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Muscle fiber type

Francesco Menzella, Mirco Lusuardi, Carla Galeone, Nicola Facciolongo
Asthma is characterized by inflammation of the airways that includes eosinophils, basal membrane thickening, epithelial sloughing, vascular changes, smooth muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and mucous gland hyperplasia. Recently, there have been studies on the role of hypersensitivity and inflammation in asthma, but the role of bronchial smooth muscle remains unclear. Bronchial thermoplasty is an endoscopic procedure that is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of severe refractory asthma, based on the local delivery of radio frequency at 65°C to the airways, with the aim of controlling bronchospasm through a reduction of airway smooth muscle (ASM)...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Naokazu Miyamoto, Eri Miyamoto-Mikami, Kosuke Hirata, Noriko Kimura, Noriyuki Fuku
Passive muscle stiffness is considered to be a major factor affecting joint flexibility and is thought to relate to the occurrence of muscle strain injury. In skinned muscle fiber experiments, the R577X polymorphism of the α-actinin-3 gene (ACTN3) has been associated with passive muscle stiffness. Our primary purpose was to clarify whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism influences passive stiffness of human muscle in vivo. We also examined whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with the occurrence of hamstring strain injury...
October 15, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Jie Zhang, Yang Li, Guangyue Li, Xiufeng Ma, Huiping Wang, Nandu Goswami, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay, Hui Chang, Yunfang Gao
Previous studies in our lab have shown that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) could effectively attenuate disuse induced muscle atrophy. In order to screening out the optimal dose of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) for protection against disuse induced muscle atrophy in hindlimb unloading (HLU) rats, in this study, we compared effects of 4 TMP doses on muscle wet weight (MWW), the ratios of muscle wet weight/body weight (MWW/BW) and muscle wet weight/dry weight (MWW/DW), fiber type composition, as well as cross-sectional area (CSA) in soleus (SOL) muscle...
October 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Aida Salameh, Wiebke Greimann, David Vondrys, Martin Kostelka
Objectives A main problem with bioprosthesis used for surgical correction of congenital cardiac malformation is their tendency to shrink and to calcify. Recently, a new material i.e. de-cellularised bovine pericardium (CardioCel(®)) was introduced in clinics. It was proposed that this new patch material should not calcify and should be particularly suitable for the correction of vascular defects in inborn cardiac diseases. The aim of our chronic minipig study was to evaluate the performance of CardioCel(®) patches implanted in aortic and pulmonary artery position, respectively...
October 9, 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Leandro Lauriti, João Gualberto de Cerqueira Luz, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita-Ferrari, Kristianne Porta Santos Fernandes, Alessandro Melo Deana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini Horliana, Larissa Costa-Santos, Aldo Brugnera Junior, Sandra Kalil Bussadori
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of phototherapy on bite force, facial swelling, mandibular movements, and pain in patients having undergone surgical treatment for mandibular fractures. BACKGROUND: These are among the predominant types of facial fractures, and treatment involving surgical fixation with titanium plates is one of the most common procedures in oral-maxillofacial surgery. Phototherapy has been used to accelerate the muscle healing process and significantly improves muscle regeneration by inducing the formation of new muscle fibers...
October 12, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Fausto Viterbo, Ryane Schmidt Brock, Fábio Maciel, Benoit Ayestaray, José Antonio Garbino, Cecília Pessoa Rodrigues
PURPOSE: To evaluate three different kinds of neurorrhaphy of the peroneal nerve. METHODS: Eigthy rats were divided into 5 groups. Control: nerve had no intervention. End-to-end (EE): nerve was cut and elongated with a nerve graft with two end-to-end neurorrhaphies. End-to-side (ES): nerve was cut and sutured to the graft with at the lateral side of the nerve. Side-to-end (SE): the nerve was cut and sutured to the graft with end-to-end neurorrhaphy. Denervated: nerve was cut and both endings were buried into the muscle...
September 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Kay Ohlendieck
The skeletal muscle proteome consists of a large number of diverse protein species with a broad and dynamic concentration range. Since mature skeletal muscles are characterized by a specific combination of contractile cells with differing physiological and biochemical properties, it is essential to determine specific differences in the protein composition of fast, slow, and hybrid fibers. Fluorescence two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (DIGE) is a powerful comparative tool to analyze fiber type-specific differences between fast and slow muscles...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Dina Simkin, Gaëlle Robin, Serena Giuliano, Ana Vukolic, Pamela Moceri, Nicolas Guy, Kay-Dietrich Wagner, Alain Lacampagne, Bruno Allard, Saïd Bendahhou
Andersen's syndrome (AS) is a rare autosomal disorder that has been defined by the triad of periodic paralysis, cardiac arrhythmia, and developmental anomalies. AS has been directly linked to over 40 different autosomal dominant negative loss-of-function mutations in the KCNJ2 gene, encoding for the tetrameric strong inward rectifying K(+) channel KIR2.1. While KIR2.1 channels have been suggested to contribute to setting the resting membrane potential (RMP) and to control the duration of the action potential (AP) in skeletal and cardiac muscle, the mechanism by which AS mutations produce such complex pathophysiological symptoms is poorly understood...
October 10, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
Mun Chong Hur, Sang Wook Jin, Mi Sook Roh, Woo Jin Jeong, Won Yeol Ryu, Yoon Hyung Kwon, Hee Bae Ahn
PURPOSE: To evaluate the classification of punctal stenosis based on the shape of the external punctum, clinical characteristics and histopathologic features. METHODS: Patients who experienced tearing and were diagnosed with punctal stenosis were evaluated in this study. Punctal stenosis was classified according to the shape of the lower external punctum, which included membranous type, slit type, horseshoe type, and pinpoint type. Tear meniscus height, 2% fluorescein dye disappearance test and lacrimal pathway irrigation were measured or performed...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
S M Cruzen, L H Baumgard, N K Gabler, S C Pearce, S M Lonergan
Heat stress (HS) is an important topic in the swine industry, costing hundreds of millions of dollars in economic losses annually, figures that could easily rise in light of global climate change. Muscle biology during HS is particularly important given skeletal muscle's large proportion to the body and its ultimate conversion to meat. Here we report the proteomic changes that occur during acute HS (37°C and 40% relative humidity) lasting 2, 4, or 6 h in the muscle sarcoplasm of growing pigs in comparison with 6 h of thermal neutral (TN; 21°C and 70% relative humidity) conditions ( = 8 per treatment)...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Gabriel Nasri Marzuca-Nassr, Gilson Masahiro Murata, Amanda Roque Martins, Kaio Fernando Vitzel, Amanda Rabello Crisma, Rosângela Pavan Torres, Jorge Mancini-Filho, Jing Xuan Kang, Rui Curi
The consequences of two-week hindlimb suspension (HS) on skeletal muscle atrophy were investigated in balanced diet-fed Fat-1 transgenic and C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Body composition and gastrocnemius fatty acid composition were measured. Skeletal muscle force, cross-sectional area (CSA), and signaling pathways associated with protein synthesis (protein kinase B, Akt; ribosomal protein S6, S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, 4EBP1; glycogen synthase kinase3-beta, GSK3-beta; and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, ERK 1/2) and protein degradation (atrophy gene-1/muscle atrophy F-box, atrogin-1/MAFbx and muscle RING finger 1, MuRF1) were evaluated in the soleus muscle...
October 6, 2017: Nutrients
He Huang, Yanling Zhao, Xiliang Shang, Xueyuan Liu, Huimin Ren
Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is expressed selectively in type I (slow‑twitch) myofibers. To investigate the association between changes in the expression of CAIII and skeletal muscle structure following denervation, the present study stained adjacent sections of skeletal muscle for ATPase and immunohistochemically for CAIII. In addition, differences in the protein expression and phosphatase activity of CAIII were examined by western blot and phosphatase staining between rat soleus and extensol digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, which are composed of predominantly slow‑ and fast‑twitch fibers, respectively...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yuan Wen, Kevin Andrew Murach, Ivan J Vechetti, Christopher S Fry, Chase Daniel Vickery, Charlotte A Peterson, John J McCarthy, Kenneth S Campbell
Analysis of skeletal muscle cross sections is an important experimental technique in muscle biology. Many aspects of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence microscopy can now be automated but most image quantification techniques still require extensive human input, slowing progress and introducing the possibility of user-bias. MyoVision is a new software package that was developed to overcome these limitations. The software improves upon previously reported automatic techniques and analyzes images without requiring significant human input and correction...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
Od Bayarsaikhan, Nobuhiko Kawai, Hiroyo Mori, Nao Kinouchi, Takeshi Nikawa, Eiji Tanaka
Myostatin, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle cell growth and differentiation, and binds with high affinity to the activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB). The soluble ligand-binding domain of ActRIIB fused to the Fc domain of IgG (ActRIIB-Fc) potently binds and inhibits TGF-β family members in muscle, leading to rapid and marked muscle growth. The present study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the co-delivery of myostatin-targeting siRNA (Mstn-siRNA) and ActRIIB-Fc into skeletal muscle as a potential treatment of atrophic myopathies...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Rachel A Davey, Michele V Clarke, Patricia K Russell, Kesha Rana, Jane Seto, Kelly N Roeszler, Jackie M Y How, Ling Yeong Chia, Kathryn North, Jeffrey D Zajac
Although it is well established that exogenous androgens have anabolic effects on skeletal muscle mass in humans and mice, data from muscle-specific androgen receptor (AR) knockout (ARKO) mice indicate that myocytic expression of the AR is dispensable for hind-limb muscle mass accrual in males. To identify possible indirect actions of androgens via the AR in neurons to regulate muscle, we generated neuron-ARKO mice in which the dominant DNA binding-dependent actions of the AR are deleted in neurons of the cortex, forebrain, hypothalamus, and olfactory bulb...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
Mary N Woessner, Mitch D VanBruggen, Carl F Pieper, Erin K O'Reilly, William E Kraus, Jason D Allen
BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is caused by atherosclerotic occlusions in the legs. It affects approximately 8-12 million people in the United States alone, one-third of whom suffer from intermittent claudication (IC), defined as ischemic leg pain that occurs with walking and improves with rest. Patients with IC suffer a markedly impaired quality of life and a high perception of disability. Improving pain-free walking time is a primary goal of rehabilitation in this population...
October 3, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
Peng Wu, Shuya Zhang, Robert J Spinner, Michael Torres Lizardi, Yudong Gu, Cong Yu, Michael J Yaszemski, Anthony J Windebank, Huan Wang
Triple immunofluorescence staining has recently been developed to simultaneously identify all muscle fibers on a single cryosection which is helpful for clinical and basic research, but it has disadvantages such as fast photobleaching and unclear outlines of muscle fibers. Triple immunoenzyme staining (TIE) is likely to avoid these disadvantages. In this study, we aimed to establish a sensitive and specific TIE technique to identify fiber types in normal, denervated, and reinnervated rat muscles, and to develop a systematic sampling method for muscle fiber quantification...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
Claus Gerstenberger, Michael Döllinger, Stefan Kniesburges, Vladimir Bubalo, Michael Karbiener, Hansjörg Schlager, Hossein Sadeghi, Olaf Wendler, Markus Gugatschka
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish a basic data set of combined functional and anatomical measures of aged sheep larynges using ex vivo models. Combining these two approaches in one and the same larynx is an unmet goal so far yet is important as newer treatment strategies aim to preserve the organ structure and new assessment tools are required. Ovine larynges were used as their dimensions, and muscle fiber type distribution highly resemble the human larynx. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo animal study...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Cody T Haun, Petey W Mumford, Paul A Roberson, Matthew A Romero, Christopher B Mobley, Wesley C Kephart, Richard G Anderson, Ryan J Colquhoun, Tyler W D Muddle, Michael J Luera, Cameron S Mackey, David D Pascoe, Kaelin C Young, Jeffrey S Martin, Jason M DeFreitas, Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Michael D Roberts
Recent evidence suggests that resistance training with light or heavy loads to failure results in similar adaptations. Herein, we compared how both training modalities affect the molecular, neuromuscular, and recovery responses following exercise. Resistance-trained males (mean ± SE: 22 ± 2 years, 84.8 ± 9.0 kg, 1.79 ± 0.06 m; n = 15) performed a crossover design of four sets of leg extensor exercise at 30% (light RE) or 80% (heavy RE) one repetition maximum (1RM) to repetition failure, and heavy RE or light RE 1 week later...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
Richard E Grindeland, William J Kraemer, Wesley C Hymer
OBJECTIVE: Two stable subpopulations of somatotrophs reside in the rat pituitary gland. We tested the hypothesis that one produced growth hormone (GH) with greater activity when tested in the tibial line bioassay (BGH) than the other, while differences in the activities between the two groups would be less dramatic when measured by immunoassay (IGH). DESIGN: A series of studies using hypophysectomized rats, hollow fibers, treatments and culture models were used to differentiate differences in Type I and Type II anterior pituitary somatotrophs in both function and production of immunoactive and bioactive growth hormone...
September 19, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
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