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Michael S Fleming, Jian J Li, Daniel Ramos, Tong Li, David A Talmage, Shin-Ichi Abe, Silvia Arber, Wenqin Luo
Axon-Schwann cell interactions are crucial for the development, function, and repair of the peripheral nervous system, but mechanisms underlying communication between axons and nonmyelinating Schwann cells are unclear. Here, we show that ER81 is functionally required in a subset of mouse RET(+) mechanosensory neurons for formation of Pacinian corpuscles, which are composed of a single myelinated axon and multiple layers of nonmyelinating Schwann cells, and Ret is required for the maintenance of Er81 expression...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Angelika Mühlebner, Anand M Iyer, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Jasper J Anink, Floor E Jansen, Tim J Veersema, Kees P Braun, Wim G M Spliet, Wim van Hecke, Figen Söylemezoğlu, Martha Feucht, Pavel Krsek, Josef Zamecnik, Christian G Bien, Tilman Polster, Roland Coras, Ingmar Blümcke, Eleonora Aronica
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem disorder that results from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, leading to constitutive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Cortical tubers represent typical lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) in TSC. The pattern of cortical layering disruption observed in brain tissue of TSC patients is not yet fully understood, and little is known about the origin and phenotype of individual abnormal cell types recognized in tubers...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Valerie C Siembab, Laura Gomez-Perez, Travis M Rotterman, Neil A Shneider, Francisco J Alvarez
Motor function in mammalian species depends on the maturation of spinal circuits formed by a large variety of interneurons that regulate motoneuron firing and motor output. Interneuron activity is in turn modulated by the organization of their synaptic inputs, but the principles governing the development of specific synaptic architectures unique to each premotor interneuron are unknown. For example, Renshaw cells receive, at least in the neonate, convergent inputs from sensory afferents (likely Ia) and motor axons, raising the question of whether they interact during Renshaw cell development...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Nathalie Dehorter, Gabriele Ciceri, Giorgia Bartolini, Lynette Lim, Isabel del Pino, Oscar Marín
The function of neural circuits depends on the generation of specific classes of neurons. Neural identity is typically established near the time when neurons exit the cell cycle to become postmitotic cells, and it is generally accepted that, once the identity of a neuron has been established, its fate is maintained throughout life. Here, we show that network activity dynamically modulates the properties of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons through the postmitotic expression of the transcriptional regulator Er81...
September 11, 2015: Science
Gudrun Stoya, Christoph Redies, Nicole Schmid-Hertel
Cadherins are calcium-depending cell adhesion proteins that play critical roles in brain morphogenesis and wiring. They provide an adhesive code for the development of cortical layers, due to their homophilic interactions and their restricted spatiotemporal expression patterns. In the adult organism, cadherins are involved in the maintenance and plasticity of neuronal circuits that play a role in learning. A well-known model for studying corticogenesis is the reeler mouse model. Numerous investigations of neocortical development suggest that, in the reeler mutant mouse, the lack of the protein Reelin results in cell-type and region-dependent changes of the neocortical layers...
September 1, 2014: Journal of Comparative Neurology
William A Munoz, Moonsup Lee, Rachel K Miller, Zamal Ahmed, Hong Ji, Todd M Link, Gilbert R Lee, Malgorzata Kloc, John E Ladbury, Pierre D McCrea
Members of the plakophilin-catenin sub-family (Pkp-1, -2, and -3) facilitate the linkage of desmosome junctional components to each other (e.g. desmosomal cadherins to desmoplakin) and the intermediate-filament cytoskeleton. Pkps also contribute to desmosomal stabilization and the trafficking of its components. The functions of Pkps outside of the desmosome are less well studied, despite evidence suggesting their roles in mRNA regulation, small-GTPase modulation (e.g. mid-body scission) during cell division, and cell survival following DNA damage...
2014: PloS One
Nathan Peter Cramer, Mitali Chatterjee, Fritz Walter Lischka, Sharon L Juliano
Neurophysiological changes resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in adverse changes in behavior including mood instability and cognitive dysfunction. Cell death following TBI likely contributes to these altered behaviors and remains an elusive but attractive target for therapies aiming at functional recovery. Previously we demonstrated that neural progenitor cells derived from embryonic rats can be transplanted into donor neonatal rat brain slices and, over the course of 2 weeks in culture, mature into neurons that express neuronal immunohistochemical markers and develop electrophysiological profiles consistent with excitatory and inhibitory interneurons...
January 7, 2014: Frontiers in Neurology
Susanne Fauser, Ute Häussler, Catharina Donkels, Susanne Huber, Julia Nakagawa, Marco Prinz, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Josef Zentner, Carola A Haas
BACKGROUND: Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) are local disturbances of neocortical architecture and a common cause of pharmaco-resistant focal epilepsy. Little is known about the pathomechanisms leading to architectural abnormalities associated with FCD. RESULTS: In the present study we compared 52 FCD cases originating from the frontal or temporal lobe with or without Ammon's horn sclerosis (AHS) with regard to structural and molecular differences. We applied layer-specific (ER81, RORß, SMI32, TLE4) and interneuron (calbindin, parvalbumin) markers by means of immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization (ISH), and real time RT-PCR and correlated our findings with clinical parameters...
2013: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Zhenxi Zhang, Anna Maria Pinto, Lili Wan, Wei Wang, Michael G Berg, Isabela Oliva, Larry N Singh, Christopher Dengler, Zhi Wei, Gideon Dreyfuss
The motor neuron (MN) degenerative disease, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by deficiency of SMN (survival motor neuron), a ubiquitous and indispensable protein essential for biogenesis of snRNPs, key components of pre-mRNA processing. However, SMA's hallmark MN pathology, including neuromuscular junction (NMJ) disruption and sensory-motor circuitry impairment, remains unexplained. Toward this end, we used deep RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to determine if there are any transcriptome changes in MNs and surrounding spinal cord glial cells (white matter, WM) microdissected from SMN-deficient SMA mouse model at presymptomatic postnatal day 1 (P1), before detectable MN pathology (P4-P5)...
November 26, 2013: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zhiwei Li, Libin Zhang, Zhigang Ma, Ming Yang, Jiebing Tang, Yujiao Fu, Yinling Mao, Xuan Hong, Yanqiao Zhang
The ETS family of transcription factors is involved in several physiological and pathological processes including tumor progression. The ETS transcription factors are divided into subfamilies based on the sequence and location of the ETS domain. ETV1 (Ets variant gene 1; also known as ER81), is a member of the PEA3 subfamily, which has been found to promote metastatic progression in several types of human cancer. Previous findings demonstrated that ETV1 expression is upregulated in gastric adenocarcinomas; however, the underlying mechanisms of ETV1-induced metastatic progression in gastric cancer remain elusive...
December 2013: Oncology Reports
Brian G Rash, Simone Tomasi, H David Lim, Carol Y Suh, Flora M Vaccarino
Gyrification allows an expanded cortex with greater functionality to fit into a smaller cranium. However, the mechanisms of gyrus formation have been elusive. We show that ventricular injection of FGF2 protein at embryonic day 11.5-before neurogenesis and before the formation of intrahemispheric axonal connections-altered the overall size and shape of the cortex and induced the formation of prominent, bilateral gyri and sulci in the rostrolateral neocortex. We show increased tangential growth of the rostral ventricular zone (VZ) but decreased Wnt3a and Lef1 expression in the cortical hem and adjacent hippocampal promordium and consequent impaired growth of the caudal cortical primordium, including the hippocampus...
June 26, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Alexis Verger, Jean-Luc Baert, Kathye Verreman, Frédérique Dewitte, Elisabeth Ferreira, Zoé Lens, Yvan de Launoit, Vincent Villeret, Didier Monté
PEA3, ERM and ER81 belong to the PEA3 subfamily of Ets transcription factors and play important roles in a number of tissue-specific processes. Transcriptional activation by PEA3 subfamily factors requires their characteristic amino-terminal acidic transactivation domain (TAD). However, the cellular targets of this domain remain largely unknown. Using ERM as a prototype, we show that the minimal N-terminal TAD activates transcription by contacting the activator interacting domain (ACID)/Prostate tumor overexpressed protein 1 (PTOV) domain of the Mediator complex subunit MED25...
May 2013: Nucleic Acids Research
Sook Shin, Sangphil Oh, Seayoon An, Ralf Janknecht
Prostate cancer is characterized by the recurrent translocation of ETS transcription factors, including ETS variant 1 (ETV1) [also known as ETS-related 81 (ER81)]. Transgenic ETV1 mice develop prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, yet the mechanisms by which ETV1 exerts its deleterious function remain largely unexplored. In this study, we demonstrated that ETV1 is capable of binding to the matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) gene promoter both in vitro and in vivo. ETV1 stimulated the activity of the MMP-7 promoter, which was suppressed upon mutation of two ETV1 binding sites located within 200 base pairs upstream of the MMP-7 transcription start site...
January 2013: Oncology Reports
Yue Chen, Hong Zou, Li-Ying Yang, Yuan Li, Li Wang, Yan Hao, Ju-Lun Yang
The lack of effective treatment targets for triple-negative breast cancers make them unfitted for endocrine or HER2 targeted therapy, and their prognosis is poor. Transcription factor ER81, a downstream gene of the HER2, is highly expressed in breast cancer lines, breast atypical hyperplasia and primary breast cancers including triple-negative examples. However, whether and how ER81 affects breast cancer carcinogenesis have remained elusive. We here assessed influence on a triple-negative cell line. ER81-shRNA was employed to silence ER81 expression in the MDA-MB-231 cell line, and MTT, colony-forming assays, and flow cytometry were used to detect cell proliferation, colony-forming capability, cell cycle distribution, and cell apoptosis in vitro...
2012: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Haruka Abe, Makoto Okazawa, Shigetada Nakanishi
In maturing postnatal cerebellar granule cells, the Etv1/Er81 transcription factor is induced by sequential activity-dependent mechanisms through stimulation of AMPA and NMDA receptors, voltage-dependent Nav1.2 Na(+) channels, and voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. Etv1 then up-regulates a battery of maturation genes involved in the cerebellar circuitry. In this process, BDNF is also induced and participates in the up-regulation of these maturation genes. Using cultures of granule cells, we addressed how the activity-dependent and BDNF signaling mechanisms converge on the regulation of the representative NR2C NMDA receptor and Tiam1 maturation genes...
May 29, 2012: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Laura Rossini, Ramona F Moroni, Laura Tassi, Akiya Watakabe, Tetsuo Yamamori, Roberto Spreafico, Rita Garbelli
PURPOSE: Neuropathologic investigations frequently reveal the presence of architectural cortical dysplasia in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), sometimes as an isolated finding but more commonly associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and white matter abnormalities. The histologic pattern and the developmental origin of these alterations are not clear, and their diagnostic criteria are poorly defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression patterns of layer-specific genes in cortical specimens from patients with TLE presenting different subtypes of cortical malformations in order to elucidate the disorganization of the laminar architecture of such epileptogenic abnormalities and provide evidence to enable a more objective neuropathologic diagnosis...
October 2011: Epilepsia
Haruka Abe, Makoto Okazawa, Shigetada Nakanishi
In the postnatal period, cerebellar granule cells express a set of the maturation gene battery in an activity-dependent manner and establish synaptic function in the cerebellar circuitry. Using primary cultures combined with specific inhibition of signaling cascades, the present investigation revealed that the expression of the maturation genes, including the NMDA glutamate receptor NR2C and GABA(A) receptor GABA(A)Rα6 genes, is controlled by strikingly unified signaling mechanisms that operate sequentially through stimulation of AMPA and NMDA receptors, Na(+) channels [voltage-gated Na channel type II (Nav1...
July 26, 2011: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kathye Verreman, Jean-Luc Baert, Alexis Verger, Hervé Drobecq, Elisabeth Ferreira, Yvan de Launoit, Didier Monte
The PEA3 (polyoma enhancer activator 3) group members [ERM (ETS-related molecule), ER81 (ETS-related 81) and PEA3] of the Ets transcription factor family are involved in migration and dissemination processes during organogenesis and cancer development. In the present study, we report that the hnRNP (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein)-like protein CoAA (Coactivator activator) interacts with the PEA3 group members and modulates their transcriptional activity. We also demonstrate that the CoAA YQ domain, containing tyrosine/glutamine-rich hexapeptide repeats, is necessary for the interaction, whereas the two N-terminal RRMs (RNA recognition motifs) of CoAA are required to enhance transcriptional activity...
November 1, 2011: Biochemical Journal
Hiu-Fung Yuen, Cian M McCrudden, Ka-Kui Chan, Yuen-Piu Chan, Michelle Lok-Yee Wong, Kelvin Yuen-Kwong Chan, Ui-Soon Khoo, Simon Law, Gopesh Srivastava, Terence R Lappin, Kwok-Wah Chan, Mohamed El-Tanani
The transcription factors Pea3, Erm, and Er81 can promote cancer initiation and progression in various types of solid tumors. However, their role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been elucidated. In this study, we found that the expression levels of Pea3 and Erm, but not that of Er81, were significantly higher in ESCC compared with nontumor esophageal epithelium. A high level of Pea3 expression was significantly correlated with a shorter overall survival in a cohort of 81 patients with ESCC and the subgroup with N1 stage tumor (Wilcoxon-Gehan test, P = 0...
August 2011: American Journal of Pathology
R Keld, B Guo, P Downey, R Cummins, C Gulmann, Y S Ang, A D Sharrocks
BACKGROUND: Transcription factors often play important roles in tumourigenesis. Members of the PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors fulfil such a role and have been associated with tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Moreover, the activity of the PEA3 subfamily transcription factors is potentiated by Ras-ERK pathway signalling, which is itself often deregulated in tumour cells. METHODS: Immunohistochemical patterns of PEA3 expression and active ERK signalling were analysed and mRNA expression levels of PEA3, ER81, MMP-1 and MMP-7 were determined in gastric adenocarcinoma samples...
June 28, 2011: British Journal of Cancer
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