewska
Obesity is a serious public health problem and being multifactorial is difficult to tackle. Since the intestinal ecosystem's homeostasis is, at least partially, diet-dependent, its modulation may be triggered by food components that are designed to exert a modulatory action leading to a health-promoting effect. Milk whey proteins, are considered as such promising factors since they influence satiation as well as body weight and constitute the source of biologically active peptides which may modulate health status locally and systemically...
April 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381524/inulin-prebiotic-is-it-all-about-bifidobacteria
#12
Sandrine Paule Claus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377764/carbohydrate-staple-food-modulates-gut-microbiota-of-mongolians-in-china
#13
Jing Li, Qiangchuan Hou, Jiachao Zhang, Haiyan Xu, Zhihong Sun, Bilige Menghe, Heping Zhang
Gut microbiota is a determining factor in human physiological functions and health. It is commonly accepted that diet has a major influence on the gut microbial community, however, the effects of diet is not fully understood. The typical Mongolian diet is characterized by high and frequent consumption of fermented dairy products and red meat, and low level of carbohydrates. In this study, the gut microbiota profile of 26 Mongolians whom consumed wheat, rice and oat as the sole carbohydrate staple food for a week each consecutively was determined...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377750/measurements-of-intra-and-extra-cellular-5-methyltetrahydrofolate-indicate-that-bifidobacterium-adolescentis-dsm-20083-t-and-bifidobacterium-pseudocatenulatum-dsm-20438-t-do-not-actively-excrete-5-methyltetrahydrofolate-in-vitro
#14
Markus Kopp, Kerstin Dürr, Matthias Steigleder, Thomas Clavel, Michael Rychlik
Certain intestinal bifidobacteria have the ability to synthesize folates. In vitro experiments revealed a high production, cellular accumulation, and release of reduced folate vitamers like 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and tetrahydrofolate in folate-free medium (FFM). However, it is still unclear to which extent synthesized folates are polyglutamylated and probably not available for transport, and if they are actively released by excretion. To address these questions, we characterized intra- and extra-cellular pteroylmonoglutamates and polyglutamylated 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH3-H4PteGlu2-4) in Bifidobacterium adolescentis DSM 20083(T) and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum DSM 20438(T)in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368613/in-vivo-study-of-the-efficacy-of-the-essential-oil-of-zanthoxylum-bungeanum-pericarp-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-murine-experimental-colitis
#15
Zecai Zhang, Peng Shen, Jiuxi Liu, Cong Gu, Xiaojie Lu, Yanxin Li, Yongguo Cao, Bo Liu, Yunhe Fu, Naisheng Zhang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of the essential oil of Zanthoxylum bungeanum pericarp (ZBEO) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in mice. ZBEO decreased DSS-induced body weight loss, the disease activity index, colon length shortening, colonic pathological damage, and myeloperoxidase activities. The production of pro-inflammatory mediators was significantly alleviated by ZBEO. Further mechanistic analysis showed that ZBEO inhibited inflammation by regulating NF-κB and PPARγ pathways...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362090/effects-of-%C3%AE-galactooligosaccharides-from-chickpeas-on-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#16
Zhuqing Dai, Wanyong Lyu, Minhao Xie, Qingxia Yuan, Hong Ye, Bing Hu, Li Zhou, Xiaoxiong Zeng
The gut microbiota has the ability to modulate host energy homeostasis, which may regulate metabolic disorders. Functional oligosaccharide may positively regulate the intestinal microbiota. Therefore, effects of α-galactooligosaccharides (α-GOS) from chickpea on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome and gut bacterial dysbiosis were investigated. After 6 weeks of intervention, HFD led to significant increases in levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, glycated serum protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of mice compared to normal-chow-fed mice...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346936/differential-establishment-of-bifidobacteria-in-the-breastfed-infant-gut
#17
Zachery T Lewis, David A Mills
The composition of an infant's gut microbiome can impact their immediate and long-term health. Bifdobacteria play a major role in structuring the gut microbiome of breastfed infants due to their ability to consume oligosaccharides found in human milk. However, recent studies have revealed that bifidobacteria are often absent in the gut microbiome of breastfed infants in some locations. This lack of colonization may be due either to differences in the environmental conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of uncolonized infants which prohibit the growth of bifidobacteria or a dearth of sources from which infants may acquire these specialized bacterial species...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346926/microbiota-and-obesity
#18
Erika Isolauri
Obesity is globally the most prevalent nutritional disorder. Multifaceted therapeutic approaches are called for to halt the cascade from neonatal adiposity/high birth weight to childhood excessive weight gain/adult obesity with comorbidities. Recent experimental and clinical data provide one new target for interventions aiming to close this vicious circle: the microbiota. An aberrant gut microbiota, dysbiosis, induces immune and metabolic disturbances both locally and, consequent upon impaired gut barrier function, also systemic low-grade inflammation, which is causally linked to insulin resistance...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339522/influence-of-postbiotic-rg14-and-inulin-combination-on-cecal-microbiota-organic-acid-concentration-and-cytokine-expression-in-broiler-chickens
#19
K Y Kareem, T C Loh, H L Foo, S A Asmara, H Akit
This study examined the effects of different combinations of inulin and postbiotics RG14 on growth performance, cecal microbiota, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ileal cytokine expression in broiler chickens. Two-hundred-and sixteen, one-day-old chicks were allocated into 6 treatment groups, namely, a basal diet (negative control, NC), basal diet + neomycin and oxytetracycline (positive control, PC), T1 = basal diet + 0.15% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T2 = basal diet + 0.3% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T3 = basal diet + 0...
October 6, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316118/late-preterm-birth-has-direct-and-indirect-effects-on-infant-gut-microbiota-development-during-the-first-six-months-of-life
#20
M Forsgren, E Isolauri, S Salminen, S Rautava
AIM: Preterm infants display aberrant gut microbial colonisation. We investigated whether the differences in gut microbiota between late preterm and full-term infants results from prematurity or external exposures. METHODS: This study comprised 43 late preterm infants (34(0/7) -36(6/7) ) and 75 full-term infants based on faecal samples collected following birth and at two to four weeks and six months of age. We assessed clinically relevant bacteria using quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
March 17, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
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