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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669931/targeting-the-gut-microbiome-to-treat-the-osteoarthritis-of-obesity
#1
Eric M Schott, Christopher W Farnsworth, Alex Grier, Jacquelyn A Lillis, Sarah Soniwala, Gregory H Dadourian, Richard D Bell, Madison L Doolittle, David A Villani, Hani Awad, John P Ketz, Fadia Kamal, Cheryl Ackert-Bicknell, John M Ashton, Steven R Gill, Robert A Mooney, Michael J Zuscik
Obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), the greatest cause of disability in the US. The impact of obesity on OA is driven by systemic inflammation, and increased systemic inflammation is now understood to be caused by gut microbiome dysbiosis. Oligofructose, a nondigestible prebiotic fiber, can restore a lean gut microbial community profile in the context of obesity, suggesting a potentially novel approach to treat the OA of obesity. Here, we report that - compared with the lean murine gut - obesity is associated with loss of beneficial Bifidobacteria, while key proinflammatory species gain in abundance...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662736/investigating-the-transmissibility-of-tet-w-in-bifidobacteria-exposed-to-acid-and-bile-stress
#2
Agnieszka Polit, Huiying Yang, Daniel Amund
Transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from probiotic bacteria to pathogens poses a safety concern. Orally administered probiotics are exposed to stressful conditions during gastrointestinal transit. In this study, filter mating experiments were performed to investigate the potential role of exposure of Bifidobacterium isolates to acid and bile stress on the transfer of a tetracycline resistance gene, tet (W), to Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299. No E. faecalis transconjugants were obtained after mating with either stressed or unstressed Bifidobacterium , thereby suggesting that tet (W) could not be transferred as a result of exposure to gastrointestinal stresses...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657964/vive-la-persistence-engineering-human-microbiomes-in-the-21st-century
#3
Katrine L Whiteson
I imagine a future in which children grow up with healthy microbial communities. Engineering human microbiomes might actually be achievable in the near future, as we enter an era of hunting for human-adapted bacterial strains and phages. Furthermore, breath metabolites could allow us to track whether a probiotic colonizes persistently or a phage has knocked down a microbe of interest. Recent successes with probiotics, such as bifidobacteria that can break down human milk oligosaccharides, are making a future in which infants are intentionally colonized with health-promoting strains seem less unlikely...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651635/effects-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-trimethylamine-n-oxide-plasma-levels-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-pilot-study
#4
Natália A Borges, P Stenvinkel, P Bergman, A R Qureshi, B Lindholm, C Moraes, M B Stockler-Pinto, D Mafra
Components present in the diet, L-carnitine, choline, and betaine are metabolized by gut microbiota to produce metabolites such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) that appear to promote cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation for 3 months on plasma TMAO levels in CKD patients on hemodialysis (HD). A randomized, double-blind trial was performed in 21 patients [54.8 ± 10.4 years, nine men, BMI 26...
April 12, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651187/effect-of-encapsulation-on-viability-of-bifidobacterium-longum-cfr815j-and-physiochemical-properties-of-ice-cream
#5
Ankita Kataria, Sajan C Achi, Prakash M Halami
The health beneficial attributes of bifidobacteria and its safe association with the host gut has increased its significance as a probiotic. However delivering probiotic bifidobacteria with Minimum Biological Value (MBV) through product has always been a challenge. In the present study, an attempt was made to maintain the viability of native isolate of Bifidobacterium longum CFR 815j and deliver through ice-cream. B. longum CFR815j was microencapsulated in alginate starch capsules by emulsification followed by evaluation of bead stability in simulated gastrointestinal conditions...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644870/a-novel-polyphenolic-prebiotic-and-probiotic-formulation-have-synergistic-effects-on-the-gut-microbiota-influencing-drosophila-melanogaster-physiology
#6
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is a vast community of synergistic bacterial species providing health benefits to the host. Imbalances in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) due to diet, antibiotic use, age and stress contribute to disease development including diabetes, obesity, colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammaging and neurodegeneration. Fortunately, a probiotic regime with a diet rich in prebiotics may reverse dysbiosis promoting health and wellness in age. The current study designs, optimizes and tests a novel probiotic and synbiotic formulation consisting of three metabolically active probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacteria infantis together with a novel polyphenol-rich prebiotic, Triphala...
April 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627914/the-influence-of-feed-supplementation-with-probiotic-strain-lactobacillus-reuteri-ccm-8617-and-alginite-on-intestinal-microenvironment-of-spf-mice-infected-with-salmonella-typhimurium-ccm-7205
#7
Soňa Gancarčíková, Radomíra Nemcová, Miroslav Popper, Gabriela Hrčková, Ľuboslava Sciranková, Marián Maďar, Dagmar Mudroňová, Štefan Vilček, Rudolf Žitňan
Alginite is a non-ore raw material arising by fossilization of accumulated organic (algae) and inorganic material, particularly clay, carbonates, quartz, and amorphous modification of silicic acid in the aqueous environment. Humic acids as a component of organic portion of alginite are known for very good buffering ability which allows them to stabilise pH throughout the digestion system of animals, stimulate receptors of the immune system in intestinal villi against pathogenic bacteria, and support proliferation and activity of beneficial bacteria (lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and similar)...
April 7, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626219/smoking-and-the-intestinal-microbiome
#8
REVIEW
Ziv Savin, Shaye Kivity, Hagith Yonath, Shoenfeld Yehuda
Studies are emerging alluding to the role of intestinal microbiome in the pathogenesis of diseases. Intestinal microbiome is susceptible to the influence of environmental factors such as smoking, and recent studies have indicated microbiome alterations in smokers. The aim of the study was to review the literature regarding the impact of smoking on the intestinal microbiome. A literature review of publications in PUBMED was performed using combinations of the terms "Intestinal/Gut/Gastrointestinal/Colonic" with "Microbiome/Microbiota/Microbial/Flora" and "Smoking/Smoker/Tobacco"...
April 6, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620784/prebiotic-effects-of-resistant-starch-from-purple-yam-dioscorea-alata-l-on-the-tolerance-and-proliferation-ability-of-bifidobacterium-adolescentis-in-vitro
#9
Tao Li, Lei Chen, Jianbo Xiao, Fengping An, Cheng Wan, Hongbo Song
The in vitro prebiotic effects of resistant starch (RS), prepared by different treatments from purple yam, on Bifidobacterium adolescentis (bifidobacteria for short), were investigated. Tolerance tests indicated that bifidobacteria in PDS (prepared by debranching combined with autoclaving) and PDS.H (PDS further treated by double enzyme hydrolysis) media adapted better to simulated upper gastrointestinal conditions (at pH 1.5-3.0 and 0.3% and 1.0% bile acid) than those in GLU (glucose) and DAS (prepared by autoclaving) media...
April 5, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610991/the-viability-of-probiotics-in-water-breast-milk-and-infant-formula
#10
Claire Watkins, Kiera Murphy, Eugene M Dempsey, Brendan P Murphy, Paul W O'Toole, R Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton, C Anthony Ryan
The aim of this study was to determine bacteriological stability of a probiotic mixture dispersed in various diluents. The commercially available probiotic (Infloran®), containing Bifidobacterium bifidum (109  CFU/250 mg tablet) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (109  CFU/250 mg tablet), was dispersed within expressed breast milk, sterile water, and infant formula and examined at temperatures of 4 and 21 °C. When stored at 4 °C, significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the level of L. acidophilus and B...
April 2, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601338/evolving-understanding-of-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#11
Mubina A Isani, Patrick T Delaplain, Anatoly Grishin, Henri R Ford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease that predominately affects premature neonates. The pathogenesis of NEC is multifactorial and poorly understood. Risk factors include low birth weight, formula-feeding, hypoxic/ischemic insults, and microbial dysbiosis. This review focuses on our current understanding of the diagnosis, management, and pathogenesis of NEC. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings identify specific mucosal cell types as potential therapeutic targets in NEC...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593138/-milk-daily-products-and-bone-health-the-effect-of-lactulose-on-bone-health
#12
Yohei Sakai
Lactulose is a non-digestible oligosaccharide, consisting of galactose and fructose. Bifidobacteria in the large intestine assimilate and metabolize lactulose, which has not been degraded or absorbed by humans, and they subsequently proliferate. Predominant bifidobacteria release short chain fatty acids, such as acetic acid and lactic acid, into the intestinal tract by lactulose metabolization, which lowers the intraluminal pH. As a result, the calcium that has flowed into the large intestine without absorption in the small intestine is solubilized and absorbed in the large intestine...
2018: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582256/probiotic-treatment-reduces-the-autistic-like-excitation-inhibition-imbalance-in-juvenile-hamsters-induced-by-orally-administered-propionic-acid-and-clindamycin
#13
Afaf El-Ansary, Abir Ben Bacha, Geir Bjørklund, Nora Al-Orf, Ramesa Shafi Bhat, Nadine Moubayed, Kawther Abed
Increasing evidence suggests that the gut microbiota plays a key role in the central nervous system (CNS), and alterations of the gut microbiota composition due to environmental factors can contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal modeling may help to identify drugs that can normalize the altered gut microbiota and thereby ameliorate abnormal brain signaling pathways. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic potency of probiotics such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli on glutamate excitotoxicity as a neurotoxic effect induced by clindamycin and propionic acid (PPA) in juvenile hamsters...
March 27, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580136/milk-glycans-and-their-interaction-with-the-infant-gut-microbiota
#14
Nina Kirmiz, Randall C Robinson, Ishita M Shah, Daniela Barile, David A Mills
Human milk is a unique and complex fluid that provides infant nutrition and delivers an array of bioactive molecules that serve various functions. Glycans, abundant in milk, can be found as free oligosaccharides or as glycoconjugates. Milk glycans are increasingly linked to beneficial outcomes in neonates through protection from pathogens and modulation of the immune system. Indeed, these glycans influence the development of the infant and the infant-gut microbiota. Bifidobacterium species commonly are enriched in breastfed infants and are among a limited group of bacteria that readily consume human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and milk glycoconjugates...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567414/actinobacteria-a-relevant-minority-for-the-maintenance-of-gut-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
Cecilia Binda, Loris Riccardo Lopetuso, Gianenrico Rizzatti, Giulia Gibiino, Vincenzo Cennamo, Antonio Gasbarrini
Actinobacteria are one the four major phyla of the gut microbiota and, although they represent only a small percentage, are pivotal in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. During the last decade many studies focused the attention on Actinobacteria, especially on their role both in gastrointestinal and systemic diseases and on their possible therapeutic use. In fact, classes of this phylum, especially Bifidobacteria, are widely used as probiotic demonstrating beneficial effects in many pathological conditions, even if larger in vivo studies are needed to confirm such encouraging results...
March 5, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558912/influence-of-dietary-protein-and-fructooligosaccharides-on-fecal-fermentative-end-products-fecal-bacterial-populations-and-apparent-total-tract-digestibility-in-dogs
#16
Carlo Pinna, Carla Giuditta Vecchiato, Carmen Bolduan, Monica Grandi, Claudio Stefanelli, Wilhelm Windisch, Giuliano Zaghini, Giacomo Biagi
BACKGROUND: Feeding dogs with diets rich in protein may favor putrefactive fermentations in the hindgut, negatively affecting the animal's intestinal environment. Conversely, prebiotics may improve the activity of health-promoting bacteria and prevent bacterial proteolysis in the colon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on fecal microbiota and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs fed kibbles differing in protein content...
March 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549001/expression-of-recombinant-human-lysozyme-in-bacterial-artificial-chromosome-transgenic-mice-promotes-the-growth-of-bifidobacterium-and-inhibits-the-growth-of-salmonella-in-the-intestine
#17
Lu Dan, Shen Liu, Shengzhe Shang, Huihua Zhang, Ran Zhang, Ning Li
Targeted gene modification is a novel intervention strategy to increase disease resistance more quickly than traditional animal breeding. Human lysozyme, a natural, non-specific immune factor, participates in innate immunity, exerts a wide range of antimicrobial activities against pathogens, and has immuneregulatory effects. Therefore, it is a candidate gene for improved disease resistance in animals. In this study, we successfully generated a transgenic mouse model by microinjecting a modified bacterial artificial chromosome containing a recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) gene into the pronuclei of fertilized mouse embryos...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538368/bifidobacterium-longum-subsp-infantis-cect7210-supplemented-formula-reduces-diarrhoea-in-healthy-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Joaquin Escribano, Natalia Ferré, Mariona Gispert-Llaurado, Veronica Luque, Carmen Rubio-Torrents, Marta Zaragoza-Jordana, Isabel Polanco, Francisco M Codoñer, Empar Chenoll, Mireia Morera, Jose Antonio Moreno Muñoz, Montserrat Rivero, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo
BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants is plenty of beneficial bifidobacteria. We aimed to determine whether an infant formula supplemented with probiotic Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT7210 (B. infantis IM1®) is effective at reducing diarrhoea incidence in healthy term infants. METHODS: Double-blinded, randomized, multicentre, controlled clinical trial, where formula-fed infants (<3 months) received an infant formula supplemented (Probiotic) or not (Control) with 107 cfu/g of B...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528686/synthetic-biology-approaches-to-engineer-probiotics-and-members-of-the-human-microbiota-for-biomedical-applications
#19
Josef R Bober, Chase L Beisel, Nikhil U Nair
An increasing number of studies have strongly correlated the composition of the human microbiota with many human health conditions and, in several cases, have shown that manipulating the microbiota directly affects health. These insights have generated significant interest in engineering indigenous microbiota community members and nonresident probiotic bacteria as biotic diagnostics and therapeutics that can probe and improve human health. In this review, we discuss recent advances in synthetic biology to engineer commensal and probiotic lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, and Bacteroides for these purposes, and we provide our perspective on the future potential of these technologies...
March 12, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527456/optimization-of-hydrolysis-conditions-for-the-mannooligosaccharides-copra-meal-hydrolysate-production
#20
Jurairat Rungruangsaphakun, Suttipun Keawsompong
Copra meal is a good source of galactomannan and it s mannooligosaccharides have prebiotic properties. However, limited data are available concerning the ideal requirements for mannan hydrolysis. Thus, optimum hydrolysis conditions for the production of oligosaccharides from copra meal hydrolysate were investigated using response surface methodology. Model validation provided good agreement between experimental results and predicted responses. Maximum oligosaccharide of 14.41 ± 0.09 mg/ml (20 ml) was obtained at an enzyme concentration of 16...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
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