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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826768/probiotic-characters-of-bifidobacterium-and-lactobacillus-are-a-result-of-the-ongoing-gene-acquisition-and-genome-minimization-evolutionary-trends
#1
REVIEW
Moslem Papizadeh, Mahdi Rohani, Hossein Nahrevanian, Abdolreza Javadi, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie
Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus are the main probiotic genera. Collectively, these two genera harbor over 200 species among which are many strains have been introduced as probiotics. These health-promoting microbes confer health benefits upon the host and so used in food productions and as supplements. Considering the economic importance of probiotics, the biochemistry, genomics, phylogeny and physiology of such genera have been exhaustively studied. According to the genomic data, the probiotic capabilities are strain specific which may be a result of the niche-specialization of the genomes of these bacteria to certain ecological niches like gastrointestinal tract of a diverse range of animals...
August 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826763/bifidobacterium-obtained-from-mother-s-milk-and-their-infant-stool-a-comparative-genotyping-and-antibacterial-analysis
#2
Morteza Eshaghi, Meysam Hasannejad Bibalan, Mahdi Rohani, Maryam Esghaei, Masoumeh Douraghi, Malihe Talebi, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie
Antibacterial activity of Bifidobacterium species has been considered as an important probiotic property for development of human gut immunity. This study was conducted to assess the genotypes and antibacterial activities of the native Bifidobacterium isolates obtained from the human's breast milk and the feces of their paired infants. Fifty-six samples from twenty-eight mothers' milk and paired infants feces were collected and cultured. Suspicious colonies were picked up and confirmed by phenotypic and molecular identifications...
August 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821313/the-influence-of-the-position-of-palmitate-in-infant-formula-triacylglycerols-on-health-outcomes
#3
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Miles, Philip C Calder
The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies reporting on the influence of the position of palmitic acid in triacylglycerols in infant formula and relevant animal studies. Earlier experiments in rodents show that a diet with a higher proportion of palmitate at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols improves dietary fat and calcium absorption compared with a diet with a lower sn-2 palmitate content. A high-sn-2 palmitate diet increased fecal short-chain fatty acids, reduced gut inflammation in a colitis model, and altered tissue endocannabinoid concentrations in laboratory rodents...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821042/chemical-and-biological-properties-of-the-novel-exopolysaccharide-produced-by-a-probiotic-strain-of-bifidobacterium-longum
#4
Rosanna Inturri, Antonio Molinaro, Flaviana Di Lorenzo, Giovanna Blandino, Barbara Tomasello, Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Cristina De Castro, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo
Bifidobacterium longum W11 is a commercialized probiotic that has an exopolysaccharide (EPS) layer covering its surface which could play a role in the beneficial properties attributed to the strain; thus, we have carried out chemical and biological analyses of this polymer. The eps cluster putatively involved in the polymer synthesis presented a unique structural organization not previously reported in bifidobacteria. B. longum W11 produced a complex polysaccharide blend with the main component composed of glucose and galactose...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814130/identification-and-characterization-of-a-sulfoglycosidase-from-bifidobacterium-bifidum-implicated-in-mucin-glycan-utilization
#5
Toshihiko Katoh, Takako Maeshibu, Kei-Ichi Kikkawa, Aina Gotoh, Yusuke Tomabechi, Motoharu Nakamura, Wei-Hsiang Liao, Masanori Yamaguchi, Hisashi Ashida, Kenji Yamamoto, Takane Katayama
Human gut symbiont bifidobacteria possess carbohydrate-degrading enzymes that act on the O-linked glycans of intestinal mucins to utilize those carbohydrates as carbon sources. However, our knowledge about mucin type O-glycan degradation by bifidobacteria remains fragmentary, especially regarding how they decompose sulfated glycans, which are abundantly found in mucin sugar-chains. Here, we examined the abilities of several Bifidobacterium strains to degrade a sulfated glycan substrate and identified a 6-sulfo-β-d-N-acetylglucosaminidase, also termed sulfoglycosidase, encoded by bbhII from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM 7004...
August 17, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813445/transition-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-cats-with-age
#6
Hiroaki Masuoka, Kouya Shimada, Tomoyo Kiyosue-Yasuda, Masaharu Kiyosue, Yukie Oishi, Seiji Kimura, Yuji Ohashi, Tomohiko Fujisawa, Kozue Hotta, Akio Yamada, Kazuhiro Hirayama
The transition of intestinal microbiota with age has been well described in humans. However, the age-related changes in intestinal microbiota of cats have not been well studied. In the present study, we investigated the composition of intestinal microbiota of cats in 5 different age groups (pre-weanling, weanling, young, aged, senile) with a culture-based method. For lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, we also quantified with molecular-based method, real-time PCR. The results suggested that the composition of the feline intestinal microbiota changes with age, while the changes were different from those of humans and dogs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799667/coadministration-of-isomalto-oligosaccharides-augments-metabolic-health-benefits-of-cinnamaldehyde-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#7
Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Pragyanshu Khare, Vandana Bijalwan, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Jagdeep Singh, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
Bacteriostatic properties of a potential anti-obesity agent cinnamaldehyde (CMN) may present untoward effects on the resident gut microbiota. Here, we evaluated whether the combination of Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs) with CMN prevents unwanted effects of CMN on gut microbiota and associated metabolic outcomes in HFD-fed mice. Male Swiss albino mice divided into four groups (n = 10), were fed on normal chow, or HFD (58% fat kcal), HFD + CMN (10 mg kg(-1) ) and HFD + CMN (10 mg kg(-1) ) + IMOs (1 g kg(-1) ) for 12 weeks...
August 11, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791292/the-role-of-supplemental-complex-dietary-carbohydrates-and-gut-microbiota-in-promoting-cardiometabolic-and-immunological-health-in-obesity-lessons-from-healthy-non-obese-individuals
#8
REVIEW
Petra C Vinke, Sahar El Aidy, Gertjan van Dijk
Dietary supplementation with complex carbohydrates is known to alter the composition of gut microbiota, and optimal implementation of the use of these so called "prebiotics" could be of great potential in prevention and possibly treatment of obesity and associated cardiometabolic and inflammatory diseases via changes in the gut microbiota. An alternative to this "microbiocentric view" is the idea that health-promoting effects of certain complex carbohydrates reside in the host, and could secondarily affect the diversity and abundance of gut microbiota...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790996/gene-replacement-and-fluorescent-labeling-to-study-the-functional-role-of-exopolysaccharides-in-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis
#9
Nuria Castro-Bravo, Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Miguel A Rodriguez-Carvajal, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Abelardo Margolles
An extracellular layer of exopolysaccharides (EPS) covers the surface of some Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains, which could be of relevance for its probiotic performance. In order to understand the functional characteristics of B. animalis subsp. lactis, two isogenic strains that differ in their EPS-producing phenotype, due to a single mutation in the gene Balat_1410, were studied. By means of a double crossover recombination strategy, successfully used for the first time in bifidobacteria, Balat_1410 in the type strain B...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789729/adherence-to-the-mediterranean-diet-is-associated-with-the-gut-microbiota-pattern-and-gastrointestinal-characteristics-in-an-adult-population
#10
Evdokia K Mitsou, Aimilia Kakali, Smaragdi Antonopoulou, Konstantinos C Mountzouris, Mary Yannakoulia, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Adamantini Kyriacou
This study aimed to explore the potential associations of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with gut microbiota characteristics and gastrointestinal symptomatology in an adult population. Other long-term dietary habits (e.g. consumption of snacks and junk food or stimulant intake) were also evaluated in terms of the gut microbiota profile. Participants (n 120) underwent anthropometric, dietary, physical activity and lifestyle evaluation. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using a Mediterranean diet score, the MedDietScore, and subjects were classified into three tertiles according to individual adherence scoring...
June 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780103/human-milk-oligosaccharide-consumption-by-probiotic-and-human-associated-bifidobacteria-and-lactobacilli
#11
Taksawan Thongaram, Jennifer L Hoeflinger, JoMay Chow, Michael J Miller
Human milk contains high concentrations of nondigestible complex oligosaccharides (human milk oligosaccharides; HMO) that reach the colon and are subsequently fermented by the infant gut microbiota. Using a high-throughput, low-volume growth determination, we evaluated the ability of 12 lactobacilli and 12 bifidobacteria strains, including several commercial probiotics, to ferment HMO and their constituent monomers. Of the 24 strains tested, only Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis ATCC 15697 and Bifidobacterium infantis M-63 were able to ferment 3'-sialyllactose, 6'-sialyllactose, 2'-fucosyllactose, and 3'-fucosyllactose...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765695/effect-of-epec-endotoxin-and-bifidobacteria-on-intestinal-barrier-function-through-modulation-of-toll-like-receptor-2-and-toll-like-receptor-4-expression-in-intestinal-epithelial-cell-18
#12
Xia Yang, Xian-Chun Gao, Jun Liu, Hong-Yu Ren
AIM: To investigate toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 expression, following bifidobacteria and low-dose EPEC endotoxin treatment, and intestinal barrier function in rat intestinal epithelial cell18 (IEC18). METHODS: Six experimental groups were established - normal control, EPEC, Bifidobacteria infantis (B. infantis), B. longum, B. bifidum, and B. youth groups. Optimal EPEC endotoxin concentration, bifidobacteria fold dilution, and treatment duration were determined...
July 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756573/classification-of-culturable-bifidobacterial-population-from-colonic-samples-of-wild-pigs-sus-scrofa-based-on-three-molecular-genetic-methods
#13
Radko Pechar, Jiří Killer, Chahrazed Mekadim, Martina Geigerová, Vojtěch Rada
Occurrence of bifidobacteria, known as health-promoting probiotic microorganisms, in the digestive tract of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) has not been examined yet. One hundred forty-nine fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase positive bacterial strains were isolated from colonic content of twenty-two individuals of wild pigs originated from four localities in the Czechia. Based on PCR-DGGE technique targeting the variable V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes, strains were initially differentiated into four groups represented by: (i) probably a new Bifidobacterium species (89 strains), (ii) B...
July 29, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754709/the-sortase-dependent-fimbriome-of-the-genus-bifidobacterium-extracellular-structures-with-potential-to-modulate-microbe-host-dialogue
#14
Christian Milani, Marta Mangifesta, Leonardo Mancabelli, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Walter Mancino, Alice Viappiani, Andrea Faccini, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura, Francesca Turroni
Bifidobacteria are important gut commensals of mammals, including humans, of any age. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these microorganisms establish themselves in the mammalian gut and persist in this environment are largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the genetic diversity of the predicted arsenal of sortase-dependent pili of known and sequenced members of the Bifidobacterium genus, and constructed a bifidobacterial sortase-dependent fimbriome database. Our analyses revealed considerable genetic variability of the sortase-dependent fimbriome among bifidobacterial (sub)species, which appears to have been due to horizontal gene transfer events, and for which we were able to perform an evolutionary mapping...
July 28, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748130/isolation-and-identification-of-bifidobacterium-species-from-feces-of-captive-chimpanzees
#15
Ryohei Nomoto, Shintaro Takano, Kosei Tanaka, Yuji Tsujikawa, Hiroshi Kusunoki, Ro Osawa
Recently, gut-dwelling bifidobacteria from chimpanzees, which are phylogenetically close to humans and have feeding habits similar to humans, have been frequently investigated. Given this, we speculated that like humans, chimpanzees would have a unique diversity of bifidobacteria. We herein describe a taxonomically novel member of bifidobacteria isolated from fecal samples of captive chimpanzees. Bifidobacteria were detected in all fecal samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A Bifidobacterium pseudolongum-like species, which could not be detected using B...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742007/galliscardovia-ingluviei-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-thermophilic-bacterium-of-the-family-bifidobacteriaceae-isolated-from-the-crop-of-a-laying-hen-gallus-gallus-f-domestica
#16
R Pechar, J Killer, R Švejstil, H Salmonová, M Geigerová, V Bunešová, V Rada, O Benada
Bacteria with potential probiotic applications are not yet sufficiently explored, even for animals with economic importance. Therefore, we decided to isolate and identify representatives of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, which inhabit the crop of laying hens. During the study, a fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive strain, RP51T, with a regular/slightly irregular and sometimes an S-shaped slightly curved rod-like shape, was isolated from the crop of a 13 -month-old Hisex Brown hybrid laying hen. The best growth of the Gram-stain-positive bacterium, which was isolated using Bifidobacterium-selective mTPY agar, was found out to be under strictly anaerobic conditions, however an ability to grow under microaerophilic and aerobic conditions was also observed...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740169/analysis-of-newly-detected-tetracycline-resistance-genes-and-their-flanking-sequences-in-human-intestinal-bifidobacteria
#17
Na Wang, Xiaomin Hang, Min Zhang, Xianglong Liu, Hong Yang
Due to tetracycline abuse, the safe bifidobacteria in the human gastrointestinal intestinal tract (GIT) may serve as a reservoir of tetracycline resistance genes. In the present investigation of 92 bifidobacterial strains originating from the human GIT, tetracycline resistance in 29 strains was mediated by the tet(W), tet(O) or tet(S) gene, and this is the first report of tet(O)- and tet(S)-mediated tetracycline resistance in bifidobacteria. Antibiotic resistance genes harbored by bifidobacteria are transferred from other bacteria...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736040/structural-characteristics-and-prebiotic-effects-of-semen-coicis-resistant-starches-type-3-prepared-by-different-methods
#18
Chen Bao, Hongliang Zeng, Yi Zhang, Longtao Zhang, Xu Lu, Zebin Guo, Song Miao, Baodong Zheng
In order to investigate the effects of different preparation methods on Semen coicis resistant starch, the structural properties and prebiotic effects of autoclaving treatment-purified S. coicis resistant starch (GP-SRS3), ultrasonic-autoclaving treatment-purified S. coicis resistant starch (UP-SRS3), enzyme-autoclaving treatment-purified S. coicis resistant starch (EP-SRS3) and microwave-moisture treatment-purified S. coicis resistant starch (MP-SRS3) were studied compared to high-amylose maize starch (HAMS)...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733671/short-chain-fatty-acids-and-inulin-but-not-guar-gum-prevent-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-differential-mechanisms-in-mice
#19
Karolin Weitkunat, Christin Stuhlmann, Anna Postel, Sandra Rumberger, Maria Fankhänel, Anni Woting, Klaus Jürgen Petzke, Sabrina Gohlke, Tim J Schulz, Michael Blaut, Susanne Klaus, Sara Schumann
The role of dietary fibre and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in obesity development is controversially discussed. Here, we investigated how various types of dietary fibre and different SCFA ratios affect metabolic syndrome-related disorders. Male mice (B6) were fed high-fat diets supplemented with dietary fibres (either cellulose, inulin or guar gum) or different Ac:Pr ratios (high acetate (HAc) or propionate (HPr)) for 30 weeks. Body-fat gain and insulin resistance were greatly reduced by inulin, but not by guar gum, and completely prevented by SCFA supplementation...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726512/human-milk-oligosaccharide-categories-define-the-microbiota-composition-in-human-colostrum
#20
J Aakko, H Kumar, S Rautava, A Wise, C Autran, L Bode, E Isolauri, S Salminen
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are structurally diverse unconjugated glycans with a composition unique to each lactating mother. While HMOs have been shown to have an impact on the development of infant gut microbiota, it is not well known if HMOs also already affect milk microbial composition. To address this question, we analysed eleven colostrum samples for HMO content by high-pressure liquid chromatography and microbiota composition by quantitative PCR. Higher total HMO concentration was associated with higher counts of Bifidobacterium spp...
July 20, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
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