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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507013/mechanisms-of-action-of-probiotics-and-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-on-gut-motility-and-constipation
#1
REVIEW
Eirini Dimidi, Stephanos Christodoulides, S Mark Scott, Kevin Whelan
Constipation is a common and burdensome gastrointestinal disorder that may result from altered gastrointestinal motility. The effect of probiotics on constipation has been increasingly investigated in both animal and human studies, showing promising results. However, there is still uncertainty regarding the mechanisms of action of probiotics on gut motility and constipation. Several factors are vital to normal gut motility, including immune and nervous system function, bile acid metabolism and mucus secretion, and the gastrointestinal microbiota and fermentation; an imbalance or dysfunction in any of these components may contribute to aberrant gut motility and, consequently, symptoms of constipation...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504574/gut-dysbiosis-following-c-section-instigates-higher-colonisation-of-toxigenic-clostridium-perfringens-in-infants
#2
R Nagpal, H Tsuji, T Takahashi, K Nomoto, K Kawashima, S Nagata, Y Yamashiro
Herein we investigated the intestinal carriage of α-toxigenic and enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens during infancy, focusing on its association with other gut microbes and mode of delivery and feeding. Faecal samples from 89 healthy term infants were collected at age 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 3 years. C. perfringens was quantified by qPCR; other gut bacteria were quantified by reverse-transcription-qPCR. Alpha-toxigenic C. perfringens was detected in 3.4% infants at day 7 but was present in 35-40% infants at subsequent time-points, with counts ranging from 10(3)-10(7) cells/g faeces...
May 15, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504142/prebiotic-efficacy-and-mechanism-of-inulin-combined-with-inulin-degrading-lactobacillus-paracasei-i321-in-competition-with-salmonella
#3
Pochanart Kanjan, Tipparat Hongpattarakere
Inulin efficacy was proven for raising anti-Salmonella activity of the inulin-degrading Lactobacillus paracasei I321 (infant isolate) through the mechanisms of antibacterial secretion and competitive adhesion. Inulin significantly promoted competitive adhesion of L. paracasei I321 against many Gram-negative foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Salmonella Typhimurium SA2093 was completely suppressed under highly competitive niche of fecal microflora when inulin, L. paracasei I321, and their synbiotic combination were applied...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504130/bifidobacterial-growth-stimulation-by-oligosaccharides-generated-from-olive-tree-pruning-biomass
#4
Encarnación Ruiz, Beatriz Gullón, Patrícia Moura, Florbela Carvalheiro, Gemma Eibes, Cristóbal Cara, Eulogio Castro
This work aims to evaluate the prebiotic potential of oligosaccharides (OS) obtained from autohydrolysis of olive tree pruning biomass (OTPB). Two selected fractions (F1 and F2) were characterized and used in in vitro fermentations by two Bifidobacterium spp. (B. adolescentis and B. longum) and one fecal inoculum. The fraction F1 presented a lower average degree of polymerization (DP) mainly with OS ranging from 3 to 6 DP, whereas the fraction F2 corresponded to a pool of unsubstituted and acetylated oligomers with DP between 4 and 19...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490487/bifidobacterium-bacteremia-clinical-characteristics-and-a-genomic-approach-to-assess-pathogenicity
#5
Eirin Esaiassen, Erik Hjerde, Jorunn Pauline Cavanagh, Gunnar Skov Simonsen, Claus Klingenberg
Bifidobacteria are commensals that colonize the orogastrointestinal tract, and rarely cause invasive human infections. However, an increasing number of bifidobacterial blood culture isolates has lately been observed in Norway. In order to investigate the pathogenicity of Bifidobacterium species responsible for bacteremia, we studied Bifidobacterium isolates from 15 patients with a positive blood culture obtained during 2013 to 2015. We collected clinical data and analyzed phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic susceptibility...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490053/prebiotic-effect-of-xylooligosaccharides-produced-from-birchwood-xylan-by-a-novel-fungal-gh11-xylanase
#6
Manuel Nieto-Domínguez, Laura I de Eugenio, María J York-Durán, Barbara Rodríguez-Colinas, Francisco J Plou, Empar Chenoll, Ester Pardo, Francisco Codoñer, María Jesús Martínez
A fungal endoxylanase belonging to the glycoside hydrolase gene family 11 (GH11) was obtained from the ascomycete Talaromyces amestolkiae. The enzyme was purified, characterized and used to produce a mixture of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) from birchwood xylan. A notable yield of neutral XOS was obtained (28.8%) upon enzyme treatment and the mixture contained a negligible amount of xylose, having xylobiose, xylotriose and xylotetraose as its main components. The prebiotic potential of this mixture was demonstrated upon analyzing the variations in microorganisms' composition and organic acids profile in breast-fed child faeces fermentations...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471912/effect-of-synbiotic-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-caesarean-delivered-infants-a-randomized-double-blind-multicenter-study
#7
Mei Chien Chua, Kaouther Ben-Amor, Christophe Lay, Anne Goh Eng Neo, Wen Chin Chiang, Rajeshwar Rao, Charmaine Chew, Surasith Chaithongwongwatthana, Nipon Khemapech, Jan Knol, Voranush Chongsrisawat
We determined the effect of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) and Bifidobacterium breve M-16 V on the gut microbiota of caesarean born infants. Infants were randomized to receive a standard formula (control), the same with scGOS/lcFOS and B. breve M-16 V (synbiotic), or with scGOS/lcFOS (prebiotic) from birth until week 16, 30 subjects born vaginally were included as a reference group. Synbiotic supplementation resulted in a higher bifidobacteria proportion from day 3/5 (p < 0...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469606/development-of-a-synbiotic-beverage-enriched-with-bifidobacteria-strains-and-fortified-with-whey-proteins
#8
Federico Baruzzi, Silvia de Candia, Laura Quintieri, Leonardo Caputo, Francesca De Leo
The objective of this study was to develop a new synbiotic beverage evaluating the ability of some bifidobacteria strains to grow in this beverage which was fortified with whey proteins up to 20 g L(-1), and enriched with 10 g L(-1) of prebiotic inulin or resistant starch. The ability of Bifidobacterium strains to survive for 30 days at 4°C was evaluated in two synbiotic whey protein fortified beverages formulated with 2% of whey proteins and 1% of inulin or resistant starch. Microbial growth was significantly affected by the whey protein amount as well as by the kind of prebiotic fiber...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466641/prebiotic-galactooligosaccharide-metabolism-by-probiotic-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria
#9
Taksawan Thongaram, Jennifer L Hoeflinger, JoMay Chow, Michael J Miller
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are bifidogenic and lactogenic prebiotics; however, GOS utilization is strain-dependent. In this study, commercially available bifidobacteria and lactobacilli probiotic strains were evaluated for growth in the presence of GOS. Several bifidobacteria and lactobacilli grew on GOS; however, the specific GOS oligomers utilized for growth differed. A subset of probiotic bifidobacteria and lactobacilli revealed three different GOS utilization profiles delineated by the degrees of polymerization (DP) of GOS: (1) utilization of 2 DP GOS, (2) utilization of ≤3 DP GOS, and (3) utilization of all DP GOS...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465256/a-combination-of-the-probiotic-and-prebiotic-product-can-prevent-the-germination-of-clostridium-difficile-spores-and-infection
#10
M Rätsep, S Kõljalg, E Sepp, I Smidt, K Truusalu, E Songisepp, J Stsepetova, P Naaber, R H Mikelsaar, M Mikelsaar
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most prevalent healthcare associated infections in hospitals and nursing homes. Different approaches are used for prevention of CDI. Absence of intestinal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has been associated with C. difficile colonization in hospitalized patients. Our aim was to test a) the susceptibility of C. difficile strains of different origin and the intestinal probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Inducia (DSM 21379) to various antimicrobial preparations incl...
April 29, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459856/effects-of-a-lactobacillus-salivarius-mixture-on-performance-intestinal-health-and-serum-lipids-of-broiler-chickens
#11
Parisa Shokryazdan, Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi, Juan Boo Liang, Kalavathy Ramasamy, Chin Chin Sieo, Yin Wan Ho
The ban or severe restriction on the use of antibiotics in poultry feeds to promote growth has led to considerable interest to find alternative approaches. Probiotics have been considered as such alternatives. In the present study, the effects of a Lactobacillus mixture composed from three previously isolated Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CI1, CI2 and CI3) from chicken intestines on performance, intestinal health status and serum lipids of broiler chickens has been evaluated. Supplementation of the mixture at a concentration of 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441886/differences-between-live-and-heat-killed-bifidobacteria-in-the-regulation-of-immune-function-and-the-intestinal-environment
#12
H Sugahara, R Yao, T Odamaki, J Z Xiao
Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host, such as improvement of the intestinal environment, modulation of immune function and energy metabolism. Heat-killed probiotic strains have also been known to exhibit some physiological functions; however, the differences between live and heat-killed probiotics have not been well elucidated. In this study, we investigated the differences between live and heat-killed Bifidobacterium breve M-16V, a probiotic strain, in the regulation of immune function, intestinal metabolism and intestinal gene expression of the host using gnotobiotic mouse model and omics approaches...
April 26, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433150/production-of-prebiotic-xylooligosaccharides-from-alkali-pretreated-mahogany-and-mango-wood-sawdust-by-using-purified-xylanase-of-clostridium-strain-boh3
#13
Gobinath Rajagopalan, Kavitha Shanmugavelu, Kun-Lin Yang
Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are emerging prebiotics which can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass including agro-residues and hardwood. In this study, we report the production of XOS from thermal-alkali pretreated hardwood such as mahogany and mango by using a purified xylanase from Clostridium strain BOH3. In the first approach, pure xylan is extracted from mahogany and mango hardwood and then the pure xylan is hydrolyzed by using the xylanase. In this case, 572 and 504mg XOS/g pure xylan were obtained from mahogany and mango woods, respectively...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410921/a-randomized-trial-to-determine-the-impact-of-a-digestion-resistant-starch-composition-on-the-gut-microbiome-in-older-and-mid-age-adults
#14
Michelle J Alfa, David Strang, Paramjit S Tappia, Morag Graham, Gary Van Domselaar, Jessica D Forbes, Vanessa Laminman, Nancy Olson, Pat DeGagne, David Bray, Brenda-Lee Murray, Brenden Dufault, Lisa M Lix
BACKGROUND: The elderly often have a diet lacking resistant starch (RS) which is thought to lead to gut microbiome dysbiosis that may result in deterioration of gut colonocytes. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to assess if elderly (ELD; ≥ 70 years age) had microbiome dysbiosis compared to mid-age (MID; 30-50 years age) adults and then determine the impact of daily consumption of MSPrebiotic(®) (a RS) or placebo over 3 months on gut microbiome composition...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404159/a-microbiota-centric-view-of-diseases-of-the-upper-gastrointestinal-tract
#15
REVIEW
Gerardo Nardone, Debora Compare, Alba Rocco
The distinctive anatomy and physiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the difficulty of obtaining samples led to the theory that it was bacteria free. However, multiomics studies are indicating otherwise. Although influenced by both oral and gastric bacteria, the resident microbial ecosystem in the oesophagus is dominated by Streptococcus. A shift from Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria occurs in oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus, and this shift might be involved in the pathogenesis of oesophageal adenocarcinoma...
April 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400010/exploitation-of-grape-marc-as-functional-substrate-for-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-bifidobacteria-growth-and-enhanced-antioxidant-activity
#16
Daniela Campanella, Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello, Cristina Fasciano, Giuseppe Gambacorta, Daniela Pinto, Barbara Marzani, Nicola Scarano, Maria De Angelis, Marco Gobbetti
This study aimed at using grape marc for the growth of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient having antioxidant activity. Lactobacillus plantarum 12A and PU1, Lactobacillus paracasei 14A, and Bifidobacterium breve 15A showed the ability to grow on grape marc (GM) based media. The highest bacterial cell density (>9.0 CFU/g) was found in GM added of 1% of glucose (GMG). Compared to un-inoculated and incubated control fermented GMG showed a decrease of carbohydrates and citric acid together with an increase of lactic acid...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397382/immunotropic-aspect-of-the-bacillus-coagulans-probiotic-action
#17
Tatiana V Bomko, Tatiana N Nosalskaya, Tatiana V Kabluchko, Yury V Lisnyak, Artur V Martynov
OBJECTIVES: Currently, probiotics are increasingly used as the alternative to antibiotics as well as the preventive measures in humans. In particular, probiotics occupy a key position in the treatment of antibiotics-associated intestinal dysbiosis. A spore-forming microorganism lactobacillus Bacillus coagulans is one of the most promising probiotics. However, some of its pharmacological effects remain poorly understood. This study was aimed at investigation of the effect of B. coagulans (Laktovit Forte) on the intestinal dysbiosis syndrome in mice caused by streptomycin against the background of cyclophosphamide-induced cellular immunodeficiency...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396144/supplementation-of-diet-with-galacto-oligosaccharides-increases-bifidobacteria-but-not-insulin-sensitivity-in%C3%A2-obese%C3%A2-prediabetic-individuals
#18
Emanuel E Canfora, Christina M van der Beek, Gerben D A Hermes, Gijs H Goossens, Johan W E Jocken, Jens J Holst, Hans M van Eijk, Koen Venema, Hauke Smidt, Erwin G Zoetendal, Cornelis H C Dejong, Kaatje Lenaerts, Ellen E Blaak
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut microbiota affects host lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety, and chronic low-grade inflammation to contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fermentation end products, in particular the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) acetate, are believed to be involved in these processes. We investigated the long-term effects of supplementation with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), an acetogenic fiber, on the composition of the human gut microbiota and human metabolism. METHODS: We performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel intervention study of 44 overweight or obese (body mass index, 28-40 kg/m(2)) prediabetic men and women (ages, 45-70 y) from October 2014 through October 2015 in Maastricht, The Netherlands...
April 8, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394924/microscale-spatial-analysis-provides-evidence-for-adhesive-monopolization-of-dietary-nutrients-by-specific-intestinal-bacteria
#19
Yusuke Nagara, Toshihiko Takada, Yuriko Nagata, Shoichi Kado, Akira Kushiro
Each species of intestinal bacteria requires a nutritional source to maintain its population in the intestine. Dietary factors are considered to be major nutrients; however, evidence directly explaining the in situ utilization of dietary factors is limited. Microscale bacterial distribution would provide clues to understand bacterial lifestyle and nutrient utilization. However, the detailed bacterial localization around dietary factors in the intestine remains uninvestigated. Therefore, we explored microscale habitats in the murine intestine by using histology and fluorescent in situ hybridization, focusing on dietary factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392148/molecular-insight-into-evolution-of-symbiosis-between-breast-fed-infants-and-a-member-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-bifidobacterium-longum
#20
Chihaya Yamada, Aina Gotoh, Mikiyasu Sakanaka, Mitchell Hattie, Keith A Stubbs, Ayako Katayama-Ikegami, Junko Hirose, Shin Kurihara, Takatoshi Arakawa, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Shujiro Okuda, Takane Katayama, Shinya Fushinobu
Breast-fed infants generally have a bifidobacteria-rich microbiota with recent studies indicating that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) selectively promote bifidobacterial growth. Bifidobacterium bifidum possesses a glycoside hydrolase family 20 lacto-N-biosidase for liberating lacto-N-biose I from lacto-N-tetraose, an abundant HMO unique to human milk, while Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum has a non-classified enzyme (LnbX). Here, we determined the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of LnbX and provide evidence for creation of a novel glycoside hydrolase family, GH136...
April 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
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