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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022384/does-the-maternal-vaginal-microbiota-play-a-role-in-seeding-the-microbiota-of-neonatal-gut-and-nose
#1
O Sakwinska, F Foata, B Berger, H Brüssow, S Combremont, A Mercenier, S Dogra, S-E Soh, J C K Yen, G Y S Heong, Y S Lee, F Yap, M J Meaney, Y-S Chong, K M Godfrey, J D Holbrook
The acquisition and early maturation of infant microbiota is not well understood despite its likely influence on later health. We investigated the contribution of the maternal microbiota to the microbiota of infant gut and nose in the context of mode of delivery and feeding. Using 16S rRNA sequencing and specific qPCR, we profiled microbiota of 42 mother-infant pairs from the GUSTO birth cohort, at body sites including maternal vagina, rectum and skin; and infant stool and nose. In our study, overlap between maternal vaginal microbiota and infant faecal microbiota was minimal, while the similarity between maternal rectal microbiota and infant microbiota was more pronounced...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985138/optimal-combination-of-soy-buffalo-and-cow-s-milk-in-bioyogurt-for-optimal-chemical-nutritional-and-health-benefits
#2
Gehan Ghoneem, Magdy Ismail, Naeem El-Boraey, Mohamed Tabekha, Hoda Elashrey
OBJECTIVE: Soy milk is enriched with nutritive elements such as proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, lecithins, isoflavones, mineral substances, free amino acids, and polypeptides. The aim of this study was to increase the health and nutritional values of bioyogurt by using ABT-5 culture and mixing soy milk with buffalo and cow's milk. METHODS: Five treatments of yogurt were made from soy, buffalo, and cow's milk and from 75% buffalo + 25% soy milk mixture and 75% cow + 25% soy milk mixture using ABT-5 culture...
October 6, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983638/bifidobacteria-and-the-infant-gut-an-example-of-co-evolution-and-natural-selection
#3
REVIEW
Francesca Turroni, Christian Milani, Sabrina Duranti, Chiara Ferrario, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Leonardo Mancabelli, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
Throughout the human life, the gut microbiota interacts with us in a number of different ways, thereby influencing our health status. The acquisition of such an interactive gut microbiota commences at birth. Medical and environmental factors including diet, antibiotic exposure and mode of delivery are major factors that shape the composition of the microbial communities in the infant gut. Among the most abundant members of the infant microbiota are species belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus, which are believed to confer beneficial effects upon their host...
October 5, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969445/anxiolytic-like-effect-of-bifidobacterium-adolescentis-im38-in-mice-with-or-without-immobilisation-stress
#4
H M Jang, S-E Jang, M J Han, D-H Kim
To better understand the role of gut microbiota in the anxiety, we isolated bifidobacteria and lactobacilli from the human faecal microbiota, investigated their inhibitory effects on the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, and examined the anxiolytic-like effect of Bifidobacterium adolescentis IM38 in mice treated with or without immobilisation stress using the elevated plus maze (EPM) task. Oral administration of IM38 at a dose of 1×10(9) cfu/mouse showed a significant anxiolytic-like effect both in mice exposed to immobilisation stress and in control mice using the EPM test (P<0...
October 3, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969444/different-physiological-properties-of-human-residential-and-non-human-residential-bifidobacteria-in-human-health
#5
C B Wong, H Sugahara, T Odamaki, J Z Xiao
Bifidobacteria have increasingly been shown to exert positive health benefits to humans, which are clearly reflected by their application in various commercialised dairy products and supplements. Bifidobacteria naturally inhabit a range of ecological niches and display substantial differences in their ecological adaptation among species. In general, bifidobacteria could be categorised into two major groups; bifidobacterial species of human origins as human-residential bifidobacteria (HRB) while other species which are the natural inhabitants of animals or environment as non-HRB...
October 3, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954640/impact-of-%C3%AE-2-1-fructan-on-faecal-community-change-results-from-a-placebo-controlled-randomised-double-blinded-cross-over-study-in-healthy-adults
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sandra T Clarke, Stephen P J Brooks, G Douglas Inglis, L Jay Yanke, Judy Green, Nicholas Petronella, D Dan Ramdath, Premysl Bercik, Julia M Green-Johnson, Martin Kalmokoff
Healthy adults (n 30) participated in a placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of two 28 d treatments (β2-1 fructan or maltodextrin; 3×5 g/d) separated by a 14-d washout. Subjects provided 1 d faecal collections at days 0 and 28 of each treatment. The ability of faecal bacteria to metabolise β2-1 fructan was common; eighty-seven species (thirty genera, and four phyla) were isolated using anaerobic medium containing β2-1 fructan as the sole carbohydrate source. β2-1 fructan altered the faecal community as determined through analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms and 16S rRNA genes...
September 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945208/digestion-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-by-bifidobacterium-breve-in-the-premature-infant
#7
Mark A Underwood, Jasmine C C Davis, Karen M Kalanetra, Sanjay Gehlot, Sanjay Patole, Daniel J Tancredi, David A Mills, Carlito B Lebrilla, Karen Simmer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure consumption and absorption of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in a cohort of premature infants treated with probiotic Bifidobacterium breve. METHODS: Twenty-nine premature infants (median gestational age 28 weeks, range 23-32 weeks) cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit of the King Edward and Princess Margaret Hospital in Perth, Australia, were treated with B breve at a dose of 1.66 billion organisms per day...
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937980/methanobrevibacter-attenuation-via-probiotic-intervention-reduces-flatulence-in-adult-human-a-non-randomised-paired-design-clinical-trial-of-efficacy
#8
Minseok Seo, Jaeyoung Heo, Joon Yoon, Se-Young Kim, Yoon-Mo Kang, Jihyun Yu, Seoae Cho, Heebal Kim
TRIAL DESIGN: The aim of this study was to investigate which of the gut microbes respond to probiotic intervention, as well as study whether they are associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in a healthy adult human. For the experimental purpose, twenty-one healthy adults were recruited and received probiotic mixture, which is composed of five Lactobacilli strains and two Bifidobacteria strains, once a day for 60 days. Defecation survey and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis were conducted pre- and post-administration to measure phenotypic differences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935288/the-potential-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-pancreatic-disease-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Robert Memba, Sinead N Duggan, Hazel M Ni Chonchubhair, Oonagh M Griffin, Yasir Bashir, Donal B O'Connor, Anne Murphy, Jean McMahon, Yuri Volcov, Barbara M Ryan, Kevin C Conlon
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested a link between microbiota imbalance and some gastrointestinal, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. However, the role in pancreatic diseases remain unclear. To evaluate the available evidence for pancreatic diseases, we undertook a systematic review. METHODS: OVID Medline (1946-2017), EMBASE (1980-2017) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 3, 2017) were searched for studies on microbiota in pancreatic disease...
September 6, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934590/the-relationship-between-the-human-genome-and-microbiome-comes-into-view
#10
Julia K Goodrich, Emily R Davenport, Andrew G Clark, Ruth E Ley
The body's microbiome, composed of microbial cells that number in the trillions, is involved in human health and disease in ways that are just starting to emerge. The microbiome is assembled at birth, develops with its host, and is greatly influenced by environmental factors such as diet and other exposures. Recently, a role for human genetic variation has emerged as also influential in accounting for interpersonal differences in microbiomes. Thus, human genes may influence health directly or by promoting a beneficial microbiome...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920844/identification-of-genes-involved-in-galactooligosaccharide-utilization-in-bifidobacterium-breve-strain-yit-4014t
#11
Hidetsugu Sotoya, Akira Shigehisa, Taeko Hara, Hoshitaka Matsumoto, Hiroshi Hatano, Takahiro Matsuki
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are mixed oligosaccharides that are mainly composed of galactosyllactoses (GLs), which include 3'-GL, 4'-GL, and 6'-GL. Data from numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that GOS selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. Previously, we identified the gene locus responsible for 4'-GL utilization, but the selective routes of uptake and catabolism of 3'- and 6'-GL remain to be elucidated. In this study, we used differential transcriptomics to identify the utilization pathways of these GLs within the Bifidobacterium breve YIT 4014T strain...
September 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912815/feasibility-of-metatranscriptome-analysis-from-infant-gut-microbiota-adaptation-to-solid-foods-results-in-increased-activity-of-firmicutes-at-six-months
#12
Floor Hugenholtz, Jarmo Ritari, Lotta Nylund, Mark Davids, Reetta Satokari, Willem M de Vos
Newborns are rapidly colonized by microbes and their intestinal tracts contain highly dynamic and rapidly developing microbial communities in the first months of life. In this study, we describe the feasibility of isolating mRNA from rapidly processed faecal samples and applying deep RNA-Seq analysis to provide insight into the active contributors of the microbial community in early life. Specific attention is given to the impact of removing rRNA from the mRNA on the phylogenetic and transcriptional profiling and its analysis depth...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898324/-probiotics-innocuousness-prevention-and-risks
#13
Oscar Brunser
Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms which, when ingested in adequate numbers, confer health benefits to the host. They are currently consumed without any age restrictions and adverse effects such as sepsis, a marker of the risk of invasion of the bloodstream, are extremely infrequent. However, some health professionals express doubts about probiotics being truly innocuous. This review discusses the incidence of sepsis secondary to probiotics use, mainly lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, evaluated through molecular biology or classic culture techniques, showing that sepsis in large numbers of individuals along decennia is extremely low, of the order of 0,02% en some centers or as low as 1 case/million population in France...
2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894126/microbes-in-infant-gut-development-placing-abundance-within-environmental-clinical-and-growth-parameters
#14
Tanja Obermajer, Iztok Grabnar, Evgen Benedik, Tina Tušar, Tatjana Robič Pikel, Nataša Fidler Mis, Bojana Bogovič Matijašić, Irena Rogelj
Sound and timely microbial gut colonization completes newborn's healthy metabolic programming and manifests in infant appropriate growth and weight development. Feces, collected at 3, 30, and 90 days after birth from 60 breastfed Slovenian newborns, was submitted to microbial DNA extraction and qPCR quantification of selected gut associated taxa. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to evaluate microbial dynamics with respect to infant demographic, environmental, clinical characteristics and first year growth data...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884754/bifidobacteria-exert-species-specific-effects-on-constipation-in-balb-c-mice
#15
Linlin Wang, Lujun Hu, Qi Xu, Tian Jiang, Shuguang Fang, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine whether edible bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum, B. infantis, B. animalis, B. bifidum, B. adolescentis or B. breve) exhibit interspecies differences in alleviating constipation induced by loperamide in BALB/c mice and to analyse the main reasons for the interspecies differences. BALB/c mice were given bifidobacteria by gavage once per day for 8 days. The primary outcome measures, which included related constipation indicators, and the secondary outcome measures, which included changes in the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in faeces and changes in the faecal flora, were used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the edible bifidobacteria on constipation...
September 8, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877893/randomized-controlled-trial-on-the-impact-of-early-life-intervention-with-bifidobacteria-on-the-healthy-infant-fecal-microbiota-and-metabolome
#16
Monika Bazanella, Tanja V Maier, Thomas Clavel, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Marianna Lucio, Maria X Maldonado-Gòmez, Chloe Autran, Jens Walter, Lars Bode, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Dirk Haller
Background: Early-life colonization of the intestinal tract is a dynamic process influenced by numerous factors. The impact of probiotic-supplemented infant formula on the composition and function of the infant gut microbiota is not well defined.Objective: We sought to determine the effects of a bifidobacteria-containing formula on the healthy human intestinal microbiome during the first year of life.Design: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of newborn infants assigned to a standard whey-based formula containing a total of 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU)/g of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, B...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861520/arginine-exposure-decreases-acidogenesis-in-long-term-oral-biofilm-microcosms
#17
Ruth G Ledder, Hitesh Mistry, Prem K Sreenivasan, Gavin Humphreys, Andrew J McBain
Arginine is an important pH-elevating agent in the oral cavity. It has been incorporated in oral hygiene formulations to mitigate sensitivity and to prevent caries. In this investigation, the effects of sustained arginine dosing of dental plaque microcosms on bacteriological composition and pH were evaluated under controlled conditions. Plaque microcosms were established in constant-depth film fermentors (CDFFs) using salivary inocula and fed continuously with artificial saliva. To simulate resting and cariogenic states, the CDFFs were supplemented with sterile water or 5% sucrose, respectively...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859498/influence-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-on-adherence-of-bifidobacteria-and-clostridia-to-cell-lines
#18
Sarka Musilova, Nikol Modrackova, Ivo Doskocil, Roman Svejstil, Vojtech Rada
Adhesion of gut bacteria to the intestinal epithelium is the first step in their colonization of the neonatal immature gut. Bacterial colonization of the infant gut is influenced by several factors, of which the most important are the mode of delivery and breast-feeding. Breast-fed infants ingest several grams of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) per day, which can become receptor decoys for intestinal bacteria. The most abundant intestinal bacteria in vaginally delivered infants are bifidobacteria, whereas infants born by cesarean section are colonized by clostridia...
September 1, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858630/quantitative-assessment-of-salivary-oral-bacteria-according-to-the-severity-of-dental-caries-in-childhood
#19
Natália H Colombo, Paula F Kreling, Laís F F Ribas, Jesse A Pereira, Christine A Kressirer, Marlise I Klein, Anne C R Tanner, Cristiane Duque
This study aimed to assess differences in selected oral bacteria in children according to the severity of dental caries. One hundred and thirty-six children, 36-60 months old were divided into three groups according to caries status: caries-free (CF) (n=47), early childhood caries (ECC) (n=40) and severe-early childhood caries (S-ECC) (n=49). Saliva was collected for detection and quantification of selected oral streptococci, Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Scardovia wiggsiae by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction...
November 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858205/impact-of-novel-prebiotic-galacto-oligosaccharides-on-various-biomarkers-of-colorectal-cancer-in-wister-rats
#20
Tahir Rasool Qamar, Sanaullah Iqbal, Fatima Syed, Muhammad Nasir, Habib Rehman, Muhammad Aamir Iqbal, Rui Hai Liu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths around the globe. Bioactive food ingredients such as prebiotics have protective potential in colon cancer. Data on galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS) against CRC are very limited and GalOS used in this study have β-1,6 and β-1,3 as major glycosidic linkages and, to our best knowledge, were never used before against any cancer treatment. This study aims to investigate the protective role of novel GalOS against various biomarkers of CRC including aberrant crypt foci (ACF), bacterial enzymes and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in a rodent model induced with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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