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Muscle fiber type

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452288/repetitive-tlr-3-activation-in-the-lung-induces-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-and-cachexia
#1
Ted G Graber, Brandy L Rawls, Bing Tian, William J Durham, Camille R Brightwell, Allan R Brasier, Blake B Rasmussen, Christopher S Fry
Due to immunosenescence, older adults are particularly susceptible to lung-based viral infections, with increased severity of symptoms in those with underlying chronic lung disease. Repeated respiratory viral infections produce lung maladaptations, accelerating pulmonary dysfunction. Toll like 3 receptor (TLR3) is a membrane protein that senses exogenous double-stranded RNA to activate the innate immune response to a viral infection. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] mimics double stranded RNA and has been shown to activate TLR3...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448867/comparison-of-the-knitted-silk-vascular-grafts-coated-with-fibroin-sponges-prepared-using-glycerin-poly-ethylene-glycol-diglycidyl-ether-and-poly-ethylene-glycol-as-porogens
#2
Takashi Tanaka, Akiko Uemura, Ryo Tanaka, Yugo Tasei, Tetsuo Asakura
Development of a small-diameter artificial vascular graft is urgent because existing materials often occlude within a short time. We have shown that small-diameter vascular graft using Bombyx mori silk fibroin is a potential candidate. Silk fibroin grafts are fabricated by coating silk fibroin on the knit tube prepared from silk fibroin fibers. However, there is a serious problem that the coated silk fibroin portion hardens when alcohol is used for insolubilization of the coated silk fibroin. This hardening prevents the desired biodegradation of the coated silk fibroin...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447936/inducing-hypertrophic-effects-of-type-i-skeletal-muscle-fibers-a-hypothetical-role-of-time-under-load-in-resistance-training-aimed-at-muscular-hypertrophy
#3
Jozo Grgic, Jan Homolak, Pavle Mikulic, Javier Botella, Brad J Schoenfeld
An emerging body of evidence is starting to suggest that the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers might be load specific. In other words, it may be that resistance training with high loads (i.e., ≥60% of 1 repetition maximum [RM]) emphasizes a greater growth of type II muscle fibers, while resistance training with low loads (i.e., <60% of 1RM) might primarily augment hypertrophy of type I muscle fibers. Type I and type II muscle fibers possess certain distinct characteristics, with type II muscle fibers having faster calcium kinetics, faster shortening velocities, and ability to generate more power than type I muscle fibers...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444710/a-novel-in-vitro-model-for-the-assessment-of-postnatal-myonuclear-accretion
#4
Anita Kneppers, Lex Verdijk, Chiel de Theije, Mark Corten, Ellis Gielen, Luc van Loon, Annemie Schols, Ramon Langen
BACKGROUND: Due to the post-mitotic nature of myonuclei, postnatal myogenesis is essential for skeletal muscle growth, repair, and regeneration. This process is facilitated by satellite cells through proliferation, differentiation, and subsequent fusion with a pre-existing muscle fiber (i.e., myonuclear accretion). Current knowledge of myogenesis is primarily based on the in vitro formation of syncytia from myoblasts, which represents aspects of developmental myogenesis, but may incompletely portray postnatal myogenesis...
February 14, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444631/accumulation-of-laforin-and-other-related-proteins-in-canine-lafora-disease-with-epm2b-repeat-expansion
#5
James K Chambers, Atigan Thongtharb, Takanori Shiga, Daigo Azakami, Miyoko Saito, Masumi Sato, Motoji Morozumi, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kazuyuki Uchida
Canine Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder causing nonfatal structural epilepsy, mainly affecting miniature wirehaired dachshunds. Repeat expansion in the EPM2B gene causes a functional impairment of the ubiquitin ligase malin which regulates glycogen metabolism. Abnormally structured glycogen accumulates and develop polyglucosan bodies predominantly in the central nervous system. The authors performed a comprehensive clinical, genetic, and pathological study of 4 LD cases affecting miniature wirehaired dachshund dogs with EPM2B repeat expansions, with systemic distribution of polyglucosan bodies and accumulation of laforin and other functionally associated proteins in the polyglucosan bodies...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443878/skeletal-muscle-pathophysiology-the-emerging-role-of-spermine-oxidase-and-spermidine
#6
REVIEW
Manuela Cervelli, Alessia Leonetti, Guglielmo Duranti, Stefania Sabatini, Roberta Ceci, Paolo Mariottini
Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of the total body mass. Preserving muscle health and function is essential for the entire body in order to counteract chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Prolonged physical inactivity, particularly among the elderly, causes muscle atrophy, a pathological state with adverse outcomes such as poor quality of life, physical disability, and high mortality. In murine skeletal muscle C2C12 cells, increased expression of the spermine oxidase (SMOX) enzyme has been found during cell differentiation...
February 14, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436205/fat1-gene-alteration-in-facioscapulohumeral-muscular-dystrophy-type-1
#7
Hyung Jun Park, Wookjae Lee, Se Hoon Kim, Jung Hwan Lee, Ha Young Shin, Seung Min Kim, Kee Duk Park, Ji Hyun Lee, Young Chul Choi
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 (FSHD1) is caused by contraction of the D4Z4 repeat array. Recent studies revealed that the FAT1 expression is associated with disease activity of FSHD, and the FAT1 alterations result in myopathy with a FSHD-like phenotype. We describe a 59-year-old woman with both contracted D4Z4 repeat units and a FAT1 mutation. Shoulder girdle muscle weakness developed at the age of 56 years, and was followed by proximal leg weakness. When we examined her at 59 years of age, she displayed asymmetric and predominant weakness of facial and proximal muscles...
March 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431032/decellularized-muscle-supports-new-muscle-fibers-and-improves-function-following-volumetric-injury
#8
Michael James McClure, David Josh Cohen, Allison N Ramey, Caroline B Bivens, Satya Mallu, Jonathan E Isaacs, Emily Imming, Yen-Chen Huang, MoonHae Sunwoo, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara Boyan
Current strategies to treat volumetric muscle loss use primarily pedicle or free muscle transfers, but these grafts fail to adequately regenerate functional tissue. Decellularized soft tissue grafts possess physical and chemical cues to promote muscle regeneration, suggesting their potential for use in large muscle defects. In this study, we developed a decellularized muscle matrix (DMM) graft using rat gastrocnemius. Anisotropy and chemical components of the extracellular matrix were retained, including laminin, fibronectin, and collagen...
February 12, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430446/models-of-disuse-muscle-atrophy-therapeutic-implications-in-critically-ill-patients
#9
REVIEW
Esther Barreiro
Skeletal muscle weakness is common in the intensive care units (ICU). Approximately 50% of patients under mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days show signs of ICU-acquired muscle weakness. In these patients, muscle weakness may be the result of axonal polyneuropathy, myopathy or a combination of both. The commonest risk factors in patients with ICU-acquired weakness (AW) are the severity and duration of the systemic inflammatory response, duration of the stay in the ICU and of mechanical ventilation, hyperglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, parenteral nutrition, and administration of corticosteroids and of neuromuscular blocking agents...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421845/effects-of-repeated-uva-irradiation-on-human-skin-fibroblasts-embedded-in-3d-tense-collagen-matrix
#10
Wongnapa Nakyai, Marion Tissot, Philippe Humbert, François Grandmottet, Jarupa Viyoch, Céline Viennet
Skin photoaging is caused by cumulative UVA exposure that leads to dermal matrix alterations associated with impaired fibroblast functions. In this study, we evaluated the effects of repeated UVA irradiation on mechanically stressed fibroblasts which were embedded in 3D tense collagen matrix. By comparison to 2D monolayer culture, we investigated the expressions of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) cytoskeleton and α2 subunit of integrin receptors, as well as the collagen metabolism, focusing to MMP-1 and collagen type I expressions...
February 8, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420990/potential-roles-of-vitamin-e-in-age-related-changes-in-skeletal-muscle-health
#11
REVIEW
Eunhee Chung, Huanbiao Mo, Shu Wang, Yujiao Zu, Manal Elfakhani, Steven R Rios, Ming-Chien Chyu, Rong-Sen Yang, Chwan-Li Shen
Skeletal muscle disorders including sarcopenia are prevalent during the complex biological process of aging. Loss of muscle mass and strength commonly seen in sarcopenia is induced by impaired neuromuscular innervation, transition of skeletal muscle fiber type, and reduced muscle regenerative capacity, all attributable to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Current literature suggests that vitamin E molecules (α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocopherols and the corresponding tocotrienols) with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities may mitigate age-associated skeletal dysfunction and enhance muscle regeneration, thus attenuating sarcopenia...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418115/how-the-brain-may-have-shaped-muscle-anatomy-and-physiology-a-preliminary-study
#12
Magdalena N Muchlinski, Holden W Hemingway, Juan Pastor, Kailey M Omstead, Anne M Burrows
Skeletal muscle fibers are often used to evaluate functional differences in locomotion. However, because there are energetic differences among muscle fiber cells, muscle fiber composition could be used to address evolutionary questions about energetics. Skeletal muscle is composed of two main types of fibers: Type I and II. The difference between the two can be reduced to how these muscle cells use oxygen and glucose. Type I fibers convert glucose to ATP using oxygen, while Type II fibers rely primarily on anaerobic metabolic processes...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414438/universal-ventricular-coordinates-a-generic-framework-for-describing-position-within-the-heart-and-transferring-data
#13
Jason Bayer, Anton J Prassl, Ali Pashaei, Juan F Gomez, Antonio Frontera, Aurel Neic, Gernot Plank, Edward J Vigmond
Being able to map a particular set of cardiac ventricles to a generic topologically equivalent representation has many applications, including facilitating comparison of different hearts, as well as mapping quantities and structures of interest between them. In this paper we describe Universal Ventricular Coordinates (UVC), which can be used to describe position within any biventricular heart. UVC comprise four unique coordinates that we have chosen to be intuitive, well defined, and relevant for physiological descriptions...
February 1, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412773/phrenic-motor-neuron-loss-in-aged-rats
#14
Matthew Joseph Fogarty, Tanya S Omar, Wen-Zhi Zhan, Carlos B Mantilla, Gary C Sieck
Sarcopenia is the age-related reduction of muscle mass and specific force. In previous studies, we found that sarcopenia of the diaphragm muscle (DIAm) is evident by 24-months of age in both rats and mice, and is associated with selective atrophy of type IIx and IIb muscle fibers and a decrease in maximum specific force. These fiber type specific effects of sarcopenia resemble those induced by DIAm denervation, leading us to hypothesize that sarcopenia is due to an age-related loss of phrenic motor neurons (PhMNs)...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412084/fiber-reinforced-origamic-robotic-actuator
#15
Juan Yi, Xiaojiao Chen, Chaoyang Song, Zheng Wang
A novel pneumatic soft linear actuator Fiber-reinforced Origamic Robotic Actuator (FORA) is proposed with significant improvements on the popular McKibben-type actuators, offering nearly doubled motion range, substantially improved force profile, and significantly lower actuation pressure. The desirable feature set is made possible by a novel soft origamic chamber that expands radially while contracts axially when pressurized. Combining this new origamic chamber with a reinforcing fiber mesh, FORA generates very high traction force (over 150N) and very large contractile motion (over 50%) at very low input pressure (100 kPa)...
February 2018: Soft Robotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407164/inhibition-of-the-proteasome-partially-attenuates-atrophy-in-botulinum-neurotoxin-treated-skeletal-muscle
#16
Fraser E Houston, Brian A Hain, Stephen L Dodd
Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is used as a therapeutic tool to induce chemical denervation of spastically contracted muscles, yet the neurotoxin can also cause skeletal muscle atrophy. The underlying proteolytic mechanisms that induce this atrophy remain unclear. Our previous work has highlighted increased ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) activity in soleus muscle of male Sprague Dawley rats following hind limb injection of BoNT/A, with the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 20s proteasome the most active...
February 3, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405034/revisiting-the-gamma-loop-in-als
#17
Fiona Limanaqi, Stefano Gambardella, Gloria Lazzeri, Michela Ferrucci, Stefano Ruggieri, Francesco Fornai
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fast progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle denervation, weakening and atrophy, which eventually culminates into death, mainly due to respiratory failure. The traditional view of ALS as a disorder affecting selectively motor neurons throughout the central nervous system has been progressively dispelled by innumerous lines of evidence indicating that other cells but motor neurons may be affected as well. Remarkably, this disorder is not limited to the motor system but rather configures as a systemic disease yielding a plethora of clinical signs...
December 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402993/partial-involvement-of-nrf2-in-skeletal-muscle-mitohormesis-as-an-adaptive-response-to-mitochondrial-uncoupling
#18
Verena Coleman, Piangkwan Sa-Nguanmoo, Jeannette Koenig, Tim J Schulz, Tilman Grune, Susanne Klaus, Anna P Kipp, Mario Ost
Mitochondrial dysfunction is usually associated with various metabolic disorders and ageing. However, salutary effects in response to mild mitochondrial perturbations have been reported in multiple organisms, whereas molecular regulators of cell-autonomous stress responses remain elusive. We addressed this question by asking whether the nuclear factor erythroid-derived-like 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor and master regulator of cellular redox status is involved in adaptive physiological responses including muscle mitohormesis...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397656/current-status-of-peroral-endoscopic-myotomy
#19
REVIEW
Young Kwan Cho, Seong Hwan Kim
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy, and hypertensive motor disorders such as diffuse esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus...
January 2018: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393546/comparison-of-metabolic-adaptations-between-endurance-and-sprint-trained-athletes-after-an-exhaustive-exercise-in-two-different-calf-muscles-using-a-multi-slice-31-p-mr-spectroscopic-sequence
#20
Kevin Moll, Alexander Gussew, Maria Nisser, Steffen Derlien, Martin Krämer, Jürgen R Reichenbach
Measurements of exercise-induced metabolic changes, such as oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide exhalation or lactate concentration, are important indicators for assessing the current performance level of athletes in training science. With exercise-limiting metabolic processes occurring in loaded muscles, 31 P-MRS represents a particularly powerful modality to identify and analyze corresponding training-induced alterations. Against this background, the current study aimed to analyze metabolic adaptations after an exhaustive exercise in two calf muscles (m...
February 2, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
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