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Muscle fiber type

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091730/actin-isoform-expression-patterns-in-adult-extracardiac-and-cardiac-rhabdomyomas-indicate-a-different-cell-of-origin
#1
Christina C Westhoff, Katharina Schoner, Sylvia Hartmann, Andreas M Sesterhenn, Roland Moll
Rhabdomyomas are rare striated muscle-type tumors arising in the heart or in soft tissues. Using a monoclonal antibody specific for the cardiac isoform of α-actin (α-cardiac actin, α-CAA), differential expression patterns in striated muscle tissues were reported previously. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the α-actin isoform specificity is maintained in rhabdomyomas according to their origin, comparing extracardiac to cardiac rhabdomyomas. We immunohistochemically investigated adult extracardiac (pharyngeal) rhabdomyomas (n = 4) and cardiac rhabdomyomas (n = 7) employing isoform-specific monoclonal antibodies...
January 14, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091624/paracrine-cross-talk-between-skeletal-muscle-and-macrophages-in-exercise-by-pgc-1%C3%AE-controlled-bnp
#2
Regula Furrer, Petra S Eisele, Alexander Schmidt, Markus Beer, Christoph Handschin
Activation of resident and infiltrating immune cells is a central event in training adaptation and other contexts of skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. A precise orchestration of inflammatory events in muscle fibers and immune cells is required after recurrent contraction-relaxation cycles. However, the mechanistic aspects of this important regulation remain largely unknown. We now demonstrate that besides a dominant role in controlling cellular metabolism, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) also has a profound effect on cytokine expression in muscle tissue...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087756/fine-mapping-of-genes-determining-extrafusal-fiber-properties-in-murine-soleus-muscle
#3
Andrew Carroll, Riyan Cheng, Elaina Collie-Duguid, Caroline Meharg, Michael E Scholz, Steven N Fiering, Jennifer L Fields, Abraham A Palmer, Arimantas Lionikas
INTRODUCTION: Muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and proportion of different fiber types are important determinants of muscle function and overall metabolism. Genetic variation plays a substantial role in phenotypic variation of these traits, however, the underlying genes remain poorly understood. AIMS: This study aimed to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting differences in soleus muscle fiber traits between the LG/J and SM/J mouse strains. METHODS: Fiber number, CSA, and proportion of oxidative type I fibers were assessed in the soleus of 334 genotyped male and female mice of the F34 generation of advanced intercross lines (AIL) derived from the LG/J and SM/J strains...
January 13, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078570/micro-rna-expression-in-muscle-and-fiber-morphometry-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#4
Chiara Fritegotto, Chiara Ferrati, Valentina Pegoraro, Corrado Angelini
We aimed to explore the cellular action of micro-RNAs that are non-coding-RNAs modulating gene expression, whose expression is dysregulated in myotonic dystrophy (DM1). Basic procedure was to measure the levels of muscle-specific myo-miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133a/b, miR-206) in muscle of 12 DM1 patients. Muscle fiber morphometry and a new grading of histopathological severity score were used to compare specific myo-miRNA level and fiber atrophy. We found that the levels of miR-1 and miR-133a/b were significantly decreased, while miR-206 was significantly increased as compared to controls...
January 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078418/absolute-quantification-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-by-selected-reaction-monitoring-can-underscore-skeletal-muscle-changes-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#5
Caterina Peggion, Maria Lina Massimino, Giancarlo Biancotto, Roberto Angeletti, Carlo Reggiani, Maria Catia Sorgato, Alessandro Bertoli, Roberto Stella
Skeletal muscle fibers contain different isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) that define distinctive contractile properties. In light of the muscle capacity to adapt MyHC expression to pathophysiological conditions, a rapid and quantitative assessment of MyHC isoforms in small muscle tissue quantities would represent a valuable diagnostic tool for (neuro)muscular diseases. As past protocols did not meet these requirements, in the present study we applied a targeted proteomic approach based on selected reaction monitoring that allowed the absolute quantification of slow and fast MyHC isoforms in different mouse skeletal muscles with high reproducibility...
January 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078066/use-it-or-lose-it-tonic-activity-of-slow-motoneurons-promotes-their-survival-and-preferentially-increases-slow-fiber-type-groupings-in-muscles-of-old-lifelong-recreational-sportsmen
#6
Simone Mosole, Ugo Carraro, Helmut Kern, Stefan Loefler, Sandra Zampieri
: Histochemistry, immuno-histochemistry, gel electrophoresis of single muscle fibers and electromyography of aging muscles and nerves suggest that: i) denervation contributes to muscle atrophy, ii) impaired mobility accelerates the process, and iii) lifelong running protects against loss of motor units. Recent corroborating results on the muscle effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of aged muscles will be also mentioned, but we will in particular discuss how and why a lifelong increased physical activity sustains reinnervation of muscle fibers...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074127/transfer-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-from-sows-to-their-offspring-and-its-impact-on-muscle-fiber-type-transformation-and-performance-in-pigs
#7
Haifeng Wan, Jiatao Zhu, Caimei Wu, Pan Zhou, Yong Shen, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Lianqiang Che, Bin Feng, Jian Li, Zhengfeng Fang, De Wu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that supplementation of lactating sows with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) could improve the performance of weaning pigs, but there were little information in the muscle fiber type transformation of the offspring and the subsequent performance in pigs from weaning through finishing in response to maternal HMB consumption. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing lactating sows with HMB on skeletal muscle fiber type transformation and growth of the offspring during d 28 and 180 after birth...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073155/differential-effects-of-myostatin-deficiency-on-motor-and-sensory-axons
#8
Maria R Jones, Eric Villalón, Adam J Northcutt, Nigel A Calcutt, Michael L Garcia
INTRODUCTION: Deletion of myostatin in mice (MSTN(-/-) ) alters structural properties of peripheral axons. However, properties like axon diameter and myelin thickness were analyzed in mixed nerves, so it is unclear if loss of myostatin affects motor, sensory or both types of axons. METHODS: Using the MSTN(-/-) mouse model, we analyzed the effects of increasing the number of muscle fibers on axon diameter, myelin thickness, and internode length in motor and sensory axons...
January 10, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057818/dna-methylation-assessment-from-human-slow-and-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscle-fibers
#9
Gwenaelle Begue, Ulrika Raue, Bozena Jemiolo, Scott W Trappe
A new application of the Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing method was developed using low-DNA input to investigate the epigenetic profile of human slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers. Successful library construction was completed with as little as 15 ng of DNA and high quality sequencing data were obtained with 32 ng of DNA. Analysis identified 143,160 differentially methylated CpG-sites across 14,046 genes. In both fiber types, selected genes predominantly expressed in slow or fast fibers were hypomethylated, which was supported by the RNA-Seq analysis...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054946/muscle-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-ii-deficiency-a-review-of-enzymatic-controversy-and-clinical-features
#10
REVIEW
Diana Lehmann, Leila Motlagh, Dina Robaa, Stephan Zierz
CPT (carnitine palmitoyltransferase) II muscle deficiency is the most common form of muscle fatty acid metabolism disorders. In contrast to carnitine deficiency, it is clinically characterized by attacks of myalgia and rhabdomyolysis without persistent muscle weakness and lipid accumulation in muscle fibers. The biochemical consequences of the disease-causing mutations are still discussed controversially. CPT activity in muscles of patients with CPT II deficiency ranged from not detectable to reduced to normal...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054504/analysis-of-muscle-fiber-conduction-velocity-during-finger-flexion-and-extension-after-stroke
#11
Megan O Conrad, Dan Qiu, Gilles Hoffmann, Ping Zhou, Derek G Kamper
BACKGROUND: Stroke survivors experience greater strength deficits during finger extension than finger flexion. Prior research indicates relatively little observed weakness is directly attributable to muscle atrophy. Changes in other muscle properties, however, may contribute to strength deficits. OBJECTIVES: This study measured muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) in a finger flexor and extensor muscle to infer changes in muscle fiber-type after stroke. METHODS: Conduction velocity was measured using a linear EMG surface electrode array for both extensor digitorum communis and flexor digitorum superficialis in 12 stroke survivors with chronic hand hemiparesis and five control subjects...
January 5, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054322/creatine-loading-does-not-preserve-muscle-mass-or-strength-during-leg-immobilization-in-healthy-young-males-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Evelien M P Backx, Roland Hangelbroek, Tim Snijders, Marie-Louise Verscheijden, Lex B Verdijk, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Luc J C van Loon
BACKGROUND: A short period of leg immobilization leads to rapid loss of muscle mass and strength. Creatine supplementation has been shown to increase lean body mass in active individuals and can be used to augment gains in muscle mass and strength during prolonged resistance-type exercise training. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate whether creatine loading can attenuate the loss of muscle mass and strength during short-term leg immobilization. METHODS: Healthy young men (n = 30; aged 23 ± 1 years; body mass index [BMI] 23...
January 5, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050266/from-slow-to-fast-hypogravity-induced-remodeling-of-muscle-fiber-myosin-phenotype
#13
B S Shenkman
Skeletal muscle consists of different fiber types arranged in a mosaic pattern. These fiber types are characterized by specific functional properties. Slow-type fibers demonstrate a high level of fatigue resistance and prolonged contraction duration, but decreased maximum contraction force and velocity. Fast-type fibers demonstrate high contraction force and velocity, but profound fatigability. During the last decades, it has been discovered that all these properties are determined by the predominance of slow or fast myosin-heavy-chain (MyHC) isoforms...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048953/a-multifunction-muscle-in-squid
#14
Joseph T Thompson, Scott M Lavalva, Matthew M Loiacono
Some striated muscles are multifunctional; they serve several different roles during locomotion and movement, including acting as motors, brakes, struts, or springs. The few multifunctional muscles that have been reported occur in the cross-striated muscles of animals with complex, jointed, skeletal support systems. In the comparatively simple muscular system of a cephalopod mollusc, we identified an obliquely striated muscle, the nuchal retractor muscle, which appears to be multifunctional. The nuchal retractor is composed of two different fiber types, mitochondria-rich (MR) and mitochondria-poor (MP) fibers; shortening of these fibers retracts the head toward the mantle...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039408/nrf2-deficiency-does-not-affect-denervation-induced-alterations-in-mitochondrial-fission-and-fusion-proteins-in-skeletal-muscle
#15
Yu Kitaoka, Kohei Takeda, Yuki Tamura, Shin Fujimaki, Tohru Takemasa, Hideo Hatta
Oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with age-related and disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. However, the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) during muscle fiber atrophy remains to be elucidated. In this study, we examined whether deficiency of Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidant transcription, promotes denervation-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and muscle atrophy. We found that the expression of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant genes was upregulated at 2 weeks after denervation in wild-type (WT) mice...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035373/cancer-associated-peritoneal-mesothelial-cells-lead-the-formation-of-pancreatic-cancer-peritoneal-dissemination
#16
Toshiya Abe, Kenoki Ohuchida, Kazuhiro Koikawa, Sho Endo, Takashi Okumura, Masafumi Sada, Kohei Horioka, Biao Zheng, Taiki Moriyama, Kohei Nakata, Yoshihiro Miyasaka, Tatsuya Manabe, Takao Ohtsuka, Eishi Nagai, Kazuhiro Mizumoto, Makoto Hashizume, Masafumi Nakamura
The interaction between the cancer cells and the peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) plays an important role in the peritoneal dissemination in several types of cancer. However, the role of PMCs in the peritoneal dissemination of pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between the pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) and the PMCs in the formation of peritoneal dissemination in vitro and in vivo. The tumor-stromal interaction of PCCs and PMCs significantly enhanced their mobility and invasiveness and enhanced the proliferation and anoikis resistance of PCCs...
February 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033689/the-muscle-biopsy-technique-historical-and-methodological-considerations
#17
REVIEW
B Ekblom
The muscle biopsy method is an important tool for clinical and scientific work. In this study, the two most used instruments, the Bergström needle and the Well-Blakesley conchotome, are described. The technique of using those instruments, risks, and other considerations are discussed. Finally, a few consequences and the error of the method for determining muscle fiber type, fiber area, substrates, and metabolites are presented.
December 29, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030857/new-description-of-telocyte-sheaths-in-the-bovine-uterine-tube-an-immunohistochemical-and-scanning-microscopic-study
#18
Hanan H Abd-Elhafeez, Soha A Soliman
Telocytes are a special type of interstitial cells characterized by distinctive cellular extensions with alternating thin segments (podomers) and dilations (podoms). Telocytes establish contact with various cells and structures, but their role in the regulation of the function of many cell types is still obscure. The aim of the current study was to investigate the morphology, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry of telocytes, and their distribution, organization, and morphometric measurements in different layers of the adult bovine uterine tube...
December 29, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029182/nedd4-deficiency-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-promotes-vascular-calcification-by-stabilizing-psmad1
#19
Ji-Hyun Lee, Seon-Ae Jeon, Byung-Gyu Kim, Michiko Takeda, Jae-Jin Cho, Dong-Ik Kim, Hiroshi Kawabe, Je-Yoel Cho
The nonosseous calcification process such as atherosclerosis is one of the major complications in several types of metabolic diseases. In previous study, we uncovered that aberrant activity of TGF-β signaling pathway could contribute the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) calcification process. Also, we identified NEDD4 E3 ligase as a key suppressor of BMP/Smad pathway via a polyubiquitination dependent selective degradation of C-terminal phosphorylated Smad1 (pSmad1) activated by TGF-β⋅ Here, we further validated and confirmed the role of Nedd4 in in vivo vascular calcification progression...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028076/inorganic-nitrate-mimics-exercise-stimulated-muscular-fiber-type-switching-and-myokine-and-gaba-release
#20
Lee D Roberts, Tom Ashmore, Ben D McNally, Steven A Murfitt, Bernadette O Fernandez, Martin Feelisch, Ross Lindsay, Mario Siervo, Elizabeth A Williams, Andrew J Murray, Julian L Griffin
Exercise is an effective intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle combines multiple signals contributing to the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health. Inorganic nitrate increases exercise efficiency, tolerance and performance. The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ coactivator1α (PGC1α) coordinates the exercise-stimulated skeletal muscle fiber-type switch from glycolytic fast-twitch (type IIb) to oxidative slow-twitch (type I) and intermediate (type IIa) fibers; an effect reversed in insulin resistance and diabetes...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes
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