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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726512/human-milk-oligosaccharide-categories-define-the-microbiota-composition-in-human-colostrum
#1
J Aakko, H Kumar, S Rautava, A Wise, C Autran, L Bode, E Isolauri, S Salminen
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are structurally diverse unconjugated glycans with a composition unique to each lactating mother. While HMOs have been shown to have an impact on the development of infant gut microbiota, it is not well known if HMOs also already affect milk microbial composition. To address this question, we analysed eleven colostrum samples for HMO content by high-pressure liquid chromatography and microbiota composition by quantitative PCR. Higher total HMO concentration was associated with higher counts of Bifidobacterium spp...
July 20, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725891/fecal-excretion-of-maillard-reaction-products-and-the-gut-microbiota-composition-of-rats-fed-with-bread-crust-or-bread-crumb
#2
C Helou, P M Anton, C Niquet-Léridon, M Spatz, F J Tessier, P Gadonna-Widehem
A comparison between the impacts of advanced (N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine - CML) and terminal (melanoidins) Maillard reaction products from bread on gut microbiota was carried out in this study. Gut microbiota composition as well as fecal excretion of CML from both bread crust and bread crumb, and of melanoidins from bread crust were assessed on a rodent model. Rats were fed with pellets supplemented or not with 13% of bread crust, bread crumb, a fiber-free bread crust model (glucose, starch and gluten heated together) or a fiber-free-melanoidin-free bread model (glucose-starch and gluten heated separately) for four weeks...
July 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721502/mucin-cross-feeding-of-infant-bifidobacteria-and-eubacterium-hallii
#3
Vera Bunesova, Christophe Lacroix, Clarissa Schwab
Mucus production is initiated before birth and provides mucin glycans to the infant gut microbiota. Bifidobacteria are the major bacterial group in the feces of vaginally delivered and breast milk-fed infants. Among the bifidobacteria, only Bifidobacterium bifidum is able to degrade mucin and to release monosaccharides which can be used by other gut microbes colonizing the infant gut. Eubacterium hallii is an early occurring commensal that produces butyrate and propionate from fermentation metabolites but that cannot degrade complex oligo- and polysaccharides...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717159/the-essential-genomic-landscape-of-the-commensal-bifidobacterium-breve-ucc2003
#4
Lorena Ruiz, Francesca Bottacini, Christine J Boinett, Amy K Cain, Mary O'Connell-Motherway, Trevor D Lawley, Douwe van Sinderen
Bifidobacteria are common gut commensals with purported health-promoting effects. This has encouraged scientific research into bifidobacteria, though recalcitrance to genetic manipulation and scarcity of molecular tools has hampered our knowledge on the precise molecular determinants of their health-promoting attributes and gut adaptation. To overcome this problem and facilitate functional genomic analyses in bifidobacteria, we created a large Tn5 transposon mutant library of the commensal Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 that was further characterized by means of a Transposon Directed Insertion Sequencing (TraDIS) approach...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714841/bifidobacterium-apri-sp-nov-a-thermophilic-actinobacterium-isolated-from-the-digestive-tract-of-wild-pigs-sus-scrofa
#5
R Pechar, J Killer, H Salmonová, M Geigerová, R Švejstil, P Švec, I Sedláček, V Rada, O Benada
Fresh samples of intestinal contents of three wild pigs originating from the Central Bohemia region were examined for the presence of bifidobacterial strains. During the study, we isolated many fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive, strictly anaerobic, irregular rod-shaped bacterial isolates. Three of them were preliminarily identified as representing a novel species of the genus Bifidobacterium because their 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the closest relatives of thermophilic bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium boum DSM 20432T, Bifidobacterium thermophilum DSM 20210T, Bifidobacterium thermacidophilumsubsp...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712958/enhancing-oxidative-stress-resistance-in-bifidobacterium-thermophilum-using-a-novel-overexpression-vector-and-transformation-protocol
#6
Marc J A Stevens, Adriano Venturini, Christophe Lacroix, Leo Meile
Bifidobacterium thermophilum is encountered in the GI-tract of pigs and infants. Here we provide a transformation protocol for B. thermophilum and a novel expression vector for this species. The protocol resulted in transformation rates of 1×10(3) transformed cells per μg DNA. Transformation was shown to be dependent on the presence of fructo-oligosaccharides during growth, polyethylene glycol in the electroporation buffer, and on methylation of the vector. The Escherichia coli - B. thermophilum shuttle vector pLFB1012 for heterologous gene expression was constructed harbouring the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter from Bifidobacterium longum (Pgap)...
July 13, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711255/short-communication-effect-of-the-addition-of-bifidobacterium-monocultures-on-the-physical-chemical-and-sensory-characteristics-of-fermented-goat-milk
#7
A Mituniewicz-Małek, M Ziarno, I Dmytrów, J Balejko
The aim of the study was to use 3 monocultures of Bifidobacterium (Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis AD600, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12, and Bifidobacterium longum AD50) in fermented goat milk to assess the microbial, physicochemical, rheological, and sensory quality of beverages during a 3-wk storage period at 5°C. The results indicated that selected bifidobacteria may be used for production of fermented goat milk because they comply with the minimum standards specified by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization during the entire period of storage...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710145/a-systematic-review-of-the-effects-of-polyols-on-gastrointestinal-health-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Adrienne Lenhart, William D Chey
Polyols are sugar alcohols found in certain fruits, vegetables, and sugar-free sweeteners. They make up a component of the diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, which is gaining popularity in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of polyols on the gastrointestinal tract in healthy men and women and in patients with IBS. Utilizing PubMed, Ovid, and Embase databases, we conducted a search on individual polyols and each of these terms: fermentation, absorption, motility, permeability, and gastrointestinal symptoms...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701177/longitudinal-development-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-metabolome-in-preterm-neonates-with-late-onset-sepsis-and-healthy-controls
#9
Christopher J Stewart, Nicholas D Embleton, Emma C L Marrs, Daniel P Smith, Tatiana Fofanova, Andrew Nelson, Tom Skeath, John D Perry, Joseph F Petrosino, Janet E Berrington, Stephen P Cummings
BACKGROUND: Late onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. While studies have implicated gut bacteria in the aetiology of the disease, functional analysis and mechanistic insights are generally lacking. We performed temporal bacterial (n = 613) and metabolomic (n = 63) profiling on extensively sampled stool from 7 infants with LOS and 28 matched healthy (no LOS or NEC) controls. RESULTS: The bacteria isolated in diagnostic blood culture usually corresponded to the dominant bacterial genera in the gut microbiome...
July 12, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696777/therapeutic-uses-of-triphala-in-ayurvedic-medicine
#10
Christine Tara Peterson, Kate Denniston, Deepak Chopra
AIM: The aim of this article is to review the current literature on the therapeutic uses and efficacy of Triphala. Herbal remedies are among the most ancient medicines used in traditional systems of healthcare such as Ayurveda. Triphala, a well-recognized and highly efficacious polyherbal Ayurvedic medicine consisting of fruits of the plant species Emblica officinalis (Amalaki), Terminalia bellerica (Bibhitaki), and Terminalia chebula (Haritaki), is a cornerstone of gastrointestinal and rejuvenative treatment...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692324/effect-of-goat-s-milk-supplementation-with-tamr-on-free-fatty-acids-antioxidant-activity-and-probiotic-bacteria-of-bio-rayeb-milk
#11
Mohamed N F Hamad, Magdy M Ismail, Esraa M Elraghy
Tamr (dried dates) has a high sugar content, essential vitamins, and high nutrient density. Dairy products still are the most typical carriers of probiotic bacteria. Six treatments of bio-rayeb milk were manufactured from goat's milk fortified with 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% Tamr using ABT-5 culture. Rayeb milk containing tamr had lower pH and fat and higher carbohydrate, total solids, dietary fiber, ash, total protein, water-soluble nitrogen, and total volatile fatty acids. Mixing tamr with bio-rayeb milk increased nutritional value by decreasing saturated fatty acids and increasing unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic acids, and antioxidant activity values...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686541/the-role-of-probiotics-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-prospective-open-label-study
#12
Sanaa Y Shaaban, Yasmin G El Gendy, Nayra S Mehanna, Waled M El-Senousy, Howaida S A El-Feki, Khaled Saad, Osama M El-Asheer
OBJECTIVE: There are limited data on the efficacy of probiotics in children with ASD, therefore, this study aims to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of probiotics in an Egyptian cohort of children with ASD. METHODS: Gastrointestinal (GI) flora were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR of stool samples of 30 autistic children from 5 to 9 years old. GI symptoms of autistic children were assessed with a modified six-item Gastrointestinal Severity Index (6-GSI) questionnaire, and autistic symptoms were assessed with Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) before and after 3 months of supplementation of probiotics nutritional supplement formula (each gram contains 100 × 10(6) colony forming units of three probiotic strains; Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacteria longum)...
July 7, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684691/administration-of-inulin-supplemented-gluten-free-diet-modified-calcium-absorption-and-caecal-microbiota-in-rats-in-a-calcium-dependent-manner
#13
Urszula Krupa-Kozak, Lidia H Markiewicz, Grzegorz Lamparski, Jerzy Juśkiewicz
In coeliac disease (CD), the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD), the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium (Ca) absorption. In the present study, we hypothesised that the dietary inulin in GFD would influence positively the intestinal microbiota, and by that will stimulate the absorption of calcium (Ca), especially in the conditions of Ca malnutrition...
July 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668709/isomalto-oligosaccharides-a-prebiotic-functionally-augment-green-tea-effects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-alterations-via-preventing-gut-dysbacteriosis-in-mice
#14
Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Jagdeep Singh, Ravneet Kaur Boparai, JianHua Zhu, Shrikant Mantri, Pragyanshu Khare, Romesh Khardori, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
High fat diet (HFD)-induced alterations in gut microbiota and resultant 'leaky gut' phenomenon promotes metabolic endotoxemia, ectopic fat deposition, and low-grade systemic inflammation. Here we evaluated the effects of a combination of green tea extract (GTE) with isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMOs) on HFD-induced alterations in mice. Male Swiss albino mice were fed with HFD (58% fat kcal) for 12 weeks. Systemic adiposity, gut derangement parameters and V3-V4 region based 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing, ectopic fat deposition, liver metabolome analysis, systemic and tissue inflammation, and energy homeostasis markers along with gene expression analysis in multiple tissues were done in mice supplemented with GTE, IMOs or their combination...
June 28, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667113/a-human-gut-commensal-ferments-cranberry-carbohydrates-to-produce-formate
#15
Ezgi Özcan, Jiadong Sun, David C Rowley, David A Sela
Commensal bifidobacteria colonize the human gastrointestinal tract and catabolize glycans that are impervious to host digestion. Accordingly, Bifidobacterium longum typically secrete acetate and lactate as fermentative endproducts. This study tested the hypothesis that B. longum utilize cranberry-derived xyloglucans in a strain-dependent manner. Interestingly, the B. longum strain that efficiently utilizes cranberry xyloglucans secrete 2.0-2.5 moles acetate:lactate. The 1.5 ratio theoretical yield obtained in hexose fermentations shifts during xyloglucan metabolism...
June 30, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666750/new-genetic-environments-of-the-macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin-resistance-determinant-erm-x-and-their-influence-on-potential-horizontal-transferability-in-bifidobacteria
#16
Na Wang, Xiaomin Hang, Min Zhang, Xiaoyun Peng, Hong Yang
With the abuse of macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin (MLS), the traditionally safe bifidobacterial strains in the human intestine could serve as a reservoir of MLS resistance genes. In this study, the erm(X) gene was detected in 29 MLS-resistant strains and one MLS-susceptible strain among 92 bifidobacterial strains of human origin; this study is the first to report erm(X)-mediated MLS resistance in Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium bifidum. The insertion sequences (ISs) flanking antibiotic resistance (AR) genes (i...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648868/immune-modulating-effects-in-mouse-dendritic-cells-of-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria-isolated-from-individuals-following-omnivorous-vegetarian-and-vegan-diets
#17
Diomira Luongo, Lucia Treppiccione, Alida Sorrentino, Ilario Ferrocino, Silvia Turroni, Monica Gatti, Raffaella Di Cagno, Yolanda Sanz, Mauro Rossi
Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria play a primary role in modulation of gut immunity. By considering that microbiota composition depends on various factors, including diet, we asked whether functional differences could characterize faecal populations of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria isolated from individuals with different dietary habits. 155 healthy volunteers who followed omnivorous, ovo-lacto-vegetarian or vegan diets were recruited at four Italian centres (Turin, Parma, Bologna and Bari). Faecal samples were collected; lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were isolated on selective media and their immunomodulatory activity was tested in mouse dendritic cells (DCs)...
September 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644357/effect-of-synbiotic-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-cesarean-delivered-infants-a-randomized-double-blind-multicenter-study
#18
Mei Chin Chua, Kaouther Ben-Amor, Christophe Lay, Anne G E Neo, Wei Chin Chiang, Rajeshwar Rao, Charmaine Chew, Surasith Chaithongwongwatthana, Nipon Khemapech, Jan Knol, Voranush Chongsrisawat
We determined the effect of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the gut microbiota of cesarean-born infants. Infants were randomized to receive a standard formula (control), the same with scGOS/lcFOS and B. breve M-16V (synbiotic), or with scGOS/lcFOS (prebiotic) from birth until week 16, 30 subjects born vaginally were included as a reference group. Synbiotic supplementation resulted in a higher bifidobacteria proportion from day 3/5 (P < 0...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643627/bifidobacteria-and-their-health-promoting-effects
#19
Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Susana Delgado, Lorena Ruiz, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Borja Sánchez, Abelardo Margolles
Bifidobacteria are members of the intestinal microbiota of mammals and other animals, and some strains are able to exert health-promoting effects. The genus Bifidobacterium belongs to the Actinobacteria phylum. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria constitute the most abundant phyla in the human intestinal microbiota, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes being predominant in adults, and Actinobacteria in breast-fed infants, where bifidobacteria can reach levels higher than 90% of the total bacterial population...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622636/crispr-based-engineering-of-next-generation-lactic-acid-bacteria
#20
REVIEW
Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Sarah O'Flaherty, Rodolphe Barrangou
The advent of CRISPR-based technologies has opened new avenues for the development of next-generation food microorganisms and probiotics with enhanced functionalities. Building off two decades of functional genomics studies unraveling the genetic basis for food fermentations and host-probiotic interactions, CRISPR technologies offer a wide range of opportunities to engineer commercially-relevant Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. Endogenous CRISPR-Cas systems can be repurposed to enhance gene expression or provide new features to improve host colonization and promote human health...
June 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
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