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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909555/effect-of-dual-type-oligosaccharides-on-constipation-in-loperamide-treated-rats
#1
Sung Hee Han, Ki Bae Hong, Eun Young Kim, So Hyun Ahn, Hyung Joo Suh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Constipation is a condition that can result from intestinal deformation. Because humans have an upright posture, the effects of gravity can cause this shape deformation. Oligosaccharides are common prebiotics and their effects on bowel health are well known. However, studies of the physiological functionality of a product that contains both lactulose and galactooligosaccharides are insufficient. We investigated the constipation reduction effect of a dual-type oligosaccharide, Dual-Oligo, in loperamide-treated rats...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904405/evaluation-of-prebiotic-effects-of-high-purity-galactooligosaccharides-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Ki Bae Hong, Jae Hwan Kim, Hyuk Kon Kwon, Sung Hee Han, Yooheon Park, Hyung Joo Suh
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are an important class of dietary prebiotics that exert beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota and gut barrier function. In this study, high-purity GOS (HP-GOS) were investigated in vitro and in vivo and confirmed as prebiotic ingredients in rat diet. HP-GOS were successfully produced using a two-step process, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by yeast. They were found to serve as a good substrate and carbon source for supporting the growth of probiotic bacteria more effectively than other commercial GOS...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898282/comparative-fingerprinting-of-the-human-microbiota-in-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease
#3
Emanuel Vamanu, Diana Pelinescu, Ionela Sarbu
Diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are associated with changes in the human gut microbiota. To better understand the relationships between diet, disease, and the colonic microbiome, we used the in vitro GIS1 system and repetitive element palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) to determine the microbial fingerprints in individuals with these diseases and compared them with the fingerprints in healthy controls. Clear differences were apparent in the three groups...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895859/dysbiosis-of-fecal-microbiota-and-high-frequency-of-citrobacter-klebsiella-spp-and-actinomycetes-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-gastroenteritis
#4
Leila Ganji, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mohammad Hassan Shirazi, Seyed Saeed Eshraghi, Abbas Mirshafiey, Naser Ebrahimi Daryani, Mohammad Reza Zali
AIM: This study was aimed to characterize putative differences of fecal microbiota between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and gastroenteritis patients and healthy controls. BACKGROUND: New evidence proposed that gut microbiota has a deep effect on the balance between health and disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The presence of Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter spp., Enterobacteriacea and Staphylococci were detected in the samples using selective and specific culture media...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883906/infant-food-applications-of-complex-carbohydrates-structure-synthesis-and-function
#5
Dorothy L Ackerman, Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Professional health bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recommend breast milk as the sole source of food during the first year of life. This position recognizes human milk as being uniquely suited for infant nutrition. Nonetheless, most neonates in the West are fed alternatives by 6 months of age. Although inferior to human milk in most aspects, infant formulas are able to promote effective growth and development...
November 11, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883285/time-and-strain-specific-downregulation-of-intestinal-epas1-via-mir-148a-by-bifidobacterium-bifidum
#6
Amel Taibi, Natasha Singh, Jianmin Chen, Stefania Arioli, Simone Guglielmetti, Elena M Comelli
SCOPE: Bifidobacteria play a role in intestinal homeostasis but molecular mechanisms remain under-investigated. The aim of this study was to assess if probiotic Bifidobacterium strains alter expression of intestinal microRNA and downstream target gene response. METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of miR-148a and its validated target EPAS1 (endothelial PAS domain protein 1) was analyzed in Caco-2 cells and mice cecum in response to Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75, B...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872611/hypocholesterolemic-and-prebiotic-effects-of-a-whole-grain-oat-based-granola-breakfast-cereal-in-a-cardio-metabolic-at-risk-population
#7
Michael L Connolly, Xenofon Tzounis, Kieran M Tuohy, Julie A Lovegrove
Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RTC) have confirmed the hypocholesterolaemic effect of oats and oat based fibers. However, the mechanisms by which oats or oat fractions lower cholesterol is not totally clear. Recognizing the important role of the gut microbiome in metabolism and metabolic disease risk, we examined the impact of whole grain oat Granola (WGO) on the human gut microbiota and cardio-metabolic risk factors using a randomized crossover dietary intervention in at risk individuals (ClinicalTrials...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871184/in-vitro-evaluation-of-prebiotic-properties-derived-from-rice-bran-obtained-by-debranning-technology
#8
Premsuda Saman, Kieran M Tuohy, José A Vázquez, Glenn Gibson, Severino S Pandiella
The prebiotic ability of several rice bran fractions obtained by debranning (RBD) using human microbiota was studied in anaerobic batch cultures with agitation and pH-controlled. Fraction C (3.8-5% w/w pearling) from RBD increased the number of bifidobacteria and lactobacteria compared with the positive control, raftilose P95. RBD fermentation induced changes in the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile. In addition, Fraction C revealed the highest growth of positive lactobacteria than commercial control. The present work illustrates the prebiotic capacity of RBD to modulate human microbiota and highlights that fraction C could be an economical source for use in human food as well as an interesting alternative to valorise a by-product of cereal industry...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867803/effect-of-bifidobacterium-animalis-ssp-lactis-gcl2505-on-visceral-fat-accumulation-in-healthy-japanese-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Shota Takahashi, Daisuke Anzawa, Kazuyo Takami, Akihiro Ishizuka, Takashi Mawatari, Kohei Kamikado, Haruhi Sugimura, Tomohiko Nishijima
Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis GCL2505 (B. lactis GCL2505) is able to survive passage through the intestine and then proliferate, leading to an increase in the amount of gut bifidobacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of B. lactis GCL2505 on abdominal visceral fat storage in overweight and mildly obese Japanese adults. This clinical study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative trial performed for 12 weeks. Healthy Japanese subjects (N=137) with body mass indices ranging from 23 to 30 kg/m(2) consumed either fermented milk containing B...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866040/in-vitro-fermentation-of-different-fructo-oligosaccharides-by-bifidobacterium-strains-for-the-selection-of-synbiotic-combinations
#10
Lorena Valdés-Varela, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Miguel Gueimonde
The use of selected probiotics, prebiotics and/or synbiotics, constitute an interesting dietary strategy for intestinal microbiota modulation in case of dysbiosis. Species of the genus Bifidobacterium are among the most currently used probiotics for human consumption since they have shown beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of some disorders. Bifidobacteria are saccharolytic microorganisms, but their ability to use different carbohydrates varies among strains. In this study, we investigate the utilization of three prebiotic substrates (two different short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides [scFOS] and inulin) by strains of Bifidobacterium, in order to determine the synbiotic potential of the different probiotic/prebiotic combinations...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864179/prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-among-human-gut-derived-bifidobacteria
#11
Sabrina Duranti, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Leonardo Mancabelli, Francesca Turroni, Christian Milani, Marta Mangifesta, Chiara Ferrario, Rosaria Anzalone, Alice Viappiani, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
: The microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) may regularly be exposed to antibiotics, which are used to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. Bacterial communities of the gut retain a reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes, and antibiotic therapy thus positively selects for those microorganisms that harbor such genetic features, causing microbiota modulation. During the first months following birth, bifidobacteria represent one of the most dominant components of the human gut microbiota, though little is known about their AR gene complement (or resistome)...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863334/modulation-of-the-cytokine-profile-in-caco-2-cells-by-faecal-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria-from-individuals-with-distinct-dietary-habits
#12
Diomira Luongo, Annachiara Coppola, Lucia Treppiccione, Paolo Bergamo, Alida Sorrentino, Ilario Ferrocino, Silvia Turroni, Erasmo Neviani, Raffaella Di Cagno, Luca Cocolin, Mauro Rossi
Enterocytes are actively involved in the defense against pathogens and they limit penetration of commensal microbes into tissues. They also have an important role in gut immunity as enterocytes confer mucosal dendritic cell specialisation. On the other hand, the microbiota is directly involved in the development and modulation of the intestinal immune system. Particularly, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria play a primary role in shaping the immune response. We further explored this issue by evaluating whether functional differences in Caco-2 cells could characterise faecal populations of lactobacilli (155 samples) and bifidobacteria (110 samples) isolated from three dietary cohorts (omnivores, ovo-lacto-vegetarians and vegans) recruited at four Italian centres (Turin, Parma, Bologna and Bari)...
November 15, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859252/clinical-effects-of-probiotics-containing-bacillus-species-on-gingivitis-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
B Alkaya, I Laleman, S Keceli, O Ozcelik, M Cenk Haytac, W Teughels
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lactobacillus spp. and bifidobacteria are the most frequently used probiotics in oral health research. However, although probiotic effects have been suggested for other genera, such as bacilli, no trials are available to describe the effect of bacilli probiotics on gingivitis in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a bacilli-containing toothpaste, a mouthrinse and a toothbrush cleaner versus a placebo in patients with generalized gingivitis...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856622/in-vitro-fermentation-of-b-gos-impact-on-faecal-bacterial-populations-and-metabolic-activity-in-autistic-and-non-autistic-children
#14
Roberta Grimaldi, Drinalda Cela, Jonathan R Swann, Jelena Vulevic, Glenn R Gibson, George Tzortzis, Adele Costabile
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often suffer gastrointestinal problems consistent with imbalances in the gut microbial population. Treatment with antibiotics or pro/prebiotics has been postulated to regulate microbiota and improve gut symptoms, but there is a lack of evidence for such approaches, especially for prebiotics. This study assessed the influence of a prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) on gut microbial ecology and metabolic function using faecal samples from autistic and non-autistic children in an in vitro gut model system...
November 16, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849251/selection-of-superior-bifidobacteria-in-the-presence-of-rotavirus
#15
G Alp Avci
The main purpose of this study was to investigate bifidobacteria flora in fecal samples from children with rotavirus infection and determine the significance of their selected probiotic properties for improvement of health status. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to identify rotavirus antigen in fecal samples from 94 patients with gastroenteritis and from 30 without gastroenteritis. Bifidobacteria were identified by selective media, gram reaction, colony morphology, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase enzyme activity and classical identification tests...
November 10, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817942/use-of-a-metagenetic-approach-to-monitor-the-bacterial-microbiota-of-tomme-d-orchies-cheese-during-the-ripening-process
#16
Alexandre Ceugniez, Bernard Taminiau, Françoise Coucheney, Philippe Jacques, Véronique Delcenserie, Georges Daube, Djamel Drider
The study of microbial ecosystems in artisanal foodstuffs is important to complete in order to unveil its diversity. The number of studies performed on dairy products has increased during the last decade, particularly those performed on milk and cheese derivative products. In this work, we investigated the bacterial content of "Tomme d'Orchies" cheese, an artisanal pressed and uncooked French cheese. To this end, a metagenetic analysis, using Illumina technology, was utilized on samples taken from the surface and core of the cheese at 0, 1, 3, 14 and 21days of ripening process...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810444/lactate-and-acetate-based-cross-feeding-interactions-between-selected-strains-of-lactobacilli-bifidobacteria-and-colon-bacteria-in-the-presence-of-inulin-type-fructans
#17
Frédéric Moens, Marko Verce, Luc De Vuyst
Cross-feeding interactions were studied between selected strains of lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing colon bacteria that consume lactate but are not able to degrade inulin-type fructans (ITF) in a medium for colon bacteria (supplemented with ITF as energy source and acetate when necessary). Degradation of oligofructose by Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB 801 and inulin by Lactobacillus paracasei 8700:2 and Bifidobacterium longum LMG 11047 resulted in the release of free fructose into the medium and the production of mainly lactate (lactobacilli) and acetate (B...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802847/a-multistrain-probiotic-formulation-attenuates-skin-symptoms-of-atopic-dermatitis-in-a-mouse-model-through-the-generation-of-cd4-foxp3-t-cells
#18
Joo-Hyun Shin, Myung-Jun Chung, Jae-Gu Seo
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the skin. AD develops mainly in infants and young children. It induces skin disorders and signals the initiation of the allergic march including allergic asthma and rhinitis. Probiotics modify intestinal microbial populations in a beneficial way for human and animal hosts by reducing inflammatory cytokines. OBJECTIVE: As a result of their immunomodulatory properties, probiotics have been considered a promising therapeutic option for the prevention and treatment of AD...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798832/soy-and-gut-microbiota-interaction-and-implication-for-human-health
#19
Haiqiu Huang, Hari B Krishnan, Quynhchi Pham, Liangli Lucy Yu, Thomas T Y Wang
Soy (Glycine max) is a major commodity in the U.S. and soy foods are gaining popularity due to its reported health promoting effects. In the past two decades, soy and soy bioactive components have been studied for their health promoting/disease preventing activities and potential mechanisms of action. Recent studies have identified gut microbiota as an important component in the human body ecosystem and possibly a critical modulator of human health. Soy foods' interaction with the gut microbiota may critically influence many aspects of human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition at different stages of life...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796434/novel-encapsulation-improves-recovery-of-probiotic-strains-in-fecal-samples-of-human-volunteers
#20
Volker Mai, Sheldon Waugh, Doratha Byrd, Damion Simpson, Maria Ukhanova
Probiotic supplements can contribute to maintaining health and ameliorating various disease symptoms. Probiotics can be delivered in many forms with crucial differences in their survival during gastrointestinal (GI) passage. Previously, a novel encapsulation, Probiotic Pearls™ Acidophilus, Integrative Therapeutics, LLC, USA (Pearls), was shown to increase survival in vitro after exposure to gastric conditions. Here, we compare fecal recovery in human volunteers consuming Pearls or a conventional hard-shelled gelatin capsule...
October 28, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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