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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103254/a-highly-active-endo-levanase-bt1760-of-a-dominant-mammalian-gut-commensal-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron-cleaves-not-only-various-bacterial-levans-but-also-levan-of-timothy-grass
#1
Karin Mardo, Triinu Visnapuu, Heiki Vija, Anneli Aasamets, Katrin Viigand, Tiina Alamäe
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, an abundant commensal of the human gut, degrades numerous complex carbohydrates. Recently, it was reported to grow on a β-2,6-linked polyfructan levan produced by Zymomonas mobilis degrading the polymer into fructooligosaccharides (FOS) with a cell surface bound endo-levanase BT1760. The FOS are consumed by B. thetaiotaomicron, but also by other gut bacteria, including health-promoting bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Here we characterize biochemical properties of BT1760, including the activity of BT1760 on six bacterial levans synthesized by the levansucrase Lsc3 of Pseudomonas syringae pv...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097073/handling-stress-may-confound-murine-gut-microbiota-studies
#2
Cary R Allen-Blevins, Xiaomeng You, Katie Hinde, David A Sela
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates interactions between human milk composition, particularly sugars (human milk oligosaccharides or HMO), the gut microbiota of human infants, and behavioral effects. Some HMO secreted in human milk are unable to be endogenously digested by the human infant but are able to be metabolized by certain species of gut microbiota, including Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis), a species sensitive to host stress (Bailey & Coe, 2004). Exposure to gut bacteria like B...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079170/growth-and-morbidity-of-gambian-infants-are-influenced-by-maternal-milk-oligosaccharides-and-infant-gut-microbiota
#3
Jasmine C C Davis, Zachery T Lewis, Sridevi Krishnan, Robin M Bernstein, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice, David A Mills, Carlito B Lebrilla, Angela M Zivkovic
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother's HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3'-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061804/the-extracellular-proteome-of-two-bifidobacterium-species-reveals-different-adaptation-strategies-to-low-iron-conditions
#4
Pamela Vazquez-Gutierrez, Marc J A Stevens, Peter Gehrig, Simon Barkow-Oesterreicher, Christophe Lacroix, Christophe Chassard
BACKGROUND: Bifidobacteria are among the first anaerobic bacteria colonizing the gut. Bifidobacteria require iron for growth and their iron-sequestration mechanisms are important for their fitness and possibly inhibit enteropathogens. Here we used combined genomic and proteomic analyses to characterize adaptations to low iron conditions of B. kashiwanohense PV20-2 and B. pseudolongum PV8-2, 2 strains isolated from the feces of iron-deficient African infants and selected for their high iron-sequestering ability...
January 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053580/effects-of-soybean-oligosaccharides-on-intestinal-microbial-communities-and-immune-modulation-in-mice
#5
Yan Ma, Xingzhuang Wu, Vigna Giovanni, Xianjun Meng
: Soybean oligosaccharides (SBOSs) are potential prebiotics that may be used to improve immune function. Here, we investigated the effects of intragastric administration of SBOSs in mice to determine the effects on autochthonous intestinal microbial communities and immunological parameters. Results E: After 22-day administration, 4.0 g kg body weight (BW)(-)(1) SBOSs significantly enhanced the proliferation of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as compared to the control...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042704/development-of-an-in-vitro-immunobiotic-evaluation-system-against-rotavirus-infection-in-bovine-intestinal-epitheliocytes
#6
H Kobayashi, P Kanmani, T Ishizuka, A Miyazaki, J Soma, L Albarracin, Y Suda, T Nochi, H Aso, N Iwabuchi, J-Z Xiao, T Saito, J Villena, H Kitazawa
The bovine intestinal epithelial cell line (BIE cells) expresses the Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 and is able to mount an antiviral immune response after the stimulation with poly(I:C). In the present study, we aimed to further characterise the antiviral defence mechanisms in BIE cells by evaluating the innate immune response triggered by rotavirus (RV) infection. In addition, we attempted to determine whether immunobiotic bifidobacteria are able to confer protection of BIE cells against RV infection by beneficially modulating the antiviral immune response...
January 2, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038754/molecular-weight-distribution-and-fermentation-of-mechanically-pre-treated-konjac-enzymatic-hydrolysates
#7
Jun Yang, Natale Vittori, Weiwei Wang, Yong-Cheng Shi, Jennifer L Hoeflinger, Michael J Miller, Yang Pan
There is interest in novel fibers as potential prebiotics for new and reformulated food products. Two konjac glucomannan (KGM) hydrolysates were developed by enzymatic hydrolysis with (KGMH I) or without (KGMH II) mechanical shear pre-treatment. These were characterized and evaluated as fermentation substrates using five lactobacilli and three bifidobacteria. Enzymatic treatment of native KGM reduced the average molecular weights of supernatant and pellet by ∼3-fold. Additional mechanical shear pre-treatment further reduced supernatant and pellet molecular weights by 5% and 35%, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038333/ultrasound-attenuation-of-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria-effect-on-some-technological-and-probiotic-properties
#8
Angela Racioppo, Maria Rosaria Corbo, Claudia Piccoli, Milena Sinigaglia, Barbara Speranza, Antonio Bevilacqua
Attenuation can be regarded as a tool to modulate the metabolism of probiotic bacteria and, consequently, a strategy to reduce the acidification of the active drinks. Attenuation can be done through chemical and physical approaches and ultrasound (US) is a possibility, previously tested to modulate the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria inoculated in a rice drink, but no data are available on the effect of this treatment of the overall profile of probiotic bacteria. Therefore, the main topic of this paper was to study the effect of US-attenuation on some properties of Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium infantis (survival at pH2, and 2...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035338/human-gut-microbiota-and-healthy-aging-recent-developments-and-future-prospective
#9
REVIEW
Manish Kumar, Parizad Babaei, Boyang Ji, Jens Nielsen
The human gut microbiota alters with the aging process. In the first 2-3 years of life, the gut microbiota varies extensively in composition and metabolic functions. After this period, the gut microbiota demonstrates adult-like more stable and diverse microbial species. However, at old age, deterioration of physiological functions of the human body enforces the decrement in count of beneficial species (e.g. Bifidobacteria) in the gut microbiota, which promotes various gut-related diseases (e.g. inflammatory bowel disease)...
October 27, 2016: Nutr Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034304/temporal-bacterial-and-metabolic-development-of-the-preterm-gut-reveals-specific-signatures-in-health-and-disease
#10
Christopher J Stewart, Nicholas D Embleton, Emma C L Marrs, Daniel P Smith, Andrew Nelson, Bashir Abdulkadir, Tom Skeath, Joseph F Petrosino, John D Perry, Janet E Berrington, Stephen P Cummings
BACKGROUND: The preterm microbiome is crucial to gut health and may contribute to necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), which represents the most significant pathology affecting preterm infants. From a cohort of 318 infants, <32 weeks gestation, we selected 7 infants who developed NEC (defined rigorously) and 28 matched controls. We performed detailed temporal bacterial (n = 641) and metabolomic (n = 75) profiling of the gut microbiome throughout the disease. RESULTS: A core community of Klebsiella, Escherichia, Staphyloccocus, and Enterococcus was present in all samples...
December 29, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028466/consumption-of-antimicrobial-manuka-honey-does-not-significantly-perturb-the-microbiota-in-the-hind-gut-of-mice
#11
Doug Rosendale, Christine A Butts, Cloe Erika de Guzman, Ian S Maddox, Sheridan Martell, Lynn McIntyre, Margot A Skinner, Hannah Dinnan, Juliet Ansell
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that consuming manuka honey, which contains antimicrobial methylglyoxal, may affect the gut microbiota. We undertook a mouse feeding study to investigate whether dietary manuka honey supplementation altered microbial numbers and their production of organic acid products from carbohydrate fermentation, which are markers of gut microbiota function. The caecum of C57BL/6 mice fed a diet supplemented with antimicrobial UMF® 20+ manuka honey at 2.2 g/kg animal did not show any significantly changed concentrations of microbial short chain fatty acids as measured by gas chromatography, except for increased formate and lowered succinate organic acid concentrations, compared to mice fed a control diet...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008783/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-ncdc17-ameliorates-type-2-diabetes-by-improving-gut-function-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-and-streptozotocintreated-rats
#12
S Singh, R K Sharma, S Malhotra, R Pothuraju, U K Shandilya
Restoration of dysbiosed gut microbiota through probiotic may have profound effect on type 2 diabetes. In the present study, rats were fed high fat diet (HFD) for 3 weeks and injected with low dose streptozotocin to induce type 2 diabetes. Diabetic rats were then fed Lactobacillus rhamnosus NCDC 17 and L. rhamnosus GG with HFD for six weeks. L. rhamnosus NCDC 17 improved oral glucose tolerance test, biochemical parameters (fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin, free fatty acids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in blood and liver), bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in cecum, expression of glucagon like peptide-1 producing genes in cecum, and adiponection in epididymal fat, while decreased propionate proportions (%) in caecum, and expression of tumour necrosis factor-α and interlukin-6 in epididymal fat of diabetic rats as compared to diabetes control group...
December 23, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001151/evaluation-of-clinical-safety-and-beneficial-effects-of-stachyose-enriched-%C3%AE-galacto-oligosaccharides-on-gut-microbiota-and-bowel-function-in-humans
#13
Ting Li, Xinshan Lu, Xingbin Yang
Deshipu stachyose granules (DSG) is a mixture of α-galacto-oligosaccharides derived from the dietary roots of Lycopus lucidus Turcz. Our previous study showed that DSG could improve the faecal microbial composition, and facilitate intestinal peristalsis and fecal excretion in mice. This study was designed to investigate the effect of DSG on gut microbiota and bowel function in humans. Two human intervention studies were conducted. In the first study, 100 healthy adults were treated without or with 5 g per day of DSG for 14 days...
December 21, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999938/characterization-of-cinnamoyl-esterases-from-different-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria
#14
Caroline Fritsch, André Jänsch, Matthias A Ehrmann, Simone Toelstede, Rudi F Vogel
A high variety of plants that are used for food production contain esterified hydroxycinnamic acids. As their free forms display several benefits, like an enhanced absorption in human intestinal tract, anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic effects, an improved protein solubility and reduced discoloration, the microbial ability to cleave the ester bond is highly desired. In order to examine potential fermentation strains for this purpose, six different lactic acid bacteria and one bifidobacterial strain were screened for their ability to degrade esterified hydroxycinnamic acids because these strains are commonly used for fermentation of plant-based foods...
February 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996081/tolerogenic-probiotics-potential-immunoregulators-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosu
#15
REVIEW
Seyed Alirezae Esmaeili, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Hassan Doulabi, Maryam Rastin
Probiotics are commensal or nonpathogenic microbes that colonize the gastrointestinal tract and confer beneficial effects on the host through several mechanisms such as competitive exclusion, anti-bacterial effects, and modulation of immune responses. There is growing evidence supporting the immunomodulatory ability of some probiotics. Several experimental and clinical studies have been shown beneficial effect of some probiotic bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria strains, on inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936245/in-vitro-selective-growth-inhibitory-effect-of-8-hydroxyquinoline-on-clostridium-perfringens-versus-bifidobacteria-in-a-medium-containing-chicken-ileal-digesta
#16
Eva Skrivanova, Filip Van Immerseel, Petra Hovorkova, Ladislav Kokoska
Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis is generally controlled by antibiotics. However, because of increasing antibiotic resistance, other antibacterial agents are required, preferably ones that do not affect the beneficial intestinal microbiota of the host. This study evaluated the in vitro selective growth-inhibitory effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) on C. perfringens vs. bifidobacteria in a medium containing chicken ileal digesta. Prior to the experiments, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 8HQ and penicillin G were determined by broth microdilution assay...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928119/hypolipidemic-effect-of-the-autoclaved-extract-prepared-from-pea-pisum-sativum-l-pods-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#17
Kae Inagaki, Yuuki Nishimura, Emiko Iwata, Sachinobu Manabe, Masahiro Goto, Yoshio Ogura, Hisako Hotta
By autoclaving, we obtained a polyphenol and dietary fiber from pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods in parallel without acid or alkali treatment or organic solvent extraction. Rats fed a high-sucrose (HS) diet containing 3% autoclaved extract (AE) for 4 wk exhibited significantly lower serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels than rats fed a HS diet. AE and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from AE exhibited pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity at 13.3 mg/mL in vitro. AE and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) from AE adsorbed cholesterol...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909555/effect-of-dual-type-oligosaccharides-on-constipation-in-loperamide-treated-rats
#18
Sung Hee Han, Ki Bae Hong, Eun Young Kim, So Hyun Ahn, Hyung Joo Suh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Constipation is a condition that can result from intestinal deformation. Because humans have an upright posture, the effects of gravity can cause this shape deformation. Oligosaccharides are common prebiotics and their effects on bowel health are well known. However, studies of the physiological functionality of a product that contains both lactulose and galactooligosaccharides are insufficient. We investigated the constipation reduction effect of a dual-type oligosaccharide, Dual-Oligo, in loperamide-treated rats...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904405/evaluation-of-prebiotic-effects-of-high-purity-galactooligosaccharides-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Ki Bae Hong, Jae Hwan Kim, Hyuk Kon Kwon, Sung Hee Han, Yooheon Park, Hyung Joo Suh
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are an important class of dietary prebiotics that exert beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota and gut barrier function. In this study, high-purity GOS (HP-GOS) were investigated in vitro and in vivo and confirmed as prebiotic ingredients in rat diet. HP-GOS were successfully produced using a two-step process, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by yeast. They were found to serve as a good substrate and carbon source for supporting the growth of probiotic bacteria more effectively than other commercial GOS...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898282/comparative-fingerprinting-of-the-human-microbiota-in-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease
#20
Emanuel Vamanu, Diana Pelinescu, Ionela Sarbu
Diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are associated with changes in the human gut microbiota. To better understand the relationships between diet, disease, and the colonic microbiome, we used the in vitro GIS1 system and repetitive element palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) to determine the microbial fingerprints in individuals with these diseases and compared them with the fingerprints in healthy controls. Clear differences were apparent in the three groups...
December 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
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