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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217665/critical-determinants-of-combined-sprint-and-endurance-performance-an-integrative-analysis-from-muscle-fiber-to-the-human-body
#1
Stephan van der Zwaard, Willem J van der Laarse, Guido Weide, Frank W Bloemers, Mathijs J Hofmijster, Koen Levels, Dionne A Noordhof, Jos J de Koning, Cornelis J de Ruiter, Richard T Jaspers
Optimizing physical performance is a major goal in current physiology. However, basic understanding of combining high sprint and endurance performance is currently lacking. This study identifies critical determinants of combined sprint and endurance performance using multiple regression analyses of physiologic determinants at different biologic levels. Cyclists, including 6 international sprint, 8 team pursuit, and 14 road cyclists, completed a Wingate test and 15-km time trial to obtain sprint and endurance performance results, respectively...
December 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212003/soce-is-important-for-maintaining-sarcoplasmic-calcium-content-and-release-in-skeletal-muscle-fibers
#2
Mónika Sztretye, Nikolett Geyer, János Vincze, Dána Al-Gaadi, Tamás Oláh, Péter Szentesi, Gréta Kis, Miklós Antal, Ildikó Balatoni, László Csernoch, Beatrix Dienes
Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a Ca2+-entry process activated by the depletion of intracellular stores and has an important role in many cell types. In skeletal muscle, however, its role during physiological muscle activation has been controversial. To address this question, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release in a mouse strain with a naturally occurring mutation in the myostatin gene (Compact (Cmpt)) leading to a hypermuscular yet reduced muscle-force phenotype was compared to that in wild-type mice...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211998/tropomyosin-must-interact-weakly-with-actin-to-effectively-regulate-thin-filament-function
#3
Michael J Rynkiewicz, Thavanareth Prum, Stephen Hollenberg, Farooq A Kiani, Patricia M Fagnant, Steven B Marston, Kathleen M Trybus, Stefan Fischer, Jeffrey R Moore, William Lehman
Elongated tropomyosin, associated with actin-subunits along the surface of thin filaments, makes electrostatic interactions with clusters of conserved residues, K326, K328, and R147, on actin. The association is weak, permitting low-energy cost regulatory movement of tropomyosin across the filament during muscle activation. Interestingly, acidic D292 on actin, also evolutionarily conserved, lies adjacent to the three-residue cluster of basic amino acids and thus may moderate the combined local positive charge, diminishing tropomyosin-actin interaction and facilitating regulatory-switching...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211883/carcass-characteristics-meat-quality-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-wild-living-mallards-anas-platyrhynchos-l
#4
P Janiszewski, D Murawska, V Hanzal, M Gesek, D Michalik, M Zawacka
The aim of this study was to determine the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid composition of wild-living mallards. The experimental materials comprised 30 mallards (1:1 sex ratio) harvested during the hunting season in northeastern Poland. The carcasses were transported to the laboratory where they were weighed individually, plucked, dressed, and dissected. The proximate chemical composition and physicochemical properties of meat and the fatty acid profile of breast muscle lipids were determined, and a histological analysis was performed...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210643/adipokines-and-myokines-a-pivotal-role-in-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-disorders
#5
Hye Soo Chung, Kyung Mook Choi
Obesity induces an imbalance in the expression and secretion of several cytokines, which contributes to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. On the contrary, skeletal muscle is known to have a role in reversing the detrimental impact of obesity. It has been established that adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ that secretes proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory adipokines. Similarly, skeletal muscle produces secretory molecules, called myokines, from contracting muscle fibers. Myokines were recently recognized as beneficial modulators of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206782/muscle-fiber-and-performance-changes-after-fast-eccentric-complex-training
#6
Gregory C Bogdanis, Athanasios Tsoukos, Lee E Brown, Elisavet Selima, Panagiotis Veligekas, Konstantinos Spengos, Gerasimos Terzis
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term fast eccentric and ballistic complex training program on muscle power, rate of force development (RFD), muscle fiber composition and cross-sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Sixteen male physical education students were randomly assigned to either a training group (TG, n=8) or a control group (C, n=8). The TG followed a 6-week low volume training program, including fast eccentric squat training with an individually optimized load of 74±7% of maximal half-squat strength (1RM) twice per week and a ballistic training session with loaded (30% 1RM) and unloaded jump squats, once per week, all combined with unloaded plyometric jumps...
December 2, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203592/correction-of-gsk3%C3%AE-at-young-age-prevents-muscle-pathology-in-mice-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#7
Christina Wei, Lauren Stock, Leila Valanejad, Zachary A Zalewski, Rebekah Karns, Jack Puymirat, David Nelson, David Witte, Jim Woodgett, Nikolai A Timchenko, Lubov Timchenko
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a progressive neuromuscular disease caused by expanded CUG repeats, which misregulate RNA metabolism through several RNA-binding proteins, including CUG-binding protein/CUGBP1 elav-like factor 1 (CUGBP1/CELF1) and muscleblind 1 protein. Mutant CUG repeats elevate CUGBP1 and alter CUGBP1 activity via a glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)-cyclin D3-cyclin D-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) signaling pathway. Inhibition of GSK3β corrects abnormal activity of CUGBP1 in DM1 mice [human skeletal actin mRNA, containing long repeats (HSALR ) model]...
December 4, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193480/rhabdomyolysis-and-fluctuating-asymptomatic-hyperckemia-associated-with-cacna1s-variant
#8
Charenya Anandan, Mark A Cipriani, Ruple S Laughlin, Zhiyv Niu, Margherita Milone
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CACNA1S encodes Cav 1.1, a voltage sensor for muscle excitation-contraction coupling, which activates the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) leading to calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. CACNA1S mutations cause hypokalemic periodic paralysis, malignant hyperthermia and congenital myopathy. RYR1 mutations result in congenital myopathy, malignant hyperthermia and rhabdomyolysis. METHODS: To describe a novel phenotype associated with a CACNA1S variant at a site previously linked to hypokalemic periodic paralysis...
November 29, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193153/aquaporin-4-expression-in-human-skeletal-muscle-fiber-types
#9
Elisa Vizzaccaro, Chiara Terracciano, Emanuele Rastelli, Roberto Massa
Introduction - Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of transmembrane proteins involved in the maintenance of osmotic gradients. AQP4 is abundant in skeletal muscle, where it seems to be associated with glycolytic metabolism. We investigated the pattern of expression of AQP4 in normal human myofibers relative to the main forms of myosin heavy chain (MHC). Methods - Six normal human muscle biopsies were analyzed by double immunofluorescence for co-expression of AQP4 and slow or fast MHC. Results - A high percentage (64-99%) of MHC-fast positive fibers showed immunoreaction for AQP4...
November 28, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186696/a-highly-sensitive-fret-biosensor-for-ampk-exhibits-heterogeneous-ampk-responses-among-cells-and-organs
#10
Yumi Konagaya, Kenta Terai, Yusuke Hirao, Kanako Takakura, Masamichi Imajo, Yuji Kamioka, Norio Sasaoka, Akira Kakizuka, Kenta Sumiyama, Tomoichiro Asano, Michiyuki Matsuda
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of cellular metabolism, is a potential target for type 2 diabetes. Although extensive in vitro studies have revealed the complex regulation of AMPK, much remains unknown about the regulation in vivo. We therefore developed transgenic mice expressing a highly sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor for AMPK, called AMPKAR-EV. AMPKAR-EV allowed us to readily examine the role of LKB1, a canonical stimulator of AMPK, in drug-induced activation and inactivation of AMPK in vitro...
November 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184116/proteomic-and-microrna-transcriptome-analysis-revealed-the-microrna-smyd1-network-regulation-in-skeletal-muscle-fibers-performance-of-chinese-perch
#11
WuYing Chu, FangLiang Zhang, Rui Song, YuLong Li, Ping Wu, Lin Chen, Jia Cheng, ShaoJun Du, JianShe Zhang
Fish myotomes are comprised of anatomically segregated fast and slow muscle fibers that possess different metabolic and contractile properties. Although the expression profile properties in fast and slow muscle fibers had been investigated at the mRNA levels, a comprehensive analysis at proteomic and microRNA transcriptomic levels is limited. In the present study, we first systematically compared the proteomic and microRNA transcriptome of the slow and fast muscles of Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi). Total of 2102 proteins were identified in muscle tissues...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183282/bilateral-muscle-fiber-and-nerve-influences-by-tnf-alpha-in-response-to-unilateral-muscle-overuse-studies-on-tnf-receptor-expressions
#12
Lina Renström, Per Stål, Yafeng Song, Sture Forsgren
BACKGROUND: TNF-alpha is suggested to be involved in muscle damage and muscle inflammation (myositis). In order to evaluate whether TNF-alpha is involved in the myositis that occurs in response to muscle overuse, the aim was to examine the expression patterns of TNF receptors in this condition. METHODS: A rabbit muscle overuse model leading to myositis in the soleus muscle was used. The expression patterns of the two TNF receptors Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor type 1 (TNFR1) and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor type 2 (TNFR2) were investigated...
November 28, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182648/the-neural-response-properties-and-cortical-organization-of-a-rapidly-adapting-muscle-sensory-group-response-that-overlaps-with-the-frequencies-that-elicit-the-kinesthetic-illusion
#13
Paul D Marasco, Dennis J Bourbeau, Courtney E Shell, Rafael Granja-Vazquez, Jason G Ina
Kinesthesia is the sense of limb movement. It is fundamental to efficient motor control, yet its neurophysiological components remain poorly understood. The contributions of primary muscle spindles and cutaneous afferents to the kinesthetic sense have been well studied; however, potential contributions from muscle sensory group responses that are different than the muscle spindles have not been ruled out. Electrophysiological recordings in peripheral nerves and brains of male Sprague Dawley rats with a degloved forelimb preparation provide evidence of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with vibratory inputs known to generate illusionary perceptions of limb movement in humans (kinesthetic illusion)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178646/novel-autosomal-dominant-tnnt1-mutation-causing-nemaline-myopathy
#14
Chamindra G Konersman, Fernande Freyermuth, Thomas L Winder, Michael W Lawlor, Clotilde Lagier-Tourenne, Shailendra B Patel
BACKGROUND: Nemaline myopathy (NEM) is one of the three major forms of congenital myopathy and is characterized by diffuse muscle weakness, hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and the presence of nemaline rod structures on muscle biopsy. Mutations in troponin T1 (TNNT1) is 1 of 10 genes known to cause NEM. To date, only homozygous nonsense mutations or compound heterozygous truncating or internal deletion mutations in TNNT1 gene have been identified in NEM. This extended family is of historical importance as some members were reported in the 1960s as initial evidence that NEM is a hereditary disorder...
November 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178319/thyroid-hormone-upregulates-mdm2-in-rat-type-i-fiber-implications-for-skeletal-muscle-mass-regulation
#15
Gracielle Vieira Ramos, André Cruz, William Jose Silva, Andrei Rozanski, Igor Luchini Baptista, João Guilherme Silvestre, Anselmo Sigari Moriscot
AIM: Based upon a microarray assay, we have identified that triiodothyronine (T3) up-regulates MDM2 gene expression in the rat skeletal muscle. Since MDM2 protein is an E3 ligase, we hypothesized that this enzyme could play a role in T3 effects on skeletal muscle mass control. METHODS: To test our hypothesis, male rats (2 months old) were randomly assigned into the following groups: intact controls, treated with 20 physiological doses of T3 for 0.5, 1 and 7 days, or with 5, 20 and 50 physiological doses of T3 for 7 days...
November 27, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175104/cramps-frequency-and-severity-are-correlated-with-small-and-large-nerve-fiber-measures-in-type-1-diabetes
#16
Alon Abraham, Carolina Barnett, Leif E Lovblom, Bruce A Perkins, Vera Bril, Hans D Katzberg
OBJECTIVES: To explore the correlations between different muscle cramp characteristics including cramp frequency and severity and clinical and large and small nerve fiber measures in patients with diabetes type 1 (DM 1) and 2 (DM 2). METHODS: Prospective cross sectional study of healthy controls and patients with DM 1 and DM 2 recruited between April 2009 and November 2012. Participants underwent clinical evaluation and large and small nerve fiber studies, and the frequency and correlations of muscle cramps were explored...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170849/myh7-mutation-associated-with-two-phenotypes-of-myopathy
#17
Nan Li, Zhe Zhao, Hongrui Shen, Qi Bing, Xuan Guo, Jing Hu
The mutations of MYH7 (slow skeletal/β-cardiac myosin heavy chain) are commonly found in familial hypertrophic/dilated cardiomyopathy, and also can cause Laing early-onset distal myopathy (LDM), myosin storage myopathy (MSM), and congenital myopathy with fiber-type disproportion (CFTD). Here we report two cases whose diagnosis was hereditary myopathy according to clinical feature and muscle pathology analysis. High-throughput genomic sequencing (next generation sequencing) was performed to validate the diagnosis...
November 24, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169055/functional-electrical-stimulation-induced-muscular-fatigue-effect-of-fiber-composition-and-stimulation-frequency-on-rate-of-fatigue-development
#18
Maria Vromans, Pouran D Faghri
This investigation evaluated the progression towards fatigue in two muscles of differing fast- and slow-twitch fiber proportions (abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and vastus lateralis (VL)) when activated by functional electrical stimulation (FES) at three frequencies (10, 35, and 50 Hz). Fatigue was defined as a 50% drop from the initial FES-induced force of 25% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Ten healthy adults (mean age: 23.2 ± 3.0 years) were recruited; participants signed an IRB approved consent form prior to participation...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165030/in-mammalian-skeletal-muscle-phosphorylation-of-tomm22-by-protein-kinase-csnk2-ck2-controls-mitophagy
#19
Bojana Kravic, Angelika B Harbauer, Vanina Romanello, Luca Simeone, F-Nora Vögtle, Tobias Kaiser, Marion Straubinger, Danyil Huraskin, Martin Böttcher, Cristina Cerqua, Eva Denise Martin, Daniel Poveda-Huertes, Andreas Buttgereit, Adam J Rabalski, Dieter Heuss, Rüdiger Rudolf, Oliver Friedrich, David Litchfield, Michael Marber, Leonardo Salviati, Dimitrios Mougiakakos, Winfried Neuhuber, Marco Sandri, Chris Meisinger, Said Hashemolhosseini
In yeast, Tom22 the central component of the TOMM (translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane) receptor complex is responsible for the recognition and translocation of synthesized mitochondrial precursor proteins, and its protein kinase CK2-dependent phosphorylation is mandatory for TOMM complex biogenesis and proper mitochondrial protein import. In mammals, the biological function of protein kinase CSNK2/CK2 remains vastly elusive and it is unknown whether CSNK2-dependent phosphorylation of TOMM protein subunits has a similar role as that in yeast...
November 22, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163473/treadmill-slope-modulates-inflammation-fiber-type-composition-androgen-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-overtrained-mice
#20
Alisson L da Rocha, Bruno C Pereira, Giovana R Teixeira, Ana P Pinto, Fabiani G Frantz, Lucila L K Elias, Fábio S Lira, José R Pauli, Dennys E Cintra, Eduardo R Ropelle, Leandro P de Moura, Rania A Mekary, Ellen C de Freitas, Adelino S R da Silva
Overtraining (OT) may be defined as an imbalance between excessive training and adequate recovery period. Recently, a downhill running-based overtraining (OTR/down) protocol induced the nonfunctional overreaching state, which is defined as a performance decrement that may be associated with psychological and hormonal disruptions and promoted intramuscular and systemic inflammation. To discriminate the eccentric contraction effects on interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, and SOCS-3, we compared the release of these cytokines in OTR/down with other two OT protocols with the same external load (i...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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